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UTHE PENGUIN HISTORICAL VIKING Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Books Ltd, 27 Wrights Lane, London W8 STZ, England Penguin Books USA ic., 375 Hudson Stet, New York, NY 10014, USA Penguin Books Australia id, Ringwood, Victoria, Australia. Penguin Books (NZ) Lid, 182-190 Wairau Road, Auckland 10, New Zealana Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England Fist published 1995 Published simultaneously in Penguin Books 13579108642 Text copyright © Chris Scace, 1995 The moral right ofthe author nas been asserted Design and maps copyright © Swanston Publishing Limited, 1995 ‘Alright reserved, Without iting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part ofthis publication may be reproduced, stored nor introduced into retrieval system, or transmitted, n any form or by ary means (electron, ‘mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwse, without the prior written permission ofboth the copyright owner and the ‘ove publisher ofthis book Printed and bound in Great Briain by The Bath Press, Avon | GP catalogue ecord for his book is avaliable from the Bilis Library 'SBN 0-670-86464-1/ Penguin Books Canada Lid, 10 Acom Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada MAV 382 Foreword Roman civilization is one of the great unifying factors in the history of Europe and the Mediterranean. The extensive empire ruled by the Romans stretched from the sands of the Sahara to the mouth of the Rhine, and from the Atlantic in the west to the uphirates in the east. It has lft us its legacy in the form of Roman law, which still under ties many westerninspired legal systems, and in the Romance languages—French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and Romanian—derived from Latin, which are still spoken well as the res, and the state hot only in former Roman territories but in countries of the New World a Old, Furthermore, Roman cities lie beneath many of our modern ¢ religion of the late Roman world—Christianity—remains the dominant faith throughout most of Europe today “The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Remeis an introduction to the Roman Empire based ‘on maps, The Romans themselves made maps of their empire, though litle of these have survived apart from the so-called Peutinger Table (a medieval copy) and fragments stich 2s the marble map of Rome. Itis other sources, then, which have bee pile the present volume, and they are of broadly two kinds: historical and literary on the il (what the Romans std about themselves), and archaeological and architectur fone ha al on the othes Bach of these sources has its own particular role, The details of historical events them- selves are known to us mainly through written texts in Latin or Greek, ‘These include works of famous historians stich as Livy and Tactius, and social or official documents such as letters and lavs. Coins and inscriptions provide abundant further evidence, and can often be dated precisely, Archaeology, on the other hand, can sometimes be tied into the history but essentially tells us a different kind of story. We may remember the Romans in terms of kings and consuls, battles and emperors, but for the majority of Roman inhabitants, those who ploughed the fields and tended the olive groves, by far the best testimony comes from archaeological remains of ordinary houses, Jence, however, i intrinsially better then the others; it workshops, No one source of e is by using them together that we gain the fullest insight into the world of ancient Rome Chris Searre, Cambridge, 1995 | { i "HE PENGUIN HISTORICAL ATLAS OF ANCIENT ROME Contents Part I Part Ms Part IV: Foreword ty o Empire The Origins of Rome ‘The Unification of aly ‘The Wars with Carthage Rome’s Conquest ofthe Fast The Over-Mighty Generals Caesar's Conquest of Gal Grossing the Rubicon The Givil Wars Shades of the Departed ‘The Imperial Regime ‘The New Order The City of Rome under Augustus Claudius and the Conquest of Britain Nero and the Year of the Four Emperors The Western Provinces Three Western Cities \Vespasian and the Jewish War Trajan's Wars The Roman Army ‘The Imperial P Hadrian's Travels The Bastern Provinces Three Eastern Cities Writing and Literacy Trade and Transport The Roman Amphitheatre Roman Spain Guard ‘The Troubled Cer The Yeat of the Six Emperors TThe Parthian Wars 2 20 a 28 30 82 M 36 38 46 48 50 54 56 58 oo e 46 n a 6 8 8 86 88 96 98 Part V: The City of Rome under the Severans Mystery Gults Roman Africa Thee African Cities The Empire at Bay The West Breaks Away The Rise and Fall of Palmyra Restoration and Fall Diocletian and the Division of Power The iatianity Constantine the Great Technology and Engineering A Fragile Prosperity The Fal of The Inheritors spread of C! ‘Western Empire Kings, Dictators and Emperors Further Reading Index Credits and Acknowledgements 100 102 104 106 108 no ng 4 132 1a 136 1s 130 132 1M 136 138 159 vn