Sei sulla pagina 1di 608

EXCAVATIONS AT TALL JAWA, JORDAN

CULTURE AND HISTORY OF


THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST
EDITED BY
B. HALPERN, M. H. E. WEIPPERT
TH. P.J. VAN DEN HOUT, I. WINTER
VOLUME 11/1
EXCAVATIONS AT TALL JAWA, JORDAN
Volume I: The Iron Age Town
BY
P.M. MICHLE DAVIAU
WITH CONTRIBUTIONS BY
PAULEUGNE DION, RONALD G.V. HANCOCK,
DAVID HEMSWORTH, MARGARET A. JUDD &
RYAN DEFONZO, DOUGLAS W. SCHNURRENBERGER
BRILL
LEIDEN

BOSTON
2003
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Daviau. P.M. Michle.
Excavations at Tall Jawa, Jordan / by P.M. Michle Daviau ; with contributions by
Paul-Eugne Dion ... [et al.].
p. cm. (Culture and history of the ancient Near East, ISSN 1566-2055 ; v. 11/2)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents: v.2. The Iron Age artefacts
ISBN 9004123636 (alk. paper)
1. Jawa, Tall (Amman, Jordan) 2. Excavations (Archaeology)JordanJawa, Tall
(Amman) 3. Iron ageJordanJawa, Tall (Amman) I. Dion, Paul-Eugne, 1934II.
Title. III. Series.
DS159.9.J39 D39 2001
933dc21 2001052810
Die Deutsche Bibliothek CIP-Einheitsaufnahme
Daviau. Paulette M. Michle:
Excavations at Tall Jawa, Jordan / by P.M. Michle Daviau. With contributions by Paul-Eugne
Dion ..... Leiden ; Boston ; Kln : Brill
Vol. 2 The iron age artefacts. 2002
(Culture and history of the ancient Near East ; Vol. 11)
ISBN 90-04-12363-6
ISSN 1566-2055
ISBN 90 04 13012 8
Copyright 2003 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored
in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
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to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive,
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Fees are subject to change.
printed in the netherlands
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Excavation Team Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii
List of Tables and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxxiii
List of Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvii
r\n+ oxr. o\rn\irv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Chapter 1. The Site and its Regional Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Location and Identication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Previous Exploration in Central Transjordan . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Recent Exploration by the Madaba Plains Project . . . . . . 8
Site Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Topography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Chapter 2. Excavation Project and Recording Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
The Tall Jawa Excavation Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Excavation Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Field Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Material Culture Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Using this Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Chapter 3. Preliminary Geological Overview of Tall Jawa
(by Douglas W. Schnurrenberger) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Regional Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Local Bedrock Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Quaternary Sediments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\i +\nrr or cox+rx+s
r\n+ +vo. s+n\+ion\rnic rxc\\\+ioxs \+ +\rr \v\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Chapter 4. Evidence for an Iron Age I Settlement. Field A:
The Deep Sounding (1989) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
History of Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Stratum X The Deep Sounding Building 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Pottery and Artefacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Collared-rim Pithoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Cooking Pots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Kraters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Bowls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Storejars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Jugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Painted Pottery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
The Nature of the Iron I Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Chapter 5. The Fortication Walls and Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
History of Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Stratigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Stratum IX The Offset/Inset Solid Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Field E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
North Wall 3006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Glacis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Retaining Wall 3023 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Passageway 309 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Field B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
West Wall 2023 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Tower 2024 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Guardroom 221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Passageway 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Fields BA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
South Wall 2009+W1003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Glacis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Retaining Wall 1001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
End of Stratum IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
+\nrr or cox+rx+s \ii
Stratum VIIIB The Casemate Wall System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Field E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Outer Wall 3006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Inner Casemate Wall 3000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Casemate Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Room 301 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Field B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Outer West Wall 3050=2023+2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Drain B24:24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
The Western Casemate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Inner West Wall 2004=2029 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Inner South Wall
2001+2006=1030+1020 78
Channel 218 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Comparanda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Fields BA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Inner Casemate Wall 2006=1030+1020 . . . . . . . . . 82
Casemate Room 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Destruction of Stratum VIIIBFields E, B,
and A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Stratum VIIIA Reconstruction of the Casemate System . . . . . 85
Field E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Room 301 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Room 311 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Room 310 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Field B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Inner Wall 2001+2000 and 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Casemate Room 210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Tower 2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Field A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Inner Casemate Wall 1004+1010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Casemate Rooms 101, 200 and 201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Destruction of Stratum VIIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Stratum VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Field C-West and C-East . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Fortication Walls in C-west . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Stratum IX Offset/inset Solid Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
The Lower Retaining Wall in Field C-east . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Flanking Walls 9007+9008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Inner Wall 9007 and Wall 9010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
\iii +\nrr or cox+rx+s
Pottery and Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Summary: Characteristics and Parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
The Solid/Outer Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Inner Wall and Casemate Room Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Total Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
The Persian Burial (by Margaret A. Judd and Ryan
Defonzo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
The Archaeological Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
The Adult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Dental Inventory and Palaeopathology . . . . . . 110
The Child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Taphonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Persian Burials in the Levant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
References for the Excursus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Chapter 6. The Iron Age II Town. Fields A+B: Buildings 102,
113, 100, 200 and 204 (19891995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Building 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
History of Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Building Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Doorways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Stratigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Stratum IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Room 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 128
Room 214 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Stratum VIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Room 110 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Room 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Room 217 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Room 214 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 134
Room 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
+\nrr or cox+rx+s ix
Room 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Room 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Room 204 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Room 216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Building 113 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
History of Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Building Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Doorways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Stratigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Stratum VIIIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Casemate Room 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Room 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Room 126 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 149
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Room 127 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Stratum VIIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Room 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Room 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Oven A14:25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Room 112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Room 107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Building 100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
History of Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Room 122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Room 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Room 202/222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Oven B63:40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Oven B63:37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Oven B63:36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Oven B63:32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Oven B63:29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Oven B63:30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Room 225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
x +\nrr or cox+rx+s
Stratum VIIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Room 202 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
The End of Iron Age Occupation in Field AB . . . . . . . . . 174
Strata VIIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Stratum I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Field B Building 200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
History of Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Building Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Doorways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Stratigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Stratum VIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Construction and Use of Building 200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Room 212 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
The Ovens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 189
Casemate Room 213 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Casemate Room 215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Room 209 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 193
Room 220 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Room 208 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Room 207 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 196
Work Area 211 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Building 204 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Excavation History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Building Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Stratigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Pottery and Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Chapter 7. Field E: The Domestic Complex (19921995).
Building 300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
History of Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Stratum IX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
The Fortication System and earliest Occupation . . . . . . 208
+\nrr or cox+rx+s xi
Stratum VIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Building Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Doorways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Stratigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Stratum VIIIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
The Western Unit: Rooms 303, 304, 305, 315, 318 . . . . 216
Room 303 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Pottery and Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Room 305 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Pottery and Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Room 315 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Room 304 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Room 318 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
The Central Unit: Rooms 302, 306, 320 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Room 302 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Room 306 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Room 320 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
The Central CourtyardR308+324 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Courtyard 308/324 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Room 326 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Room 321 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
The Eastern Unit: Rooms 312, 313, 314, 317, 327 . . . . . 242
Room 312 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Room 313 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Room 314 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Room 317 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Room 323 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Stratum VIIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
The Western Unit: Rooms 303, 304, 305, 315, 316,
318, 319 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Room 303 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Room 304 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Room 305 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Room 315 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Room 316 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Room 319 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
xii +\nrr or cox+rx+s
Room 318 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey/Roof 263
Room 322 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
The Central Unit: Rooms 302, 306, 307, Cistern
E64:13, Cistern Area 308+ 324, Room 326 . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Room 302 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Room 306 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Cistern E64:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
The Cistern Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Room 324 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Room 308 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Room 307 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Pottery and Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Room 326+321 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
The Eastern Unit: Rooms 312+321, 313, 314+327 . . . 282
Room 312 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Rooms 314+327, 325 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Stratum VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Stratum III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Stratum I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Chapter 8. Fields C-West And D: The Pillared Houses.
Buildings 800 and 700 (19911995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
History of Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Building Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Doorways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
The Staircases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Stratigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Stratum VIIBVIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Construction and Use of Building 800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
The Northern Unit: Rooms 811812, 810, 808, 809 . . . 300
Room 811812 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Destruction Debris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Room 812 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
+\nrr or cox+rx+s xiii
Room 808 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Corridor 810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Room 809Stratum VIIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Room 809Stratum VIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey 312
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
The Central Unit: Rooms 804, 806, 807 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Room 807 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey 315
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Room 804 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Stratum VIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
The Twin Ovens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
East OvenC27:63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
West OvenC27:68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Storage Area West of Oven C27:68 . . . . . . . . . . 326
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 327
Evidence for Final Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Room 806 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
The Southern Unit: Rooms 802, 803, 805 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Room 805 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 333
Evidence for Final Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Room 803 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 336
Room 802 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 340
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Specialized Finds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Evidence for Final Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Formation of the Archaeological Record in Building
800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Building 700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
History of Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Building Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Doorways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Lintels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
xi\ +\nrr or cox+rx+s
Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Staircase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Stratigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Stratum VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Rooms with Undisturbed Stratum VII Occupation . . . . 353
Room 714 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Rooms along the South Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Room 712 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 359
Room 718 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Room 713 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 362
Evidence for Iron Age Remains in the Remodelled
Rooms of B700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Room 715 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Room 707 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Room 716 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Cistern D15:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Chapter 9. Field C-East: Gate Building and Domestic Quarter
(19921995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
History of Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Building 910905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Building Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Doorways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Stratigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Stratum VIIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Gate Building 910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Construction and Use of Building 910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
The Western Unit and Central Roadway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Central Roadway 915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Stratum VIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Building 905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
The Western Unit: Rooms 906908 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Room 906 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Room 907 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 390
+\nrr or cox+rx+s x\
Excursus: TJ Burial 4The Skeletal Remains
(by Margaret A. Judd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Room 908 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 392
Destruction in Building 905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
The Central Unit: Rooms 909913 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Room 909 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 396
Room 910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Working PlatformC75:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Hearth C75:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Room 911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Room 913 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Room 912 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Building 900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Building Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Doorways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Stratum VIIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Construction and use of Building 900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Room 901 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Oven C54:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Room 903 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Stratum VIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Room 901 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Room 903 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Room 904 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
Room 902 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey . . . . . . . . 414
Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Excursus: TJ Burial 1The Skeletal Remains
(by Margaret A. Judd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
References for the Excursus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
x\i +\nrr or cox+rx+s
r\n+ +nnrr. ntirnixo +n\ni+ioxs \xn \ncni+rc+tn\r rr\+tnrs 421
Chapter 10. Building Materials, Construction Techniques and
Architectural Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Building Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Limestone and Chert Boulders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Bedrock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Mud Brick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Construction Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Boulder-and-Chink Wall Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
The Fortication Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
House Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Pillared Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Wall Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Surfacing Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Building Plans and Room Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Room Size and Roofed Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Room Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Staircases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Ceiling Material and Roof Rollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Roof Rollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Type A. Roof Rollers with Depressions . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Type B. Roof Rollers without Depressions . . . . . . . . . 442
Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Architectural Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Socket Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Criteria and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Lintels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
+\nrr or cox+rx+s x\ii
Pillar Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Criteria and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Benches/Shelves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Domestic and Industrial Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Stone Troughs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Large Shallow Basins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Parallels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Boulder Mortars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Chapter 11. Elemental Analysis of Local Limestone and
Prepared Plaster Samples (by Ronald G.V. Hancock) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Roof Roller (TJ 381) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Prepared Plasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
r\n+ rotn. sr++rrxrx+ nis+onv \xn cnnoxoroov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Chapter 12. Settlement History at Tall Jawa:
Chronological Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Iron Age I (Stratum X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Iron Age II (Strata IXVII) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Early Iron Age II (Stratum IX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Stratum VIIIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Stratum VIIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Stratum VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Stratum VIIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Stratum VIIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Chapter 13. The Ammonites: A Historical Sketch (by
Paul-Eugne Dion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
x\iii +\nrr or cox+rx+s
AmmonitesThe Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Second Millennium Attestations? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Ammonites in Neo-Assyrian and Later Cuneiform
Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Ammonites in Ammonite Epigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
The Biblical Names for the Ammonites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
#ammn or #amm an?The Greek Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
The Ammonite Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Approximative Delimitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
The Ammonite Territory According to the
Literary Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Archaeological Pointers to the Extent of the
Ammonite Territory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
Find Spots of Ammonite Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
Find Spots of Distinctive Aramaic Artefacts . . . . . . . 488
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
The Character of the Ammonite Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Chronological Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Late Bronze Age Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Emergence of the b en #Ammn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
The LaBianca-Younker Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
The Jephthah Narrative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
Sauls Rescue of Jabesh-Gilead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Israelite Domination? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
The Independent Ammonite Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
When Did the Children of Ammon Recover
Their Independence? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
The Ammonites and Their Neighbours before
the Assyrian Takeover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
The Ammonites under Assyrian Overlordship . . . . . . . . . . 504

Sanipu, Servant of Tiglath-pileser III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504


