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Pollution Statistics In 1980s Delhi was the fourth largest polluted city in the entire world.

Vehicular pollution constituted over 60% of this pollution and its share was projected to grow in future. As on 1998 , the number of registered motor vehicles in Delhi(3033 thousand) were more than those in Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata combined(2499 thousand). The population of Delhi was at all time high, growth of 46.31% between 1991 to 2001 was observed. In comparison, the national growth level of 21.34% in the same period. Over 37% of the present estimate of 35 lakh plus vehicles in the city is in the category of personalized transport. Public transport vehicles are less than 1.5 lakh in number, of which buses are about 10,000, taxis 15,000 and auto-rickshaws about 45,000 in number. Buses in Delhi constitute less than 1% of its total transport fleet, but meet 50% of travel demand and cause over 25% of accidents in the capital.Trucks are the single largest polluters of the citys environment. About 50,000 trucks running on diesel pass through or ply in the capital every day. They cannot be converted to CNG mode as they frequent other cities as well.

Public Interest Litigation by M.C Mehta The contribution of Public Interest Litigations has been significant in the development in the area for fighting against pollution. This could be best seen when lawyer and environmental activist MC Mehta filed public interest litigation before the Supreme Court against the failure of the government to protect the environment in 1985. The court then passed a series of orders to reduce harmful emissions, but getting them implemented took several years of maintaining pressure on the government. The Environment Pollution and Control Authoritys (EPCA) advice was that taxis and autos should switch to clean fuel, that buses older than eight years be banned and, most

importantly, that the entire bus fleet should shift to CNG by March 31, 2001. The Supreme Court adopted the EPCA's recommendations in its order on July 28, 1998. Mehta has been called a" green messiah" by some and a meddling devil by others. But no one doubts the man's impact. The law suite filed by M.C Mehta was based on the article in the Constitution, which guarantees the right to life. The Supreme Court has broadened the clause to include the right to a healthy environment, one that doesn't threaten life.

About MC Mehta and his other works: Mahesh Chandra Mehta has won the 1997 Ramon Magsaysay Award in fileld of Public Service for his contributions in "claiming for India's present and future citizens their constitutional right to a clean and healthy environment". He has also won Goldman Award, worth US $75,000, the world's largest grassroots environmental prize. Apart from CNG, few of his contributions: a) to protect the Taj Mahal from corrosive pollution (fought for ten long years). Mehta campaigned for 10 years to persuade the Supreme Court to ban coal-based industries emitting effluents that damage the soft marble of the Taj Mahal. The court has ordered to shut down 230 factories and required more than 300 others near the building to install pollution-control devices. b) campaigned for the introduction of lead-free gasoline in India's four largest cities, which has been done c) for 250 towns and cities near the Ganga to install sewage treatment plants. The Supreme Court ordered over 2,000 industries along the Ganga to clean up or close. d) He also won a Supreme Court decision that forced a fertiliser factory to compensate thousands of people sickened by a 1985 gas leak.

Sequence of Events The Delhi government in 1996 filed an affidavit stating that CNG had the best potential for controlling pollution in the city and asked for two years time to convert all city buses to the new CNG mode. On 28 July 1998 the SC set 31 March 2001 as the deadline for converting the entire fleet with single-mode CNG kits, to cut air pollution. The SC gave directives that more than 2000 pre-1990 modules of taxis and autorickshaws had to be phased out by 31 March 2000 and an equal number of post-1991 models had to be phased out by 31 March 2001. In March 1999 (8 months after the SCs order), the Delhi government announced the first tender for conversion of its fleet of buses. CNG emission norms came in February 2000 (more than one and half years after the order) and the Ministry of Surface Transport approved the CNG conversion kit design in January 2001. April 2001 marked the deadline for converting all public transport vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG) mode, without which they could not ply on Delhi roads. The entire process was at such a low pace that at the end of the deadline, the government tried to use chaos in public transport as a weapon to pressurize the court. The order could not be achieved by March 31 2001 Supreme court gave a conditional extension until September 30 2001 The first Accident happened soon after the launch of CNG. There have been many accidents happening after that. The large number of accidents that have taken place have

made CNG being perceived as a non-secure fuel. Infact, there have been news on CNG bus blasts lately. There have also been some recent measures taken. As per the suggestion of EPCA, the Transport Department will put in place mobile units to carry out on-the-road surprise checks for gas leakage and other safety parameters in CNG-run buses.

