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The Role of Human Resource Management

1. Is human resource just a frill? No, human resource is not just a frill. People constitutes an organizations most important and vital factor in its success and failures. The main concept that underlies the practice of human resource management is that human beings are the most important and critical resource and asset in the growth and development of an organization. Both the individuals and organization interact with one another, each having its set of but goals, needs, perceptions and culture but both influencing each other to promote their ends.

2. Are human resources management costs to be considered an expense or an investment?

3. Is human resources management limited to the accomplishment of an organizational goals or should it encompass societys goals? The role of human resource takes place a number of forms: role, the auditors role, the executive, the facilitator role, the consultant role and the service provider role. Human resource objective should be in alignment with the organizational objectives, and should balance them with the individual and social or societys goals. 4. Must human resource department take an active role in the organizations planning of human resource?

5. How can the human resource department be made functional in the entire organization?

1. Organizational Structure 1. Is the human resource department line or staff?

The human resource department performs both line and staff authorities or functions. 2. How can the human resource development be made functional in the entire organization? The human resource department is tasked with specific functions to carry out its objectives. The human resource department performs five functions for other departments, job organization and information, acquisition, maintenance, development of personnel and research of human resources. . 3. How can the human resources development be specifically positioned within the organization? The human resources department, in general, is flat with two to four levels in the organizational structure. It becomes wider as the number of services it offers increases. 4. Should be human resource department be a separate distinct unit or should it be grouped under other department such as the administration department? In some organizations, the human resource development is subsumed in another department or it may be a separate department by itself. Formation or establishment of a separate Human resource Human Resource Department, is determined by the size of organizational population, philosophy of the management, organizational emphasis and financial resources. 5. Should the human decentralized? resource department be centralized or

The human resource department be centralized. The more functions the human resources department is tasked with, the greater the number of services offered and bigger staff needed to carry them out. Thus, more sections and units are created for for proper delineation and carrying out of responsibilities and for task specification. The human resource department, in this instance, becomes wide in structure. 6. Should the human resource department be placed at the same level in the organizational structure as the other department?

The study indicated that he biggest percentage oforganizations follow the scheme in which the human resources department was placed under or integrated with administration. This is not surprising since the traditional personnel function like records keeping, personnel recruitment, screening, evaluation, wage and salary administration and industrial relations have been implemented in administration department. In most professional organizations, the role of human resources department is not sidelined or eclipsed by other department. In fact, good human resources can be most valued and respected in an organization; their job is people and the companys most important asset.

7. Must a personnel/HRD exist in every company? The existence of human resources department is vital to overall productivity and efficiency of the strong workforce in any thriving company.

3. Functions of Human Resources Management 1. How can job design, job analysis (job description and job be made specification) job evaluation be made viable, less cumbersome to evolve and less financially unwieldy to many organizations? The values derived from job description and job specifications outweigh the cost, time and effort in preparing them. Job design determines the number of, place and order in which tasks are to be performed and the amount of authority involved. Job evaluation or the costing of each job is based on the data contained in the job description and job specification. It is a very highly specialized, tedious and complicated process the output of which assists the organization in devising an equitable pay system.

2. Should we include in the list duties in the job description: the classic clause any other related duties assigned? Yes, there are some companies included in the list of duties in the job description, the classic clause any other related duties assigned. However, the employer or management should abuse this. Now a days, the Civil Service law and rules recommended not to include this clause to eradicate abuse on the part of the management. In countries where unionism is strong, union members do not accept the inclusion of this clause in their job descriptions. 3. What should be included in the list of duties in the job description: those duties that the employee actually doing or those that should be performed? . 4. Should the labor union be involved in the job evaluation process?

5. Should job evaluation results be made public or should they be kept confidential? The result of the job evaluation should be kept confidential. 6. Does the existence of job description and specification ensure the efficiency and effectivity of employees. Yes, the existence of job description and specification ensure the efficiency and effectivity of the employees. This phase consists of the determination of the duties, responsibilities, working conditions and working relationships of and between jobs and the qualifications of the employee who should man each job. 7. Can job evaluation be performed by officers that do not have technical expertise to do one? Given the time constraint, is it justifiable to take a short cut and rely primarily on subjective evaluation?

. 4. Acquisition of Human Resources 1. How do we cope with influential and powerful individuals who recommend job applicants t by and not fitted for our organizations? A good Human Resources Planning (HRP) can be a helpful guide in handling difficulty in so called political referral. Through HRP, the human resource personnel will be directed towards identifying objectives and plans of the organization, project manpower requirements of plans, surveying of existing human resources, projecting available manpower resources and determining overstaffing and understaffing levels. Given this situation, we would tell the influential and powerful individual that the person he is recommending is not fitted to the specific vacant position, but we will do it in a diplomatic manner.