Assyrian Protection and Its Price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Ammonite Prosperity under Assyrian Rule . . . . . . . . 507
The Ruling Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
Aramaization and Its Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
The Ammonites and Babylon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
Baalis, the Last King of the Ammonites . . . . . . . . . 509
+\nrr or cox+rx+s xix
Assyria Loses Its Grip on Palestine and
Transjordan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
Baalis Resists the Babylonian Invasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Nebukadnezzar Puts an End to the Ammonite
Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
r\n+ ri\r. xtr+ixrni\ rnoon\xxr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Chapter 14. The Tall Jawa Multimedia Information System
(by David Hemsworth) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
The Locus Summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
The Multimedia System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Overview of the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
The Tall Jawa Information System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
Database Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
Record Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
Artefact Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Full Image Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Searching the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
Uninstalling the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Wall Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
Geographic and Ethnic Name Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
CD-ROMIron Age Multimedia Programme including eld photo-
graphs of the site, individual buildings, rooms, features, pottery and
artefacts, and construction details, accompanied by a database of the
photographs. Additional data consists of a list of loci and locus sheets.
This page intentionally left blank
PREFACE
In 1914, Frederick Kenyon expressed the intention of the Trustees of
the British Museum to publish the rst of several volumes concerning
the nds and excavations initiated under their auspices at Carchemish
in 1911. This promptly published report was not intended as a nal
synthesis but as a presentation of material for discussion and research
on the part of scholars and students (Hogarth 1914: Preface). Although
several important excavations in Palestine in subsequent years were
quickly reported, such as #Ain Shems by Grant (1932), and Hazor by
Yadin and his staff (1958 and 1960), this has hardly been the norm for
more recent multi-disciplinary projects. The long delays in publication
may be directly related to increasing complexity within the discipline
itself and the trend toward quantitative analysis of data drawn from
large samples.
Somewhere in between the simple presentation of nds with mea-
gre documentation and the sophisticated statistical analyses of compre-
hensive data sets, there should be room for a nal excavation report
that communicates detailed excavation information and complete doc-
umentation while allowing for further analyses in subsequent studies.
Such a conception seems to be reected in the reports of the excava-
tions at Tel Michal and Gezer in Israel, and at Tall al-#Umayri in Jor-
dan.
1
The Madaba Plains Project, currently working at Tall al-#Umayri
and Jalul, publishes seasonal reports that present the results of their
excavation and of their documentation of new sites within the MPP
Hinterland Survey Area. Each annual report is accompanied by exten-
sive illustration of the architecture and of ceramic remains. Included in
each volume are subsequent studies and reports by specialists involved
in this interdisciplinary project. Because it was the good fortune of this
writer to excavate at Tall al-#Umayri in 1987 and to serve as Field
1
For Tel Michal, see Herzog, Rapp and Negbi (1989). In the cases of Gezer and
Tall al-#Umayri, the seasonal reports are part of multi-volume series, and only one from
each site is listed here as an example of prompt publication: Dever, Lance and Wright
(1974); and Geraty, Herr, LaBianca and Younker (1989).
xxii rnrr\cr
Supervisor and then Director during the rst two seasons of excava-
tions at Tall Jawa (1989, 1991), under the auspices of the Madaba
Plains Project, she is now committed to continuing their tradition of
prompt publication.
This book is one of ve volumes, which present the results of all
six seasons of excavation at Tall Jawa (1989, 19911995). Volume II
consists of a functional and typological study of the Iron Age arte-
facts (Daviau 2002), Volume III includes the technological and typo-
logical analysis of the Iron Age pottery (Daviau, in preparation), and
Volume IV is the report on the Umayyad house in Field D, includ-
ing details of the architecture, decoration (painted plaster and mosaic
oors), glass, early Islamic pottery and artefacts (Daviau and Tempest,
in preparation). In Volume V, there will be a report on the results of the
1989 MPP Survey, along with survey and salvage work by the Tall Jawa
team in subsequent years (Batteneld, in preparation). Additional anal-
ysis of faunal remains, the lithics and ethnographic studies will be in
this same volume. In each volume, there are specialist reports, although
these volumes are not intended to be exhaustive. The material pre-
sented in this volume is a complete description and illustration of the
major Iron Age structures, their architectural features and stratigraphy,
along with a synthesis of the settlement history and chronology.
Initially begun as a Hinterland Excavation of the Madaba Plains
Project under the direction of Randall Younker, the preliminary report
of the rst season of the excavation of Tall Jawa (1989) was included in
the larger Madaba Plains Project report in the Annual of the Department
of Antiquities of Jordan (Herr et al. 1991), in the Andrews University Sem-
inary Studies (Younker et al. 1990), and in Preliminary Excavation Reports:
Sardis, Bir Umm Fawakhir, Tell el-#Umeiri, The Combined Caesarea Expeditions,
and Tell Dothan (LaBianca 1995). Beginning with the 1991 season, pre-
liminary reports appeared in Echos du monde classique / Classical Views
(Daviau 1992a), as well as in the Annual of the Department of Antiquities of
Jordan (Daviau 1992b, 1993c, 1994, 1996), with the exception of the
nal 1995 eld season.
2
During the entire seven year period of research
and excavation at Tall Jawa, the project was afliated with the Amer-
ican Schools of Oriental Research, rst as part of the Madaba Plains
Project and then, following the 1992 season, as the Tall Jawa Excava-
tion Project. The author wishes to express her deep appreciation for
2
Detailed annual reports prepared by Daviau for the 19911995 seasons were
submitted to the Department of Antiquities of Jordan, along with a set of photographs.
rnrr\cr xxiii
the support and encouragement of the MPP directors, L. T. Geraty,
L. G. Herr, . S. LaBianca, D. R. Clark, and R. W. Younker, and for
their expression of condence in the continued success of the Tall Jawa
Project. In addition, a special thanks is extended to . S. LaBianca
for his continued contribution to the Tall Jawa Project, especially with
regard to the identication of faunal remains.
It was also thanks to the support and encouragement of the Depart-
ment of Antiquities of Jordan, especially Dr. Safwan Tell, Director Gen-
eral of Antiquities in 19911994, that our excavation programme was
able to become an independent research project working in Jordan,
training both North American and Jordanian students in eld tech-
niques. A special thanks is extended to Nazmieh Rida Tawq, Depart-
ment of Antiquities representative to the Tall Jawa Project, who gen-
erously shared her expertise and vast experience with the students and
volunteers on our team, thus contributing enormously to the education
of us all. The support of the Department of Antiquities was continued
by Dr. Ghazi Bisheh, Director General of Antiquities in 1995, and by
Adeeb Abu Shumais, representative of the Department of Antiquities
during our nal eld season.
Many people contributed to the exacting tasks of excavation, record-
ing, registering and studying the material culture of Tall Jawa. I want
to thank all of our team members for their generosity of spirit and hard
work that enabled us to bring to light the Iron Age town at Tall Jawa.
Each one made a signicant contribution and shared many more tasks
than is mentioned in the lists of participants (see below). Thanks are
due also to L. Cowell for her work in experimental archaeology, repli-
cating features related to ceramic technology and for the registration
of potters marks and reworked sherds (19911995), to E. Cowell for
years of service as camp manager, and to Prof. M. Lawrence, School of
Social Work, Wilfrid Laurier University, for her care of a team member
who was injured in an accident at Wadi Rumm.
The Tall Jawa Excavation Project also beneted from the generous
interest and scholarly opinions of numerous scholars in residence at
the American Center of Oriental Research, Amman, where the team
lived during the 19911995 seasons. Special thanks to the Director,
Dr. Pierre Bikai, and to Dr. Patricia M. Bikai, for their support and
scholarly advice. Support, housing, vehicles and dark room facilities
were also provided by the British Institute at Amman for Archaeology
and History; a special thanks to the then director, William Lancaster,
and to Felicity Lancaster. As a team, we want to thank the men who
xxi\ rnrr\cr
served as Canadian Ambassador to Jordan, especially Michael Bell. He
supported our work with great enthusiasm and offered his support in
time of need.
Necessary funding for three seasons of excavation and research
(19921995) was provided by a Standard Research Grant from the
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
3
Addi-
tional funding that supported overseas training of student volunteers
and supervisors was provided on an annual basis by Wilfrid Laurier
University. Generous internal grants provided a course remission dur-
ing the 19931994 academic year to study the distribution of artefacts
within the architectural space,
4
and a Senior Research Fellowship and
Short Term Grant
5
to cover costs of specialists contributing to research
on the Iron Age settlement at Tall Jawa. To assist with the creation
and programming of the CD-ROM, which accompanies this volume,
a WLU Book Preparation Grant was awarded in 2002. Gifts by P.-
E. Dion and R. Levesque facilitated our work in the eld and supported
the publication of this volume.
The research presented here is the work of many team members,
some of whom are contributors in their own right; Paul-E. Dion, David
Hemsworth, Ronald G. V. Hancock, Margaret Judd, Ryan Defonzo,
and Douglas Schnurrenberger. Other scholars have assisted the author
by sharing their expertise; I would like to thank Piotr Bienkowski,
Douglas Clark, Rudolph Dornemann, Lawrence T. Geraty, Seymour
Gitin, Larry G. Herr, John S. Holladay, Jr., Jean-Baptiste Humbert,
Paul Jacobs, stein S. LaBianca, David McCreery, Mohammed Naj-
jar, Larry A. Pavlish, Joe D. Seger, Udo Worschech, and Robert Bol-
ing (whose untimely death was a loss to us all). Thanks are also due
to Pamela Schaus (Cartographer, Wilfrid Laurier University), who pre-
pared the regional map, and to other colleagues in the Department of
Geography, who provided information concerning geological samples
and assisted our team with the loan of equipment.
3
Site Denition and Fortication Strategies of Iron Age Tell Jawa in Central
Transjordan (Grant # 410920134).
4
The course remission grant was awarded for the academic year September 1993
April 1994.
5
These grants were awarded concurrently from April 1993December 1993. The
author gratefully acknowledges the nancial support for this research, which was partly
funded by WLU Operating funds, and partly by the SSHRC General Research Grant
awarded to WLU.
rnrr\cr xx\
My deepest appreciation goes to the eld supervisors and their
square supervisors, who prepared written reports in the eld describ-
ing and interpreting the archaeological record. Without their conscien-
tious work, the material presented here would be only a skeleton of the
remains uncovered during excavation. A special thanks in this regard to
Robert Chadwick, Laurie Cowell, Brenda Silver, Dayle Elder, Susan
Ellis-Lopez, Ryan Defonzo, Debra Foran, Robert Hutson, Margaret
Judd, Stanley Klassen, Lynda Manktelow, Shawn Thompson, Tracy
Wilson, Julie Witmer, and Michael Wood.
Illustrations were drawn and inked by Laurie Cowell, Nigel Pereira,
Adele Tempest, and the author. Training in scanning pottery draw-
ings, plans and sections was provided by the members of the Gezer
Gate Project under the direction of Prof. John S. Holladay, Jr. and
his assistants, Taber James and Stanley Klassen, in the Department
of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, University of Toronto. The
labour intensive task of scanning the eld photographs, was under-
taken by Dr. Bernard Haberstroh, M.D., Helen Moore and Paul Bai-
ley; the database that accompanies the photographs was compiled by
Helen Moore and Paul Bailey, and locus summaries were completed
by Shelena Schmidt, Robert Vingerhoets, and Michael Berry. For all
of this work, Wilfrid Laurier University provided lab space, equipment,
archival facilities for the storage of original eld notebooks and draw-
ings, storage space for pottery and objects, computer use, and Ontario
Work Study funding to assist students working for the Tall Jawa Project.
A special thanks for perseverance goes to Paul-E. Dion and Elaine
Kirby who read the manuscript with great care, to Elaine Kirby for
scanning and merging the plans and section drawings, to Paul Bailey
for the nal coordination of the database and the photographs, and to
Brendon Paul and David Hemsworth for rening the multimedia pro-
gramme.
This report is dedicated, with respect and appreciation, to the men
who were responsible for my introduction to and eld training in the
Wheeler-Kenyon method and its subsequent renement, both in the
classroomH. Darrell Lance (Colgate Rochester Divinity School) and
John S. Holladay, Jr. (University of Toronto)and in the eld, David
Newlands (at Morganville, NY, and Fort York in Toronto), Lawrence
E. Toombs, John Mathers, and Jeffrey Blakely (at Tell el-Hesi), and
Larry G. Herr (at Tall al-#Umayri). While their expertise contributed to
my formation, the shortcomings in this work are my own.
xx\i rnrr\cr
The plans used in this book were scanned using Adobe Photoshop, they were
then opened in Adobe Streamline and converted to a vector image. Room,
Locus and Wall numbers were added in Adobe Illustrator. The plans were
then inserted into a Word 2000 document. The database for the Multimedia
Programme was prepared in MS Access.
EXCAVATION TEAM MEMBERS
1989 (June 19August 8)
Lawrence T. Geraty, Madaba
Plains Project director, Andrews
University, Berrien Springs, MI,
USA
Randall W. Younker, director, MPP
Hinterland Excavations, Andrews
University
P. M. Michle Daviau, eld director,
Wilfrid Laurier University,
Waterloo, ON*
Square supervisors:
Nadine Brundrett, Baden ON
Antonius Haakman, Waterloo, ON
Bruce Routledge, Toronto, ON
Brenda Silver, Stratford, ON
Julie Witmer, Kitchener, ON
Hakam Ziaddi, Amman, Jordan
Volunteers:
Isabelle Crpeau, Montral, QC
Nelsona Dundas, Etobicoke, ON
Adele Tempest, Kitchener, ON
Michael Wood, Cambridge, ON
Computer entry: Nelsona Dundas
Pottery registrar: Flora McKay,
Toronto, ON
MPP Object registrar:
Elizabeth Platt, Dubuque, IA, USA
MPP Ceramic technologist:
Gloria London, Seattle, WA, USA
MPP Faunal Analyst: stein
S. LaBianca, Andrews University
MPP Flotation: Romona Hubbard,
Andrews University, Berrien
Springs, MI
MPP photographer:
Thor Storfjell, Berrien Springs, MI,
USA
Land surveyors: Tim Woodard,
Lethbridge, AB; Glenn Johnson,
Berrien Springs, MI, USA
* All team members were from
Canada, unless otherwise
indicated.
xx\iii rxc\\\+iox +r\x xrxnrns
1991 (June 18August 6)
Lawrence T. Geraty, project director
stein S. LaBianca, director,
Regional Survey
P. M. Michle Daviau, director, Tall
Jawa
Administrative assistant and
architect:
Robert Hutson, Listowel, ON
Land Surveyor:
Abbas Khammash, #Amman, Jordan
Field supervisor:
Michael Wood, Cambridge, ON
Square supervisors:
Margaret Judd, Kitchener, ON
Joyce Palmer, Waterloo, ON
Brenda Silver, Stratford, ON
Shawn Standfast, Kitchener, ON
Volunteers:
Laurie Cowell, Waterloo, ON
Joanne Hasan, Waterloo, ON
Shona Hunter, Toronto, ON
Karen Kane, Toronto, ON
Abdul Aziz, #Ammam, Jordan
Pottery registrar: Brenda Silver,
Stratford, ON
Object Registrar: Margaret Judd,
Kitchener, ON
Illustrator: Sally Clara, Toronto,
ON
Ceramic technologist: Laurie
Cowell,
Waterloo, ON
Photographers: Shona Hunter,
Toronto, ON
Mark Ziese, Berrien Springs, MI,
USA
rxc\\\+iox +r\x xrxnrns xxix
1992 (June 15July 30)
P. M. Michle Daviau,
director/chief archaeologist
Administrative assistant and
architect:
Robert Hutson, Listowel, ON
Land surveyor: Robert Force,
Oakville, ON
Faunal osteologist: stein
S. LaBianca, Berrien Springs, MI
Camp Manager: Edward Cowell,
Waterloo, ON
Field supervisors:
Margaret Judd, object registrar,
Kitchener, ON
Brenda Silver, pottery registrar,
Stratford, ON
Julie Witmer, Kitchener, ON
Michael Wood, Cambridge, ON
Square supervisors:
Janice Beaupr, Hilton Beach, ON
Laurie Cowell, ceramic technology,
Waterloo, ON
Debra Foran, assistant registrar,
Aylmer, QC
Shona Hunter, photographer,
Toronto, ON
Karen Kane, assistant registrar,
Toronto, ON
Patricia Kenny, Shanty Bay, ON
Brooke Ridsdale, Cambridge, ON
Volunteers:
Batrice Brub, Vimont Laval, QC
Jeffery Clare, Cambridge, ON
Ryan Defonzo, North Bay, ON
Silke Force, Oakville, ON
Atena Ganea, Kitchener, ON
Abdul Kareem, #Amman, Jordan
Ann McLean, London, ON
Joyce Palmer, camp assistant,
Waterloo, ON
Jason Radko, photographer,
Midland, ON
Miranda Semple, Toronto, ON
Shawn Thompson, lithic registrar,
Mt. Brydges, ON
Teresa Van Nes, Ethel, ON
Ken Whitford, Carlstadt, NJ, USA
xxx rxc\\\+iox +r\x xrxnrns
1993 (May 20July 1)
P. M. Michle Daviau, project
director and chief archaeologist
Administrative assistant and
architect:
Robert Hutson, Listowel, ON
Epigrapher: Paul E. Dion, Toronto,
ON
Photographer: Timothy Hellum,
Toronto, ON
Paleobotanist: Peter Warnoch,
Columbia, MO, USA
Camp Manager: Edward Cowell,
Waterloo, ON
Field supervisors:
Margaret Judd, object registrar,
Kitchener, ON
Michael Wood, Montreal, QC
Square supervisors:
Deborah Beal, Kitchener, ON
Laurie Cowell, ceramic technology,
Waterloo, ON
Ryan Defonzo, assistant registrar,
North Bay, ON
Debra Foran, illustrator, Aylmer,
QC
Silke Force, Oakville, ON
Karen Kane, assistant registrar,
Toronto, ON
Sanaa Khalileh, illustrator, Irbid,
Jordan
Stanley Klassen, Saskatoon, SK
Brenda Silver, pottery registrar,
Stratford, ON
Shawn Thompson, lithic registrar,
Mt. Brydges, ON
Julie Witmer, illustrator, Kitchener,
ON
Supervisor in training
Lynda Manktelow, Barrie, ON
Susan Wakeeld, London, ON
Volunteers:
Timothy Epp, Winnipeg, MAN
Hani Jabsheh, #Amman, Jordan
John Johannesen, Waterloo, ON
Stephanie Lawrence, Halifax, NS
Kathleen OGrady, Puslinch, ON
Marion Smith, Arthur, ON
Serge Thibodeau, Montral, QC
Camp manager: Edward Cowell,
Waterloo, ON
rxc\\\+iox +r\x xrxnrns xxxi
1994 (June 3July 28)
P. M. Michle Daviau, project
director and chief archaeologist
Survey Director:
James R. Batteneld, Long Beach,
CA, USA
Administrative assistant:
Robert Hutson, eld supervisor,
Listowel, ON
Epigrapher: Paul E. Dion, Toronto,
ON
Photographers: Karina Gerlach,
Ayers Cliff, QC
Timothy Hellum, Toronto, ON
Field supervisors:
Ryan Defonzo, North Bay, ON
Stanley Klassen, Saskatoon, SK
Shawn Thompson, lithic registrar,
Mt. Brydges, ON
Square supervisors:
Lawrence Broadhurst, Toronto, ON
Robert Chadwick, Ste. Anne de
Bellevue, QC
Laurie Cowell, Waterloo, ON
Dayle Elder, New Lowell, ON
Lisa Knuttilla, Toronto, ON
Lynda Manktelow, Barrie, ON
Hamdan Mansur, Amman, Jordan
Miranda Semple, Toronto, ON
Susan Wakeeld, London, ON
Deborah Beal, object registrar,
Kitchener, ON
Karen Kane, ceramic registrar,
Toronto, ON
Volunteers:
Jennifer Alboim, Ottawa, ON
Roberta Ainsworth, Toronto, ON
Alison Barclay, Toronto, ON
Jeremy Burke, Toronto, ON
Vanessa Davies, South Bend, IN,
USA
An Devriese, Belgium
Diane Flores, Toronto, ON
Else Khoury, Midland, ON
Leedine Lah, Mississauga, ON
Maureen Lyall, Edmonton, AB
Deborah Marquis-Lawley, Port
Severn, ON
Angela Robinson, Ottawa, ON
Jane Saxton, Nanaimo, BC
Pierrette Tardif-Alarie, Repentigny,
QC
Serge Thibodeau, Montral, PQ
Donald Webers, Elora, ON
Tracy Wilson, Oakville, ON
xxxii rxc\\\+iox +r\x xrxnrns
1995 (June 5July 27)
P. M. Michle Daviau, project
director and chief archaeologist
Surveyor and technical assistant
Romeo Levesque, Johnson, VT,
USA
Paleo-ethnobotanist, consultant:
David McCreery, Willamette, OR,
USA
Photographers:
Robert Mittelstaedt, Cleveland,
OH, USA
Philip Silver, Stratford, ON
Field supervisors:
Ryan Defonzo, object registrar,
North Bay, ON
Susan Ellis-Lopez, assistant pottery
registrar, Mabton, WA, USA
Lynda Manktelow, Barrie, ON
Dayle Elder, New Lowell, ON
Square supervisors:
Jennifer Alboim, Ottawa, ON
Janice Beaupr, Hilton Beach, ON
Laurie Cowell, ceramic technologist,
Waterloo, ON
Patricia Kenny, Shanty Bay, ON
Brenda Silver, ceramic registrar,
Stratford, ON
Donald Webers, Elora, ON
Tracy Wilson, Oakville, ON
Volunteers:
Celeste Barlow, Milton, ON
Andrew Bradshaw, Antigonish, NS
Kelly Diamond, Toronto, ON
Catherine Duff, Toronto, ON
Nectaria Grafos, Windsor, ON
Samuel Klapman, Waterloo, ON
Joann Laird, Gloucester, ON
Walter McCall, Waterloo, ON
John Purtill, Thornton, ON
Evelyn Ruskin, Chicago, IL, USA
Paul Sodtke, Toronto, ON
Keli Watson, Waterloo, ON
Camp manager: Edward Cowell,
Waterloo, ON
Department of Antiquities
Representatives:
Hanan Azar and Hefzi Haddad
(1989)
Nazmieh Rida Tawq (1991, 1992,
1993, 1994)
Adeeb Abu Shumais (1995)
LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS
Table 1A Size of Iron Age Fortied Residential Towns in Cisjordan (in
hectares)
Table 1B Size of Iron Age Fortied Residential Towns in Transjordan
(in hectares)
Table 2A Range of Room, Building, Wall, and Vessel Numbers
Table 2B Sizes of Stones in Iron Age Masonry
Table 3A Stratigraphic position of the Upper Cretaceous carbonate
formations underlying Tall Jawa
Table 4A Strata for the Deep Sounding in Field A
Table 5A Strata for the Fortication Walls
Table 5B Casemate Walls at Town Sites in Central Transjordan
Table 5C Casemate Walls at Palestinian Town Sites from Recent
Excavations
Table 6A Strata for Field A
Table 6B Room Size and Proportion in Building 102
Table 6C Location and Width of Doorways in Building 102
Table 6D Wall Thickness in centimetres (Building 102)
Table 6E Pottery and Artefacts in Room 120, upper storey
Table 6F Pottery and Artefacts in Room 110
Table 6G Pottery and Artefacts in Room 214
Table 6H Pottery and Artefacts in Room 214, upper storey
Table 6I Pottery and Artefacts in Room 104
Table 6J Pottery and Artefacts in Room 204
Table 6K Wall Thickness in centimetres (Building 113)
Table 6L Strata for Field ABuilding 113
Table 6M Pottery and Artefacts in Room 123
Table 6N Pottery and Artefacts in Room 126
Table 6P Pottery and Artefacts in Room 126, upper storey
Table 6Q Pottery and Artefacts in Room 106
Table 6R Pottery and Artefacts in Room 108
Table 6S Pottery and Artefacts in Room 107, late phase
Table 6T Pottery and Artefacts in Room 122, earlier phase
Table 6U Pottery and Artefacts in Room 122, later phase
Table 6V Pottery and Artefacts in Room 222, earlier phase
xxxi\ ris+ or +\nrrs \xn on\rns
Table 6AA Room Size and Proportion in Building 200, and Casemate
Room 210
Table 6BB Location and Width of Doorways in Field B (west)
Table 6CC Wall Thickness in centimetres (Building 200)
Table 6DD Strata for Field BBuilding 200
Table 6EE Pottery and Artefacts in Room 212, upper storey
Table 6FF Pottery and Artefacts in Room 215
Table 6GG Pottery and Artefacts in Room 209
Table 6HH Pottery and Artefacts in Room 209, upper storey
Table 6JJ Pottery and Artefacts in Room 208, upper storey
Table 6KK Pottery and Artefacts in Room 207, upper storey
Table 6LL Pottery and Artefacts in Room 207, roof level
Table 6MM Pottery and Artefacts in Work Area 211
Table 6NN Room Size and Proportion in Building 204
Table 6PP Wall Thickness in centimetres (Building 204)
Table 6QQ Pottery and Artefacts in Room 203
Table 6RR Pottery and Artefacts in Room 206
Table 7A Room Size and Proportion
Table 7B Location and Width of Doorways
Table 7C Wall Thickness in centimetres (Building 300 only)
Table 7D Strata for Field E
Table 7E Pottery and Artefacts in Room 303(B)
Table 7F Pottery and Artefacts in Room 305(B)
Table 7G Pottery and Artefacts in Room 318(B)
Table 7H Pottery and Artefacts in Room 302(B)
Table 7J Pottery and Artefacts in Room 306(B)
Table 7K Pottery and Artefacts in Room 312(B)
Table 7L Pottery and Artefacts in Room 312(B), upper storey/ceiling
Table 7M Pottery and Artefacts in Room 313(B)
Table 7N Pottery and Artefacts in Room 314(B)
Table 7P Pottery and Artefacts in Room 303(A)
Table 7Q Pottery and Artefacts in Room 303(A), upper level
Table 7R Pottery and Artefacts in Room 305(A)
Table 7S Pottery and Artefacts in Room 319(A)
Table 7T Pottery and Artefacts in Room 318(A)
Table 7U Pottery and Artefacts in Room 318(A), upper level
Table 7V Pottery and Artefacts in Room 302(A)
Table 7W Pottery and Artefacts in Room 306(A)
Table 7X Pottery and Artefacts in Cistern Area, Stratum VIIIA
Table 7Y Pottery and Artefacts in Room 307(A)
Table 7Z Pottery and Artefacts in Room 312(A)
Table 8A Room Size and Proportion
Table 8B Location and Width of Doorways
Table 8C Wall Thickness in centimetres
ris+ or +\nrrs \xn on\rns xxx\
Table 8D Strata for Field C-West
Table 8E Pottery and Artefacts in Room 811
Table 8F Pottery and Artefacts in Room 809, Stratum VIIB
Table 8G Pottery and Artefacts in Room 809, Stratum VIIA
Table 8H Pottery and Artefacts in Room 809, upper storey
Table 8J Pottery and Artefacts in Room 807
Table 8K Pottery and Artefacts in Room 807, upper storey
Table 8L Pottery and Artefacts in Central Hall 804
Table 8M Pottery and Artefacts at south end of Room 804
Table 8N Grid for Soil Layer C27:48 with Pottery Pail and Artefact
numbers
Table 8P Pottery and Artefacts in Room 804, upper storey
Table 8Q Pottery and Artefacts in Room 806
Table 8R Pottery and Artefacts in Room 805
Table 8S Pottery and Artefacts in Room 805, upper storey
Table 8T Pottery and Artefacts in Room 803
Table 8U Pottery and Artefacts west of Doorway E in Room 802
Table 8V Pottery and Artefacts in Room 802
Table 8W Pottery and Artefacts in Room 802, upper storey
Table 8X Classes of Pottery in Building 800
Table 8AA Room Size and Proportion in Building 700
Table 8BB Location and Width of Doorways
Table 8CC Wall Thickness in centimetres
Table 8DD Strata for Field D
Table 8EE Harris Matrix of Soil Layers in Probe into Iron Age Room
714
Table 8FF Pottery and Artefacts from Room 714
Table 8GG Pottery and Artefacts from Room 712
Table 8HH Pottery and Artefacts from Room 712, upper storey
Table 8JJ Pottery and Artefacts from R713
Table 8KK Iron Age Pottery and Artefacts from R713, upper storey
Table 9A Room Size and Proportion (B905, B910)
Table 9B Location and Width of Doorways
Table 9C Wall Thickness in centimetres
Table 9D Strata for the Buildings on the Southeastern Terrace
Table 9E Pottery and Artefacts in Room 907, upper storey
Table 9F Pottery and Artefacts in Room 909
Table 9G Pottery and Artefacts in Room 909, upper storey
Table 9H Room Size and Proportion (B900)
Table 9J Location and Width of Doorways (B900)
Table 9K Wall Thickness in centimetres (B900)
Table 9L Pottery and Artefacts in Room 901
Table 9M Pottery and Artefacts in Room 901, upper surface
Table 9N Pottery and Artefacts in Room 903, upper surface
Table 9P Pottery and Artefacts in Room 904
xxx\i ris+ or +\nrrs \xn on\rns
Table 9Q TJ- Burial 1: Childs skeletal metrics (mm)
Table 10A Thickness of Walls in Tall Jawa Structures in centimeters
Table 11A Roof Roller (TJ 381) analysis
Table 11B Plaster samples
Table 11C Plaster analyses
Table 11D Guestimate of the chemistry of the local sedimentary material
mixed with lime to make plaster
Table 11E Plaster analyses, sorted by site location
Graph 11.1 Al versus Ca
Graph 11.2 Na versus Ca
Table 14A List of Fields in each Record of the Database
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1.1 Map of #Amman region, showing location of Tall Jawa
(P. Schaus)
Fig. 1.2 Topographical Map, by G. Johnson; working grid showing
Fields and Squares (R. Force)
Fig. 1.3 East-west prole, North-south prole, prepared by R. Force
Fig. 1.4 Tall Jawa in relation to Field M
Fig. 3.1 Location map of Tall Jawa in central Jordan
Fig. 3.2 Bedrock and structural geology in the vicinity of Tall Jawa
Fig. 4.1 Excavation Grid in Field A
Fig. 4.2 Field A at beginning of excavation in 1989, showing modern
eld walls and location of deep probe (A13:2)
Fig. 4.3 Building 50, with Walls 1015 and W1016 in deep probe
Fig. 4.4 Iron Age I Wall 1016 and Wall 1015 at right
Fig. 4.5 North balk, showing position of W1016 in relation to
Stratum-VIII Wall 1009
Fig. 4.6 West balk, showing the collapse of debris layers A13:33, 29,
35 in Building 50
Fig. 4.7 Collared-rim pithoi, 1) V8 (A13/88.2), 2) V10 (A14/36.1), 3)
V16 (E54/172.80), 4) V11 (A13/106.1); kraters, 5) V004, 6)
V007
Fig. 4.8 Cooking pot, 1) sherd A2.67.11; bowls, 2) V1, 3) V2, 4) V3;
jug, 5) sherd TJA13.113.1
Fig. 5.1 Casemate Wall system in Field E to the north, Fields E and B
to the west, Fields B and A to the southwest, and Field C to
the southeast
Fig. 5.2 Stratum IX Solid Wall in Field E, with Passageway 309 on
right
Fig. 5.3 North face of Wall 3006, with Offset E54b
Fig. 5.4 North face of Outer Wall 3006
Fig. 5.5 Retaining Wall 3023 on North slope in Fields FG
Fig. 5.6 Passageway 309 between Outer Wall 3006 on right, and Wall
3018 on left
Fig. 5.7 Solid Wall 3050 in Fields E and B
Fig. 5.8 Wall 2023 looking north toward offset/inset B25g
Fig. 5.9 Wall 2023 and Tower 2024, with Passageway 219
Fig. 5.10 Guardroom 221, with Tower 2024 on left, and Outer Wall
2023 on the right
xxx\iii ris+ or irrts+n\+ioxs
Fig. 5.11 South Wall 2009+1003, with Retaining Wall 1001 in Field A
Fig. 5.12 Outer Wall 1003 with Glacis A2:30, looking west
Fig. 5.13 Retaining Wall 1001, in Field A
Fig. 5.14 Stratum-VIIIB Casemate Walls in Field E
Fig. 5.15 South face of Inner Casemate Wall 3000 in Room 313;
boulder-and-chink construction with mud mortar
Fig. 5.16 Corridor 328 leading to Passageway 309, looking North
Fig. 5.17 Casemate Room 301 on the left, with Inner Casemate Wall
3000 in the centre
Fig. 5.18 Stratum VIIIBA Casemate System and Drain B24:24 in
Field B
Fig. 5.19 Drain B24:24 looking east into Channel 218
Fig. 5.20 Sump with Retaining Wall 2041 on right; cut through layers
of Glacis B24:4
Fig. 5.21 Inner Casemate Wall 2004 in foreground, and W2000+2001
in background, looking south
Fig. 5.22 Drain Channel 218, south side, with Doorway K
(Stratum VIIIB) and Doorway A Stratum VIIIA, into
Room 210
Fig. 5.23 Drain Channel 218, north side, with excavation through sump
at west (left)
Fig. 5.24 Casemate Rooms in Field A, with Doorway H connecting
Casemate Room 121 with Building 113
Fig. 5.25 Casemate Room 121 with Stratum-VIIIA Wall 1004 in
background
Fig. 5.26 Tower 2013 in Casemate Wall System, South of Building 204
Fig. 5.27 Basin B44:4 reused in Inner Casemate Wall 2007
Fig. 5.28 Inner Casemate Room 201+R200 and Room 101 in
Stratum VIIIA
Fig. 5.29 Casemate Room 201 on right of Inner Casemate Wall 1004
Fig. 5.30 Total Wall System in Field C (C-west and C-east)
Fig. 5.31 Casemate Room 801 with relevant locus numbers
Fig. 5.32 Casemate Room 801 with later phase Inner Casemate Wall
8004 over Wall 8005
Fig. 5.33 Bastion 9007 with Buttress Wall 9008 and Retaining Wall
9015
Fig. 5.34 Bastion 9007 with Buttress Wall 9008 on left
Fig. 6.1 Excavation Grid in Fields AB
Fig. 6.2 Building 102 in Fields A and B
Fig. 6.3 Stratum IX loci in Room 120
Fig. 6.4 Room 120 partially lled with upper-storey mud-brick
collapse; stacked boulder pillars visible in Wall 1022
Fig. 6.5 North end of Building 102; Room 214 in foreground leads
into Rooms 217 and R111; Room110/120 is in the upper left
Fig. 6.6 Building 102, with relevant Stratum-VIII locus numbers
Fig. 6.7 Room 110, looking west at Wall 1023
ris+ or irrts+n\+ioxs xxxix
Fig. 6.8 South side of Building 102, with Rooms 104 and R105 at the
end of the 1989 season
Fig. 6.9 Building 102, looking east with Rooms 214, R215 and R204
(left to right)
Fig. 6.10 Building 113 in relation to Building 102 and the Casemate
Wall System
Fig. 6.11 Building 113 with relevant locus numbers for Strata VIIIBA
Fig. 6.12 Pithoi smashed on oor in Room 106, around Mortar A13:23
Fig. 6.13 Pithos Oven A14:25
Fig. 6.14 Building 100 in Fields AB, showing position of ovens
Fig. 6.15 Building 100 with relevant locus numbers, Stratum VIII
Fig. 6.16 Room 122 with Wall 1012 above Surface A3:29.
Fig. 6.17 South half of Room 202 with ovens and Partition Wall 2019;
Inner Casemate Wall 1004 on right
Fig. 6.18 Oven B63:29 on left; Hearth B63:32 on right
Fig. 6.19 Oven B63:30 with stones and plaster around upper edge;
plaster seals against Wall 1004
Fig. 6.20 Oven B63:30 with pithos body and rim exposed
Fig. 6.21 Building 200 in Field B
Fig. 6.22 Building 200, with relevant locus numbers
Fig. 6.23 Looking south into Room 212 in Building 200
Fig. 6.24 Oven B34:54 at left and Pithos Oven B34:50 at right
Fig. 6.25 Pithos Oven B34:50, in situ
Fig. 6.26 Clay Oven B34:54, in situ
Fig. 6.27 Casemate Room 215 with Doorway C on left and Doorway B
in upper left
Fig. 6.28 Building 204, Work Area 211, Room 207 and R208
Fig. 6.29 Building 204 and Work Area 211 with relevant locus numbers
Fig. 6.30 Broken artefacts on surface in Work Area 211
Fig. 6.31 Work Area 211 in relation to Building 204
Fig. 6.32 Building 204 looking East
Fig. 7.1 Excavation Grid in Field E
Fig. 7.2 Building 300, Field E
Fig. 7.3 Building 300, western unit, Stratum VIIIB
Fig. 7.4 Building 300, Room 303+304, showing makeup (E44:12)
under earliest surface (E44:11); row of cobbles (E44:13) at base
of W3000
Fig. 7.5 Building 300, Room 303, with pottery in situ on Surface
E54:31
Fig. 7.6 Room 303 in background, Room 305 in foreground; Room
302 on right.
Fig. 7.7 Building 300, Room 315, Oven E53:23
Fig. 7.8 Building 300, Room 305, Mortar E53:54, and bench with
loom weights in situ
Fig. 7.9 Building 300, central unit, Stratum VIIIB
xr ris+ or irrts+n\+ioxs
Fig. 7.10 Room 302, with Bench E54:24 on left, Bedrock work surface
in center, Boulder Mortar E54:38 in between
Fig. 7.11 Room 306 on the right; Room 302 on left with Hearth
E54:43 on upper left
Fig. 7.12 Building 300, eastern unit, with relevant locus numbers
Fig. 7.13 Room 312, pithos (V392) in situ
Fig. 7.14 Room 314, looking north, Wall 3027 on right
Fig. 7.15 Building 300, western unit, Stratum VIIIA
Fig. 7.16 Building 300, western unit, Room 319, 315, 305 (left to right),
Corridor 316 with stairs in Doorway J (foreground)
Fig. 7.17 Building 300, Room 315, with cobblestone oor and pillared
walls
Fig. 7.18 Room 319, Oven E63:10
Fig. 7.19 Building 300, central unit, Stratum VIIIA
Fig. 7.20 Room 302, Bench E54:24 with broken pottery
Fig. 7.21 Room 306, pottery in situ
Fig. 7.22 Cistern area with Wall 3009 on left, and Wall 3008 on right of
Cistern E64:13
Fig. 7.23 Cistern E64:13, north-south section; drawn by J.
R. Batteneld
Fig. 7.24 Cistern E64:13, plan and section drawings, showing location
of drain holes and mouth; drawn by J. R. Batteneld
Fig. 7.25 Cistern E64:13 and its surroundings
Fig. 7.26 Building 300, eastern unit, with relevant locus numbers
Fig. 8.1 Excavation Grid in Field C
Fig. 8.2 Building 800
Fig. 8.3 Building 800, with relevant locus numbers
Fig. 8.4 Deep probe in Room 811, showing Pier A84:6 with Doorway
K at right, and upper storey agstones
Fig. 8.5 East side of Building 800, with; Room 809 in the lower left,
Room 808, Corridor 810, Doorway H, and Central Hall 804
on the right
Fig. 8.6 Room 809, Hearth A93:27
Fig. 8.7 Room 807, looking east toward Doorway G
Fig. 8.8 Central Hall 804, with Room 803 on lower left
Fig. 8.9 Pottery and artefacts in collapsed debris on Staircase C27:43
Fig. 8.10 Central Hall 804, looking south, with base rocks of twin ovens
in front of Pillared Wall 8015
Fig. 8.11 Oven C27:68, with packed plaster and stones, in front of
Boulder C27:83
Fig. 8.12 Room 805, with Basin C27:27 in southwest corner; Room 803
is on the right
Fig. 8.13 Room 802, looking south toward stacked-boulder Wall 8012
Fig. 8.14 Room 802, loom weights in niche in Wall 8012
Fig. 8.15 Excavation Grid in Field D
Fig. 8.16 Building 700 in Field D
ris+ or irrts+n\+ioxs xri
Fig. 8.17 Building 700 with relevant locus numbers
Fig. 8.18 View of Wall 7031 in Room 714 below W6004, with Lintel
D13:13 and later Umayyad Wall 6016 (D13:8)
Fig. 8.19 Probe in Room 714, looking north; Lintel D13:13 over
Doorway E is on the left
Fig. 8.20 Room 718 on left, with Doorway D on left and Doorway C at
north end of Pier Wall 7028 (during excavation)
Fig. 8.21 Pier Wall 7028 and ll in Doorway D
Fig. 8.22 Limestone basin below oor in Room 707
Fig. 8.23 Staircase D23:43; Doorway B is on the left and Doorway A
with Lintel D23:41 in place is on the right
Fig. 8.24 Looking east in Room 716 at Wall 7021 and Doorway A into
Room 707
Fig. 8.25 Cistern D15:2, north of Building 700; drawn by J.
R. Batteneld.
Fig. 9.1 Excavation Grid in Field C-east (C41C91/C47C97)
Fig. 9.2 Plan of Building 910, Field C-east
Fig. 9.3 Construction of outer West Wall 9019 and South Wall 9018,
showing diagonal linking stone (C65:38)
Fig. 9.4 Gate Building 910 with lower Bastion 9007
Fig. 9.5 Plan of Building 905, Field C-east; Stratum VIIA
Fig. 9.6 North face of Partition Wall 9023
Fig. 9.7 Room 907, with pillar bases (C65:29, 30, 32)
Fig. 9.8 Human remains in upper storey collapse of Room 907
Fig. 9.9 Room 908 (left) and south end of R907; Partition Wall 9023,
East Wall 9021 in foreground
Fig. 9.10 Plan of Building 905, Field C-east, with Locus numbers
Fig. 9.11 Room 909, looking east through Doorway J; Pavement
C76:16 at left
Fig. 9.12 Building 905, looking east from R907 into R909 on left and
R910 in middle distance
Fig. 9.13 Installation C75:10 in Room 910
Fig. 9.14 Hearth C75:9, in Room 910
Fig. 9.15 Building 905, with Room 908 in lower left, and R913 in
upper left
Fig. 9.16 Room 712
Fig. 9.17 Building 900, Field C-east
Fig. 9.18 Oven C54:18 with Windbreak Stone C54:19, in Room 901
Fig. 9.19 North end of Room 901 with Corridor 903 and Doorway A
at left
Fig. 9.20 Building 900, with relevant locus numbers
Fig. 9.21 Wall 9000 at south end of Room 904, with Doorway D
Fig. 9.22 Artefacts in place in Room 904, between Bin C53:17 and
Doorway D
Fig. 9.23 Burial 1
Fig. 9.24 Stone-lined cist grave C54:8
xrii ris+ or irrts+n\+ioxs
Fig. 10.1 Boulder-and-chink wall with doorway; previously published
(Daviau 1999: g. 5.1), reprinted with permission
Fig. 10.2 Stacked boulder W3005; previously published (Daviau 1999:
g. 5.3c), reprinted with permission
Fig. 10.3 Stacked boulder and pillar W3027; previously published
(Daviau 1999: g. 5.3b), reprinted with permission
Fig. 10.4 1) TJ 381, 2) TJ 814, 3) TJ 589
Fig. 10.5 1) TJ 301, 2) TJ 960, 3) TJ 1480
Fig. 10.6 Limestone Trough C27:27 in Room 805
Fig. 10.7 Limestone trough from Room 715 in Building 700
Fig. 10.8 Boulder Mortar A13.23; in Room 106
Fig. 12.1 Typical Stratum-VIII pottery from Field A; 1) V125
(A14/29.4), 2) V118 (A14/29.1), 3) V189 (A13/53.4), 4)
V101 (A13/87.1), 5) V145 (A13/39.2), 6) V147 (A13/29.3)
Fig. 12.2 Hippo style storejars from Fields A and E; 1), V126
(A14/59.1), 2) V497 (E55/52.1)
Fig. 12.3 Typical Stratum-VIII vessels from Field E; 1) V425
(E54/76.1), 2) V318 (E53/13.2), 3) V429 (E65/9.1), 4)
V361 (E65/6.1), 6) V351 (E65/6.1), 7) V438 (E54/85.1)
Fig. 12.4 Typical Stratum-VIII vessels from Fields B and E; 1) V221
(B63/63.4), 2) V512 (E64/72.3), 3) V314 (E54/170.7), 4)
V462 (E54/89.6)
Fig. 12.5 Typical Stratum-VII vessels; 1) V808 (C17/71.6), 2) V812
(C27/52.7), 3) V790 (C17/86.3), 4) V924 (C65/60.9), 5)
V893 (A83/45.1), 6) V822 (C27/10.1), 7) V703 (D21/20.1),
8) V879 (A83/98.2)
Fig. 12.6 Typical Stratum-VII vessels; 1) V795 (C17/85.7), 2) V786
(C17/86.2)
Fig. 14.1 Main screen of the Tall Jawa information system
Fig. 14.2 File submenu
Fig. 14.3 Copy to ClipBoard submenu
Fig. 14.4 One eld from the registration portion of the database
Fig. 14.5 Record control object
Fig. 14.6 Artefact Image control object
Fig. 14.7 Search controls area
Fig. 14.8 Accessing the Control Panel
Fig. 14.9 Accessing Add/Remove Programs
Fig. 14.10 Removing the Iron Age program
PART ONE
OVERVIEW
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cn\r+rn oxr
THE SITE AND ITS REGIONAL SETTING
Location and Identication
Tall Jawa (Tell