Alternate Fuels The entire Indian transportation infrastructure is built to support petrol as the fuel for transportation, as petrol is the single most widely used fuel for transportation. This has been a cause of concern given the rising levels of pollution. Also domestic crude has been declining and the transportation system has been increasingly dependent on imported crude oil. Some of the possible alternatives to petrol as as following LPG Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of propane, propylene, butane, and butylene in various mixtures. These are simpler hydrocarbons and emit significantly lower levels of pollutants. The level of air - toxic emissions from LPG - fuelled vehicles is also low. According to the National Propane Gas Association, U.S.A., spark plugs from a propane vehicle last from 80,000 to 100,000 miles and propane engines can last two to three times longer than gasoline or diesel engines. Ethanol

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, ETOH) is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic, agreeable odor. It is a renewable resource, unlike oil, gas or coal, and in some cases may even be produced from waste material. Two higher blends of ethanol, E-85 and E-95 are being explored as alternative fuels in demonstration programs. 10% ethanol blends reduce carbon monoxide better than any other reformulated gasoline blend.

Despite of it being renewable ethanol is not the answer to the problem of pollution as it requires large amount of land for crop cultivation for ethanol generation. Also while CO emissions are reduced with alcohol fuels, aldehydes, which irritate the eyes, are increased. At present ethanol production is 2 - 3 times more expensive than petrol production. Brazil example can be included Methanol Methanol (CH3OH) is an alcohol fuel. As engine fuels, ethanol and methanol have similar chemical and physical characteristics. Methanol has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but would need to be produced from biomass to make a possible contribution. Methanol derived from natural gas using current technology offers at best only a small greenhouse gas emission benefit over petrol. Although the emissions of CO, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are lower in methanoldedicated cars, the exhaust of these vehicles contains more formaldehyde, a known carcinogen. Methanol can also lead to greater unburnt fuel emissions of methanol and methane which, however, are usually more readily degraded than unburnt hydrocarbons. Methane is a major greenhouse gas. Under combustion, methanol produces neither soot particles nor sulphur oxides. It also yields less nitrogen oxides than any other fuel. Methanol is a high cost fuel compared with petrol, but relatively cheap compared with other options. Methanol is extremely toxic and therefore hazardous to handle. It is also corrosive requiring modification of a conventional vehicle's fuel system. It has only half the energy content of petrol, which results in greater fuel consumption per unit volume and shorter travelling range -- compensated to some extent by its suitability for use at a higher compression ratio and its ability to deliver more power.

Bio diesel Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent, cleaner burning processed fuel derived from

biological(renewable) which can be used in diesel engines without modification. The use of biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in substantial reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter. It also decreases the solid carbon fraction of particulate matter (since the oxygen in biodiesel enables more complete combustion to CO2), eliminates the sulfate fraction (as there is no sulfur in the fuel), while the soluble, or hydrocarbon, fraction stays the same or is increased. Therefore, biodiesel works well with new technologies such as catalysts (which reduces the soluble fraction of diesel particulate but not the solid carbon fraction), particulate traps, and exhaust gas recirculation (potentially longer engine life due to less carbon). Transitioning fully to bio-fuels could require immense tracts of land if traditional crops are used. Electric Fuel

The concept of electric fuel proposes the usage of electricity to run the vehicles. Electric motors are used to convert electricity into mechanical power thus enabling a direct conversion without the need of any combustion. Batteries commonly provide electricity used to power vehicles, but fuel cells are also being explored. Batteries are energy storage devices, but unlike batteries, fuel cells convert chemical energy to electricity. The electricity to mechanical power conversion is simple and there is almost no air pollution at the place of operation. However it can be argued that it leads to pollution at the source of generation of electricity.

Hydrogen Hydrogen gas (H2) is being explored for use in combustion engines and fuel-cell electric vehicles. It is a gas at normal temperatures and pressures, which presents greater transportation and storage hurdles than exist for the liquid fuels. Storage systems being developed include compressed hydrogen, liquid hydrogen, and chemical bonding between hydrogen and a storage material (for example, metal hydrides).

