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3.1 Introduction

How long can the largest sections in the table properties able to spans? Let say for a bridge, a single longitudinal member is required to carry 100kN/m UDL along 40m span, can a single 914 419 398UB (the largest section in table of properties) adequate in shear capacity, moment capacity and without excessive deflection, lateral torsional buckling? The use of a single big section will be very costly, and may be infeasible in erection and fabrication. Moreover, the bending moment capacity, which is governed by the depth of section, if obtained by using a single cross-section, a large portion of the web actually is unused. Therefore a truss system is suggested. Trusses and lattice girders are fabricated from the various steel sections, jointed together by welding or by bolting usually via gusset (connecting) plates. The joints could be pin or continuous. Normally they are designed either acting in one plane or in three dimensions (space frame). The Figure 3-1 is depicting some of them:

Pratt

Belgium

Pratt

Warren

Fink

Howe

Curved

Howe

The members used in truss system normally are angles, double-angles, C-channels, double Cchannels, SHS, CHS, cold-formed steels etc. Some of them are depicted as follow:

Angle

C-channel

Joist

CHS

SHS

3.2

Terminology of Truss

Concentrated loads Vertical internal member Top chord (rafter) Sloped internal member

Node

3.3

This session is purposely introducing the design of a simple plane roof truss system (determinacy). The loading subjected by a truss is transferred through the purlins, either directly onto the nodes or on the top members span. It is ideal if the loads can be transferred to the truss at the node position, but commonly this is not possible. In roof truss design the purlin positions may not be known initially, and allowing for the possibility of purlin changes during future re-roofing, a random position for loads is often allowed. Therefore, the general procedure is summarized in Figure 3-4 below:

Start Loading Analyses assuming all joints are pin-jointed and all loading on the nodes, therefore the out put will be Tensile stress normally occurs at bottom chord and sloped internal members Compressive stress occurs at top chord and the vertical internal members

Analyses of the load bearing member such as rafter as a continuous beam supported at the nodes and loaded by the purlins. If the load positions are uncertain, the rafter moment may be taken as wL2/6 (cl. 4.10 d)) where L is the node-to-node length of the rafter and w is the total load per unit length applied perpendicular to the rafter.

Assessment of stresses due to eccentricity of the connections Assessment of the effects of joint rigidity and deflection End *Normally ignored

3.4

Loading

The loading subjected to a truss system could be dead loads, live loads and wind load. For roof truss system, the dead loads may be consisting of cladding, insulation, self-weight of trusses and purlins, services etc. For live load, according to BS 6399-2 or CP3: Ch V: Part 2, 0.75kN/m2 may be used where the entrance to the roof is available only for services purpose. Otherwise, 1.5kN/m2 may be used if the purpose is more than that. In local practice, especially for buildings up to three storeys, no additional wind load is considered on the roof.

3.5

Purlin Design

As depicted in Figure 3-5, purlins are those members in a truss system which carrying the roof sheets and transferring the load to the rafters. It is normally placed perpendicular to the rafters and sag rods may be added (in order to reduce the minimum size of purlins) (see Table 27). The purlins are not necessary to be analyzed as complicated as the other structural members. The satisfaction of purlins is approached by the empirical rules suggested in cl. 4.12.4.3 as: a) The slope of the roof should less than 30 from the horizontal. b) The loading on the purlin should be substantially uniformly distributed. Not more than 10% of the total roof load on the member should be due to other types of load. c) The limitations of section modulus Z about its axis parallel to the plane of the cladding, member dimensions D perpendicular to the plane of cladding, B parallel to the plane of cladding are given in Table 27 as shown below:

Table 3-1 Empirical values for purlins (Table 27) Purlin section Zp (cm3) Zq (cm3) Wind load from BS 6399-2 WqL/2250 WqL/2500 WqL/2250 D (mm) Wind load from CP3:Ch V:Part2 WqL/1800 WqL/2000 WqL/1800 L/45 L/65 L/70 L/60 L/150 B (mm)

NOTE 1 Wp and Wq are the total unfactored loads (in kN) on the span of the purlin, acting perpendicular to the plane of the cladding, due to (dead plus imposed) and (wind minus dead) loading respectively. NOTE 2 L is the span of the purlin (in mm) centre-to-centre if main vertical supports. However, if properly supported sag rod used, L may be taken as the sag rod spacing in determining B only.