Gwa; Palestine Grid, 238.2E/140.8N)
1
is a small
mound, located west northwest of the modern town of Jawa, 2.2 km
northeast of al-Yadudah, and 10.9 km south of #Amman. The ancient
site
2
stands as a mound of ruins overlooking the plain of Madaba from
the east (Fig. 1.1, see also Fig. 3.1). At an elevation of 928 masl,
3
Tall
Jawa dominates the skyline for several kilometres in every direction. To
the south, one can see the fortied tower immediately north of Tall
ar-Rufaisa (RS 22;
4
Boling 1989:134; Franken and Abujaber 1989: g.
C23a). Visible to the northwest are Khirbat as-Suq and the outskirts
of modern West #Amman (#Abdun). Coming from the south, Tall Jawa
forms the eastern skyline of the Balqa hills, whereas coming from the
eastern plain near Sa
.
hab, the tell has an even more imposing appear-
ance, with the northeast scarp and standing casemate wall clearly visi-
ble (Boling 1989: g. 5.58).
In view of its proximity to the Iron Age capital city of Rabbath-
Ammon, Tall Jawa was an excellent candidate for a research project
designed to investigate the extent of the Ammonite kingdom and its
cultural characteristics. This was conrmed by the recovery of Iron Age
1
The full reference in JADIS includes the following coordinates: UTME 7773;
UTMN 35686; PGE 238.200; PGN 140.800; JADIS Site #2314.048 (Palumbo
1994:2.137). Changes in orthography for place names, established by the Royal Geo-
graphical Service since 1994, are gradually being adopted. When excavations began at
Tall Jawa, this change had not yet taken place and the older orthography is reected in
published articles and preliminary reports.
2
In certain Madaba Plains Project reports (Younker and Daviau 1993; Younker
1999:17; Herr and Najjar 2001:334336), the site is identied as Tell Jawa (South),
or Jawa South, due to the better-known Early Bronze Age site of Jawa in Jordans
eastern desert (Helms 1973; JADIS Site #3319.010; Palumbo 1994:2.189). However,
this is not its ofcial name, and probably derives from the discovery of Roman period
statues in the area of the modern village of Jawa (JADIS Site #2314.135)
3
A Royal Geographical Service Control Monument is located 0.17 m north of the
northeast corner of Square A69.
4
Madaba Plains Project Regional Survey site number.
cn\r+rn oxr
Figure 1.1. Map of #Amman region, showing location of Tall Jawa (P. Schaus).
sherds dating primarily to the Iron Age II by the Madaba Plains Project
Regional Survey in 1984 (Boling 1989:144). Already after the rst
excavation season, it was clear that the ceramic material shared much
in common with that found at Tall al-#Umayri, which has produced
numerous inscribed seals and a small number of ostraca that clearly
demonstrate its Ammonite character (Younker 1985; Herr 1997).
5
The
value of Tall Jawa as a research project was enhanced by the fact
that this ancient site was not excavated prior to our interest in it. As
a result, the tell was well preserved, with only limited disruption of
the archaeological record by modern agricultural use and by a certain
amount of bulldozer activity on the eastern half of the upper surface
and against the south slope.
The lack of interest in the mound may, in part, be the result of
the limited historical information available concerning the kingdom of
Ammon. It appears that Ammon became a tributary state of Assyria
after the expansionist campaigns of Tiglath-pileser III, but was never
5
Ammonite ostraca were also found at
.
Hesban (Cross 1986; Cross and Geraty
1994) and at Tall al-Mazar in the Jordan Valley (Yassine and Teixidor 1986). For the
most recent studies of Ammonite inscriptions and their phonology, morphology and
syntax, see Aufrecht (1989; 1999).
+nr si+r
converted into an Assyrian province (Bienkowski 2000:45). Although
references to the kingdom of Bt Ammana (Hbner 1992:183) appear
in Assyrian texts (Millard 1992:35), few Ammonite sites have been
located whose ancient names are known, apart from Rabbath-Ammon
and
.
Heshbon. The modern name (Tall Jawa) was that known to late
19
th
and early 20
th
century explorers, whereas local people now call the
site, The Rock. To date, its ancient name remains a mystery (Younker
and Daviau 1993, pace Kallai 1993; Elitzur 1989).
Previous Exploration in Central Transjordan
The earliest 19
th
century references to Tall Jawa are found in Seet-
zen (Schua; apud Brnnow and von Domaszewski 1904:179), and
later in Warren (1870:291), and in Conder (Jwah, ; 1889:109),
who says that this large ruin lies on a prominent knoll beyond the
"Adwan border. In the report of their survey of Transjordan, Brn-
now and von Domaszewski (1904:179) mention that they passed by the
site of

Gwa in April 1897, on their way from al-Qas
.
tal to #Amman.
In 1900 and 1901, Alois Musil (1907:218) visited Tall Jawa, which he
described as a fortress located 2 km northeast of al-Yaduda. Musil sug-
gested that the name Khirbat N efa#a preserved the name of biblical
Mepha#ath (Jos. 13:18, Jer. 48:21; Eusebius, Onomastica Sacra, Kloster-
mann 1966:128129), and that of the Roman camp known as Castron
Mefaa (Notitia Dignitatum, Bocking 18391853:82, 362363). Since no
tell of that name was to be found at Khirbat N efa#a, he thought that
Tall Jawa was the location of the biblical period site (Musil 1907:352).
6
This suggestion was immediately accepted by Clermont-Ganneau
(1901), who was engaged in a debate concerning the location of the
Levitical city of Mepha#at,
7
and by Alt (1933:28), following his visit
to the site in 1932. Other scholars, including Glueck (1934:4), Simons
(1959:207), Abel (1967:385),
8
who refers to Alt, van Zyl (1960:94), and
6
The geography of the immediate vicinity of Tall Jawa, in relation to Khirbat
N efa#a, is shown most clearly in the study of the Joshua texts by Mittmann (1995:
abb. 2). However, its position does not correspond to Musils report that N efa#a is on the
north slope of Tall Jawa; according to Mittmann, it lies to the northeast of Tall Jawa.
7
This debate continues to exercise scholars; see Dearman (1989b).
8
Abel (1967:70) referred to biblical texts in Jos 21:36 f., 1 Chron 6:63 f., Jos 21:38
f. and 1 Chron 6:65 f., which placed Mepha#ath in Reubenite territory, an area which
encircled Ammonite territory along a line that ran from N epha#a, past al-Yadudah to
Naur. However, Mittmann (1995:19) has shown that Tall Jawa is 10 km north of the
northern boundary of Reuben, according to the oldest stratum of Josh 13:1523.
6 cn\r+rn oxr
Boling (Geraty et al. 1989:144), all accepted this designation. What was
forgotten in this discussion is the evidence of Jerome who prepared a
Latin translation of the Onamasticon in 390 AD, in which he mentions
that there was a praesidium of Roman soldiers stationed at Mefaath,
because of its isolated location (Klostermann 1966:129). After 6 seasons
of excavation and investigation at Tall Jawa, there was no evidence for
occupation between the Iron Age and the late Byzantineearly Islamic
period.
Nelson Glueck conducted the rst archaeological survey of the tell
in 1933.
9
He approached the site from the direction of #Amman and
identied Jawah as an oval tell, extending east-west, and measuring
approximately 100

200 m (Glueck 1934:4; Jawah, Site 1 on his map,


pl. 1). Glueck recognized the circuit of the city wall, which surrounds
the summit of the mound, and the revetment evident on the north
side. Ever conscious of the need for water near ancient sites, Glueck
located several cisterns outside the city wall on the east side of the
tell (Glueck 1934:4). However, no mention was made of the press-
like installation and cave located on the east slopes of Tall Jawa, or
of the numerous collapsed buildings still visible on the summit. Glueck
collected surface pottery, which he dated to Early Bronze III,
10
Iron
Age I and II (1934:4). Of signicance is the fact that Glueck did
not identify any Roman or late Roman (Byzantine) period pottery,
11
although he did see some glazed sherds that he called simply Arabic.
Excavations at the site have conrmed Gluecks observations to the
extent that no Roman period remains have been recovered, with the
exception of a handful of small sherds consisting of Nabataean painted
pottery, one fragment of Eastern terra sigillata, and several early Roman
undecorated sherds from the surface. The fortication wall visible to
early travellers dates to the Iron Age, while Building 600, visible above
ground level, was occupied during the Umayyad period, possibly as late
as the early Abbasid period. Later material consists of one glazed Ara-
9
For a review of 20
th
century surveys and excavations in the region of Ammon, see
Younker (1999).
10
Although Glueck promised to publish the pottery from his survey sites (1934:4,
n. 12), this material is still unpublished. As a result, it is not possible to see whether the
inverted bowl rim that he identied as EB III does indeed date to that period. What is
extremely common at Tall Jawa are inverted rim bowls, some with dark red slip, that
date to Iron Age II.
11
Glueck made no mention of the visits of earlier explorers to the site of Tell Jawa,
nor to Abels judgment that the building remains visible on the summit dated to the
Roman period.
+nr si+r
bic sherd, the sherds of a brittle ware cooking pot (V658)
12
recovered
in an early Islamic house (Building 600), some Arab geometric sherds
and fragments of clay smoking pipes, all of which may have been used
and discarded at the site sometime after Building 600 went out of use
(Daviau and Beckman, 2001:265266).
To date, no Roman or Byzantine period settlements have been found
in the immediate area of the tell, let alone a Roman military camp.
The closest site with Roman and Byzantine period remains is Yadudah
(Franken and Abujaber 1989), where Roman milestones can be seen
re-used as roof supports in caves (Boling 1989: gs. 8.3840). Vaulted
tombs, already cut open by quarrying activities and containing stone
sarcophagi, were seen in Yadudah by Buckingham (1825, apud Brn-
now and von Domaszewski 1904:179). Tombs and oors covered with
mosaics are visible at Khan Zaman, on the north side of the #Amman-
Madaba Road. Evidence for occupation somewhere in the area of the
village during the early Roman period is represented by a group of
ceramic statues of Venus in the National Museum in #Amman that
come from Jawa south. The only known structure from the Roman
period, excavated by the Tall Jawa Project in 1994 and 1995, is Tomb
1, located on the east side of the village of Jawa. This tomb had been
robbed in antiquity and is currently being used for garbage disposal.
Precise dating of the original use phase of the tomb is facilitated by the
discovery of a Herodian style lamp, smashed on the bench in front of
the loculi. From this limited evidence for settlement in the area dur-
ing the Roman period, and the complete lack of any material remains
for the 4
th
6th centuries AD, it would probably be more productive if
Tall Jawa were no longer considered in the quest for the location of
the Roman fort, Castron Mefaa (Younker and Daviau 1993; Piccirillo
1990:52741). The identication of Khirbat N efa#a as the bearer of
the name of Roman period Mefaa has not yet been substantiated. The
precise location of the Roman site is still under discussion (Mittmann
1995), as is the site of biblical Mepha#ath.
13
In fact, the region of Umm
ar-Rasas corresponds better with the biblical references to Mepha#ath,
especially those in Jer. 28:41, which presents a list of towns located
north of the Arnon (Wadi Mujib) in the region of Dibon. Such a
location for biblical Mepha#ath would suggest that it was located in
Moabite territory, rather than 40 km further north at Tall Jawa, a site
12
See discussion of vessel numbers in Table 2A.
13
For the most recent discussion, see MacDonald (2000:136).
8 cn\r+rn oxr
which appears to have been located securely in Ammonite territory.
Indeed, this suggestion is supported by current excavations (Dearman
1989a:183; Schick 1991:63, n. 56). When all is said and done, only the
archaeological record can provide evidence for the identication of Tall
Jawa, and to date there is no rm evidence for its ancient name.
14
Recent Exploration by the Madaba Plains Project
In 1984, R. Boling conducted a surface survey at Tall Jawa for the
Madaba Plains Project Regional Survey (RS Site #29). He estimated
the accumulation of occupation debris to be 1.503.00 m above bed-
rock. The period of heaviest ceramic representation was Iron Age II
(early and late), with lesser evidence for other periods, including Early
Bronze, Iron Age I, Late Roman, Byzantine and Umayyad (Boling
1989:144). During six seasons of excavation, only a handful of sherds
with a high organic content could be tentatively dated to the Early
Bronze Age, and these sherds may in fact date to Iron Age I. This
supports Gluecks view (1937:21) that there are no real tells on the
Transjordanian plateau in his survey area. Most sites dating to the
Iron Age were new settlements, rather than a rebuilding on an articial
mound above earlier occupation.
Site Size
In 1989, G. Johnson (Madaba Plains Project Land Surveyor) prepared
the initial topographical map of the tell.
15
The area within the perime-
ter walls measures ca. 20,850 m
2
, 2.08 hectares, or approximately 5
acres. This puts Tall Jawa well within the range of Iron Age II resi-
dential towns, such as Bethel, Beth Shemesh, Tell en-Na
.
sbeh, and Tall
al-#Umayri.
14
A suggestion by Younker (personal communication, October 30, 1992) to recon-
sider Du Buits identication of Tall Jawa as Abel Keramim, a site mentioned in the
itinerary of Thutmosis III (Redford 1982) is not supported by the results of our excava-
tions. At least, no occupation remains dating to LB ILB II are present in the excavated
areas; most Iron Age II buildings at Tall Jawa are footed on bedrock.
15
Robert Force, Ontario Land Surveyor, prepared the nal maps of the site, based
on a new set of readings taken in 1992.
+nr si+r q
Table 1A. Size of Iron Age Fortied Residential Towns in Cisjordan (in hectares)
16
Sites in Cisjordan 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Beer-sheba 1
Bethel 1.4+
Beth Shemesh 2.6
Tel Beth Shean 1.4
Tell Beit Mirsim 3
Tel Halif (Lahav) 1
Tell en-Na
.
sbeh 3
Table 1B. Size of Iron Age Fortied Residential Towns in Transjordan (in hectares)
17
Sites in Transjordan 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Tall Dayr #Alla 0.6?
Dibon 3
Lehun (Iron II) 0.8+
Safut 0.5?
Tall al-#Umayri 2
Tall Jawa 2
The north slope of the tell may also have been part of the ancient
settlement. However, only limited archaeological evidence was found
here, because much of this area was destroyed by a road which cuts
into bedrock, ca. 18.00 m from the encircling walls. Further north and
east, extramural occupation has been obscured by the development in
this century of the modern town of Jawa.
Topography (Figs. 1.2, 1.3)
The top of the tell is relatively at (927924 masl), with an ofcial
bench mark (928.00 masl) located on a mound of debris slightly west
of centre. The site is surrounded by a double wall line made of large
boulders, and includes, within the walls, the visible remains of approx-
imately 20 collapsed buildings and one cistern,
18
probably all in use
in the Umayyad period contemporary with Building 600 in Field D.
19
The most recent structures are a series of property walls constructed of
limestone and chert boulders, many positioned above the ancient wall
16
Both Table 1A and 1B are adapted from Daviau 1997c: Table 1. The recent ex-
cavations of Mazar (2001:290) provide updated data for the size of Tel Beth Shean.
17
The size of several sites is only approximate, due to limited excavations or to
damage in modern times that has reduced the extent of the Iron Age remains.
18
These remains are located in Fields D, F, G, and H.
19
The nal report for Building 600 is in preparation.
:o cn\r+rn oxr
Figure 1.2. Topographical Map, by G. Johnson;
working grid showing Fields and Squares (R. Force).
lines. Within the eld walls, limited areas of the tell have been plowed
and used for growing grain. Apparently, this activity has been going on
for some time, since Glueck observed during his visit in 1933 (1934:4)
that the top of the tell had been plowed in preparation for planting.
20
More recently, a certain amount of bulldozer activity on the tell, east of
Field D, formed a scarp through the Iron Age remains. A second series
of levelling activities related to road building and construction were car-
ried out on the south side of the tell, adjacent to Fields AB. On the
south, this cut exposed, and partially destroyed the face of a retaining
wall (Chapter 5, below), but did minimal damage to the tell itself. At
the southwest corner in Field B, a bulldozer cut a path onto the tell;
a second path running east was cut from the levelled area, along the
south side, up onto the east end of the mound, through Field C. Both
of these paths cut through the Iron Age fortication walls.
South of the tell, 16.00 m from Field A, is the mouth of a cistern
in Field S. Documentation and soundings were undertaken in this cave
during 1992. On the west side two modern houses, which belong to
the landowner and his relatives, were founded on bedrock; these prop-
erties are parallel to the casemate wall. In addition, the mouth of a
cave in the bedrock is located between these modern houses, and is
20
Glueck did not mention the modern property walls, which severely restrict exca-
vation. It is possible that these walls had not yet been built.
+nr si+r ::
Figure 1.3. East-west prole, North-south prole, prepared by R. Force.
one of nine caves and/or cisterns documented by the Madaba Plains
Project on the west side of Tall Jawa (MPP Regional survey site #127).
In this area, there are also several stone troughs and a large reservoir.
The proximity of the cisterns to the wall system indicates a consider-
able investment in time and energy devoted to water management in
a region without a local spring (see Chapter 3). In 1989, the #Umayri
Regional Survey team under the direction of J. R. Batteneld carried
out limited documentation and photography of these installations. Due
to the lack of soundings undertaken at MPP Site 127, the date of con-
struction and use of these installations is not known, although Daviau
(1992) observed one cistern in current use on private property.
Beginning 100 m south of the tell, there are two tongues of exposed
bedrock, each measuring approximately 50.00