While no transportation distribution system currently exists, for hydrogen transportation use, the ability to create the fuel from a variety of resources and its clean-burning properties make it a desirable alternative fuel. Increasing pollution from cars and airplanes has created smog clouds across the country. Hydrogen, on the other hand, emits no toxins, and is also clean and efficient. Other disadvantages of the use of hydrogen gas include: Natural Gas (CNG) Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons-mainly methane (CH4)-and is produced either from gas wells or in conjunction with crude oil production. The interest for natural gas as an alternative fuel stems mainly from its clean burning qualities, its domestic resource base, and its commercial availability to end-users. Natural gas is the cleanest burning alternative fuel. Exhaust emissions from NGVs are much lower than those from gasoline-powered vehicles. For instance, NGV emissions of carbon monoxide are approximately 70 percent lower, non-methane organic gas emissions are 89 percent lower, and oxides of nitrogen emissions are 87 percent lower. In addition to these reductions in pollutants, NGVs also emit significantly lower amounts of greenhouse gases and toxins than do gasoline vehicles. Dedicated NGVs produce little or no evaporative emissions during fueling and use. For gasoline vehicles, evaporative and fueling emissions account for at least 50 percent of a vehicle's total hydrocarbon emissions. Dedicated NGVs also can reduce carbon dioxide exhaust emissions by almost 20 percent vehicles. Compressed Air Compressed air as a fuel

Solar Fuel Solar energy technologies use sunlight to warm and light homes, heat water, and generate electricity. Some research has gone in to evaluating how solar energy may be used to power vehicles; however, the long-term possibility of operating a vehicle on solar power alone is very slim. Solar power, may however, be used to run certain auxiliary systems in the vehicle. Solar energy is derived from the sun. In order to collect this energy and use it to fuel a vehicle, photovoltaic cells are used. Pure solar energy is 100% renewable and a vehicle run on this fuel emits no emissions. The Indian scenario is however not encouraging.

Compressed natural gas (CNG) Production Natural gas is comprised of a mixture of gases, mainly hydrocarbons, found in geological formations. Methane is the principal component, generally comprising from 87 per cent to 97 per cent by volume of the hydrocarbons depending on the source of the gas. Environmental considerations Because of its high octane number, CNG is an excellent fuel for spark ignition engines. Older cars are not difficult to convert from petrol to CNG. However, as engine management systems become more complicated, conversions are becoming more difficult or involve nonoptimal engine operation. As a gas it can pose safety hazards during necessarily frequent refuelling operations. Although when properly operated and maintained, leakage of CNG is minimal it should be noted that methane is an even more active greenhouse gas than CO2. Emissions from CNG-powered vehicles depend on the quality of the vehicle's conversion. In older cars without catalytic converters, non-methane hydrocarbon, CO and nitrogen oxides in exhausts from CNG-fuelled cars are much less than from petrol-driven vehicles. There is less difference between emissions from petrol and CNG in cars with catalytic converters -- in both instances emissions are greatly reduced. CO emissions are the same

while nitrogen oxide emissions may be slightly higher from CNG. Overall there appears to be slightly less greenhouse gas emission from CNG vehicles compared to petrol vehicles. Use of CNG substantially reduces particulate emissions, particularly from the new, dedicated CNG engines now available for buses and trucks. These new engines reduce particulate emissions to very low levels and are expected to rapidly penetrate the city bus fleet sector because of their cleaner image. Many new CNG buses are in operation or on order for several Australian capital cities. Economic considerations About half a million vehicles currently run on CNG, mostly in Italy, New Zealand and Canada. Most converted cars, however, retain their fuel tanks and are actually dual-fuelled. The benefits of CNG are thus greatly reduced, because the compression ratio and engine efficiency of dual-fuelled cars cannot be increased to take advantage of CNG's high octane number. Storage of CNG is also a problem. Because of its low boiling point, natural gas must be stored in high pressure tanks. These are heavy, reducing payload and space in smaller vehicles. A CNG-fuelled car with a 75 litre tank is about 150kg. heavier than a petrol-driven car of the same size. This is not such a problem with large vehicles such as buses. Natural gas is lighter than air, and will dissipate into the atmosphere if leakage occurs. Like LPG, it is usually odourised to make it detectable. It is non-toxic and non-reactive. The major problems with CNG are that it is uneconomic because the cost of converting cars is high and the short range between refuelling is inconvenient. At present CNG buses are more expensive than diesel buses, however this price differential can be expected to reduce with time. The subsidy provided by the current excise exemption means that, where they can be refuelled centrally, their use can be attractive to bus operators. Conclusion