3.6

A plane truss (as shown below) is arranged where all purlins on its nodes. Design the purlins using single angle sections, with the following data: Spacing between trusses Weight of roof sheet, insulation and purlins (on slope) Self-weight of truss (on slope) Imposed load (on plan) = 5m = 0.35kN/m2 = 0.20kN/m2 = 0.75kN/m2

Solution Purlin Design Dead load Imposed load Spacing of purlins Wp = 0.35kN/m2 (on slope) = 0.75 6 / 6.324 = 0.71kN/m2 (on slope) = 6.324 / 3 = 2.11m = (0.35 + 0.71) 2.11 5 = 11.18kN Roof slope = tan-1 (2/6) Table 27 = 18.4 < 30 Use angles for purlin, therefore adopt the limitation: Zp D = WpL/1800 = 11.18 5000 / 1800 = 31.06cm3 = L/45 = 5000 / 45 = 111.11mm Assume sag rod are assigned on the middle of purlins between two trusses B = (L/2)/60 = (5000/2) / 60 = 41.67mm Therefore, use single angle 125 75 10L (Zx = 36.5cm3) Loading Transferred to the Trusses (on nodes) Dead load = 0.35 + 0.2 = 0.55kN/m2 (on slope) Imposed load = 0.71kN/m2 (on slope) Total dead load Gk = 0.55 2.11 5 = 5.80kN Total imposed load Qk= 0.71 2.11 5 = 7.49kN 5

Design load P

20.1kN 20.1kN 20.1kN 20.1kN 20.1kN 10.05kN

10.05kN

Figure 3-7

3.7

Tension Members

3.7.1 General

The specifications of tension members are given in cl. 4.6.1. Generally the tension capacity Pt is given by: Pt = py Ae where Ae is the sum of the effective areas ae of all the elements of the cross-section. It should be less than 1.2 times the total net area An. The above formula is based on the assumption that the member is loaded on its axis. If members are connected eccentric to their axes, the reduction of tensile capacity may be limited by using the tensile-moment expression,

My Ft Mx + + 1 (cl. 4.8.2). However, Pt M cx M cy

angles, channels and T-sections could be treated as axially loaded by using reduced tension capacity as follows (cl. 4.6.2): For simple tied (no moment along the member) single angle consisting of a single angle connected only through one leg only; single channel connected only through one web, or a Tsection connected only through the flange, - for bolted connections: - for welded connections: where a2 = Ag a1 6 Pt = py (Ae 0.5a2) Pt = py (Ag 0.3a2)

a1

is the gross area of the connected element, taken as the product of its thickness

and the overall leg width for an angle, the overall depth for a channel or the flange width for a T-section. For simple tied double angle consisting of a single angle connected only through one leg only; two channels connected only through one web, or two T-sections connected only through the flange, see Figure 5-8 below:

a)

Gusset or other section

- for bolted connections: Pt = py (Ae 0.25a2) - for welded connections: Pt = py (Ag 0.15a2)

3.4.1 Gross cross-section Gross cross-section properties should be determined from the specified shape and nominal dimensions of the member or element. Holes for bolts should not be deducted, but due allowance should be made for larger openings. Material used solely in splices or as battens should not be included. 3.4.2 Net area The effective area of a cross-section or an element of a cross-section should be taken as its gross area, less the deduction for bolt holes given in 3.4.4 3.4.3 Effective net area The effective net area ae of each element of a cross-section with bolt holes should be determined from ae = Kean but ae < ag in which the effective net area coefficient Ke is given by:

where

for grade S 275: for grade S 355: for grade S 460: for other steel grades: ag an py Us

is the gross area of the element; is the net area of the element; is the design strength; is the specified minimum tensile strength