200.00 m. Evidence
of human activity is most clearly seen in the eastern tongue (MPP
Regional Survey #118; Field M; Fig. 1.4), where numerous quarry
marks, some forming rectangular installations, along with cisterns,
caves, a possible animal herding area, sumps, channels, and a crush-
ing stone are all visible. Two of these installations, designated Cave M-
13 and Wine Treading Floor M-2, were excavated in 1991. Further
documentation of rock-cut installations in Field M was carried out by
Batteneld in 1992. At the present time, the entire area south of the
tell is surrounded by new roads and is being developed into a hous-
ing project. In view of the rapid changes in the area adjacent to the
tell, excavation in 1995 was designed to reach oor level in every Iron
:. cn\r+rn oxr
Figure 1.4. Tall Jawa in relation to Field M.
Age building under excavation, and with this goal accomplished, our
research at Tall Jawa came to an end.
cn\r+rn +vo
EXCAVATION PROJECT AND RECORDING DESIGN
Introduction
Current archaeological research is designed with specic goals in mind,
usually in the form of hypotheses concerning major cultural or societal
change that are tested in long term eld projects, or for information
gathering in the case of short term salvage excavations or surface
surveys. The decision to excavate the mound known at present as Tall
Jawa falls into neither of these categories. This tell was known to exist
from the surveys of travellers and explorers such as Musil (18981902)
and Glueck (19331937), but no subsequent research project had been
formulated that involved its excavation prior to 1989. Instead, it was
part of the overall strategy of the Madaba Plains Project
1
to document
all sites lying in randomly chosen grid squares within a ve kilometre
radius around Tall al-#Umayri (Geraty et al. 1989:3) that brought Tall
Jawa under the purview of . S. LaBianca, director of survey and R.
W. Younker, director of hinterland excavations.
In 1987, LaBianca and Younker prepared a list of several sites that
might add to our knowledge of the settlement patterns and subsistence
strategies of the inhabitants of the Balqa hills bordering the Madaba
Plains on the north. The sites approved by the Department of Antiq-
uities of Jordan included al-Drayjat and Tall Jawa. In order to acquire
additional information concerning Iron Age settlement patterns, the
tell at Jawa was chosen as a possible excavation site in view of the
results of the surface survey conducted by R. Boling in 1984. The
writer, already a member of the Madaba Plains Project, was invited
by the directors to supervise the rst season of excavations in 1989,
due to her previous experience with stratied settlement sites at Tell
1
The Madaba Plains Project was formed to expand the work begun at Tall
.
Hesban
by Siegfried Horn of Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan. The
.
Hesban
excavations (19681978) had been the training ground for many of the archaeologists
who formed the core staff of the Madaba Plains Project in 1984 (Geraty et al. 1989:3
4).
: cn\r+rn +vo
el-Hesi (Israel)
2
and Tall al-#Umayri. The sounding conducted at Tall
Jawa in 1989 was intended to identify various periods within the occu-
pational sequence and conrm the ceramic chronology recovered by
both Glueck and Boling.
3
What followed the 1989 season was a change in strategy for work
at the site, and a plan to expose areas of a site that should prove to
be an enormous resource for a better understanding of the ancient
Ammonites. The rst factor that had an impact on the work at Tall
Jawa was the Gulf War of 19901991. During that year, all Americans
were discouraged from travelling to the Middle East and this travel ban
included Jordan. While Canada had initially issued a travel restraint,
that situation changed by March of 1991, allowing for tourist travel
to Jordan during the summer of that year. As eld director for the
excavations at Tall Jawa, the writer was able to organize a team that
would work at the site for six weeks and represent the Madaba Plains
Project in Jordan for that season. L. T. Geraty, Senior Project Director,
. S. LaBianca, Survey Director, and D. R. Clark, Consortium Direc-
tor provided much needed coordination and assistance. No excavations
were carried out at Tall al-#Umayri, the principal site of the Madaba
Plains Project, nor was the regional survey in the eld, except for LaBi-
ancas assistance with the investigation of Field M at Tall Jawa.
4
The Tall Jawa Excavation Project
Following the 1991 season, it was apparent that the results of two
seasons of excavation provided enough architectural and artefactual
material for the writer to formulate a research design for continued
excavation at the site with a focus on the Iron Age remains. Beginning
in 1992, the Tall Jawa Excavation Project entered the eld with its own
funding and research design. The relationship with the Madaba Plains
Project Consortium, which had contributed so much to the Tall Jawa
excavations in terms of professional standing and specialist support,
2
Daviau was a member of the Joint Expedition to Tell el-Hesi in 1975 (under the
name of Michle Shuell), and in 1977 and 1981 (under her current name).
3
Preliminary reports were published as part of the Madaba Plains Project; see
Younker et al. (1990), Herr (1993), and LaBianca (1995).
4
Rock cut installations (260300 m south of Control Point 2), dating primarily to
the Byzantine period, had been previously identied by the Madaba Plains Project
Regional Survey (Site #118), although full documentation and limited excavations in
Field M were undertaken only in 1991.
rxc\\\+iox \xn nrconnixo :
was changed into a cooperative agreement between two independent
projects;
5
this relationship allowed both teams to share information and
the services of certain specialists. The recording system in use by the
Madaba Plains Project, designed by L. G. Herr, continued to be used at
Tall Jawa, with slight modication (for specic excavation procedures,
see Herr 1989: 213215). This choice represents a commitment to
standardization in recording techniques among scholars working in
central Transjordan.
6
The tradition of running a eld school as an integral part of a
research programme was an important element in the Madaba Plains
Project. So too, the Tall Jawa Project continued this tradition, one
which the director had experienced rst at Morganville, New York,
and later at Tell el-Hesi and Tall al-#Umayri. Although the training of
students may result in an occasional mistake in recording or drawing,
the MPP system is such that all information in preserved through the
detail required on the locus sheets and top plans. The overwhelming
satisfaction of training students certainly outweighs any minor prob-
lems that may result from their initial lack of experience. Most grati-
fying was the growing competence of those students who returned to
Tall Jawa year after year and contributed their expertise and enthusi-
asm.
Excavation Areas
At the outset of excavation, there was no large-scale regional grid in
place at Tall Jawa, comparable to the grid at Tall al-#Umayri. There-
fore, in 1989, a working grid was established that would serve for
the initial season. The location chosen for Field A (see Fig. 1.2) was
based on the topography of the tell, the visibility at ground level of
three parallel wall lines, and the concern that imminent construction
would further damage the tell. In a sense this was an arbitrary decision,
because there was as yet no long-range research strategy for this site.
Four 6.00

6.00 m squares (A1A4) were laid out from south to north,


beginning at the level of bedrock exposed by modern bulldozer activity
5
Daviau assumed sole responsibility as director of excavations at Tall Jawa and
became responsible for the research design, organization, nancial arrangements and
execution of the eld project, and for nal publication.
6
The Tall Jawa recording system is now in use at Khirbat al-Mudayna on the
Wadi ath-Thamad, a research project in Moab that is sponsored by Wilfrid Laurier
University and directed by Daviau.
:6 cn\r+rn +vo
and running up and over the three parallel walls that were almost per-
pendicular to the line of squares. A fth square (A13), east of Square
A3, was also excavated during the rst season.
7
Research Design
The scholarly objectives of the research programme at Tall Jawa, were
1) to dene the basic characteristics of an Iron Age walled town in
central Transjordan in terms of its defensive strategies, its town plan
and its typical economic, political, religious and domestic structures,
and 2) to determine the relationship of Tall Jawa to other nearby
Ammonite settlements. These objectives were further rened in order
to a) classify the particular style of casemate fortications and gate
structure at Tall Jawa, b) determine the types of domestic and public
buildings located within the walled town, c) identify the typological
and technological traditions manifest in various classes of artefacts
and pottery, and determine their place in the processual sequence of
cultural evolution during the Iron Age, and d) situate Tall Jawa in terms
of its political, economic, and socio-technological integration within the
cultural system of the Kingdom of Ammon.
With the development of this research strategy, it was necessary to
further expose and analyse the building plans, room arrangement and
activity areas of the Iron Age II buildings. Already in 1991, Field A had
been expanded to the east (Squares A14, A24), and to the west (as Field
B) along the line of the fortication wall (Squares B63, B64; Figs. 1.2,
6.1). Two other elds were opened in the 1991 season; Field C (west;
C5C6, C16C17; Figs. 1.2, 8.1), located at the point where a terrace
extended south and east of the central town area, and seemed to mark
the end of the outer defence wall, and Field D (D2, D12, D21, D22;
Figs. 1.2, 8.15), where a well-preserved building (B600) was visible
above ground level.
8
7
Field A was laid out by Tim Woodard, a member of the MPP Survey Team,
under the direction of J. R. Batteneld.
8
Control Point 2 (924.462 masl), which marks the western edge of Field C is
located 3.80 m east of the west balk of A53 (in A63) and 2.30 m north of the northwest
corner of C7; Control Point 3 (26.202 masl), marking the southwest corner of D1, is
located due east of CP 2 and 3.33 m east of the east balk of C27. The south balk
of Field D (Squares D1D51) is located north of C37C97, each of these squares
measuring 8.30 m north-south). These points were linked to Field A by Control Point 1
(925.003 masl), located in A3 on the inner casemate wall. Abbas Khammash, Technical
Survey Studies Ofce, #Amman, Jordan, established these control points in 1991.
rxc\\\+iox \xn nrconnixo :
Further testing of the fortication system was planned for the 1992
1995 seasons as part of an attempt to identify further the defensive
strategies of the ancient inhabitants, and to determine the characteris-
tics of the town plan. In view of this goal, Field E (Figs. 1.2, 7.1) was
opened in 1992 directly north of Field B and was expanded in subse-
quent seasons. The western squares of Field B, which ran along the line
of the casemate wall were laid out and excavation began between the
wall and the western tower. So too, the eastern squares in Field C were
laid out over the gate area and designated C-east.
9
Iron Age remains
were present in each of these elds. Only in Field D was there evidence
for the later reuse of part of this site during the Umayyad period.
Field Recording
Recording in the eld made use of the locus sheets of the Madaba
Plains Project, along with additional data sheets, which were designed
by the Tall Jawa team as needed. Individual locus sheets are designed
to record all data for a particular type of feature; these include soil loci,
architectural elements, installations and burials (see CD ROM). The
primary locator for a given locus was the Field+Square; each square
was designated by a eld letter and square number, beginning in the
southwest corner of each eld and running north (110) and east (1
91).
10
In certain instances, the grid at Tall Jawa was modied; at the east
end of Field A, Field C-west cut into several squares along the east side
of Field A (A61A63). Locus numbers in this text are always identied
with the full eld+square designation, and an individual locus num-
ber, separated by a colon (A13:36).
11
Because a certain feature could
run through more than one square, that feature would initially have
more than one locus number. At the time of analysis and description
of such a locus, new numbers were assigned to streamline the system.
9
Robert T. Force, Ontario Land Surveyor, set the corners of squares in Fields B, E,
and C-east. Field E was in line with Field B on the west, and began immediately north
of B10B70+A10A30.
10
This grid is similar to that used at Tell el-Hesi in that the squares were pre-
numbered and did not depend on the sequence of excavation. At Hesi, the elds
were assigned Roman numerals and the squares were labelled Area 1, 2, etc. One
difference is in direction, for example in Field I, Area 1 is located in the northeast
corner and the squares run north to south and east to west (Worrell and Betlyon 1989:
g. 4). At both sites, topography was the primary factor in the layout of the eld.
11
Beginning in 1991, a cleanup locus, assigned the siglum 0.5, was the rst locus in
each square. There is no real depth to this locus, so that topsoil is represented by Locus
1.
:8 cn\r+rn +vo
For example, each wall was assigned a wall number (e.g., A4:5+B64:7
is labelled W1005).
12
For the most part, these numbers are keyed to the
room and building numbers assigned to architectural units in each eld.
Only a few numbers in the range assigned for each eld were used; nev-
ertheless, this numbering system of walls, rooms and buildings allowed
for easier report writing during each eld season. In this text, the siglum
W, R, or B is attached to the number, unless the full word is used imme-
diately before the number (Wall 1005, Room 103, Building 200).
Table 2A. Range of Room, Building, Wall, and Vessel Numbers
Field Room Numbers Building Numbers Wall Numbers Vessel Numbers
Sub-A 001099 001099 10001999 001099
A 100199 100199 10001999 100199
B 200299 200299 20002999 200299
C (west) 800899 800899 80008999 750899
C (east) 900999 900999 90009999 900999
D 700799 700799 70007999 700750
E 300399 300399 30003999 300499
The descriptions of wall construction and of rockfall from the walls,
both in the text and in the running list of loci, refer to the sizes of
stones listed on the locus sheet. Because these sizes are so important to
an understanding of the architecture, they are repeated here.
Table 2B. Sizes of Stones in Iron Age Masonry
Wall Stones Cobble size 0.060.25 m
Small boulder 0.250.50 m
Medium boulder 0.500.75 m
Large boulder 0.751.00 m
Very large boulder 1.00+m
Chinkstones Pebble size 0.0020.06 m
Cobble size 0.060.25 m
Fill stones were given the same sizes as the wall stones.
12
For convenience, a complete list of loci and their descriptions is given on the CD-
ROM; a list of wall numbers and their equivalent locus numbers is found in the
Appendix. Data recording in the eld was the responsibility of the square supervisor,
usually a student with previous experience and training at Tall Jawa in the Field
School Programme. As a precaution against supervisor error, and in order to record
a maximum amount of data, a top plan was prepared for each locus, indicating its
relation to other known loci, and its elevations, both top and bottom.
rxc\\\+iox \xn nrconnixo :q
Material Culture Registration
According to the Madaba Plains Project system, diagnostic ceramic
sherds are registered according to Field+Square, Pail and Item num-
ber (A3.25.1), with each item separated by a period. Diagnostic sherds
include rims, bases, handles, and sherds that are painted, incised or
reect special surface treatment. This system was in use during all
subsequent seasons. In addition, after the rst season, an attempt was
made to save all red slipped and all black burnished sherds, as well as
all body sherds that could be reconstructed. In order to indicate a spe-
cic vessel, each partially reconstructed pot was assigned a vessel num-
ber, which is linked in the pottery database to the individual sherds that
went to make up that vessel (for example, V151=A3.28.2+A3.39:8;
Daviau, in preparation).
13
Objects were given running numbers (TJ 12238) with Field+
Square, Pail, and Object number (E54.110.1119; Daviau 2002:20
23).
14
Since object numbers never repeat, an individual item is occa-
sionally referred to by the last number in the sequence (e. g., Figurine
TJ 1119). Reworked sherds are also numbered consecutively, but only
in the range of 101499, and are distinguished from objects by the
addition of the year (92/108). Potters marks are numbered with their
year in the range of 500799 (93/508), and sherds that show evidence
of technological change or unique aspects of the potters craft (mend
holes, etc.) were registered in the range of 800999 (94/814). In those
cases where a sherd was also diagnostic, it received two registration
numbers.
Using this Report
In this report, the stratigraphic history of the settlement at Tall Jawa is
described, beginning with the evidence for an Iron Age I village (Chap-
ter 4). Following the destruction of this village, a fortication system
13
Iron Age I collared-rim pithos sherds that represent a distinct vessel were assigned
vessel numbers in the range 199 (Sub-A), even if they were found in elds where all
the architecture dates to Iron Age II.
14
For the 1989 season, all Tall Jawa objects were entered in the MPP running object
list, with a U prex, indicating #Umayri. When these objects were turned over to
the Tall Jawa project in 1992, they were re-numbered and assigned TJ numbers in
the range 1100. For the 1991 season, a new system was adopted for the Tall Jawa
excavations (for details, see Daviau 2002:2022), and object registration began with
number TJ 101.
.o cn\r+rn +vo
was constructed and in use during Strata VIII and VII (middle-late
Iron Age II; Chapter 5). This is followed by a description of each
major building, including details of construction, room arrangement,
and artefact and pottery distribution within each room (Chapters 69).
Additional analytical studies are also included which relate to archi-
tectural styles, building materials and built-in features or installations
preserved in the Iron Age buildings, and an analysis of lime plaster
in use on wall and oor surfaces (Chapters 1011). A chronological
synthesis of the settlement history and notes on the political history of
the Ammonites attempt to place Tall Jawa in its cultural and histori-
cal context (Chapters 1213).
15
This volume concludes with a descrip-
tion of the design and utilization of the CD-ROM (Chapter 14), which
includes a list of loci, photographs, top plans, and section drawings for
the principal Iron Age buildings. Additional analysis has been reserved
for Excavations at Tall Jawa, Jordan, Vol. V: Survey and Ethography. This will
include studies of activity areas and artefact distribution, a typology of
the lithics and an analysis of the faunal material from the Iron Age
town, as well as a report on survey work and salvage excavations in the
vicinity.
15
This volume is primarily a level III report with the inclusion of level IV synthesis;
these levels of publication are those discussed in Steiner (2001:3), where she distin-
guishes Level III, full illustration and description of all structural and stratigraphical
relationships from Level IV, synthesized descriptions with supporting data.
cn\r+rn +nnrr
PRELIMINARY GEOLOGICAL
OVERVIEW OF TALL JAWA
Dotor\s W. Scnxtnnrxnrnorn
Introduction
Tall Jawa
1
is situated at the crest of an east-west ridge approximately
928.00 m above sea level, at Palestine Grid coordinates of 238.2/140.8
(Fig. 3.1). The site overlooks the southerly draining Wadi al-Hinu/Wadi
Umm al-Kudsh, to the west and the Wadi Hinu al-Marashida to the
east. The low relief topography of the Madaba plains stretches off to
the south and the southeast with Tall Jawa obtaining a commanding
view of this region.
The ridge on which Tall Jawa is located slopes steeply down into
Wadi al-Hinu/Umm al Kudsh to the west. To the north, the slope is
somewhat more gentle, leading down into the broad wadi bottom of
Wadi Hinu al-Marashida. To the south and east the slope is very gentle
comprising exposed bedrock ledges and thin soil mantles.
Regional Geology
Throughout the region investigated by the Madaba Plains Project, the
bedrock exposed at the surface consists of Middle to Upper Cretaceous
carbonates, phosphorites and cherts. Quenell (1951) divided this Upper
Cretaceous succession into an upper part, termed the Balqa Series (now
Balqa Group) and a lower portion, termed the Ajlun Series (now Ajlun
Group). In general, the younger, Balqa Series, possessed a greater pro-
portion of siliceous lithologies (cherts and siliceous limestones). Later
authors have further subdivided these two stratigraphic units as dis-
cussed by Schnurrenberger (1991).
1
The editor has substituted certain changes in orthography and added certain
information in order to update this chapter, which was rst written in 1991.
.. cn\r+rn +nnrr
Figure 3.1. Location Map of Tall Jawa in central Jordan.
Local Bedrock Geology
Tall Jawa lies at the southeasterly contact between two upper Creta-
ceous carbonate units (Fig. 3.2). The lowermost carbonate unit (and
oldest) is locally termed the Wadi Sir Formation (Masri 1963:Ktws).
Bender (1968) and Grieger and Tuqan (1963) labelled the Wadi Sir
formation, the Massive Limestone Member, for the Jordanian national
map. The upper, largely carbonate unit, is the lowermost part of the
Amman formation of Masri (1963:Kcaa). Bender (1968) split the rocks
into the upper Massive limestone Member (comprising the Wadi al-
Ghudran Formation) and the Silicied Limestone Member (Table 3A).
oroon\rnv .
Figure 3.2. Bedrock and structural geology in the vicinity of Tall Jawa.
The upper portion of the Wadi Sir Formation is a somewhat thinly
and occasionally thickly-bedded, chalky limestone, with nari partings,
chalky limestone and occasional chert nodules. The lower limestone
units are relatively resistant to weathering and form small cliffs, or steps,
in the hillside, visible across the wadi from Tall Jawa. The relatively
thin, overlying Wadi al-Ghudran formation consists predominantly of
non-competent yellowish marls and chalks. Due to the ease with which
this formation is eroded, the Wadi al-Ghudran formation is not visible
in section, being always covered by colluvium. Overlying these rocks,
the lower #Amman Formation consists of thin to thickly-bedded, brown,
brecciated chert beds. The chert beds are readily apparent beneath
the crest of the hill and serve as a marker bed for the lower #Amman
Formation.
Both the ridge on which Tall Jawa was constructed, as well as the
small hilltop approximately 300 m to the northwest of the tell, owe
their existence to a resistant capping of the chert beds at the base of
the Amman Formation. The more gently sloping surface to the south
of the site, the surface of which is pocked with rock cut features, marks
the upper surface of the Wadi Sir formation. Here the overlying resis-
. cn\r+rn +nnrr
tant chert beds and marl beds have been previously removed by ero-
sion. Across the surface of this unit are numerous intact and collapsed
caverns. There features represent exposure through erosion of ancient
karst systems.
Quaternary Sediments
The late Quaternary sedimentary ll of the tell was not subjected to
intensive analysis. However, the preliminary examination of the initial
squares (A1A4 in 1989) makes possible the following comments con-
cerning the derivation of the sediment making up the site.
The late Quaternary ll consists of very poorly sorted, matrix-
supported, silty clays with numerous angular to sub-angular limestone
and chert gravel fragments. These sediments are primarily anthro-
pogenic in origin, intermixed with probably considerable loess from the
surrounding Madaba Plains.
Table 3A. Stratigraphic position of the Upper Cretaceous carbonate formations underlying
Tall Jawa
2
2
Modied after Khalid (1985). Coloured portion indicates those formations under-
lying the site. Group names after Quenell (1951). Member names after various authors.
oroon\rnv .
References
Bender. F.
1974 Geology of Jordan. In Contributions to the Regional Geology of the Earth, ed.
H. J. Marini. Supplementary Edition of Volume 7. Berlin: Gebruder Bor-
traeger.
Grieger, J. and Z. Tuqan
1963 Geology and phosphorite possibilities in the area between Ruseifa and
Jiza. Unpublished report of the Natural Resources Authority. Amman.
Khalid, M. B.
1985 Sedimentology and microfacies of the Wadi Sir Formation in the Ajlun-
Irbid area with a review of Turonian Lithostratigraphy in the Middle East.
Unpublished Thesis, University of Jordan.
Masri, M. R.
1963 Report on the Geology of the Amman-Zarqa area. Unpublished report of
the Natural Resources Authority, Amman.
Quenell, A. M.
1951 The Geology and Mineral Resources of (former) Transjordan. Colonial
Geology and Mineral Resources 2:85115.
Schnurrenberger, D. W.
1991 Preliminary Comments on the Geology of the Tell el-#Umeiri Region.
Pp. 370376 in Madaba Plains Project 2. The 1987 Season at Tell el- #Umeiri and
Vicinity and Subsequent Studies. eds. L. G. Herr, L. T. Geraty, . S. LaBianca
and R. W. Younker. Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press.
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PART TWO
STRATIGRAPHIC EXCAVATIONS AT TALL JAWA
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cn\r+rn rotn
EVIDENCE FOR AN IRON AGE I SETTLEMENT
FIELD A: THE DEEP SOUNDING (1989)
Introduction
Several important Iron Age I settlements, including Sa
.
hab (Ibrahim
1974, 1975) and Tall al-#Umayri (Clark 1996, 1997) provide evidence
for occupation in the land of the B en #Ammn, south of Rabbat-
#Ammon.
1
At these two sites, only limited areas of the Iron Age I
settlements have been exposed, so that the character of these settle-
ments is not fully known.
2
Tall al-#Umayri was fortied with a casemate
wall and contained one or more houses built up against the wall sys-
tem. The most important nds here consist of a complete house that
had standing pillars to support the roof and an adjoining storeroom
between the inner and outer casemate walls, a room that was lled with
storejars containing a variety of food stuffs (Clark 1997:64; gs. 4.11
19). The ceramic forms, primarily the storejars with collared-rim, are
the best indicator that this site was occupied during Iron Age I (Herr
2001:241242; gs. 14.2, 14.3). Similar rim forms, found at Tall Jawa,
are evidence that here, too, there was a settlement during Iron I. Finds
at Sa
.
hab, 8 km to the east (Ibrahim 1978), and at Balu# in Moab
(Worschech 1992: g. 2:13) conrm the widespread use of the dis-
tinctive collared-rim storejars, although these are short-necked forms,
and probably date to the late Iron I or early Iron II period.
The complete sequence of Iron Age occupational phases in Field A
at Tall Jawa was identied only at the end of ve seasons of excavation.
While that sequence was further rened in the nal season (1995),
1
This is not to say that there was not earlier occupation at these sites; clearly there
was a signicant Early Bronze Age settlement at Tall al-#Umayri, with some reuse of
the site during the Middle Bronze and Late Bronze Ages (Geraty et al. 1989; Herr et al.
1991). However, occupation was hardly continuous.
2
At Sa
.
hab, this is due to the presence of a modern town above the ancient remains.
The location of the excavation areas is shown on the 1980 base maps (Ibrahim 1989:
gs. 2, 3).
o cn\r+rn rotn
enough was then known to identify the phasing for the major Iron
Age structures in Fields AB (Chapter 6) and correlate them with
nds from Field E (Chapter 7). In a deep probe in Field A (Square
A13), sections of the earliest walls on the mound were uncovered below
the level of the Stratum-IX fortication wall (Herr et al. 1991:170).
So too, in Field C-east (Square C71), it became apparent that there
were earlier walls (Stratum X) adjacent to and immediately under
certain sections of the Stratum IX wall system, suggesting the presence
of occupation from Iron Age I (Herr et al. 1991:170).
3
Although no
complete rooms or buildings from this occupation phase were exposed,
a considerable amount of pottery in the ll layers and ceilings of
later buildings (Strata IX, VIII), along with a small group of Late
Bronze Age sherds (Bienkowski, personal communication), support the
hypothesis of an Iron Age settlement.
History of Excavation (Figs. 4.1, 2)
In Field A, three squares north of the fortication system were opened
in 1989 to investigate the architectural remains inside the ancient town.
Squares A3 and A4 ran south to north, with an additional square (A13)
located east of Square A3. The strategy for the rst season was to
explore the remains of settlement at the site and determine the con-
struction history and function of various buildings adjacent to the wall
system. At the same time, a deep sounding to determine the complete
chronological history of the site was opened along the west side of
Square A13. The sounding was not continued below Iron Age I lev-
els due to the depth of the trench, and because other research strategies
gained priority following the rst season of excavation. The primary
reason for this modication of excavation goals was the fact that Tall
Jawa was a virgin site with no previous history of excavation, a fact that
suggested good preservation of the town plan. Only evidence from pre-
vious surface surveys, incomplete by their very nature and hampered by
the degree of preservation of the surrounding Iron Age II wall system,
was available before excavation began (Chapter 1, above). Subsequent
3
Pottery recovered in the deep sounding has been re-examined in relation to the
known wares and forms assigned to Iron Age II. Only one sherd (TJ A13.101.7),
originally identied as Middle Bronze Age, is anomalous. All other sherds that are
not Iron Age II or Umayyad (Stratum III) can, with a certain degree of certainty, be
assigned to Stratum X, Iron Age I.
inox \or i occtr\+iox :
Figure 4.1. Excavation Grid in Field A.
to the 1989 season, it was apparent that horizontal exposure of struc-
tures inside the town was essential for understanding the plan of each
building and the overall layout of this Ammonite town.
. cn\r+rn rotn
Table 4A. Strata for the Deep Sounding in Field A
STRATUM FIELD PHASE(S) PERIOD
IAIB 12 modern
II no remains post-Umayyad
III pottery only Umayyad
IV no remains Byzantine
V no remains Roman
VI no remains Persian
VII no remains Late Iron II
VIIIA 3/reuse Middle Iron II
VIIIB 4/casemate wall Middle Iron II
IX 5/solid Wall Early Iron II
X 6/destruction debris Iron I
XI pottery only Late Bronze
STRATUM X THE DEEP SOUNDING BUILDING 50
The sounding in Square A13 extended along the west side of the
square and measured 2.00

