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Computer Technology

Dr. Mohamed Taher

Course Contents
Computer Systems Data Representation Flow Chart

Introduction to C/C++ Programming

Operating Systems Computer Networks Multimedia

What is A Computer?
A computer is a device that performs mathematical and logical operations at high speed and with precision. Early computers were used mainly to compute (add, subtract, multiply, divide and so on). Today, computers perform a variety of tasks such as, text, audio and video processing and handling large quantities of information

Basic Elements of a Computer System

Main Memory

Embedded Computers
A computer that is internal component of another machine

NonEmbedded Computers
Microcomputer The lowest end of the computer range in terms of speed and storage capacity. personal computers (PC) Mini Computer Used in multi-user system Mainframes Operate at very high speed, have very large storage capacity and can handle the work load of many users Supercomputer The fastest and most expensive machines. They have high 5 processing speed compared to other computers

Basic Elements of a Computer System

Main Memory

What is memory?
The computers workspace where application instructions and data are held during operation is called memory also known as main memory, primary storage or RAM (Random Access Memory). The capacity of a memory is important because this is where data and programs are stored while they are active, thus bigger memory means bigger workspace.

Units in main memory

smallest basic unit = bit basic unit = byte (B) (1 byte = 8 bits)
1 Kilo (K) =2 10 1 Mega (M)= 2 20 1 Giga (G) = 2 30

Input Devices
Any type of device that provides data to a computer from the outside world For example:
Keyboard Mouse Scanner

A computer scanner converts printed or transparent material into a digital image. The resolution of a scanner determines the sharpness of the scan. Resolution is usually measured in dots per inch, or dpi. The internal electronics in a scanner convert the color information to digital bits. This process is called analog-to-digital (or A/D) conversion, and the quality of the A/D conversion can affect the final digital output. Most modern scanners feature 48 bit A/D conversion, or 16 bits for each color.

Output Devices
Any type of device that provides data from a computer to the outside world Examples of output data:
A printed report An image such as a picture A sound

Common output devices include:

Monitor (display screen) Printer

Display Devices

Output device that visually conveys information Information on display device sometimes called soft copy 2 Common types CRT LCD Featured by Refresh rate Resolution Visible screen size

Working method of CRT monitor

The back of the tube has a negatively charged cathode, so called electron gun. The electron gun shoots electrons down the tube and onto a positively charged screen. The screen is coated with a pattern of red, green and blue phosphor dots that will glow when struck by the electron stream. The three dots together make up a pixel.

CRT Monitors
How does video travel from the processor to a CRT monitor?

Video card (also called a graphics card) converts digital output from computer into analog video signal
Step 5. Electron guns Step 3. The
analog signal is sent through a cable to the CRT monitor.

Step 1. The
processor sends digital video data to the video card.

fire the three color signals to the front of the CRT.

Step 4. The
CRT monitor separates the analog signal into red, green, and blue signals.

Step 6. An image is
displayed on the screen when the electrons hit phosphor dots on the back of the screen.

Step 2. The video cards digital-toanalog converter (DAC) converts the digital video data to an analog signal.

LCD Screen
Liquid crystal panels are constructed by sandwiching thin layer of liquid crystal between two electrically conducting plates By applying proper electrical signals across the plates, various segments of the liquid crystal can be activated, causing changes in their light-diffusing or polarizing properties

Output device that produces text and graphics on paper, Result is hard copy, or printout In addition, many modern printers can directly interface to electronic media such as memory sticks or memory cards, or to image capture devices such as digital cameras, scanners Some printers are combined with a scanners and/or fax machines in a single unit.

Main types of printers

Dot matrix Inkjet Laser

Dot matrix printer

A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an inksoaked cloth ribbon against the paper

Inkjet printers
Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. They are the most common type of computer printer for the general consumer due to their low cost, high quality of output, and ease of use.

Laser Printers
Laser printers are printer that uses laser technology to print images on the paper. These work in a manner similar to a photocopier. The laser recreates the image on a negatively drum. A roller is charged with electricity, then a laser is used to remove the charge from portions of the roller. Powdered ink (toner) sticks to the parts of the roller that were hit by the laser, and this toner is transferred from the roller to the paper. Then the ink is baked into the paper using a heater.