3.4.4 Deductions for bolts holes 3.4.4.2 Holes not staggered Provided that the bolt holes are not staggered, the area to be deducted should be the sum of the sectional areas of the bolt holes in a cross-

3.8

An internal member of a truss system is subjects to tensile force 260kN from truss analysis (as shown in the Figure 3-10 below). Propose a suitable cross-section for it if a) the end connections are welded; b) the end connections are bolted ( 24mm bolt)

Figure 5-10

Solution a) Welded end Preliminary Sizing Ft py = 260kN = 275 N/mm2 = 945.45mm2 Try angle 100 65 7L where Ag = 11.2cm2 Tension Capacity Assume the longer leg of the section welded to gusset; therefore the neutral axis is eccentric away. a1 a2 Pt = 100 7 = 700mm2 = Ag - a1 = 1120 - 700 = 420mm2 = py (Ag 0.3a2) = 275 (1120 0.3 420) 10-3 = 275.35kN > Ft = 260kN Ok

7mm 100m m a1 a2 7mm 65mm

260 kN

cl. 4.6.3.1

Assume the bolt size D = 24mm Bolt hole size = D + Allowance = D + 3 = 24 + 3 = 27mm Assume the section thickness is 8mm Area needed = 260 103 / 275 + (27 8) = 1161.45mm2 Try angle 100 65 8L where Ag = 12.7cm2 Tension Capacity Since the member is grade S 275, Ke = 1.2 An Ae a1 a2 Pt = Ag Ah = 1270 (27 8) = 1054mm2 = Kean = 1.2An = 1.2 1054 = 1264.8mm2 = 100 8 27 x 8 = 800mm2 = Ag - a1 = 1270 - 800 = 470mm2 = py (Ag 0.5a2) = 275 (1264.8 0.5 470) 10-3 = 283.19kN > Ft = 260kN Ok cl. 4.6.3.1 cl. 3.4.3

3.9

Compression Members

The design basis of a compression member in truss is generally similar to a column. To simplify the design procedure, the angles, channels and T-sections are allowed to be designed ignoring the effect of end-connection eccentricity; through the empirical-based limitations given in cl. 4.7.10. The limitations are describing the slenderness of the member in terms of end connection, effective length and different axes. The critical (largest value) is

xx

yy

, and

vv

Let us look in the expression of . Consider the single angle strut with double-bolt fixing:

a v x a v y

x v a

y v a

(Double-bolt connection)

Axes

where ra rv

is the radius of gyration about an axis through the centriod of the angle parallel to the gusset, so on for rb. is the minimum radius of gyration.

Recall the coefficient of effective length LE in column design, 0.85 is indicating the element which is partially restraint at the end and 1.0 is indicating the pin-joint. From this view, the expressions a = 1.0La/ra and b = 0.85Lb/rb is similar to the = LE/r in column design. The next expressions which contain slenderness factor of 0.7 purposely for indicating the allowance of eccentricity. 0.7 is pessimistically indicates the effective length of the member and the additional constant (15 and 30) are assigned to indicate the allowance of eccentricity. For compression member subjected to bending moment, it should satisfy the three momentaxial compression interaction limitations which expressed in flexural expression in cl. 4.8.3. See Chapter 3 part 4.3.7 to 4.3.9. An alternative of checking all of this is to use the simplified method provided in I.4.3, where as:

Fc mLTx M x mLTy M y + + 1 . Pc M bx M by

10

Design the compression member for the truss shown in Figure 3-13 below. Use different section for the top chord and internal vertical members. Use equal angle grade S 275 and double-bolted connection.