5.00 m long;
4
this probe ended at the point
where it ran up against the north face of Inner Casemate Wall W1010.
Following the removal of a Stratum-VIII north-south wall (W1009),
which was located along the east edge of the trench, the sounding was
expanded in width to 2.50 m. Excavation below Wall 1009 made it
possible to uncover the earliest architectural features. These features
consist of burnt mud bricks and two stone foundation walls (W1015,
W1016) forming the southeast corner of a structure (Building 50). Both
walls are constructed of small and medium limestone boulders ranging
in size from 0.250.70 m, with cobble chink stones.
5
Although the limits
of the sounding prevented complete exposure of these walls, it appears
that north-south Wall 1016 extends 2.50 m from the north balk to the
point where it abuts east-west Wall 1015 (Fig. 4.3). Four courses of Wall
1015 were exposed along its north face yielding a minimum height
of 1.30 m and a thickness of 0.65 m. Wall 1016 runs parallel to a
subsidiary balk along its eastern face, so that its true thickness could
not be determined with certainty. The eastern edge of Wall 1016 is also
obscured by wall stones that have slipped off of the remaining courses;
4
Initially, the probe was 4.32 m in length, due to the accumulation of eld stones
that covered the ancient wall along the crest of the mound.
5
The present tense is used wherever possible to give the impression that the reader
sees the archaeological record in the same manner as the excavators.
inox \or i occtr\+iox
Figure 4.2. Field A at beginning of excavation in 1989,
showing modern eld walls and location of deep probe (A13:2).
nevertheless, this wall appears to be in the range of 0.800.90 m thick.
No surfaces in use with these walls were reached, nor have any other
remains of Stratum X been exposed in other areas of the tell, apart
from isolated ceramic sherds. As a result, the debris layers described
here date to the nal destruction phase of Stratum X, rather than to its
period of construction or use.
cn\r+rn rotn
Figure 4.3. Building 50, with Walls 1015 and W1016 in deep probe.
A series of superimposed debris layers associated with Walls 1015
and 1016 consist of soil and burned mud bricks. The collapsed mud
brick superstructure was separated into several loci for better control
(A13: 29, 33, 35; Figs. 4.5, 6). In the corner formed by the two foun-
dation walls, the bricks within the lowest layer of debris (A13:35) are
grey, suggesting that they had been smothered by the overlying collapse.
Within this concentration of mud brick collapse, the largest complete
brick measures 0.65

