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26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik SOCIAL COHESION AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE EU Elena Roldán, PhD
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
SOCIAL COHESION AND
SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE EU
Elena Roldán, PhD
Teresa García PhD
Universidad Complutense
Madrid
Spain
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU QUESTIONS What type
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
QUESTIONS
What type of commitment has the
European Union acquired to make
possible a balance between economic
growth, social cohesion and social
inclusion and to eradicate poverty and
social exclusion?
-Which data is available to assess
progress and setbacks in the policy of
eradication of poverty and social
exclusion?
-
- What is the road map to achieving
progress in the social inclusion policies,
and what is the Social Work implication
and role definition in implementation of
those policies ?
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU COMMITMENTS OF THE
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
COMMITMENTS OF
THE EUROPEAN
UNION
March 2000.- European Council in Lisbon:
sustainable growth levels, more and
better jobs and increased social cohesion
and Eradicating poverty and social
exclusion by 2010.
December 2001.- Laeken European
Council: 18 common statistical indicators
of social exclusion and poverty have been
approved.
Open Method of Coordination: Member
States agreed on common objectives and
indicators for monitoring progress
towards these objectives in the field of
.
social
p
rotection and social inclusion
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU STATISTICAL LIMITS Internationally
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
STATISTICAL LIMITS
Internationally comparable data for
monitoring the economic situation and
trends have been collected for about half a
century.
By contrast, equivalent tools for monitoring
social conditions are still in their infancy.
Over the past decade, the European Union
has made major progress in producing
internationally comparable data for social
monitoring. But the availability of social
data will continue to lag considerably
behind key economic indicators.
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU Data available to
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
Data available to
assess
progress and
setbacks in the
policies of poverty
eradication
Allows to study the main factor affecting
y
risk of poverty, unemployment, low
educational level, gender and age, etc.
and the effect of social protection
p
overt
and social exclusion such as:
THE RISK OF
POVERTY
To measure the poverty the indicator used
is At-risk-of-poverty rate which is defined
as the share of
p ersons with an
equivalised disposable income below the
at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set
at 60% of the national median equivalised
disposable income (after social transfers).
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU Risk of poverty
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
Risk of poverty rate
Risk of poverty
rate and
unemployment
Rose to 40% for
the unemployed
Year
%
Population
2000
16%
72,300,0
2005
16%
73,900,0
2007
16%
74,300,0
Unemployment rate
EU February 2009
Unemployment rate EU27
Year
% Population
February
7.9%
19,200,0
Netherlands 2.7%),
2009
Spain (15.5%)
Latvia (14.4%) a
Lithuania (13.7%).
February
6.8%
16,200,0
2008
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU women are more
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
women are more
Risk of poverty and gender
at risk of
than men
p
overt
y
Women a ed 65 and over have more risk of
poverty in many countries:
g
30% -39%% of all those with income below
the poverty threshold in Spain, Estonia,
Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, and UK.
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland,
Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia this
percentage is between 8% -11 %,,
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU Population at risk
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
Population at risk of poverty by age group:
old people and children
People over 65 ad
children under 16
are more at risk of
poverty than men
All the population aged over 65.
Children (under 16) face a higher risk of
poverty than adults in many EU countries.:
Highest percentage:
Lowest %:
Italy (25%)
Poland (24%)
Spain (24%)
Greece (23%)
UK (23%)
Scandinavian
countries (9% - 11%)
.
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU Educational attainment levels
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
Educational attainment levels and risk of
exclusion
Lower education
level increase risk
of poverty
Data Year 2006
78% of young people (20-24) had at least
an upper secondary qualification.
15% of people 18-24 left the education
system with only lower secondary
education at best.
Highest %low-qualified young people
Malta (30% or more)
Portugal(30% or more)
Spain (30% or more)
In virtually all Member States, women are
less likely than men to be in this situation.
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU The reduction of
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
The reduction of the
percentage of people
at risk of poverty:
Risk-of- overt
p
the redistributive effect
p
y
and social
rotection:
Social
protection
expenditure
in
the
EU
Less than 25 % in
Latvia and Estonia
represented
about
27
%
of
GDP in
2004,
a
an
d
some
2000
proportion that grew by 2.6 % compared with
l
.
Th
e
arges
t
propor on was recor e
ti
d
d
i
n
Mediterranean
countries (Greece,
Spain, Italy, Cyprus,
Malta and Portugal)
Sweden
Social policies in Europe allow nearly one
third of population to leave poverty:
almost 34 million people.
Greatest reduction:
Sweden 69 %,
Czech Republic,
Denmark, France,
Hungary, the
In 2005 social transfers reduced the at-risk-of-
poverty rate for the EU population : from 26 %
before transfers to 16 % after transfers.
As such, social transfers lifted 38 %off persons
with low income above the poverty line
,
Slovenia and Finland
50 %
Netherlands Austria
,
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU . Progress and
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
.
Progress and
There are problem areas in which action must
be still taken:
reforms:
eradicating poverty At-risk-of-poverty rate still high and
increasing
and social
Labour market participation and decreasing
unemployment
exclusion .
Disadvantages in education and training;
The role and
Child poverty, which still persists;
involvement
Gender inequalities persist
Inte ration
g
of
p
eo
p
le
with
disabilities
,
of Social Work
ethnic minorities and immigrants
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU The key challenge
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
The key challenge for social policies is to
ensure genuine equality of opportunity and
emphasise the role of employment as a key
factor for social inclusion.
.
Progress and
reforms:
eradicating poverty
Th
e ac now e
k
l
d
ge o
f thi
s po cy con ex
li
t
t i
s
and social
essential in the background of the social
exclusion .
workers.
The role and
involvement
of Social Work
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU . Progress and
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
.
Progress and
reforms:
eradicating poverty
and social
It is important to implement theoretical and
reflexive framework for the professional as
well as the cognitive and analytical tools
necessary to understanding the current
context in which professional intervention
takes place.
exclusion .
The role and
It is essential to be able to cooperate in the
design of social inclusion policies and
incorporate in the curricula competence
involvement
of Social Work
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU Progress and reforms:
26-29 April 2009, Dubrovnik
Social cohesion and Social exclusion in the EU
Progress and
reforms:
eradicating poverty
and social
exclusion .
The role and
involvement
Analyse the impact of new economic and
social crisis of the welfare model.
Assess the future of the welfare state in
Europe .
Study the consequences of his context for
the performance of the social work.
Understand the different areas of the
social policy as areas of intervention of the
social work
An analysis of the today situation could aid
to inspire prospective social workers to take
up a policy practice
And as well to create networks and lobby
.
to
p ress the EU to achieve the commitment
of Social Work
for eradicating the poverty and social
exclusion by 2010
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Social action in Europe: different legacies & common challenges