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Semiconductor Electronic Components

Semiconductor Electronic Components

Outline from Physics 520: Electronics Fengning Ding A. Junction Diodes 1. Consists of a P-type material and an N-type material joined together. 2. Between the P and N regions, the movement of holes and electrons create depletion region a. The N-side takes on positive charge, and the P-type takes negative charge b. Depletion stops when the barrier voltage repels further movements of electrons and holes i. 0.3 volts for germanium, 0.7 volts for silicon 3. When we apply bias voltage, if we make the N-side (Cathode) more negative than P-side (Anode), we get forward bias. a. The extra voltage causes the electrons that accumulated in anode side of depletion zone move away to the positive terminal. b. Once barrier voltage is exceeded and neutralized, diode can conduct current. c. Normally, diode resistance is very low, so main resistance of circuit is in the resistor. i. To calculate the current following, we must take the battery voltage, subtract the barrier voltage, and then divide by external resistance. 4. If the anode is made more negative than the cathode, we get reverse bias. a. The depletion zone increases b. Diode acts as open circuit. Only small leakage current or reverse current can flow. 5. Differences between silicon and germanium diodes: a. Silicon: higher barrier potential, lower leakage current b. Germanium: lower barrier potential, higher leakage current 6. Voltage-Current graph:

a. After barrier voltage exceeded, rapid increase in conduction. b. For reverse bias, after breakdown bias, back conduction occurs. This could damage diode by overheating it. 1

Semiconductor Electronic Components 7. Diode Ratings: a. Maximum forward current that diode can handle b. PIV (Peak Inverse voltage) or PRV (Peak-Reverse Voltage): the highest reverse voltage diode can safely handle 8. Temperature variation of diodes: Increased temperature lowers break down voltage and increase reverse current 9. Schematic diagram:

a. The horizontal bar is the cathode. Positive current flows along direction pointed by arrow for forward bias. B. Zener Diodes 1. Designed to handle reverse voltages. 2. When reverse biased, large change in current results in little voltage drop:

a. The rounded portion is called the knee. b. The breakdown voltage of the zener diode is called zener voltage. 3. Zener diodes have impedance for reverse currents, equal to . 4. Zener diode specification: a. Zener voltage and tolerance b. Maximum power dissipation i. Milliwatts to Watts ii. As temperature increases, the maximum power dissipation decreases c. Maximum zener current (Izm) (under reverse bias) d. Zener voltage temperature coefficient i. Positive means zener voltage increases with temperature. 2

Semiconductor Electronic Components 1. Usual for diodes with zener voltage of more than 5 volts. ii. Some have negative voltages iii. Possible to build temperature compensated zener diodes consisting of a forwardbiased junction diode (negative temperature coefficient) in series with reverse biased zener diode (positive temperature coefficient of same magnitude) 5. Function: Voltage regulation

a. The unstable input voltage create fluctuating current b. Since zener diode maintains an almost constant voltage drop even with large changes of current, the output is effectively stable. C. Bipolar Transistors 1. Two types: PNP and NPN: a. Three leads: Emitter, base, and collector. i. Base is much thinner than emitter and collector b. Voltage is applied at emitter, base, and collector. i. Biasing: the emitter-base junction must be forward biased, and the collector-base junction must be reverse biased! 2. Amplification: a. Current flows into emitter and, with little resistance, into the base. Since the base is so thin, the electrons over flow into the collector, with very little current coming out of the base. b. When resistor is place in series with the collector lead, since the resistance of collector-base junction is so large (due to reverse bias), the extra resistor will not significantly lower the current. We can take voltage drop across that resistor. c. An external DC voltage is needed to properly bias the components. 3. Common Base:

a. The base is common to both branches of circuit. b. This magnifies voltage.

Semiconductor Electronic Components c. We can define current gain alpha (less than 1) as the ratio of output current (current from collector) to input. 4. Common Emitter:

a. The battery from both branches is directly connected to emitter. b. This circuit magnifies power. c. The output signal is 180 degrees out-of-phase. 5. Common Collector (or Emitter follower):

a. The batteries are directly connected to the collector. b. Primarily used to magnify input. 6. Transistor Ratings: a. Collector breakdown voltage: the break down voltage of collector-base junction. b. Emitter breakdown voltage: breakdown voltage of emitter-base junction c. Maximum collector dissipation: Since most power is dissipated as heat in collector junction (it is reverse biased), this number gives the maximum safe value. 7. Schematic: a. The arrow indicates the emitter, the bar represents the base b. For NPN, the arrow points out (Never Points iN). For PNP, the arrow points in (Points iN Permanently) D. Field Effect Transistors

Semiconductor Electronic Components 1. Two types: Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET), and Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor (IGFET) or Metal-oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). 2. Junction Field-Effect Transistors: operates in depletion mode 3. Construction: a. Made of a substrate (P or N) within which an oppositely-doped region is formed to form a Ushaped P-N Junction (Channel)

b. Specified as P-channel or N-channel JFET c. Three terminals: Source, Drain, Channel. In most JFETS, the source and drain are identical. 4. Two bias voltages: one between source and drain to force current to flow through channel, and one between gate and source to control amount of current flowing a. For an N-channel JFET, the drain-to-source voltage is applied so the source would be more negative than the drain. Current flows since the voltage forces the electrons in the N-channel to flow from source to the drain. This is called drain current, I_D. b. The gate-to-source voltage is chosen so the P-type gate is more negative than the N-type source. This reverse biases the PN Junction of the gate and the channel. As the gate-to-source voltage is increased, the depletion zone increases, and less drain current flows c. The gate-to-source voltage is the input, and the drain current is the output d. When the gate-to-source voltage is increased past a certain point, the channel is depleted of majority carriers, so practically no drain current flows. This voltage is called gate-to-source cutoff voltage e. As the drain to source voltage increases, the drain current increases, but the depletion zone in channel also increases. When the drain-source voltage exceeds the pinch-off voltage, drain current no longer increases. The pinch-off voltage usually equals the gate-source cutoff voltage. 5. Transconductance: defined as drain current divided by gate-source voltage when drain-source voltage is held constant. This measures amplification ability. 6. Schematic Symbol:

Semiconductor Electronic Components

7. Insulated-Gate FET: operates in depletion mode or enhancement-mode 8. Depletion mode Devices: a. Construction:

i. N-type channel is implanted in P-type substrate ii. A metal gate is placed on top of n-type channel, with a layer of silicon dioxide for insulation iii. Gate can deplete N-channel of majority carriers when bias is applied b. Operation: i. Similar bias voltage as JFET must be applied: the source must be more negative than drain, and the drain current is controlled by the gate-source voltage. When gate-source voltage I zero, lots of current flows. If gate is made more negative than source, less current flows. ii. Key Difference: We are allowed to make gate more positive than source. This boosts drain current. iii. Normally-on since when gate-source voltage is zero, IGFET conducts. c. Schematic Diagram:

Semiconductor Electronic Components

9. Enhancement mode: a. normally off-When gate-source voltage is zero, no current flows b. Conducting material is not embedded inside material, and source and drain are separated c. Biasing: drain must be more positive than source. When no gate voltage, no current conducts since the source and drain are separated. When gate is made more positive than source, the electrons are drawn towards the gate in the substrate, creating an N-type channel, allowing voltage to flow d. Gate-Source voltage must be above certain threshold (more than 1 V) before N-type channel can conduct. This is noise-immunity, preventing small input from triggering the IGFET e. When gate is made more negative than source, nothing happens. f. Schematic:

i. Only difference between depletion mode: the line connecting drain, source, and body is segmented instead of connected. E. Silicon controlled Rectifiers (SCR) 1. Along with Bi-Directional Triode Thyristors and Unijunction Transistor, an example of thyristora devise that act like electronically controlled switches 2. Consists of three junctions, four alternatively doped layers, and can conduct in only one direction. a. Leads attached to three layers. Leads are called anode, gate, and cathode

Semiconductor Electronic Components

b. We can also consider as two transistors:

3. Operation: a. Bias: the anode is made more positive than cathode. If there is no voltage at the gate, no current conducts since the emitter junction of Q2 is not forward biased. Of course, when the voltage is big enough (larger than the forward breakover voltage), the element will conduct. b. If the gate is made more positive than cathode, Q2 starts to conduct since the emitter-junction of Q2 is forward biased. More technically, the gate voltage will lower the forward breakover voltage. c. Key: This forces base current through Q1, allowing Q1 to conduct. But then, current will flow into the base of Q2, allowing it to continue conducting, even if the gate voltage is removed!! The minimal current flowing through anode to cathode required to maintain this loop is called the holding current. d. To turn off the SCR again, we must reduce the anode-cathode voltage to almost zero. e. The SCR will conduct only a small current if the anode was made more negative than cathode. The SCR will have a reverse breakdown voltage. When this voltage is exceeded, damage could occur. f. For an SCR to be most effective, we must not apply gate voltage constantly, but in pulses. 4. Applications: control the DC and AC power to various loads. F. Bi-Directional Triode Thyristors 1. Also known as a triac 2. Same switching characteristics as SCR, but can control current in both directions (current can flow from cathode to anode or from anode to cathode) 3. Gate voltage can be more negative or more positive than Main Terminal (MT) 1 4. Equivalent to two SCR in parallel in opposite directions, with a common gate voltage 5. Disadvantages compared to SCR: less different ratings available 6. Schematic: 8

Semiconductor Electronic Components

7. Applications: Controlling AC current G. Unijunction Transistors 1. Transistor used as a switch 2. Consists of a block of lightly doped N-type material, in which a small pellet of P-type material is fused. It has only one junction. a. High resistance b. Diagram:



Operation a. B2 is more positive than B1 (Voltage V_BB). The Emitter is more positive than B1 (Voltage V_E). b. If the emitter-B1 voltage is not large enough, the P-N junction still has a barrier voltage, allowing little current to pass through B1 and B2. c. Intrinsic standoff ratio (eta) is the ratio of V_B1 to V_BB, and it equals the ratio of R_B1 to R_B1+R_B2. d. When V_E>eta(V_BB)+V_F, the diode will start to conduct. A current I_E through the emitter starts to flow starts to flow. e. UJT exhibits negative resistance for a certain interval.: when the current I_E increases, the voltage V_E decreases. Applications: generation of repetitive signals (UJT relaxation oscillator)

Semiconductor Electronic Components



Programmable UJT (UJT): Has anode, gate, and cathode. It is constructed out of four layers, and the peak voltage V_P can be controlled. The PUT has a cathode, anode, and gate. The anode and cathode are the same as emitter and Base 1 of UJT. The V_P is controlled by varying gatecathode voltage. PUT is turned on when voltage across anode and cathode exceed voltage across gate and cathode by 0.7 volts.