0.35

0.15 m thick.
6
Where this brick superstruc-
ture underwent severe burning, it became bright red and stained the
surrounding soil layers (A13:35).
The bricks were sealed by a layer of mud brick and plaster material
(A13:33), possibly ceiling material, and by fallen stones. These collapsed
wall stones (A13:32), also present immediately above Walls 1015 and
6
D. Wimmer (personal communication, #Amman, 1991) showed the author a brick
of comparable size from Tall Safut, that he dated to the Iron Age I. Photographs of
individual features are illustrated on the CD-ROM, along with a database that provides
detailed locus information and a caption (see Chapter 14).
inox \or i occtr\+iox
Figure 4.4. Iron Age I Walls 1016 and W1015 at right.
1016, consist of small (0.250.50 m) and large (ca. 0.75+m) boulders
and cobble-size chink stones. This collapse probably represents the
destruction of the topmost courses of Walls 1015 and 1016, which were
disturbed by the collapse of the mud brick superstructure. Mud bricks
and stones continue in the uppermost debris layer (A13:29), which
serves as a ll layer below the succeeding Iron Age II building (B113).
This Iron Age I destruction debris (A13:29) was sealed in turn by
Stratum-VIIIB Debris Layer A13:26, a locus which was contemporary
with Surfaces A3:30 and A3:31 (Room 123; see below, Chapter 6). The
assemblage of ceramic sherds, artefacts and animal bones in this debris
locus (A13:26) appears to be a continuation of the food preparation
and/or consumption activities carried out in Room 123 (Building 113,
Stratum VIII).
6 cn\r+rn rotn
Figure 4.5. North balk, showing position of
W1016 in relation to Stratum-VIII Wall 1009.
Figure 4.6. West balk, showing the collapse of
debris layers A13:33, 29, 35 in Building 50.
Pottery and Artefacts
Early Iron Age II pottery
7
dominated the debris layers above the col-
lapse of the Stratum X structure. However, it was in these layers also
that large numbers of pottery sherds from Iron Age I were present.
8
In
Stratum X itself, the oors in use with Walls 1015 and 1016 were not
7
During the 1989 season, R. W. Younker read the pottery with the assistance of the
author. L. G. Herr served as consultant for less well-known forms and wares.
8
The sherd material was present in oor surfaces and in overlying debris layers
that may represent collapsed ceiling material. Because the Iron Age II buildings at Tall
Jawa were not destroyed by re, their ceilings decomposed over the centuries and were
extremely difcult to separate from other debris layers.
inox \or i occtr\+iox
reached, with the result that there are no intact or restorable vessels
in the Iron I corpus. Also because of the nature of the loci involved
(A13:32, 33, 35), few artefacts were recovered, with the exception of
one spindle whorl (TJ 93) that came from the debris which was adja-
cent to the Stratum X walls.
Collared-rim Pithoi
By far, the most distinctive Iron Age I form is the collared-rim pithos.
These vessels are well represented, with more than 15 examples in
Field A,
9
although only a small sample of the various types is presented
here.
10
Both the rim and the collar vary in shape from one vessel to
another, similar to the variety of rim forms seen in the pithoi from
Tall al-#Umayri (Herr 2001). Although not identical, these large jars
appear to be the closest parallel to the Tall Jawa jars. In general, the
rims are folded and are supported on a tall neck, some aring out
(V10, Fig. 4.7:2, V16, Fig. 4.7:3) and others standing more upright
(V8, Fig. 4.7:1). These pithoi all have a thickened rim, with no clear
break at the point where it joins the neck.
11
In some examples, there is
a mid-neck ridge, above the collar (V10; Fig. 4.7:2) and a large, sharply
dened collar. The collar was pinched to form a sharp angle or was
left rounded. Most unusual among the Tall Jawa jars is one pithos (V9)
with a rounded collar, which is actually attened in some places around
the neck. The closest parallel, although not an exact one, is among the
pithoi in the casemate room at Tall al-#Umayri (Clark 1997: g. 4.17).
Another close, but not exact, parallel comes from Shiloh (Bunimovitz
and Finkelstein 1993: g. 6.49:4), and a pithos from
.
Hesban with a
rounded collar is dated by Sauer (1994:239) to Iron Age IB.
In the examples of pithoi with more upright neck, the rim is folded
in two with a clear break where it meets the neck (V11, Fig. 4.7:4;
V12); at the base of the neck, the collar is small and neat. Good
parallels for this form also appear at Shiloh (Bunimovitz and Finkelstein
1993: g. 6.51:4; Buhl and Holm-Nielsen 1969: pl. 10:123), Bethel
(Albright and Kelso 1968: pl. 56:15), and at Tall al-#Umayri, both in the
9
Additional sherds of collared-rim pithoi were recovered from debris layers in
Fields C and E.
10
A complete study of all Iron Age I forms, their ware types and construction
techniques will be included in a forthcoming study of the Iron Age pottery (Daviau,
in preparation).
11
This style of rim was already in use at Beth Shan in Level VIII (13
th
century;
James and McGovern 1993: g. 32:4).
8 cn\r+rn rotn
casemate room in Field B (Clark 1997: g. 4.19:9), and in Field F (Low
1991: g. 8.9). Although 25 pithoi have been published to date from
Tall al-#Umayri, this corpus does not provide any parallels for several of
the Tall Jawa forms.
12
The most notable difference is the length of the
neck between the rim and the collar. As well, the size and shape of the
body should be an important feature for comparison, but this can only
be inferred from the slope of the shoulder, since only rim sherds were
recovered at Tall Jawa.
Cooking Pots
Another vessel type with a distinctive rim is the cooking pot. In early
Iron Age I, this rim is usually triangular in shape and everted in stance,
forming a wide mouthed pot (Rast 1978: g. 2:26). At Tall Jawa, the
stance of the upper body and rim differs from contemporary vessels
in Israel and Judah. In this case, the rim stance is upright, rather
than everted (sherd A2/67.11, Fig. 4.8:1), closer in style to the Type
1 cooking pots from Tall Dayr #Alla (Franken 1969: gs. 27; 46:1).
A folded, rectangular rim form also appears, although this is more
difcult to distinguish from the folded rim form used in Iron Age II,
albeit with a very different stance because in Iron II the pot becomes a
closed vessel.
Kraters
Several examples of kraters (V4, Fig. 4.7:5; V7, Fig. 4.7:6) are repre-
sented among the large bowl forms. Vessels with an everted rim, similar
to Vessel 4, appear in the later phases at Tall Dayr #Alla (Phase L; mid
10
th
century; Franken 1969: g. 75:93), while V7 has a parallel in Phase
F (Franken 1969: g. 62:25). Krater V7 also has a parallel at Tall al-
#Umayri (Clark 1991: g. 4.7:20).
Bowls
Small bowls come in a variety of sizes and fabrics. Of note is a thin
walled, cyma rim bowl (V1), similar to Frankens Type 14, which he
identies as an early form (1969:151). At the same time, a second bowl
with an everted rim (V3; Fig. 4.8:2) appears to be a shallow dish, rather
than a deep bowl, with the result that the rim is somewhat more everted
that the Tall Dayr #Alla examples.
12
It should be noted that the so-called Iron I pithoi from Edom (Finkelstein 1992:
g. 2) are very different in their formal features, and in fact may be later, since pithoi
inox \or i occtr\+iox q
Figure 4.7. Collared-rim pithoi, 1) V8 (A13/88.2), 2) V10 (A14/36.1), 3) V16
(E54/172.20), 4) V11 (A13/106.1); kraters, 5) V4 (A13/104.3), 6) V7 (A13/126.2).
Figure 4.8. Cooking pot, 1) sherd (A2/67.11); bowls, 2) V3 (A13/114.10),
3) V2 (A13/106.3), 4) V15 (A13/78.1); Jug, 5) sherd TJA13/113.1.
with grooves on the upper part of the shoulder continue in Transjordan throughout
Iron Age II (Daviau 1995).
o cn\r+rn rotn
Bowls with an upright, thickened rim appear in both unpainted gray
metallic ware (V2, Fig. 4.8:3), and white slipped with reddish-brown
painted bands on the interior surface (V15, Fig. 4.8:4). White slip and
painted decoration also appears on the exterior surface of a thin walled
body sherd (A13/93.1). Other examples of painted decoration appear
on unslipped body sherds (see below). Bowls with a pink slip and
brown paint appear in the Iron Age I ceramic corpus at Tall al-#Umayri
(Clark 2000: g. 4.31:20).
Storejars
Due to the small amount of sherd material recovered from secure Iron I
loci, it is difcult to identify storage jar sherds. In some instances, jar
rims share the same shape as jug rims, although the fabric and surface
colours are somewhat different. Rim forms are either simple rounded
rims, or externally thickened rims.
Jugs
Iron Age I jugs are easily distinguished from Iron Age II material, due
to their gray fabric and gray surface colour (2.5YR 6/0).
13
However,
only a small number of rim styles occur, represented primarily by a tall,
externally thickened, triangular rim (V14; sherd A13/113.1, Fig. 4.8:5),
or by a folded trefoil rim (V13). Examples of complete, biconical jugs
with gray fabric are present in the Iron Age I pottery assemblage at
Tall al-#Umayri (Clark 2000: g. 2.30:16, 19).
Painted Pottery
Apart from the gray ware that is so distinctive in the class of small jugs,
painted sherds also indicate Iron Age I occupation. At Tall Jawa, only
a small number are present in the corpus. Nevertheless, several vessel
types are represented, including shallow bowls, jugs, pyxides, and asks.
In the bowl forms, a white slip is sometimes present, along with a red-
brown painted band (Fig. 4.8:4). Most common is the lattice design in
red paint on an unslipped surface. Sauer (1986: gs. 1112) illustrates
sherds with similar design among the nds from
.
Hesban; as well, two
13
The sherds assigned to Iron Age I are very distinctive, in that the fabric is gray
and not just the core. In addition, the colour of gray can vary, especially among the
bowls and jars where a light gray fabric, with distinctive black and white inclusions,
clearly separates these wares from Iron Age II wares. In the case of the latter, the fabric
is penetrated by the heat at ring and appears pink, while only the inner core is gray.
inox \or i occtr\+iox :
pyxides with paint on the shoulder area are reported from Tall al-
#Umayri (Clark 2000: g. 4.32:7, 8).
The Nature of the Iron I Settlement
With such limited exposure, it is not possible on the basis of the archi-
tectural remains to adequately characterize the settlement at Tall Jawa
during Iron Age I. However, two hypotheses can be put forward; rst,
the settlement consisted of structures with stone foundations and mud
brick walls, and secondly, the destruction of the Iron I buildings pre-
ceded the construction of the Inner Casemate Wall (W1010). This
sequence is clearly seen in the position of the base of Wall 1010, which
was marked by a row of cobble size stones (A13:38); these stones were
located in the debris layer (A13:29) that covered the Iron I destruction.
The soil (A13:40) under Wall 1010 remains unexcavated.
The pottery is a better indicator of the nature of the settlement. The
full range of domestic vessels appears to be represented, bowls, kraters,
cooking pots, jugs, jars, pithoi, and lamps; in this corpus, only juglets
seem to be under-represented. The well-balanced distribution of formal
types associated with food preparation and consumption, along with
the large number of storage vessels suggest a permanent settlement,
in use for a period of time before the re that destroyed Building 50.
The contamination of Iron Age II surfaces and ceilings by Iron Age I
pottery makes it impossible to determine the exact location of other
buildings in use at the same time as Building 50, except to say that
in Fields C-west, D, and E, the Iron Age II houses were founded on
bedrock and there is no evidence for Iron I structures in these elds. In
the southeast (Field C-east), Iron I pottery in the form of a collared-
rim pithos (V921) was recovered from a probe below the agstone
pavement (C65:21) in Room 908 (Stratum VIIB).
14
Since Building 910
was founded on bedrock along its north end, it is not clear whether
the debris layer containing these Iron I sherds is the result of an
extension of the Iron Age I settlement into Field C, or only a ll layer
needed to level the south end of the gate building above the rapidly
sloping bedrock. In Field E on the north, several Iron Age I sherds
were present in debris layers (oor makeup, collapsed ceiling material),
14
Three sherds, clearly originating from an illicit probe in Room 908, mend with
one registered sherd from inter-seasonal accumulation in Room 907 (V021). A second
collared-rim pithos sherd (C65/51.4), similar to sherds with manganese burnishing
from Field A, was present in a probe excavated in 1995 in Room 908 (C65:31).
. cn\r+rn rotn
including gray ware shallow bowls (E65/124.2) and collared-rim pithoi
(E75/31.2, 32.7, 58.12, 74.0; and V016). In spite of this evidence for
Iron I occupation, it was only in Field A that there was architectural
evidence for this early settlement.
The southern perimeter of the Iron Age I settlement can no longer
be identied with certainty, due to the later construction of the forti-
cation system and to modern bulldozer activity which removed the
slope of the tell below the outermost retaining wall (W1001). Assum-
ing that the slope continued gently to the south from the preserved top
of Wall 1001, as it does in Field C to the east, one could imagine the
Iron Age I settlement spreading over the entire southwestern side of the
mound. Debris layers north of Retaining Wall 1001 contained a large
number of Iron I sherds, although they were located primarily in the
Iron II rooms north of the outer solid wall (W1003). Since Retaining
Wall 1001 was founded on bedrock (A1:3), it may have served as a
perimeter wall during Stratum X, although the necessary relationship
to Iron Age I soil layers was not determined during excavation.
In Field C, south of the three late Iron Age II buildings (B800,
900, 905+910) which were excavated in whole or in part (Chapters
8, 9), there is evidence for a retaining wall (8036), which runs east
on the south slope of the mound (C2:2=W8036). This wall is also
visible in the scarp of the bulldozer cut that removed the slope of the
mound further west (in Field A). Wall 8036 may be a continuation
of Wall 1001 in Field A. If we assign Wall 8036 to the Iron Age II
period, it appears that Tall Jawa was an unwalled settlement during
Iron Age I. The establishment of an unfortied village is comparable to
the Iron I settlements at Hazor and Lachish, following the destruction
of the Late Bronze Age urban centres (Lemche 1985:390). Stratum XII
at Hazor had little in the way of architecture, except for a few walls,
pavements, ovens and pits (Yadin et al. 1989:2528).
15
The ovens are
of special interest, because they consist of the upper part of an inverted
pithos, a style that continues at Hazor into Iron II (Yadin et al. 1989:25),
and is the dominant style at Tall Jawa in Stratum VIII. At Lachish, the
development of an unwalled settlement in Stratum V appears to date to
late Iron I, rather than earlier in that period. Houses were built along
the crest of the tell, above the Late Bronze Age debris, in order to form
a line of defence (Ussishkin 1983:116; g. 9). The pottery from these
15
In 1972, Yadin characterized the Iron I settlement as a group of circular founda-
tions, ovens and pits (Yadin 1972: 129).
inox \or i occtr\+iox
houses is red slipped with vertical burnishing, closer in style to nds
from Stratum IX rather than Stratum X at Tall Jawa. Closer in time to
early Iron I is the nal reuse of Stratum VI at Lachish, which has only
been exposed in Area S (Ussishkin 1983:114; g. 8).
The best parallel for occupation during three distinct phases of
Iron I is the unwalled site of #Izbet
.
Sar
.
tah (Finkelstein 1986). Following
the destruction of the earliest settlement (Stratum III), the site was
resettled; a small number of houses and numerous pits constitute the
Stratum II settlement. In the nal phase, there were fewer pits; it is
this stratum (I) that dates to the late 11
th
-early 10
th
century. Iron I at
Tell Beit Mirsim is also characterized by a settlement in which the
remains of architecture were minimal, but where pits or silos were
numerous (Albright 1943:1; pl. 2). Of more relevance for Tall Jawa
are the small, unprotected sites that appear throughout the central
hill country, where groups of sites were located in the hinterland of
large Late Bronze Age cities (Lemche 1985:393). Such settlements also
appear in the Samaria area and are described in detail by Finkelstein,
Lederman and Bunimovitz (1997). If Tall Jawa in Transjordan was
also an unwalled village, it was considerably different from the site
of Tall al-#Umayri, which was surrounded by a strong casemate wall
with casemate rooms that were an integral part of the adjoining house
(Clark 1997: g. 4.8; 1996:241).
16
This does not mean that these sites
were not contemporary, only that these settlements were different in
their function or in their need for fortication. In the end, both sites
were destroyed in major conagrations. Of these two sites, only Tall
Jawa was rebuilt in early Iron Age II (Stratum IX).
16
The revised illustration of the pillared house with a roofed lower storey (Bloch-
Smith and Nakhai 1999:113) is much more convincing in terms of construction tech-
niques (Daviau 1999:122, n. 22; 128129, n. 27) than the original drawing in Clark
(1996).
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cn\r+rn ri\r
THE FORTIFICATION WALLS AND TOWERS
Introduction
With few exceptions, no Iron Age fortication walls standing to their
full height survive in the archaeological record.
1
This fact has led
archaeologists to assume that, in most cases, ancient walls were con-
structed of stone foundations with a mud brick superstructure. Al-
though mud brick recovered in situ occurs primarily in Bronze Age
occupation levels (Wright 1985:175), some evidence remains at Iron
Age sites located in coastal or semi-arid regions.
2
Our current knowl-
edge of Iron Age defence systems is based, for the most part, on the
partially preserved remains of the stone foundations used to support
the superstructure of walls, gate rooms, and towers that are no longer
preserved.
Several phases of the Iron Age fortication system at Tall Jawa were
uncovered in three excavation areas; Field E on the north (E44E76),
Fields B and A on the west and south (B16B14 and B24A13), and
Field C on the southeast (C-west [C5C7 and A73]; C-east [C43
63 and C62C81). Visible at ground level, the complete perimeter of
the casemate system can be traced around the tell,
3
with the inner
wall along its crest (Fig. 5.1) and the outer wall lower down on the
slope (except in Field B, see below). The defensive wall consists rst of
a solid wall with offsets and insets along its outer face (Stratum IX),
followed by a casemate system with parallel walls joined by cross walls
at intervals, forming interior rooms or compartments (Stratum VIII).
1
Wright (1985:175) notes that the stone wall at Tell en-Na
.
sbeh, preserved to a
height of 14.00 m was probably very close to complete.
2
Examples of the extensive use of mud brick for defensive walls include both the
Early Bronze Age wall and the Iron Age citadel wall at Tell el-Hesi (Rose and Toombs
1978: gs. 17a, 14/4, respectively), the Middle Bronze Age gate at Tel Dan (Biran
1981:104; pl. 19A), and the casemate wall system at Tell el-Kheleifeh (Pratico 1993:26
27).
3
The casemate wall was not drawn east of Field E, although the topography
indicates the position of the fortications.
6 cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.1. Casemate Wall system in Field E to the north, Fields E and B to
the west, Fields B and A to the southwest, and Field C to the southeast.
The sloping soil layers below the outer wall are held in place by
retaining walls visible on both the north and south sides of the tell.
This chapter will present a detailed description and analysis of the
fortication system and its associated features, based on the sampling
strategy employed during six seasons of excavation.
History of Excavation
In the rst season (1989), excavation in Field A on the southwest slope
of the tell included three Squares (A1A3), running south to north
across the three parallel walls visible at ground level. At the base of
the tell, the face of a boulder-and-chink wall (W1001) was completely
exposed in Square A1. A second parallel wall (W1002), located midway
on the slope, was visible at intervals. The innermost wall (W1004)
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx
ran along the crest of the slope and was partly obscured by a modern
property wall (W1031; Herr et al. 1991: pl. III.1).
4
The strategy for the
rst season was to expose this defensive wall system, determine its char-
acteristics, construction history and chronology relative to architectural
remains inside the town (Daviau 1992b:145).
Based on the results of the rst season, additional exposure of the
wall system was undertaken in 1991, both to the west of Field A
(in Square B63), and at what appeared to be the east end of the
casemates in Square C7 (Field C-west). The constraints on complete
excavation of the wall system led to the further development of a
research strategy that included the sampling of the fortications at
strategic points along its perimeter; in 1992, Field E on the north side
of the tell and Field C-east were opened. For the following seasons, the
specic areas of interest were located in Field B, where the wall formed
a right angle in the southwest corner, in Field E where a second series
of three parallel walls were visible on the north side of the tell, and in
Field C-west at the point where there seemed to be an interruption in
the wall system. Added to these areas was the investigation of a heavily
built wall low on the slope of the southeastern terrace (Field C-east),
and its connection to the wall system, and of a section on the west side
of the tell in Field B, where it was possible to determine the association
of the West Wall (W2023) with a anking tower (W2024). Sampling of
the casemate wall on the east side of the tell was restricted due to the
wishes of the land owner.
Stratigraphy
Evidence for the stratigraphic sequences of construction, use and de-
struction of the fortications varied from one excavation area to anoth-
er. Although the fortication system around the entire perimeter of the
tell appeared, at rst glance, to be a single construction project, exca-
vation revealed individual wall units and more than one construction
phase, especially noticeable where house walls ran under the Inner
Casemate Wall. In Fields A and E, construction and use of a single
solid wall appears to coincide with Stratum-IX occupation. In Stra-
tum VIII, there were clear signs of more than one phase in Field A, the
earlier phase consisting of the construction of a parallel wall to form
4
The property walls that run across the tell, dividing the surface into small plots,
appear to be the result of stone clearing activities, rather than actual wall construction.
8 cn\r+rn ri\r
casemate rooms (VIIIB), and a second phase of repairs to realign this
inner wall (VIIIA). Here and in Field E, superimposed oors suggest
more that one phase of occupation. Certain features suggest that the
Casemate Wall may not have been in use during Stratum VII, when
settlement was concentrated on the eastern half of the tell.
5
A Persian
period burial and an Athenian tetradrachm, with the face of Athena on
the obverse and her owl with the letters on the reverse (TJ 111,
Daviau 1992a: g. 6), indicate later disturbance of the wall system and
casemate Room 202 (both in Field B). While this coin seems to be com-
parable to other fth century B.C. coins (449 B.C., Kleiner 1975:67;
Beckmann 1994; Daviau 2002:89), no buildings dating to this period
were recovered at Tall Jawa.
Table 5A. Strata for the Fortication Walls
STRATA FIELD PHASE(S) PERIOD
I 1 modern
II objects post-Umayyad
III pottery, etc. Umayyad
IV pottery? Byzantine
V no remains Roman
VI 2/coin, burial Persian
VIIA 3/pottery Late Iron II
VIIB 4/pottery Late Iron II
VIIIA 5/wall repairs Middle Iron II
VIIIB 6/casemate wall Middle Iron II
IX 7/solid, offset/inset wall Early Iron II
In order to present the stratigraphic details of the fortication system,
the outer wall will be described rst as it appeared in Field E, because
it is here that the archaeological record demonstrates most clearly a
sequence of construction and use of a solid wall (W3006) with offsets
and insets. Also assigned to Stratum IX is the retaining wall and glacis
associated with the solid, offset/inset wall in Field E and a parallel
construction in Field A. This will be followed by the evidence for
the building of an Inner Wall (W3000) in Stratum VIIIB, and the
formation of casemate rooms between it and the outer wall. Finally,
discussion will turn to the special features of the fortication system
including a anking tower and a drain in Field B.
5
The phasing between the casemate wall and Building 800 is complicated, due in
part to the limits of excavation.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx q
This phasing sequence seems reasonable, although it cannot be
proven denitively because there was no evidence seen in the balk sec-
tions or discerned while digging for foundation trenches associated with
these walls, and secondly, the walls themselves appear to have been
footed on bedrock. This was not surprising because only a handful of
foundation trenches were seen in the entire excavation, suggesting a
consistency in construction that applied to various types of architectural
units.
STRATUM IX THE OFFSET/INSET SOLID WALL
The Stratum-IX solid wall (W3006) in Field E curves gently around the
north side of the tell, except on the west, where it turns at a sharp angle
to continue as the western wall (W3050 in Field E, equal to W2023
in Field B). Only here on the west does the solid wall run along the
crest of the hill rather than being footed on the slope, as it was in Field
E. Within the area of the tell available for excavation, this solid wall
extends 138.00 m from Square E76 on the north to Square A12 on the
south. From this point on, and for an additional 32.60 m, it is covered
in part by modern stone piles and appears only at intervals until it
reaches Square C7 on the east.
6
Field E
North Wall 3006 (Fig. 5.2)
A solid wall (W3006)
7
is well preserved and clearly visible for a length
of 30.00+m in Field E (Squares E34E76). Along its length, Wall 3006
consists of 34 rows of roughly hewn limestone boulders with a high
percentage of stones (ca. 50%) in the range of large boulders (0.751.00
m). Individual stones of >1.00 m in length serve to bond together two
rows of smaller stones. The thickness of the wall varies from 1.902.60
m. As far as can be determined, Wall 3006 is dry laid in boulder-and-
chink construction with cobble size chink stones.
Although excavation of Wall 3006 against its outer face extended
from a top level of 923.42 (masl) to a bottom level of 919.42 (masl),
the base of the wall was not reached (Fig. 5.3). In view of the levels
6
This entire wall line was drawn by R. Hutson during the 1992 season.
7
Wall 3006 was given a locus number in each square where it was exposed;
E34:1=45:1=55:13=56:2=66:1=76:12.
o cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.2. Stratum IX Solid Wall in Field E, with Passageway 309 on right.
of exposed bedrock (922.20 masl) in Room 302 of Building 300, south
of the Stratum-VIII casemate walls, and in the modern road cut (ca.
918.00 masl) on the north, it seems likely that the builders positioned
the foundation of the solid (outer) wall on bedrock. The greatest pre-
served height of Wall 3006 consists of 89 courses exposed in Square
E56, where it measures 3.92 m.
8
Within the excavated area of Field E, there are two offsets/insets
(E56b, E77c)
9
along the outer face of Wall 3006. In Square E56, the
8
A similar situation appears in the publication of the Stratum-XB outer casemate
wall at Hazor (Yadin et al. 1989: Plan VIII), where the wall foundation in Room 148b
was exposed for a maximum height of 1.17 m without reaching the base of the wall.
Dever (1993:48) was more fortunate at Gezer when he located the base of the Outer
Wall footed on bedrock and preserved for a height of 3.503.75 m.
9
Offset/inset is the terminology currently used in several publications for the
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx :
Figure 5.3. North face of Wall 3006, with Offset E54b.
wall face has an inset of 90 with a maximum depth of 0.400.65 m
reducing the total thickness of Wall 3006 from 2.60 m to 1.952.20 m
(Figs. 5.3, 4). From this point on (inset E56b), Wall 3006 continues east
12.65 m to a second offset (E77c), which is ca. 0.50 m deep, and has an
angle of 120. This offset is associated with a clear break in the wall line
(see Passageway 309 below). Along this stretch of wall, no offset/inset
is located on the inner face to match those on the outer face.
10
This
was especially clear on the south face of Wall 3006 in Casemate Room
301 where 5 courses are exposed directly inside offset/inset E56b. At
the same time, Wall 3006 in Squares E34E45 is only 2.002.20 m
thick, suggesting that there is an offset close to the point where Wall
3006 enters Square E55 from Square E45, resulting in a thickening of
the wall before it is again reduced in width by the inset (E56b) on
its outer face. The outer wall remains unexcavated in these western
squares (E34E45).
change of location for segments of wall sections in both casemate and solid style curtain
walls (e. g., Herzog 1992:265, 318; Dever 1993:43). Wright employs the more technical
terms salient and recess (1985:182), which is probably more appropriate for the Tell
Jawa curtain wall, since the recess or salient only affects the outer face.
10
A straight inner face is also seen at Hazor along the north and west walls of the
Citadel (Area B; Yadin et al. 1960:48, pl. CCV) where deep (1.60 m) recesses or insets
were present along the outer face. By contrast, no such offsets/insets were present in
the casemate wall (Yadin et al. 1960: pl. CXCIX).
. cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.4. North face of Outer Wall 3006.
A third offset/inset (E24a) is located 20.80 m west of offset/inset
E56b, at the point where the solid wall (W3006) turns sharply south
at an obtuse angle of approximately 145. The resulting inset (E24
a) is ca 0.45 m deep on the west face of West Wall 3050, where it is
visible below the stones of a modern property wall (Fig. 5.2). From this
point onward (E24E21), Wall 3050 continues south for ca. 60.00 m, as
far as Drain B24:24; within Field B (B21B29), this is Wall 2023. The
function of the offsets/insets may have been multi-purpose, including
defensive
11
and supportive, although it seems most likely that this style
of construction was designed to enable the builders to adjust the wall
to changes in the level of bedrock and to the curvature of the natural
hill.
12
11
Wright (1985:177) points out that the width of the superstructure must be suf-
cient for the defenders of the town to walk on the wall and to ght from its battlements.
Although there is no remaining evidence at Tall Jawa for the brick superstructure, the
stone sockle is certainly wide enough for one or two persons to walk on its topmost
course.
12
Yadin (1989:173) had the same opinion regarding the irregularly spaced offsets/
insets along the city wall at Hazor in Area G. More recently, Herzog (1997:226) used
the same explanation to account for the shallow (0.500.60 m deep) projections along
the inner and outer faces of the solid wall at Megiddo (Stratum IVB).
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx
Glacis
A deep probe (2.35 m) against the north face of Solid Wall 3006,
through a series of arbitrary loci (E56:1526), exposed layers of packed
soil (E56:12, 14), along with stones and plaster (E56:7, 10), that form a
hard sloping surface extending north down the natural slope of the hill
to the outer retaining wall (W3023). These packed earth layers do not
show the sophisticated layering with tongues of soil and chalk typical
of a Middle Bronze Age glacis (Dever, Lance and Wright 1970: pl. 5),
but appear to serve a similar purpose, enhancing the steep slope of
the mound between the major fortication wall and a lower retaining
wall.
13
Plaster Layer E56:10 seals against a single row (E56:8) of medium-
sized cobbles (0.100.20 m) that appear to run parallel to the face of
Wall 3006. A narrow strip (0.090.15 m) of sterile soil (E56:9) lls the
small gap between the cobbles and the wall face, being widest (0.26 m)
where the outer wall is inset. Two superimposed plaster layers (E56:7a
and 7b) cover Cobbles E56:8 and Soil locus E56:9 to seal against
Wall 3006. Together these layers are 0.080.20 m thick and extend
approximately 1.14 m down the north slope. The outer edges of these
plaster layers appear to have been destroyed by subsequent rock fall
(E56:3, 5)
14
that accumulated after the wall system went out of use. The
north edge of Rockfall E56:5 was parallel to Wall 3006 suggesting that
the stones had formed part of the superstructure of the wall itself, rather
than the more common mud brick wall for which there is no remaining
evidence in Field E.
Retaining Wall 3023 (Fig. 5.5)
An east-west wall (W3023), visible at several locations on the north side
of the tell in Field E and extending further east into Field F, was not
excavated in Square E57, although a line of small and medium boul-
ders (E57:4) appears to continues its trajectory. Here, wall line E57:4 is
in place above a soil layer, in contrast to Wall 3023 which is exposed 6
courses high, and is footed on bedrock. Exposed sections of Wall 3023
13
A rampart originally constructed during the Middle Bronze Age at Tall al-#Umay-
ri was reused with glacis and retaining walls during Iron Age I (Clark 1997:6263).
14
It is unlikely that these stones were related to the modern property wall (W3049)
which consists of medium and large boulders piled along the inner casemate Wall
(W3000). While a few random boulders were scattered on the surface of the northern
slope, the consistent layer of rockfall (E56:3) sealed under modern topsoil represents a
different episode in the archaeological record.
cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.5. Retaining Wall 3023 on North slope in Fields FG.
show that it was built of boulder-and-chink construction, in horizontal
courses. In its present condition, large parts of this northern wall are
underground and there is no evidence for a mud brick superstructure
or for collapsed wall stones. Such evidence strongly supports the inter-
pretation of this structure as a retaining wall comparable to Wall 1001
in Field A on the south (see below).
The case of wall line E57:4 is somewhat different. It runs east-west,
exactly 9.00 m down slope from the Outer Casemate Wall, whereas one
might expect Wall 3023 to begin to curve toward the south near the
northwest corner of the wall system, given the changing topography in
this area. The explanation for wall line E57:4 may be that it marks the
position of the uppermost wall stones of North Wall 3006 where they
fell north, down the slope. Further down slope to the north, the hill is
cut through by a modern east-west road, which reveals the bedrock and
the overlying soil layers.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx
Figure 5.6. Passageway 309 between Outer Wall 3006 on right, and Wall 3018 on left.
Passageway 309 (Fig. 5.6)
In Field E, there is only a single break in the Casemate Wall, Passage-
way R309,
15
located just west of offset/inset E77c. This opening in the
North Wall was carefully constructed with the lower courses of the Wall
(E76:25) forming a pavement inside the entryway. On either side, the
upper courses of Wall 3006 on the west, and its continuation as Wall
3018 on the east, form vertical faces, 0.750.90 m apart, for a distance
of 2.25 m through the entire thickness of the wall.
16
At the northeast
15
In 1993, before the full nature of the passageway was known, this area was given
a room number, R309. It is retained here for ease of discussion.
16
The height of Outer Wall 3006 and W3018 is 2.00 m above Pavement E76:25,
6 cn\r+rn ri\r
corner of Passageway 309, Wall 3018 extends a further 0.50 m beyond
the line of Wall 3006. This adjustment in the wall alignment (offset
E77c) enabled defenders to protect Passageway 309 and also has the
effect of casting a shadow over the entrance.
Although the evidence for occupation inside the town during Stra-
tum IX is obscured by the construction of the inner casemate wall in
Stratum VIIIB, and by subsequent collapse of North Wall 3006 at this
vulnerable point, a few remnants of that early period were recovered.
Most signicant are two features located near the southern end of Pas-
sageway 309, a socket stone (E76:19) and an interior wall (W3022) that
runs parallel to the North Wall. Wall 3022 consists of 2 rows of cob-
bles and small boulders that remain standing 6 courses. Exposed in a
very limited area (2.20 m) beneath Stratum-VIII Casemate Room 310,
and immediately north of Inner Casemate Wall 3000, Wall 3022 is
located 1.40 m from the south face of North Wall 3006. The position
of Wall 3022 forms an indirect access into the Stratum-IX settlement.
The presence of Socket Stone E76:19 suggests that this entrance could
be closed with a door providing additional security.
Although other explanations for these features are possible, the func-
tion of Entryway 309 during Stratum IX appears to have been that of a
postern, the only exit from the town on the northwest side. This would
allow the inhabitants to have access to water collected in cisterns cut in
the bedrock where they can still be seen at the foot of the tell.
17
Due
to the severe erosion through Passageway 309 during the succeeding
millennia, the original ground level outside North Wall 3006 cannot
now be determined. During its period of use as a postern, Passageway
309 may have been linked to a ramp or stairs that led down the slope.
Evidence for the end of Stratum-IX occupation is not well preserved in
Field E, due to the presence of the casemate rooms and the rooms of
Building 300, which all date to Stratum VIIIB (Chapter 7).
On the west side of Field E, another offset/inset (E24a) is located
at the point where North Wall 3006 turns southwest (as Wall 3050) and
runs up to and along the crest of the hill. Along its length in Field E
much of Wall 3050 is covered by a modern property wall, although its
outer face is visible below these randomly piled boulders. When Solid
possibly the full height of this postern in antiquity.
17
From the north side of the tell, it is possible to recognize numerous cisterns now
in use as septic systems in the courtyards of houses located north of the modern road.
These cisterns predate the current expansion of Jawa village into this area.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx
Figure 5.7. Solid Wall 3050 in Fields E and B.
Wall 3050 enters Square E12 (running south), it is no longer visible
from the west, although both its inner and outer faces can be traced
once it enters Field B (W2023).
Field B
West Wall 2023 (Figs. 5.7, 8)
The principal Stratum-IX defensive wall exposed in Field B on the west
side of the tell is a solid wall (W2023). Here the natural slope of the hill
is less steep than on the other sides of the tell and to compensate for
8 cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.8. Wall 2023 looking north toward offset/inset B25g.
this fact Wall 2023 was built on the highest ridge rather than on the
slope of the mound. Wall 2023 is 34 rows thick, and consists of small,
medium and large boulders and cobble-size chink stones. In several
places along its length (in Squares B2829), Wall 2023 measures 2.00
2.10 m thick. Changes in its width are only visible in Square B26 and
B25 where a matching pair of offsets/insets (B26e=B24:7, B25f) are
exposed on the inner wall face (Fig. 5.9). South of offset/inset B25f,
Wall 2023 reaches it greatest thickness (2.55 m), until an offset/inset
(B25g) on the outer wall face again reduces its width to 2.00 m. On
its outer, western side, the boulders in Wall 2023 are coated with 0.03
m of plaster (B26:9a), and the crevices between them are packed to a
depth of 0.08 m.
18
Although covered in part by a modern wall (W2043) and its own
collapse, excavation exposed Wall 2023 for a length of 13.00 m, to the
point where a modern path cuts through its upper courses revealing the
north jamb of Stratum-IX Passageway 219 (see below). The founding
level of West Wall 2023, discovered in a small probe in Square B26,
consists of soil and pebbles (B26:16) that are packed under the west
18
The chemical composition of plaster samples were analysed in the SLOWPOKE
nuclear reactor at the University of Toronto, see Chapter 11.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx q
Figure 5.9. Wall 2023 and Tower 2024, with Passageway 219.
edge of the wall. Comparable loci (B16:11, 12) are present under Tower
2024 that runs parallel to Wall 2023, at a distance of 1.651.75 m
further west. Due to the nature of these loci, we can only assume that
the soil and pebbles were packed into depressions in the bedrock to
level the surface on which these massive stone structures are built.
19
Tower 2024 (Fig. 5.9)
Footed on the natural slope of the hill, West Tower 2024 is probably
founded on bedrock, and on a consolidation layer of soil and pebbles
19
A similar construction technique is seen at Khirbat al-Mudayna under the piers
of the six-chambered gate (B100; Chadwick, Daviau and Steiner 2000:260), which was
itself founded on bedrock.
6o cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.10. Guardroom 221, with Tower 2024
on left, and Outer Wall 2023 on the right.
(B16:11) lling the depressions in the rock. What appears to be the
foundation of Tower 2024 is formed of medium, large and very large
limestone boulders (0.801.25 m in length). For the most part, stones
are laid in boulder-and-chink construction, with a few areas of header
and stretcher formation. This tower measures 10.10