Petrol is undoubtedly a convenient fuel for cars. It is easy to store and handle, and a petrol fuel tank takes up little space in a car. It is, like all other fuels, highly combustible and therefore potentially dangerous, particularly if a fuel tank ruptures. On the cost side, with the exception of diesel fuels, alternative fuels at present are not commercially viable for use in cars in Australia, nor indeed in other countries without some form of government assistance such as subsidies or tariffs. The cost of using the alternatives is high compared with petrol. Petrol's current competitors in Australia -- CNG and LPG -- are subsidised through exemption from government excise, reducing their retail price by as much as 40 cents a litre. Using alternative fuels also involves specific problems. As gases, hydrogen, LPG and CNG pose hazards in storage and in refuelling operations. Methanol is toxic and is therefore a possible health hazard. It also corrodes engines. With respect to safety, all fuels are hazardous but when correctly engineered the risk can be minimised and is probably similar for all. At first sight, the blending of ethanol with petrol seems to offer the best combination of convenience and safety but it is uneconomic and restricted in supply. It decreases the vehicle range, poses some problems for existing car engines and produces levels of smog precursor emissions similar or greater to those of petrol. In reality, CNG is the fuel which is likely to penetrate into the transport fuel market in the near future, as city bus fleets are progressively replaced by CNG powered versions in order to reduce particulate emissions. While these alternative fuels have not made a significant impact worldwide, mainly because they involve more compromises than does petrol, some have a potential role to play in areas of special requirements, such as cities with extreme air pollution, or in undeveloped countries with no indigenous petroleum deposits and an inability to participate in normal world trade. Nevertheless, the lower cost of petrol and diesel and availability of new technologies to improve the emission performance of engines using these fuels, will ensure that for some time to come, petrol will continue to be the preferred and most widely used motoring fuel in the world closely followed by diesel.

Polluti on Cos Reduct Availabi Safe Infrastruc Convenie t ion lity ty ture nce CNG Electric Fuel LPG

X X

X X X

Ethanol X Methan X ol Ultra Low Sulphu X r Diesel (ULSD) Bio Diesel Solar
X

X X

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Kyoto Protocol CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) has been result of Kyoto Protocol and it like other mechanisms of Carbon Emission exchange based on the premise that pollution control in one part of the world helps it reduce globally. This arrangement allows Annex-1 countries (mostly developed nations) to promote greenhouse gas reduction activities in Annex-2 (mostly developing nations) by buy the credits generated due to GHG reduction from carbon projects. The most important factor of a carbon project is that it establishes that it would not have occurred without the additional incentive provided by emission reductions credits.

The CDM requires its projects to pass the test of additionality1 so that the programs that had taken place without CDM should not get the benefit. The process of fuel change (to CNG) in not a normal program and hence can claim for additionality as required by CDM. CDM and other non regular fuels are eligible for CDM as long as they additional within the boundary of project says Surojit Bose, Partner at Pricewaterhouse Coopers, a consulting firm providing CDM consultancy.

Establishing additionality To avoid giving credits to projects that would have happened anyway, rules have been specified to ensure additionality of the project, that is, to ensure the project reduces emissions more than would have occurred in the absence of the project. There are currently two rival interpretations of the additionality criterion: 1. What is often labelled environmental additionality has that a project is additional if the emissions from the project are lower than the baseline. It generally looks at what would have happened without the project.
1

Refer Appendix-1 on CDM

2. In the other interpretation, sometimes termed project additionality, the project must not have happened without the CDM. A number of terms for different kinds of additionality have been discussed, leading to some confusion, particularly over the terms 'financial additionality' and 'investment additionality' which are sometimes used as synonyms. 'Investment additionality', however, was a concept discussed and ultimately rejected during negotiation of the Marrakech Accords. Investment Additionality carried the idea that any project that surpasses a certain risk-adjusted profitability threshold would automatically be deemed non-additional. 'Financial additionality' is often defined as an economically non-viable project becoming viable as a direct result of CDM revenues. Many investors argue that the environmental additionality interpretation would make the CDM simpler. Environmental NGOs have argued that this interpretation would open the CDM to free-riders, permitting developing countries to emit more CO2 while failing to produce emission reductions in the CDM host countries. It is never possible to establish with certainty what would have happened without the CDM or in absence of a particular project, which is one common objection to the CDM. Nevertheless, official guidelines have been designed to facilitate uniform assessment[2] set by the CDM Executive Board for assessing additionality

CNG Implementation Success Reality or Myth


The Supreme Court of India ruled on July 28, 1998 that all three-wheelers and taxis would have to be converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) by March 31, 2001. However,

resistance from the diesel lobby and lack of support from the government nearly sabotaged the initiative. Several recently converted CNG taxis we spotted on the road were already belching white smoke, a clear sign of oil burning. Media has played a critical role in implementation of CNG by highlighting the CNG leakages and increased pollution from time to time. In response to media reports, Bench of Mr Justice Y. K. Sabharwal, Mr Justice Arijit Pasayat and Mr Justice S. H. Kapadia said -It is a serious matter. Somebody has to go into it, if the media reports are correct in March 2005. Technical Challenges: The existing diesel engine is modified to run on CNG by replacing piston, cylinder head and cooling system. It is not a reliable system and leads to engine overheating, engine head leaking, etc.