2. Should nepotism be accepted in the Philippines work setting? or Practice of appointing relatives and friends in one's organization must NOT be allowed in the Philippine work setting for the reason that its negative effects outweigh it positive outcome. Most work has assumed that nepotism will always lead to decreased employee satisfaction and commitment as a result of experienced favoritism and inequity. Consequently, its prohibition is exhibited under Philippine law anti-nepotism act. Hiring family members or relatives is commonly done by familyowned business or firm and may be hiring employees who do not merit the positions. The Civil Service Law of the Philippines prohibits employment of relative within the third degree. However, this practice of nepotism insures the interest and loyalty of hired employees to the organization. 3. Is equal opportunity employment in terms of gender, creed, and socio-economic status applied in the Philippines? No, it is not applied nor manifested in the real sense since applicants feel obliged to comply to the tradition to indicate in their BioData their gender, age, nationality and religion. Contrary to what is mandated by law, in connection with the national program of Equal
Nepotism

Opportunity Employment, this information may be prejudicial to the application. Only when the applicant is hired, does he furnish the organization such information which is also needed by the government offices. Equal opportunity in employment includes several areas; legislation, hiring of minorities and the handicapped and discrimination n against women. However, in the Philippine setting, equal opportunity employment in terms of gender, creed, and socio-economic status is evidently did not apply despite of legal actions initiated by the government. 4. Should applicant testing and screening be contracted out or it be inhouse? In-house or internal testing and screening of applicants is viable to most organizations. In-house screening promotes person-to-person relationship, gathers first-hand information about the applicant and it is less costly than external screening.

5. In screening job applicants, should the role of the Human Resources Department be limited only, to furnishing test results and their interpretation? No, HRD role is not limited only in furnishing job applicants screening results and their interpretations. It is a process that has to undergo phases in order to arrive to its desired result. The first phase includes screening applicants curriculum vitae to provide socio demographic profile; second phase, in-depth interview about the applicants trait, habits and lifestyle which may affect his job; final phase, interviews with HRD manager and the head of the department that has requisitioned for an employee. In screening job applicants, there are varied roles of the Human Resource Department to be performed such as the job organization and information, acquisition, maintenance, development and research on human resources. The human resource department is wide in structure. 6. Does hiring a relative regardless of his/her qualifications necessarily constitute nepotism?

Yes, hiring a relative in spite of his/her qualifications is a sign of nepotism. Since one of the important function of human resource acquisition is ensuring quality employees. Nepotism defies this objective which eventually leads to unprofitable results. In hiring a relative applicant regardless of his/her qualifications is considered as nepotism. Nepotism is not allowed in the government service. 7. Are acquisition practices commonly done in the discriminatory with respect to gender, religion, or race? Philippines

Yes, as it is evident in every applicants bio data the necessity to write its gender, nationality and even religion. It is an indication that Filipinos have gender, nationality and religion preferences. Before , discriminating with respect to gender, religion or race is very rampant in the government and even in the private sector. There is no place specially the third minority people. But now, it is eliminated by the government and private sector to give chance and to develop the skills of the discriminated people.

5. Maintenance of Human Resources 1. Does money motivate? Yes, basically money really motivates a person. Motivation is predicated on the needs and values of an individual that direct behavior towards goals. 2. Are there biases taken by Filipino organizations against women for promotion and transfer? Yes. In spite of the increase in the number of women in the workforce, there is more that needs to be done particularly on the question of salary inequalities and promotions and transfer to managerial positions. Despite legal actions initiated by militant women, salary discrimination against women continues. Discrimination in the area of management promotions are all evident. Barriers include hiring biases, policies, procedures and systems which prevent womens rise in management. 3. Which evaluation ratings of workers should organizations use: superior, subordinate, peer group, self?