5.655.90 m and
remains standing 4 courses in height (4.80 m). On the inner, eastern
face, opposite Wall 2023, the boulders are coated with a greyish-white,
hard, rough plaster (B16:5), and the gaps between the stones are lled
to a depth of 0.10 m.
20
Guardroom 221 (Fig. 5.10)
The association of Tower 2024 with West Wall 2023 during Stratum IX
is based on the similarity in construction techniques and masonry, and
in the presence of soil layers that seal up against both wall faces. Within
the excavated area, Tower 2024 does not appear to be attached to Wall
2023, although excavation did not continue north of Square B16. The
20
Although it is possible that this tower was replastered in modern times, due to
its proximity to a modern house, the chemical makeup seems to coincide with other
samples whose Iron Age date is without doubt (see samples 15, 16 in Chapter 11).
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx 6:
consolidation layer between the two wall faces yielded 1 iron point (TJ
536), several iron fragments (TJ 592) and a small amount of pottery.
21
Between Tower 2024 and Wall 2023, there is sufcient space for a small
guardroom (R221). Whether the guardroom was closed by a door, or
whether this entire southwest corner of the tell was further fortied
cannot now be known, due to the presence of modern housing and the
work of a bulldozer that created a path onto the tell just south of the
Tower. Debris layers within the Guardroom suggest that it continued in
use during Stratum VIII.
Passageway 219 (Fig: 5.9)
The top of West Wall 2023 was damaged by modern farming activ-
ities at the point where Passageway 219 and a Stratum-VIII drain
(B24:24) pass through the wall. However, the lower courses (B24:23)
of the two anking sections of the West Wall, Wall 2023 on the north
and its southern continuation as Wall 2002, are well preserved. The
lower courses of Wall 2023 form an offset/inset (B24g), which is sealed
against by the plaster layers of a glacis (B24:19).
22
South of the Passage-
way, Wall 2002 corners sharply, forming an angle of 110
o
with South
Wall 2009. What appears to be a continuation of the lower courses of
the West Wall (W2027=W2023+2002) forms the oor of Passageway
219 and of the Stratum-VIII Drain (B24:24), and extends slightly east
of the wall line into the town.
Evidence for a Stratum-IX passageway (R219) in this location is only
partially preserved due to reconstruction during Stratum VIIIB. How-
ever, certain elements of the earlier construction are similar to those
recovered in Passageway 309 in Field E. Primary among these is the
continuation of the lower courses of the Solid Wall to form a pavement
(B24:23), which is framed by vertical, perpendicular wall faces through
its entire thickness. On the south side of Passageway 219, the vertical
wall face or jamb is well preserved. Here, the distance between the two
jambs measures 1.751.85 m wide, forming a passageway almost twice
the width of Postern 309. The north jamb is seen most clearly where
a coating of plaster (B24:27) is preserved on the vertical, south face of
21
Only a handful of sherds were recovered; these date to early Iron II. Without
more examples, it is not possible to decide whether or not the single sherd of a ring
base vessel (B26.27.1) was late Iron I.
22
Plaster B24:19 appears to have formed a glacis sloping away from the outer wall
face. However, plaster put in place in Stratum VIIIB, after the construction of the
drain, obscured the earlier slope.
6. cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.11. South Wall 2009+1003, with Retaining Wall 1001 in Field A.
certain wall stones. In Stratum VIII, West Wall 2023 was inset a second
time (B24h) at just this point, reducing the outer entrance from 1.75
m to 1.45 m wide. The position of this inset (B24h) is quite clear, in
spite of modern disturbance, since the wall stub which forms it seals
up against the plaster (B24:27) of the north jamb. This plaster wraps
around and covers the western, outer face of Wall 2023.
A passageway or gate at this point in the wall line would have
provided access to cisterns cut in the bedrock to the west of the tell
(MPP Regional Survey Site 127). In addition, its position on the west
side of the corner makes the entry into the town less visible from the
outside than a passageway opening on the southwest facing the plain of
Madaba. Tower 2024 is also in position to protect this entrance from
attack by an enemy. A mirror image of this pattern of protection is
seen at Hazor, Stratum VIII (Area G), where Tower 10014 protected
entryway 10067d, a passageway 1.50 m wide, through the city wall
(Yadin et al. 1989:175; plan XXXII).
Fields BA
South Wall 2009+W1003 (Fig. 5.11)
The west face of Wall 2002 is in line with that of Wall 2023 north of
inset B24h. This location suggests a matching offset (B24j) to restore
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx 6
the wall to its full 2.00 m thickness, beginning at the point where
W2002 constitutes the south jamb of Passageway 219. From the north
face of the jamb, Wall 2002 extends south 2.25 m (as W2027) to meet
and bond with South Wall 2009. The sharp angle (110
o
) formed by
this change of direction is even more acute than the angle at the north
end of West Wall 3050, where it meets North Wall 3006. South Wall
2009 consists of large and very large boulders, up to 1.60 m in length.
Although not excavated along its outer face in Field B, South Wall
2009 is partially exposed and is visible from the base of the tell; it
stands 5+courses high (ca. 2.00 m) and can by traced for 34.25 m
in Squares B23A12. Along its length, only one offset/inset is visible
(B33k). At this point the wall thickness increases from 2.00 m to 2.25
m, although the pile of collapsed wall stones along its outer face makes
it difcult to determine the exact line of South Wall 2009 adjacent to
this offset/inset.
Further east in Field A, South Wall 1003 represents the earliest
phase of construction (Stratum IX), with Wall 1002 rebuilt above it
during Stratum VIIIB. The Stratum-IX wall (W1003) is formed of 23
rows of medium to large boulders (0.501.00 m), dry laid with cobble
chink stones. In this area, Wall 1003 has a maximum width of 1.60
m, somewhat narrower than its continuation to the west (W2009) in
Field B. Whether Wall 1003 was redesigned with the construction of
the Stratum-VIIIB casemate system, or whether excavation has uncov-
ered the South Wall at a point where it has been reduced in width
by another offset/inset was not determined. South Wall 1003 (or its
rebuild as W1002) is visible at soil level in Square A12, and can be pro-
jected to the east where it is exposed as Wall 8002 in C7 (Fig. 5.1). Here
the wall again measures 2.00 m thick.
Glacis (Fig. 5.12)
A layer of plaster (A2:30) that seals up against the south face of Wall
1003 was the only continuous surface that appears to connect the
South Wall with Retaining Wall 1001. However, since this surface was
not excavated the full distance to the inner face of Wall 1001, its
periods of use in the complete stratigraphic sequence remain unclear.
Surface A2:30 consists of crushed nari and appears to be the earliest
in a sequence of superimposed layers (A2:7, 18, and 30) that formed
a glacis on this side of the tell. Other similarities that this glacis may
have with the plaster glacis outside North Wall 3006 were not identied
during excavation, because Square A2 was not reopened in subsequent
6 cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.12. Outer Wall 1003 with Glacis A2:30, looking west.
Figure 5.13. Retaining Wall 1001, in Field A.
seasons. However, on both sides of the tell, the Stratum-IX wall is
associated with a retaining wall.
Retaining Wall 1001 (Fig. 5.13)
Evidence for a retaining wall was rst observed in 1989 on the south
side of the tell in Field A. Here the outer face of Wall 1001 (A1:4) is
visible for a height of 1.502.00 m above the modern surface (A1:1),
and extends east-west beyond the excavated area for a total length of
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx 6
11.10 m (A11B61). It is assumed that the wall continues further east
and west, but recent bulldozer activity has damaged the wall in both
directions. Wall 1001 is made of limestone (80%) and chert (20%) eld
stones that range in size from small to large (0.250.80 m) boulders;
these stones are dry laid in irregular courses and are supported with
chink stones.
Excavation demonstrates that the lowest course of masonry is laid
on bedrock (A1:3) and on pockets of virgin soil which ll the shallow
depressions in the rock. This soil (A1:5), composed of coarse sand and
pebbles, is almost sterile with only 3 ceramic sherds and one piece of
int reported. Because this wall is still standing and is covered with
soil (A1:6), the founding level of its inner face has not been exposed.
This north face may in fact be founded on bedrock as well. Alternating
soil and plaster layers (A1:2) seal against the bottom course of masonry
on the south face of Wall 1001 and against protrusions of the bedrock
(A1:3). These plaster layers were probably designed to prevent water
from undermining the base of the retaining wall. Whether or not the
uppermost plaster surface was exposed in antiquity remains unclear,
although it is more likely that it was covered with additional soil layers
and was not visible, as is the case further east in Field C-west.
23
End of Stratum IX
Apart from the subsequent construction of a Casemate Wall system,
no evidence for the destruction of Stratum IX was seen in any of the
excavation areas. No actual destruction debris along the fortication
system can be assigned to Stratum IX, except for the presence of
weapons embedded in the layers (A2:7, 18, 30) of the plaster glacis
outside South Wall 1003, and along the West Wall in Guardroom 221
adjacent to Tower 2024. Many of these weapons show evidence of use;
the tip was bent or broken indicating that they had been shot against
a stone wall. Altogether, there were 15 iron arrowheads and javelin
points outside of South Wall 1003 and an additional 31 points along
with several fragments of iron recovered from the plaster layers outside
West Wall 2023.
24
However, the reuse of the Solid Wall as the Outer
23
A good example of the use of a retaining wall to support soil layers that cover the
outer face of a parallel wall, located up slope, is seen at Tell el-Fl (Lapp 1976: g. 6).
24
Only those weapons located outside the wall system are included in this count;
TJ 1, 1621, 25, 26, 37, 38, 65, 67, 255, 266, 453455, 518, 520525, 527541, 949,
12151217, 1229, 1239; 1454.
66 cn\r+rn ri\r
Casemate Wall makes it impossible to determine whether this attack
was the event that brought Stratum IX to an end. It is more likely that
the weapons are related to later events in the history of the town.
STRATUM VIIIB THE CASEMATE WALL SYSTEM
One very common style of defensive system during several periods
of the Iron Age (11
th
10
th
, 9
th
8
th
, and 7
th
centuries BC)
25
was the
casemate wall built as two stone faces tied together by cross partitions
(Wright 1985:174). For our purposes, this denition for casemate walls
is preferable to that of Reich and Katzenstein (1992:313) who describe
the cross walls as short partitions that divide the space between the
two parallel walls. While, in some cases, the cross walls may have been
short wall sections, extending only part way from the outer to the
inner wall, in other cases the cross walls extend the full width of the
casemate room, as at Hazor, Str. XIX (Yadin et al. 1960: pl. 199),
and Tell Beit Mirsim (Albright 1943: pl. 3). In certain instances, these
walls were bonded to the outer and inner parallel walls, actually tying
them together. Such wall systems were used to surround villages, defend
entire towns and protect distinct districts or building complexes within
the town, such as temples, royal citadels or public buildings.
26
At Tall Jawa, the fortication wall that can be traced along the crest
of the tell at ground level on the north, east and south sides is the inner
wall of a casemate system. On the west side, the inner wall line was
difcult to locate because the western Outer Wall (W3050=W2023)
was itself in position on the crest, with the parallel wall located inside
this perimeter. The construction of any fortication system was a major
undertaking for the local inhabitants. When a new wall system was
designed for Tall Jawa, the Stratum-IX offset/inset wall was reused
as the outer casemate wall and an inner, parallel wall was built and
linked to it for greater strength. Discussion of the wall system will begin
in Field E, followed by a discussion of Stratum-VIIIB construction in
Fields B, A and C.
25
Herzog (1992:269) limits the use of casemate walls to the middle Iron Age II
(10
th
to end of the 8
th
century BC), although it is clear that Tall al-#Umayri had a true
casemate system during Iron Age I (LaBianca et al. 1995: 102, 104).
26
A comprehensive list, current to 1976, is presented by Lapp (1981:5053), who
includes the Solomonic casemate systems from Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer along
with those at rural border villages, in her comparison with the excavated remains from
Tell el-Fl (g. 21).
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx 6
Figure 5.14. Stratum-VIIIB Casemate Walls in Field E.
Field E
Outer Wall 3006 (Fig. 5.14)
North Wall 3006 was reused during Stratum VIII as the Outer Wall
of the casemate system. Changes to the upper courses have left little
trace, because subsequent abandonment of the town at the end of the
Iron Age was accompanied by a collapse of the upper part of the wall
system. This makes it practically impossible to identify Stratum-VIIIB
reconstruction except in Passageway 309, where the east end of North
Wall 3006 was rebuilt and linked to the new inner wall by Walls 3019
and W3020.
Inner Casemate Wall 3000 (Fig. 5.14)
The inner wall (W3000)
27
of the casemate system runs east-west under
a modern property wall (E55:1=E76:1) on the crest of the mound.
Within the excavated squares of Field E, W3000 runs west, parallel to
the Outer Wall (W3006), from Square E76 on the east to Square E34.
As it approaches West Wall 3050 (in Squares E24E34), Inner Wall
3000 becomes somewhat difcult to trace and its position could not be
determined along its entire length at ground level.
28
Inner Casemate Wall 3000 consists of 3 rows of roughly hewn small
and medium boulders, 90% limestone and 10% chert, in boulder-and-
chink construction (Fig. 5.15). For most of its length, Wall 3000 mea-
sures 1.251.55 m thick, and together with outer Wall 3006 constitutes
27
Loci E44:3=E54:17/E55:2=E65:2=E76:2 all designate the inner casemate wall
(W3000) within the excavated area.
28
The position of the inner wall on the west side was anomalous in that it was no
longer on the crest of the mound (see below, Field B). Installation of a telephone pole
also disrupted the wall line in this area.
68 cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.15. South face of Inner Casemate Wall 3000 in
Room 313; boulder-and-chink construction with mud mortar.
a fortication system 5.205.30 m thick. This thickness remains rela-
tively constant even where an offset/inset adjusts the wall line. What
appears to be a shallow offset (E65d) on the north face of Inner Wall
3000 increases the thickness of the wall and reduces the size of Case-
mate Room 301. The space between the walls varies from 1.852.05 m
with the narrowest width (ca. 1.25 m) located in Room 301, where both
the Outer and Inner Walls are at their thickest.
The Inner Wall was exposed on its north face in Casemate Rooms
301, R310, and R311 and on its south face in Rooms 302, R303,
R306, R312 and R313 of Building 300 (see Chapter 7). In Room 302,
this wall is preserved a maximum of 11 courses without our reaching
its base. This continuous wall line does not bond with any of the walls
of Building 300, which are built up against its south face. The Inner
Wall runs east without an opening until it reaches a point south of
Passageway 309. Here, the position of Wall 3000 is probably affected
by the presence of Stratum-IX Wall 3022. This can be seen in a slight
change of direction by which Inner Wall 3000 seals against the south
face of the earlier wall, beginning at the west edge of cross Wall 3021.
The southeast corner of Wall 3000 is marked by a large, well hewn,
hammer dressed stone, at the point where it forms the same kind of
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx 6q
jamb for a passageway through the thickness of the wall as those semi-
hewn stones in Outer Wall 3006. The limestone boulders of the upper
courses on either side of the passageway were carefully dressed to form
vertical faces at each end of the wall line (W3000 on the west, and
W3015 on the east side of Passageway 309). Below these vertical jambs,
the lower courses of the Inner Wall forms a Pavement (E76:33) that
gives access to Passageway 309; from this point onward, the Inner Wall
continues east as W3015.
A pair of narrow walls (W3019, W3020) links the Inner and Outer
Walls on either side of the Passageway. On the west, Wall 3019 appears
to bond with the upper preserved course of Outer Wall 3006, although
this may be a feature of modern stone piling activities. The uppermost
course is formed of a single line of 0.50 m long, at-topped boulders
(E76:13) that may have supported a mud brick superstructure. The
lower courses of this same wall (W3019) are built of larger boulders,
making the space (0.750.80 m) in the Passageway somewhat narrower
than the opening in the Inner Wall.
29
Due to this rough construction,
it is difcult to determine the exact sequence of building and repair
that resulted when linking-Wall 3019 was built over the top of Stratum-
IX Wall 3022. However, Wall 3019 is indeed secondary, since it abuts
Inner Wall 3000.
The mirror image of this construction is seen in north-south Wall
3020 that links Outer Wall 3018 with Inner Wall 3015 on the east.
Along the west face of Wall 3020, certain of its wall stones jut out from
the vertical, with the result that Wall 3020 appears to be inset along
part of its length. This results in a narrowing of the passageway as it
runs through the Outer Wall. Here, it is clear that the linking wall
(W3020) does not bond with Outer Wall 3018. On the east face of Wall
3020, the details of wall construction were not documented, because
excavation did not proceed below topsoil. The fact that these linking
walls are some of the narrowest walls built in Field E does not mean
that they could not support an upper storey room or roof. Their prox-
imity across the narrow passage (0.600.85 m), and that of the major
29
By contrast with passageway 10067d at Hazor (Yadin et al. 1989:175), there is
no clear evidence for a door at the north end of Passageway 309. The narrowness of
the opening probably rendered a door unnecessary since the shadow of offset/inset
E77c would have obscured the entrance. There was a socket stone (E76:19) within the
collapse (E76:25), immediately south of Outer Wall 3006, that may have fallen from
above, or have been used in an earlier phase (see Stratum IX).
o cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.16. Corridor 328 leading to Passageway 309, looking North.
Casemate Walls (2.25 m), is enough together to bear the weight. Oth-
erwise, the purpose of Linking Walls 3019 and W3020 remains unclear,
although they may have framed entrances into the Casemate Rooms
on either side or to the roof of the fortication system.
It was apparent during excavation that the construction sequence
of these Stratum-VIIIB walls is very complex. Most problematic is the
location of Stones E76:23 immediately north of the opening through
Inner Wall 3000; here these stone seal against the lower stones of Wall
3000 at the point where it forms Pavement E76:33. This pile of stones
(E76:23; 0.500.60 m in height) appears to block the entryway; at the
same time, its stones are so embedded into the linking walls on either
side that they appear to bond with them. Stones E76:23 may have
rested on the continuation of Stratum-IX Wall 3022. However, their
current position points to a difference in function in Stratum VIII;
either these stones are a deliberate blocking of the entryway
30
or they
are the part of the support for a staircase to the upper storey case-
mate rooms. Secondly, Wall W3022 from Stratum IX remains in place
30
The stones could be collapse of an upper storey wall sometime in Stratum VIII,
but this does not explain why some of them appear embedded in Walls 3019 and
W3020.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx :
and is sealed against by Inner Wall 3000. In the nal use phase (Stra-
tum VIIIA), Wall 3022 is covered by a plaster oor in Casemate Room
310.
On the southern, inner side of the Casemate system there is addi-
tional evidence that may indicate the function of Passageway 309 dur-
ing Stratum VIIIB. Here, Wall 3016 on the west and Wall 3017 on the
east abut the corners of Inner Walls 3000=3015 on either side of Pas-
sageway 309 (Fig. 5.16). These parallel walls form a Corridor (R328)
31
which extends south a minimum of 7.00 m into the town, along the east
side of Room 313, with a probable total length of 12.00 m to the south
end of Room 317. Each of these walls is 2row boulder-and-chink con-
struction in the size range of 0.700.85 m thick. At the north end of
Walls W3016 and W3017 is a double row of cobbles (E76:15), possibly
a threshold, that runs across Corridor 328 and marks the entrance to
Passageway 309 through Wall 3000.
32
The level of these cobblestones
is ca. 0.15 m above the Inner Wall Pavement (E76:33), which is itself
sealed by a Soil layer (E76:24) as far as the inner edge of Stones E76:23.
To the south of Cobbles E76:15 in Corridor 328, there was a series of
superimposed soil layers (E76:31, 32, 35) that may have been a deliber-
ate ll or the remains of a ramp leading up to the fortication system
from inside the town, where oor levels in Rooms 313 and 314 were
ca. 2.00 m lower. All the pottery sherds within these ll layers date to
either Iron Age I
33
or Iron Age II, which is what one would expect in
view of the occupation history of the site.
Casemate Rooms
In Field E, the casemate system was excavated along a 24.00 m length,
exposing several distinct rooms within the wall system. One complete
room (R310) was excavated down to Stratum VIIIA levels, and two
other rooms (R301, R311) were partially exposed.
31
The designation Passageway 309 is reserved for the entry through the casemate
system; the Corridor inside the town that continues the line of the passageway has the
label Corridor 328.
32
Threshold stones mark both the inner and outer edge of the passage through the
Bastion in Area G at Hazor. While Passageway 309 at Tall Jawa shares certain features
with the fortications at Hazor, passage 10067d in Area G is considerably wider (ca.
1.50 m, Yadin et al. 1989:175).
33
Sherds of collared-rim jars were present in several Iron Age II soil layers even
though no architectural remains from Iron I were identied in Field E.
. cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.17. Casemate Room 301 on the left,
with Inner Casemate Wall 3000 in the centre.
Room 301 (Fig. 5.17): The only evidence for Stratum VIIIB use of the
casemate rooms was exposed in Room 301. Here the casemate walls
were 1.251.50 m apart and Room 301 was excavated for a length
of 5.50 m without reaching its cross walls. Below a Stratum-VIIIA
agstone oor, there was a group of smashed pithoi, sealed by collapsed
wall stones and soil. Although the earliest oor level was not reached,
the large number of sherds (almost 1100) from a great variety of vessels
points to a compact storage area with ceiling collapse, which represents
the use and destruction phases of Room 301.
At the east end of this casemate unit, immediately west of Passage-
way 309, there are two rooms that were in use during Stratum VIIIA.
Room 310 is a very small room, located between cross Wall 3021 and
linking Wall 3019. The distance between these two walls is only ca.
1.00 m, while the space between the casemates is 2.20 m. In spite of
its small size, it was carefully paved with a plaster surface (E76:22) that
covered Stratum-IX Wall 3022. To the west, Room 311 remains mostly
unexcavated, although clearance along Outer Wall 3006 suggests that
it was, like Room 301, in the range of 5.006.00 m in length. Due to
the pattern of collapse and erosion at this point along the wall system,
the precise function of these rooms could not be determined.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx
Field B
Outer West Wall 3050=2023+2002 (Figs. 5.7, 9)
Investigation of West Wall 3050 in Field E made it clear that this wall
served as the Stratum-VIII outer casemate wall. Although its inner face
remains essentially unexcavated at its north end in Field E, West Wall
2023 in Field B is clearly associated with an inner wall (W2004+2009)
that forms casemate rooms along its east side. Tower 2024 continued in
use, and the outer wall was redesigned with the construction of a drain
through Passageway 219.
Tower 2024 seems to have continued in use throughout Stratum
VIII, and the space between the tower and Wall 2023 was proba-
bly used as a guardroom (R221). Such a hypothesis would help to
account for the buildup over time of a thick hard packed surface
(B26:11=B16:8)
34
consisting of soil and plaster (B26:9b), which yielded
43 pieces of metal, including 18 arrowheads. Within B26:11 was an
ash deposit (B26:13) with a maximum depth of 0.12 cm, that contained
cooking pot sherds, burnt plaster, animal bones, an olive pit and seeds.
This period of use is marked by large pieces of plaster, some of which
sealed up against West Wall 2023, suggesting repeated repairs to the
face of the wall and to the tower. This plaster was crushed beneath
collapsed stones, which may mark the end of Stratum VIIIB, although
assigning a date here is difcult. What is interesting is the presence of
a single ashlar stone (B26:15) that measures 0.40

0.43

0.59 m.
35
The
position of this stone suggests that it was part of the superstructure or
corner of Tower 2024. No other such stones were recovered, although
the number of well dressed stones used in the construction of the early
19
th
century village of modern Jawa leaves little doubt as to their origin
(Daviau and Tempest, in preparation).
The principal change in Outer West Wall 2023 is the partial blocking
of Passageway 219 and the formation of Drain B24:24 (Fig. 5.18). No
other changes in construction are evident in the architectural remains
of this wall, except the use of one course of chert boulders, which were
34
The balk line for Squares B16 and B26 ran between Solid Wall 2023 and
Tower 2024 ( =B16:2). To simplify discussion, loci between these two structures will
be identied using only their locus numbers in B26. Loci associated with Tower 2024
were assigned to Square B16; for further details, consult the Locus List on CD.
35
The fact that West Wall 2023 collapsed toward the east suggests that this may also
have been the pattern for Tower 2024. If this were the case, it is more likely that ashlar
stone B26:13 was part of the superstructure of the tower, and not of Wall 2023.
cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.18. Stratum VIIIBA Casemate System and Drain B24:24 in Field B.
preserved in several places along its inner edge. These stones may be
related to the collapsed mud brick (B24:15) located in Casemate Room
215; this collapse is evidence of a Stratum-VIII mudbrick superstruc-
ture of Outer Casemate Wall 2023.
36
The use of impermeable chert
boulders between the limestone foundation and the mud brick upper
storey wall protected both parts of the wall from dampness. Chert is
also used at other strategic points, e.g. as a capstone for Drain B24:24.
36
Within Casemate Rooms 213 and 215, West Wall 2023 is built of stone to the
second storey level, 2.25 m above the oor of Room 215; it was not just the foundation
for a mud brick wall.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx
Figure 5.19. Drain B24:24 looking east into Channel 218.
Drain B24:24 (Figs. 5.18, 19)
Passageway 219 from Stratum IX was transformed by the construction
of a 1.75 m long blocking wall (W2036) that was attached to the south
end of Wall 2023. This additional wall unit left only a narrow space
between its south end and the north end of Outer Wall 2002, which
remained unchanged from Stratum IX when it served as the south
jamb of Passageway 219. Now, the opening between these two sections
of the outer wall is widest at it eastern mouth (ca. 0.50 m); from here
it tapers on an angle to 0.20 m at its exit on the west. The lower
courses (W2027; B24:23) of West Wall 2023, which served as the oor
of Passageway 219, now serve as the oor of a Drain (B24:24) with a
slope of ca. 10.
37
Along the west face of Wall Unit 2036, the outer row of stones has
been badly damaged during modern times, giving the appearance of
an inset. Nevertheless, several features associated with the construction
and use of the drain are preserved below ground level. These features
37
A similar construction appears in the Late Bronze Age drain at Bethel (Albright
1934: g. 5).
6 cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.20. Sump with Retaining Wall 2041
on right; cut through layers of Glacis B24:4.
include two agstones set on their narrow edge that are part of Wall
2036; these stones constitute the north lip of the drain exit along the
south face of Wall 2036, directing the water further to the west. In
addition, there is a 2row cobblestone wall (Wall 2041) that seals up
against these agstones and runs west from the exit of Drain B24:24 for
ca. 3.65 m. Exposed only along its south face for 4+courses (Figs. 5.20,
23), Wall 2041 probably cut through several layers of the Stratum-IX
plaster glacis (B24:19=B14:5) seen outside Wall 2023 further north.
38
A second line of stones (B14:16), positioned outside the south lip of
the drains exit, extends west and then south from a single large boul-
der. Thus a channel was created to prevent the water owing out
of the drain from accumulating against the west faces of Outer Wall
2023+2002.
At the west end of this channel, only a portion of a sump was
excavated. Here a series of soil layers witness to the passage of water
and waste through this drainage system. The lowest exposed layer of
soil (B14:17) is brown; above it is a black layer (B14:15) stained with
38
Modern bulldozer activity in this area destroyed some of the connections between
the glacis and the features leading away from the drain.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx
ash. This is succeeded by two additional brown layers, the lower one
(B14:14) being somewhat moist by comparison with the upper layer
(B14:13=11). These soil layers are covered by a layer of agstones
(B24:35) which extend the oor (B24:23) of the drain beyond its exit
on the west, and drop down gradually (as B14:9) to follow the base of
Wall 2041. This drainage system was covered in turn by thick layers of
plaster and soil (B14:3, 7), packed in place on the southwest slope and
sealing against the west face of Blocking Wall 2036.
Within the thickness of the outer wall, only one capstone (B24:12)
remains in place spanning the drain. This feature consists of a single
chert boulder measuring 0.400.53