CNG vehicle has huge variability in NOx, sometimes far in excess of conventional diesel bus engines CNG bus suffers higher carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. Also, carbon monoxide emissions increase with the age of the CNG vehicle

Non-technical Challenges:

High CNG vehicle cost, long delays in CNG refuelling, high cost of building CNG refuelling infrastructure penalizes the long-term economic incentive Realizing that the number of vehicles is many times more than the number of fuel dispensing stations, ensuring the use of the right quality conversion kits is an area as difficult to be tackled as checking adulteration. Huge tax losses to government by subsidizing such massive CNG conversions

Some interested persons and organisations have expressed concern that exclusive reliance on CNG buses might be imprudent, as any disruption of natural gas supply to Delhi could disable the public transport fleet. The fact that Delhi is presently served by only a single gas pipeline has contributed to this concern.

Mr. R. S. Kanade2, ex-Joint Advisor to Petroleum Ministry, quoted that Pollution control is an optimization problem. Government took a maximin risk-averse approach and selected CNG as the convenient and cleanest. In a personal interview with he said: among all the alternatives CNG is the safest, most convenient and cleanest Oman, Myanmar, Iran are sitting on oceans of Natural Gas => CNG implementation in selected cities can be done with a very high initial investment. Thus a very high initial investment of piping supply and compression facilities is required, but he feels the need for "selected" few cities can be completely met
CSR is fulfilling a role which has no marginal profit margin. So, proactively

improving fuel quality is the CSR of Oil Companies Tapping expertise from industry, government and environmentalists, the Mashelkar committee called for an ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) mandate by 2010, at least for the 11 mega-cities initially. While some environmental advocates have been pushing for a speedier nationwide ULSD rollout, the report emphasized that such schemes wouldn't be costefficient, especially given India's financial limitations and serious shortcomings with emissions inventory studies.

Scalability of CNG across Other States


According to Mashelkar Committee Report, nearly 90% of the reduction in vehicle particulate matter in Delhi in the last six years doesn't have anything to do with CNG conversions this year, but rather with the gradual improvement in vehicle technology and liquid fuels. CNG can be effective solution for metropolitan cities where vehicles are the major source of pollution. But it is hard to replicate the CNG as pollution solution at other parts of the country Based on a recent report, only 20% of air pollution in Kanpur is accounted by vehicle exhausts. Similar situation exist in almost all tier 2 and tier 3 cities of India. Clearly, implementation of CNG in public transport will solve only a fraction of the overall
2

Mr. R. S. Kanade was joint advisor to ministry of petroleum in 1995-98 (during this period the CNG implementation plan started to gain roots) and currently economic advisor to ministry of textiles.

pollution problem which majority of the Indian cities are facing today. Scalability of CNG as a solution of air pollution is questionable beyond metropolitan cities. Ram Naik, India's Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas, commented that Cleaner fuels will help clean India's polluted big-city air, such measures won't do much to help the vast rural population, which has a different set of priorities

Futuristic Fuels/Technology to Reduce Pollution


Apart from the various alternative fuels which have been discussed in section XX, there are many other technologically advanced cleaner fuels which are currently actively researched by various automobile giants across the globe. Two such futuristic fuel are: Air Car: It is a possible future technology for automobiles using the power of Compressed Air Technology. While there are no cars currently on the market several companies are investigating the technology.

Series of compressed air tanks each holding ~87 litre of air and total engine weight is 35 kg only Tank full of air equivalent to 2 litres of petrol But some people argue that new car will not reduce pollution as electricity is needed to compress the air. Air Car technologies would move emissions off city streets but still require energy and cause emissions elsewhere.