90kN

46kN

2m

Since the member is bolted, assume D = 24mm Assume the section thickness t = 8mm Ah = (24 + 3) 8 = 216mm2 Assume pc = 0.4py Ag = Fc/(0.4 py) + 216 = 46 103 / (0.4 275) + 216 = 634mm2 Try 60 60 6L (Ag = 6.91cm2) ra = rb = ry = rx = 1.82cm, rv = 1.17cm

max

Therefore the compression capacity of the angle (class 3) = Ag pc = 691 72 10-3 = 49.75kN > Fc = 46kN a) Top Chord Ok

11

Preliminary sizing Fc py Ah = 90kN = 275 N/mm2 = 2 (24 + 3) 8 = 432mm2 To use a double-angle, assume pc = 0.4py Ag = Fc/(0.4 py) + 432 = 90 103 / (0.4 275) + 432 = 1250mm2 Try 2/65 50 8L (Ag = 16.5cm2) rx = 2.01cm, ry = 2.28cm, rv = 1.05cm Section Classification (consider a single angle)

b/t d/t

= (275 / 275)0.5 = 1.0 = 50 / 8 = 6.25 < 15 = 15 = 65 / 8 = 8.13 < 15 = 15 = (50 + 65)/8 = 14.38 < 24 = 24 Class 3 semi-compact

Table 11

(b + d)/t

Slenderness

1.0Lx/rx = 1.0 3000 / 20.1 = 149.25 0.7Lx/rx + 30 = 0.7 3000 / 20.1 + 30 = 134.48< 149.25

Assume the back-to-back struts are interconnected each 500mm spacing using bolts, as shown in Figure below:

4 @ 500mm c/c interconnection between two members

End connection

c 2 0.5 c

max

max

Therefore the compression capacity of the angle (class 3) = Ag pc = 1650 68 10-3 = 112.20kN > Fc = 90kN Ok

Design a roof truss (Pratt) for a factory which covers an area of 40 12m. Details of the truss are shown below. Use mild steel for all members and apply welding to all connections.

Truss span Truss spacing

A Purlin 5.0 Truss A

5.0

- Water would not stay on the roof Nodes spacing of bottom chord = 2 m Nodes spacing of top chord, L2 = 2 m cos2.86

2.0 1.5

Purlins

=2m

0.3 1.0 6 @ 2.0m = 12m

Purlin spacing, L1

= 1.5 m

Solution Loading 13

Dead load (on slope) 7mm thick steel sheeting Insulation and lamps Self-weight of purlins Self-weight of trusses Total dead load, Gk Live load: For services Live load on plan Live load on slope Total live load, Qk Design load, q = 0.75kN/m2 = 0.75 6 / 6.008 = 0.75kN/m2 = 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk = 1.4 0.4 + 1.6 0.75 = 1.76kN/m2 Concentrated load on nodes, P = q trusses spacing nodes spacing = 1.76 5 1.5 = 13.2kN P/2 Analysis On-node analysis Apply truss analysis based on assumption that the loads are concentrated on nodes: = 6.6kN = 0.1kN/m2 = 0.15kN/m2 = 0.05kN/m2 = 0.1kN/m2 = 0.4kN/m2

14

P/2 = 6.6kN

13.2kN 13.2kN

13.2kN

0.3

1.0

10 9 8 Tmax = 87.2 6 7 Cmax = -122 11 12 13 14

Cmax = -52.8 1

3 Tmax = 115.5

Figure 3-16 On-node analysis Table 3-2 Analysis results of the truss Member Bottom chord Internal members Node 12 23 34 18 28 29 39 3 10 4 10 4 11 89 9 10 10 11 Axial load (factored) (kN) (+) Tension () Compression 0.0 78.0 115.5 -52.8 87.2 -39.0 42.8 -20.6 -6.8 7.0 -78.3 -116.0 -122.0

Top chord

Bending analysis The top chord members are subjected to the transverse loading due to the purlins loads. Therefore a moment analysis which treating the member as continuous member should be carried on:

15

1.4m

0.1m

6.6kN

3.8kNm 3.4 2.0

2.0m

2.0m

2.0m

2.1

2.8

2.0

Resulted from the computer analysis (plane frame analysis), the maximum moment Mmax is 3.8kNm.