If evaluation ratings of workers is limited only to the superior or subordinate or peer or self, most likely the information gathered is inadequate. Preferably the four types of raters should be applied since each group has unique contribution in the evaluation process. The more raters doing the evaluation, the more accurate information becomes. An organization shall use superior or supervisor, the subordinate, peer group and the self evaluation ratings of a certain workers. These four evaluation ratings have their corresponding percentage in determining the points earned. 4. Should performance evaluation rating supersede the ratings of all other employee dimensions? Yes, since performance evaluation rating is the aggregate of an employees physical, intellectual, moral contribution in the attainment of the organizations objective. The performance evaluation ratings supersede with the ratings of all other employee dimensions. An employees rating performance is the evaluation of his or her actual accomplishment. 5.How often should performance appraisal be conducted? Practically, the performance appraisal is conducted once or twice a calendar year, the six to eleven months gap provides sufficient time allowance for the rater to evaluate the compound performance of the employee. 6.Should demotion be a means of discipline for incapable workers? Disciplining a worker by demoting him may not necessarily correct. His poor work habits. On the other hand it may reoccur. Some organizations prefer to discharge him outright. In the Philippines demotion in pay is not legally allowed although task and responsibility are decreased for reasons of inadequate performance, age, health and work force reduction. 7.Should our organizations consider seriously non-financial compensation for Filipino workers? If so, what non-financial program can be set up? Yes, Filipino workers have the right to enjoy any available compensation that he/she deserves. Such as non-financial compensation like providing parking space for company employees and secretaries that can help accomplish tasks more speedily.

Our organization today consider non-financial compensation for Filipino workers. Maintenance is the supportive action program that encourages continuance and stability of the organization. It includes orientation, physical working conditions, motivation, compensation administration, performance evaluation, management-labor relations and movement. 8. How can pay be equitable to all staff and workers? The involvement of the entire staff through their representatives insures the cooperation and acceptance by the entire work force of the equitability of such compensation 9. Should pay information be secret or open? Pay information should be secret. A decision has to be made on the extent of secrecy or openness information on pay is kept. 10. Can and should we use the cafeteria style of awarding benefits? Yes, we can use the cafeteria style of awarding benefits. The cafeteria style of compensation which allows the workers to select (turo-turo or pointing style) the type of reward has been preferred without considering whether they need it. A display of rewards with option to select is realistic appreciation of the expectancy model, the rationale being that workers are more highly motivated because rewards selected meet needs. This arrangement can make maintenance items motivator. 11. Should retirement be forced or optional? Retirement is optional basis. However if an employee reached at the age of 65 years old, this is already considered as forced retirement.

12. How often should performance appraisal be conducted? Practically, the performance appraisal is conducted once or twice a calendar year, the six to eleven months gap provides sufficient time allowance for the rater to evaluate the compound performance of the employee. . 13. Should the Philippine government be a party in management-labor relations or should management and labor be left to interface and settle their disputes by themselves?

Management- labor relations has been more an area of conflict than harmony in the last two decades of Philippine business and industry history. The interaction between the two primary groups may be harmonized in spite of difference in interests if both truly realize and internalize their superordinate goal and that no one group can substitute the other; both compliment and supplement the other. 14. Are labor unions in the Philippines professional in the management of their programs and projects?

15. Should there be a strike ban when a developing country is faced with political and economic problems? Yes, there be a strike ban when a developing country is faced with political and economic problems. Concepcion also proposed the implementation of the strike ban in at least one export processing zone in the country. 16. In management-labor conflict, should the human resources manager side with management or with labor? . 17. Should there be a strike ban when a developing country is faced with political and economic problems? Yes, there be a strike ban when a developing country is faced with political and economic problems. Concepcion also proposed the implementation of the strike ban in at least one export processing zone in the country. 18. Should all information or activities of the company be made known to the labor union?

19. Should all information about an employee be transmitted by a reference organization to a work organization where he is applying for a job? Yes, all information about an employee be transmitted by a reference organization to a work organization where he is applying for a job.

6. Development of Human Resources 1. Is a training program necessary in every organization?

2. Is training that is not evaluated in terms of employee results a useless program? Training runs its full cycle hen its results or effects are evaluated. Because of the tremendous training costs, the program has to be evaluated in terms of change in the trainees behavior and performance in the work setting. Evaluation of such program is a very difficult task due to problems in the process of empirical verification. 3. Is career planning applicable in the Philippines? Yes, Career planning is a joint endeavor by the individual and management to course work path along which he moves toward greater personal and job growth and responsibility. The process serves as a motivation for him to do and assures him that there are avenues for his growth and development depending on his capability and interest. 4. Is counseling a necessary program in the Philippines? Due to the preventive nature of counseling in the work setting, counseling service considered under the development program. It aims to assist employees to learn from their problems and grow in maturity and responsibility. 5. Is research a viable function of human resources management? Human resources research poses more difficulty and frustrations than many other types of research in the natural and physical sciences. The human factor is extremely hard to delimit. It is unlikely, and probably undesirable, that human beings will be completely predictable in their behavior.