Many automobile experts believe that Air car is the true car of tomorrow, with the same mileage and zero emissions as a fuel-cell car without the dangers currently associated with hydrogen. Tata, Indian conglomerate giant, is planning to launch Air Car in 2008 Hydrogen Car: Like Air Car, Hydrogen Car is low pollution emission car. Hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source, so the energy the car uses would ultimately need to be provided by a conventional power plant. A suggested benefit of large-scale deployment of hydrogen vehicles is that it could lead to decreased emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors Hydrogen emits no greenhouse gases or pollutants when used in fuel cells Making hydrogen a practical fuel is very difficult as it is very costly to build safe and reliable distribution infrastructure at fuel stations

It would be difficult to make hydrogen affordable Freezing conditions are a major consideration because fuel cells produce water and utilize moist air with varying water content. Many companies are currently researching the feasibility of building hydrogen cars. Funding has come from both private and government sources. In addition to the BMW and Mazda examples cited above, many automobile manufacturers have begun developing cars.

Alternate Approaches to Reduce Pollution


Choosing the right combination of automobile technology and fuel, of course, is a very important part of any strategy to reduce the ill effects of air pollution, but it is not the only solution. India can focus on many others strategies which can reduce pollution in long term: Building reliable public transport system: Clearly, Delhi metro encouraged people to use public transport and reduced private automobiles users. Market-based economic instruments which are designed to change the behaviour of the vehicle owner have either not been employed or employed. Building bypasses around major cities not only could reduce the incredible traffic jams in major Indian cities but also reduce big-city air pollution. "Of the 25 major cities, presently only 9 cities have bypasses and in another six cities bypasses are under construction; these will be one of the most cost-effective measures for reducing pollution from automobiles in metropolitan cities. Reduce kilometer driven in automobile: There are many alternatives which can reducing the number of kilometres travelled by each vehicle in long term: Better land-use planning Decentralization Encouraging people to admit their children to nearby schools Many more

Reducing the number of vehicles on the road: It is essential to look into why people travel and what influences their mode of travel: walking, cycling, taking a public bus, a car, riding a motorcycle, cost, comforts, reliability, time spent, distance, the purpose of travelall have a bearing on the choice.

Conclusion
Motorized transport, particularly the use of private transport, continues to pollute Delhis air, making it one of the most polluted cities in the world. Clean fuels can be a part of the solution only if there are enough buses on the road to prevent more people from opting for personal transport. What is more pragmatic is to augment the bus fleet and allow it to run on any clean fuel, be it CNG or ULSD, and focus on devising and implementing strategies that can show results quickly. {Need to rephrase this}

Sources of Information:

CSE Website Picture from Tribute Newspaper http://www.cng.co.in/about-cng.html

Appendix CDM Project Activity Cycle3

Below find a brief description and graphical representation of the CDM project activity project cycle.

Project Activity Design

The Project design document (CDM-PDD) and the Guidelines for completing CDM-PDD including a glossary of terms (Approval, authorization, project participants etc.) have been developed by the Executive Board on the basis of Appendix B of the CDM modalities and procedures. Project participants shall submit information on their proposed CDM project activity using the Project design document (CDM-PDD).

Proposal of a New Baseline and/ or Monitoring Methodology

The new baseline methodology shall be submitted by the designated operational entity to the Executive Board for review, prior to a validation and submission for registration of this project activity, with the draft project design document (CDM-PDD), including a description of the project and identification of the project participants.

Use of an Approved Methodology

The approved methodology is a methodology previously approved by the Executive Board and made publicly available along with any relevant guidance. In case of approved methodologies the designated operational entities may proceed with the validation of the CDM project activity and submit project design document (CDM-PDD) for registration.

Validation of the CDM project activity

Validation is the process of independent evaluation of a project activity by a designated operational entity against the requirements of the CDM as set out in decision 17/CP.7, the present annex and relevant decisions of the COP/MOP, on

As provided on the official site of UNFCCC

the basis of the project design document, as outlined in Appendix B.

Registration of the CDM project activity

Registration is the formal acceptance by the Executive Board of a validated project as a CDM project activity. Registration is the prerequisite for the verification, certification and issuance of CERs related to that project activity.

Certification/ Verification of the CDM project activity

Verification is the periodic independent review and ex post determination by the designated operational entity of the monitored reductions in anthropogenic emissions by sources of greenhouse gases that have occurred as a result of a registered CDM project activity during the verification period. Certification is the written assurance by the designated operational entity that, during a specified time period, a project activity achieved the reductions in anthropogenic emissions by sources of greenhouse gases as verified.