To allow future re-roofing, we may determine the maximum moment as: Mmax = WL/6 = 13.2 2 / 6 = 4.4kNm a) Top Chord Design For this case, the top chord should be checked on - its compression capacity assuming only axial load applied - interaction check Compression resistance Preliminary sizing Fc py Ag = 112kN = 275 N/mm2 = Fc/(0.15py) = 112 103 / (0.15 275) = 2715mm2 16

It is recommended to use equal angle in strut subjected to moment, because the Mb formula is available in BS. The larger Zx is more beneficial to the Mb. Try 100 100 15L (Ag = 35.6cm2) rb = rx = ra = ry = 2.98, rv = 1.93cm, Zx = 35.6cm3 Section Classification

b/t

= (275 / 275)0.5 = 1.0 = d/t = 100 / 15 = 6.67 < 15 = 15 = (100 + 100)/15 = 13.33 < 24 = 24 Class 3 semi-compact

Table 11

(b + d)/t

Slenderness Lb = Lx = L2 = 2.0m La = Ly = L1 = 1.5m Lv = L1 = 2.0m (top chord nodes spacing) (purlins spacing)

0.85Lv/rv = 0.85 2000 / 19.3 = 88.08 0.7Lv/rv + 15 = 0.7 2000 / 19.3 + 15 = 87.54 < 88.08

1.0La/ra = 1.0 1500 / 29.8 = 50.34 0.7La/ra + 30 = 0.7 1500 / 29.8 + 30 = 65.23 > 50.34 use 65.23

1.0Lb/rb = 0.85 2000 / 29.8 = 57.05 0.7Lb/rb + 30 = 0.7 2000 / 29.8 + 30 = 76.98 > 57.05 use 76.36

max

max

Pc

= 519.76kN > Fc = 112kN Linear Interaction Checking - Heel of angle in compression: Mb = 0.8pyZx = 0.8 275 35.6 10-3 = 7.83kNm The column interaction expression

My 112 4.4 0 Fc Mx + + = 519 .76 + 7.83 + p Z = 0.777 < 1 Pc M bs py Z y y y

Ok

cl. 4.7.7

b) Internal Vertical Member Preliminary sizing Fc py Ag = 52.8kN = 275 N/mm2 = Fc/(0.4 py) = 52.8 103 / (0.4 275) = 480mm2 cl. 4.8.3.2 Try 50 50 6L (Ag = 5.69cm2) ra = rb = ry = rx = 1.5cm, rv = 0.963cm Section Classification cl. 4.5.2

Assume pc = 0.4py

b/t

= (275 / 275)0.5 = 1.0 = d/t = 50 / 6 = 8.33 < 15 = 15 = (50 + 50)/6 = 16.67 < 24 = 24 Class 3 semi-compact

Table 26

(b + d)/t

0.85Lv/rv = 0.85 1000 / 9.63 = 88.27 0.7Lv/rv + 15 = 0.7 1000 / 9.63 + 15 = 87.69 < 88.27 Since one leg of the angle is bolted 18 use 88.27

1.0La/ra = 1.0 1000 / 15 = 66.67 0.7La/ra + 30 = 0.7 1000 / 15 + 30 = 76.67 > 66.67 use 76.67

0.85Lb/rb = 0.85 1000 / 15 = 56.67 0.7Lb/rb + 30 = 0.7 1000 / 15 + 30 = 76.67 > 93.41 use 76.67

max

= 88.27

max

Therefore the compression capacity of the angle (class 3) = Ag pc = 569 145 10-3 = 82.50kN > Fc = 52.8kN c) Internal Sloped Member Design Preliminary Sizing Ft py = 87.2kN = 275 N/mm2 = 317mm2 Try angle 45 45 5L where Ag = 4.3cm2 Tension Capacity Assume the longer leg of the section welded to gusset; therefore the neutral axis is eccentric away. a1 a2 Pt = 45 5 = 225mm2 = Ag - a1 = 430 - 225 = 205mm2 = py (Ag 0.3a2) = 275 (430 0.3 205) 10-3 = 101.33kN > Ft = 87.2kN Ok 19 Table 11 Ok

c) Bottom Chord Preliminary Sizing Ft py = 115.5kN = 275 N/mm2 = 420mm2 Although 40 40 5L has adequate cross-sectional area. To ease the erection, we may use angle 50 50 6L where Ag = 5.69cm2 so that only one type of internal members section being used. Tension Capacity Assume the longer leg of the section welded to gusset; therefore the neutral axis is eccentric away. a1 a2 Pt = 50 6 = 300mm2 = Ag - a1 = 569 - 300 = 269mm2 = py (Ag 0.3a2) = 275 (569 0.3 269) 10-3 = 134.28kN > Ft = 115.5kN Summary

Top chord 100 100 15L Internal vertical members 50 50 6L Internal sloped members 45 45 5L

Ok

To simplify the erection work, the 45 45 5L may be replaced with 50 50 6L. Therefore the truss is using 100 100 100L for top chord, and 50 50 6L for the rest remained. cl. 4.6.3.1 20

cl. 4.6.3.1

3.12 Problems

1. Design a computer program that able to calculate the tension and compression capacity using spreadsheets. The users are only required to enter the member length, section properties and the end condition. 2. A tie member in a roof truss is acted with ultimate tensile force 1000kN. Choose the minimum size equal angle (S 275) to resist the force. 3. A grade S 275 double-angle member 2/150 100 8L is connected back to back. Two bolt holes with diameter 22mm are drilled through the longer heel at the ends. Determine ultimate tensile capacity of the member. 4. A member in heavy truss is subjected to ultimate axial load 2000kN and ultimate moment of 500kNm. Design the member using a mild steel universal beam.

21

5. A tie member is subjected to axial load and biaxial moment. The ultimate tensile force is 3000kN; moment about major axis is 160kNm and moment about minor axis is 90kNm. Investigate whether 305 305 158UC (S 275) adequate. 6. An 18m-spanned flat roof is supported by trusses which have a height of 1.5m and spaced 4m to each other. The purlins are located 1.5m spaced to each other too. Assume the dead load is 0.7kN/m2 and imposed load is 0.75kN/m2, a. Analysis the truss using method of joints b. Design the truss using angles. Assume the connections between members are to be welded. 7. A roof truss is shown in Figure 5-19 below. The trusses are placed 6m adjacent to each other. The building height is 5m (to the eave) and overall length is 36m. The loadings on roof are: Dead load of roof Imposed load = 0.4kN/m2 (on slope) = 0.75kN/m2 (on plan)

Estimate the wind load using CP3:Ch V:Part 2. The building is located at country side and the basic wind speed is 45m/s. a. Design the purlins b. Analyze the forces in the truss. i. Design the trusses

urlin P

3 @ 2000 = 6000mm Figure 5-11

ng 4 paci s

2000mm

550 @1

8. Part of a building is shown in Figure 5-20 below. The trusses are supported by column A and B; and part of the truss is cantilevering to the front. A roller door is placed under the end of cantilever. The trusses are placed at a spacing of 6m to each other. The overall length of the building is 48m. 22

The loadings on roof are: Dead load Imposed load = 0.45kN/m2 (on slope) = 0.75kN/m2 (on plan)

The building is located at country side and the basic wind speed is 45m/s. Consider the truss will be subjected to the uplift force and gravity force. Analyze and propose adequate members for the truss.

12m

Figure 5-12

6m

3.13 References

1. L. J. Morris, D. R. Plum (1988), Structural Steelwork Design to BS 5950, Longman Scientific & Technical, UK. 2. BSI (2000), BS 5950-1:2000 Guide to Amendments, SCI, UK. 3. F. Arbabi (1991), Structural Analysis and Behavior, McGraw-Hill, Inc. USA.

5m

3m

23

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