1.40 m long, and 0.260.31 m


thick. The capstone is in position above the east mouth (Fig. 5.19) of
the drain, and rests on the anking sections of West Wall 2002 and
Blocking Wall 2036 at a height of 0.55 m above the oor. A second
feature designed to protect the wall system from moisture is a plaster
coating (B24:26), preserved on the south face of Blocking Wall 2036.
In view of the repeated plastering of the drains channel further east
(Fig. 5.19), one might suspect that the stone oor (B24:23) of the drain
was also plastered, although it has worn away over time.
The Western Casemate
The evidence for the simultaneous construction of the drain and of
Inner Casemate Wall 2004 is seen clearly in the southeast corner, where
Wall 2004 bonds with Wall 2003, the south wall of Casemate Room
215. Wall 2003 abuts the east face of Blocking Wall 2036, effectively
ending the casemates along the west side. At the same time, Wall 2003
forms part of the north wall of Drain Channel 218, making it clear
that the closing of Passageway 219 coincided with the construction of
the casemate system in the southwest corner of the town and of Drain
B24:24.
Inner West Wall 2004=2029 (Fig. 5.18): With the outer wall on the
crest of the natural hill, the inner casemate wall (W2004+2029) is
located inside the town. Due to its position and the impact of modern
farming on the tell, Wall 2029 is not visible above topsoil north of
the excavated area in Field B. Where it is exposed in Squares B24
and B25, two sections of wall on either side of Doorway B form the
east wall of two casemate rooms (R213, R215). Wall 2029, north of
Doorway B, is 1.051.13 m thick, and Wall 2004, south of the doorway,
is 1.101.20 m. Both wall sections are built of small and medium
8 cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.21. Inner Casemate Wall 2004 in foreground,
and W2000+2001 in background, looking south
limestone boulders in typical boulder-and-chink construction, except
where two large boulders mark the south end of Wall 2004. At this
point, Wall 2004 bonds with Wall 2003, a short (1.60 m) wall of similar
construction, measuring 1.25 m thick, that forms the south end of
Casemate Room 215.
The construction style of the inner wall, with two wall units framing
a central doorway, is considerably different from what we saw in Field
E, where the inner wall ran parallel to the outer wall without any door-
ways piercing its length. Here in the southwest corner, the casemate
rooms are joined to a structure inside the town and are themselves the
back rooms of an adjacent building (B200; see Chapter 6).
39
Inner South Wall 2001+2006=1030+1020 (Figs. 5.18, 2122): Along
the south side of the tell, the inner casemate wall (W2001+2006=
1030+1020) is cut by two doorways, one in the southwest corner
(Doorway K) and another (Doorway H) located 28.25 m further east
39
Such a system of back rooms serving as integral parts of the casemate fortications
was fairly common in Cisjordan, for example at Beer-sheba (Herzog 1984: gs. 6, 7),
although in this case the outer wall was not constructed as a separate entity but was
built in units as the outer wall of a given house. By contrast, the Stratum-X casemate
wall at Hazor, with doorways in the corner of almost every room, opened onto a street
(Yadin et al. 1989: Plan VIII).
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx q
Figure 5.22. Drain Channel 218, south side, with Doorway K
(Stratum VIIIB) and Doorway A Stratum VIIIA, into Room 210.
in Building 113. Evidence for the rst phase of construction (Stra-
tum VIIIB) is most clearly seen adjacent to the southern lip of Drain
B24:24, where Inner Wall 2001 abuts Outer West Wall 2002. Like Wall
2003 on the north side of the drain, Wall 2001 on the south is an
east-west wall consisting of 3 rows of small and medium boulders that
appears to be founded at the level of the pavement (B24:23) formed by
the lower courses of Outer Wall 2023+2002; this pavement extends
slightly east of the wall face. Wall 2001 itself extends east for only
2.00 m, where it forms a vertical face as the west jamb of Doorway
K. The full size of this doorway appears to be 1.90 m wide and 1.25
1.35 m deep (Fig. 5.22). Doorway K is not completely exposed to the
Stratum VIIIB level, due to the presence of Stratum-VIIIA Threshold
Stone B34:60 and Wall Unit 2000, which seals against the east edge of
Wall 2001. At least ve courses of large, semi-hewn boulders at the west
end of Wall 2006 form a jamb on the east side of Doorway K, which
serves as the entrance into Casemate Room 210 during both phases
of Stratum VIII (BA). Wall 2006 consists of 23 rows of medium and
large boulders and is 6+courses in height, serving also as the south wall
of Drain Channel 218. Although obscured along much of its length,
the Stratum-VIIIB inner wall is present under the Stratum-VIIIA wall
(W2007=1004) build above it (see below).
Channel 218 (Fig. 5.23)
Leading up to Drain B24:24 is a channel 8.35 m long. Channel 218
runs between two distinct wall units, one on the south (W2001, Door-
way K, and W2006), and an unbroken wall face on the north (W2003+
W2005). This northern wall is in fact composed of two wall units;
the south wall (W2003) of Casemate Room 215, and the south wall
(W2005) of Room 209, which abuts Inner Casemate Wall 2004 at
the southeast, outer corner of Casemate Room 215. From this point
8o cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.23. Drain Channel 218, north side,
with excavation through sump at west (left).
onward, Wall 2005 extends the south face of Wall 2003 to the east.
The remains of drain Channel 218 were difcult to understand during
excavation because they reect several phases of repair that could not
be directly associated with architectural construction phases. For this
reason, both Stratum VIIIB and VIIIA phases of the drain channel will
be described here.
Channel 218 appears to consist of the entire space (0.901.10 m
wide) between the inner casemate walls on the south (W2001, W2006)
and Wall 2003+2005 on the north. A layer of soil (B34:22) serves
as make-up in the channel and seals against the walls on either side.
Although this channel probably served also as a passageway leading to
Casemate Room 210, what is of greatest interest are the superimposed
layers of plaster (B24:17a+b=B34:7) which cover the bottom of the
channel and seal up against the north wall (W2003+2005). The plas-
ter is not well preserved on the vertical wall face at the west end of
Channel 218, where it enters Drain B24:24, but begins 0.80 m east of
the drains mouth and continues eastward. So too, the plaster coating
is poorly preserved on the north face of Wall 2006, east of Doorway
K. Above the plaster within the central and northern side of the chan-
nel is a layer of mud brick material (B34:18+47) that can be traced east
to the beginning of Channel 218, outside the southeast corner of Room
209. Within this lens of mud brick material (B34:47) is a seam of chert
gravel (B34:21), traced for 2.50 m along the south face of Wall 2005.
The chert seam and the brick material are sealed in turn by another
plaster layer (B34:19=44, probably Stratum VIIIA).
Above plaster layer B34:19 is a layer of soil and cobblestones (B34:17
+42) with a large accumulation of broken pottery (1005 sherds), fallen
wall stones, 17 pieces of chert, charcoal, burnt animal bones, and 7
iron points (TJ 1213, 1225, 1230, 12581259, 1311, 1906). At this
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx 8:
level, the plaster (B34:46) along the south face of Wall 2005 is badly
worn, indicative of the extensive use of the drain during several phases
of occupation.
The eastern end of Channel 218 is marked by a low mud brick
fender (B34:45) that runs east ca. 0.85 m from the east end of Wall
2005 to a line of cobbles (B34:39) which extends south from Parti-
tion Wall 2040 as far as the north face of Wall 2006. These cobbles
are backed on the east by several large boulders (B44:22) set on an
angle to form a spillway separating Channel 218 from Room 207. In
Stratum VIIIA, the source of water that owed from the head of the
channel to the drain may have come in part from the roofs of the sur-
rounding rooms. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of a hole-
mouth jar (V206), with a diameter of 17.4 cm, that may have served as
a drainpipe; it appears to have fallen with wall stones into the channel,
although it could have been in place in front of Doorway A.
40
Such a
pipe could have conducted water from the roof into the channel rather
than served as a conduit within the channel itself.
41
Comparanda: In order to better understand this architectural feature at
Tall Jawa, it helps to compare it with contemporary drains at Pales-
tinian sites, although this is not the place for a complete study; a few
examples will sufce. For instance, the Stratum-VIII stone-lined drain
(10507) at Hazor, dated to the 9
th
century BC, is located in the west
corner of Tower 10029 (Area G), where it extends ca. 7.20 m through
40
The exit from Room 210, through Doorway A, led directly into the drain channel.
Clearly, this was a place where extra support was needed to assure the ow of water
through the drain.
41
Two drainpipes (F 480/1, 480/2) recovered from Late Bronze Age levels at
Hazor (Area F, Locus 8071) were described as thrown into Room 8066 (Yadin et
al. 1960:138), while a third (F 685) was recovered in the Cultic Area (Yadin et al.
1960:131). Additional fragments of drainpipes found in Cistern 9017 (Area D) were
also in secondary context (Yadin et al. 1958: pl. CX: 3, 4), as were those in Area A,
Trench 500, which date to Middle Bronze Age II (Yadin et al. 1989:56). In contrast, at
Tell Halaf several drainpipes were in situ in a channel that led directly to a catchment
area (von Oppenheim 1950: pl. 87; thanks to P. E. Dion for this reference). The use of
pipes within a drain is also seen at Lachish in Stratum II (Tufnell 1953:96; g. 8), where
the drain through the gateway measures 0.400.60 m (Ussishkin 1978: g. 18). Certain
drain pipes had handles, as did the three in Drain 3010 at Megiddo (Stratum VIII;
Loud 1948:104; pl. 256:2). Drainpipes without handles were very common in the Late
Bronze Age (e.g., Hazor, Area F; Yadin et al. 1960: pl. CXLVII:79); similar pipes
appeared in situ in Iron Age levels between Rooms A and B at Lachish (Tufnell 1953:
pls. 23:1; 90:390).
8. cn\r+rn ri\r
the masonry. On either side of the drain, basalt stones, possibly in sec-
ondary use, are built into the tower to facilitate the ow of water (Yadin
1989:178179). The inner mouth of the channel is 0.70 m wide and
1.50 m high, whereas the outlet on the north face of Tower 10029 is
ca. 0.30 m wide. By contrast with Drain B24:24 at Tall Jawa, the drain
at Hazor had 5 large capping stones preserved along its length through
Tower 10029 (Yadin 1989: plan XXXI).
At Tel Yoqne#am, two drains which pass through the Stratum 11 (10
th
century BC) and Stratum 10 (9
th
?8
th
century BC) walls are preserved.
During both strata, the walls are casemate style
42
and the drains extend
beyond the full thickness of the walls (Ben-Tor, Portugali and Avissar
1983: gs. 2, 6). In Stratum 11, a stone-lined channel inside the town
directed water toward the drain. The source of the water is uncertain,
although the excavators suggest the possibility of a nearby water reser-
voir (Ben-Tor, Portugali and Avissar 1983:40). No construction details
are provided with the exception of an illustration of a section of the
drain oor (Ben-Tor, Portugali and Avissar 1983: g. 6).
43
The same is
true of Drain 1723 in Stratum 10 that is located 5.00 m southwest of
the earlier conduit. In this case, the drain extends beyond the outer
wall face for a distance of ca. 6.00 m (Ben-Tor, Portugali and Avissar
1983:37).
Fields BA
Inner Casemate Wall 2006=1030+1020
Beginning at the east end of Drain Channel 218, the Stratum-VIIIB
inner wall (W2006) extended east gradually changing its alignment,
with the result that it was subsequently covered over by Stratum VIIIA
repairs. This is seen quite clearly along the eastern stretch of Wall 1030
in Squares B63A3, where the line of its north face is ca. 0.20 m further
south than Stratum-VIIIA Wall W1004. The offset of the inner wall is
even more apparent east of Doorway H, where Wall 1020 is ca. 0.40 m
further south than Stratum-VIIIA Wall 1010.
42
The excavators note that the cross walls within the double wall system (W200 and
212) of Stratum 10 are only nished on one face. It is their judgment that these walls
were not the free-standing cross walls of a casemate wall (Ben-Tor, Portugali and
Avissar 1983:35; g. 2).
43
The drain, illustrated by Ben-Tor, Portugali and Avissar (1983: pl. 1B) as Stratum
11, appears instead to be a section of Stratum-10 Drain 1723 at the point where a
support wall appears under the capping stones (1983: g. 2).
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx 8
Figure 5.24. Casemate Rooms in Field A, with Doorway
H connecting Casemate Room 121 with Building 113.
The west end of Wall 1020 consists of large and very large, well
hewn boulders that form the east jamb of Doorway H. Here, there is
one semi-dressed stretcher (A13:42) that measures 0.45

1.15 m, and is
covered with a thin layer of plaster. Such careful construction is strong
evidence that this entrance into Casemate Room 101 was in use during
both phases of Stratum VIII. Although Wall 1020 was uncovered only
in Square A2 east balk and lies unexcavated in Square A12, it seems
apparent that it was the earliest phase of the inner wall, which was in
use with Outer Casemate Wall 1003. The eastern extension of Wall
1020 is not exposed in Field A (A12A63), but it continues eastward
under a modern stone pile (W1031). In Field C-west, Inner Wall 8005
appears to be its continuation.
Casemate Room 121 (Figs. 5.24, 25): The Stratum-VIIIB use phase of a
casemate room along the south side of the town was uncovered only in
Room 121. Exposed in the eastern half of Square A2, a hard-packed
beaten earth surface (A2:31) with at-lying pottery was well preserved.
This surface extends into Doorway H that leads into the rooms adja-
cent to the wall system (Chapter 6). Surface A2:31 was subsequently
covered by a deep (ca. 0.75 m) layer of collapse (A2:13+11), probably
8 cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.25. Casemate Room 121 with Stratum- VIIIA Wall 1004 in background.
ceiling material. Within these layers were 2000+sherds and 4 broken
spindle whorls, evidence of extensive domestic use or storage. Soil locus
A2:13 sealed against the lower stones of Wall 1020 on the east and
around the south end of Wall 1012 which runs through the inner case-
mate wall (W1030). North-south Wall 1012 may have been a Stratum-
IX wall that was truncated during the construction of Inner Casemate
wall 1030 and the establishment of the Stratum VIIIB-surface (A2:31),
although this remains tentative. At the same time, the resulting wall
stub may have served as a room divider between 2 casemate rooms (see
Doorway G, below). At its greatest width, Room 121 was 1.501.65 m
and its length within the excavated area was 3.70 m.
Destruction of Stratum VIIIBFields E, B, and A
Evidence for the end of Stratum VIIIB in Field E did not appear
to affect the casemate wall system, but could be seen in collapsed
ceilings within the rooms built up against the inner wall (see Chapter 7)
and by the destruction in Casemate Room 301. In contrast, the most
serious disturbance of the fortication system was seen along the south
side of the town, especially in the collapse and reconstruction of the
inner casemate wall and the redesign of the casemate rooms. Although
the stone architecture makes it difcult to trace this destruction in
the archaeological record, probably due to the reuse of many of the
collapsed boulders, the raising of oor levels is apparent, especially in
Casemate Room 101 (R121 of Stratum VIIIB).
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx 8
STRATUM VIIIA
RECONSTRUCTION OF THE CASEMATE SYSTEM
Field E
No massive collapse of the casemate walls in Field E could be assigned
with certainty to the end of Stratum VIIIB, although the excavation
of Cistern E64:13 within Building 300 suggests the complete blockage
of Passageway 309, at least as an access to cisterns outside the walls.
From now on, this passageway could only be used as an entrance to
the casemate rooms which were furnished with new oors above the
smashed debris that was left in situ.
Room 301 (Figs. 5.14, 17)
Casemate Room 301 extends 6.00 m without evidence for a cross wall.
Located south of inset E56b, where the distance between the inner
(W3000) and outer (W3006) walls was ca. 1.251.43 m, Room 301 is
somewhat narrower than Rooms 310 and R311, which are 2.25 m
in width. The principal surface (E55:17) in the western half of Room
301 is paved with agstones, while the eastern half has a beaten earth
oor (E55: 16). The soil layer (E55:12) immediately above the agstone
and beaten earth surfaces (E55:16+17) contained 11 sheep/goat bone
fragments, 2 basalt grinders (TJ 421, TJ 448), 1 stopper (TJ 450), small
pieces of charcoal and ceramic sherds. Although such an assemblage
is not evidence for room function (see Daviau 1993a:31), it clearly
suggests domestic rather than military activities.
Room 311 (Figs. 5.14, 17)
Casemate Rooms 311 and R310 are located at the east end of the wall
system immediately west of Passageway R309. Only the east end (1.50
m) of Room 311 was exposed in order to clarify the construction and
association of Cross Wall 3021 with Inner Wall 3000 and Outer Wall
3006. Although only the upper four courses were excavated, it is clear
that Cross Wall 3021 consists of 2 rows of small and medium boulders,
a full 1.00 m thick. While it is probable that it bonded with the Inner
Casemate Wall 3000, the join of Wall 3021 with Outer Wall 3006 was
less clear; it appears to abut. At this point in the casemate wall, the
distance between the inner and outer walls is 2.25 m. The debris layers
(E76:4, 19) that ll the room consist of soil and scattered boulders,
apparent rockfall that marks the nal collapse of the wall system.
86 cn\r+rn ri\r
Room 310
East of Room 311 is the smallest casemate room identied during
excavation, Room 310. Framed by a sturdy wall (W3021) on the west,
this small room is bounded on the east by Wall 3019, a single row
(0.50 m thick) of small and medium limestone boulders linking the
inner and outer walls. Parallel Walls 3019 and W3021 form a room
of only 1.60 m long (east-west). A plaster surface (E76:22) extending
the full width of Room 310 slopes toward the north. No nds indicative
of room function were recovered in the overlying debris layer (E76:18),
and no doorway into Room 311 was evident. In spite of these factors,
Room 310 was clearly in use in Stratum VIIIA.
Of interest is the fact that the absolute level of Plaster Surface
E76:22 is 922.93922.75 masl, in the same range as the agstone
oor in Room 301 (922.98922.82 masl), even though the oor levels
immediately south of Wall 3000 in R313 (Building 300) is 1.00 m lower
than those in Room 302, adjacent to Casemate Room 301. Secondly,
no doorways connecting the casemate rooms to Building 300 were
discovered anywhere in the 24.00 m length of inner Wall 3000 exposed
during excavation. At the same time, nds within Room 301 strongly
suggest that the casemate rooms were roofed and used for storage
(see above). One can only suppose that the ancient inhabitants gained
access to these rooms from Passageway 309, or from above.
Field B
Inner Wall 2001+2000 and 2007 (Figl 5.18, 21)
In the southwest corner of the town, Drain B24:24 shows no signs of
reconstruction in Stratum VIIIA, although Channel 218 received a sec-
ond coat of plaster (B24:17a) and continued in use. The clearest evi-
dence for a second construction phase is seen in Doorway K, where
Blocking Wall 2000 reduced the width of the doorway from 2.00 m
to 0.95 m, forming Doorway A. Blocking Wall 2000 consists of dressed
limestone boulders, several in the range of large boulders. Within Door-
way A is a carefully dressed threshold stone (B34:60) in situ at the north-
ern lip of the entrance. Doorway A suggests that Channel 218 contin-
ued to serve as a pathway to Casemate Room 210.
Casemate Room 210 (Fig. 5.18)
In the southwest corner of the fortication system, a single narrow
room (R210) lls the space between the outer (W2002+2009) and
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx 8
Figure 5.26. Tower 2013 in Casemate Wall System, South of Building 204.
inner (W2001+2006) casemate walls. Casemate Room 210 is trape-
zoidal in shape and measures 1.15 m wide at the west end, 2.20 m
wide on the east, and 8.50 m long. Because the soil and rockfall layers
(B24:25=B34:6) that ll Room 210 were not excavated to oor level,
its specic function could not be determined. However, the presence of
a single, well-built entrance (Doorway A) which leads into Drain Chan-
nel 218 clearly indicates that Room 210 was used, and not just as a
space lled with debris to strengthen the wall system. In addition, we
have strong evidence that Channel 218 was used as both a drain and a
passageway to Doorway K, since it was important enough to be remod-
elled in Stratum VIIIA.
Tower 2013 (Fig. 5.26)
The most perplexing construction sequence was seen in Squares B43
B53, where only the outer face of South Wall 2009 appears to continue
along the exposed length of the outer wall. The inner face is only visible
where Casemate Room R210 on the west and Rooms 201 and R101
on the east were rebuilt. For a stretch of ca. 10.00 m, beginning at the
east end or head of Drain Channel 218, there are no rooms between
the inner and outer walls. Instead, the inner wall is part of a large unit
(Tower 2013), distinct from the system of casemate rooms. Much of
88 cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.27. Basin B44:4 reused in Inner Casemate Wall 2007.
the construction within this unit was probably built in Stratum VIIIA,
along with the re-alignment of the upper courses (W2007) of Wall 2006.
Beginning immediately south of the head of Drain Channel 218,
there is a north-south cross wall (W2008) built of one row of large
at-topped boulders that links the inner and outer casemate walls and
serves as the east wall of Casemate Room 210. This construction is
matched at the east end by Cross Wall 2012, which is also formed of
large, at-topped boulders and is the west wall of Casemate Room 201.
The Stratum VIIIA rebuild (W2007) of Inner Casemate Wall 2006
consists of large boulders positioned along its north face that cover
several courses of smaller boulders.
Within the unit formed by these cross walls is an east-west line of
large boulders (B43:12=B53:17) running parallel to Inner Wall 2007.
North of these boulders, the south face of Inner Casemate Wall 2007
is increasingly difcult to delineate and appears to consist only of
large cobbles. Appearing to link boulders B43:12=B53:17 on the south
with Outer Wall 2009 was a clear, north-south line of small boulders
(W2013) several courses high, that serves to stabilize two pockets lled
with cobbles and small boulders (B53:12, B53:15). It is not possible to
separate these elements into Stratum-VIIIB and Stratum-VIIIA con-
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx 8q
struction phases, with the result that the nature of the earlier use of this
area remains unclear. At the same time, severe collapse along the south
face of Outer Wall 2009 allowed for erosion and additional destruction
during the ensuing millennia.
The function of this unit (Tower 2013) is not immediately apparent,
although it may have served as the foundation for a tower designed
to give extra strength to the fortication system near the southwest
corner. If this were the case, such a tower could have stood higher than
the adjacent casemate rooms providing extra visibility and a defensive
advantage to the protectors of the town. However, this may not be the
only viable interpretation.
Of special note are two shallow round basins (B44:4 and B53:11)
built into the north face of Inner Wall 2007; both are of limestone.
Basin B44:4 is located immediately above the point where the west wall
(W2011) of Room 206 (Chapter 6) abuts the inner casemate wall, while
Basin B53:11 is part of a more complex construction that marks the
east end of Inner Wall 2007.
44
At this point, Wall 2014, the east wall
of Room 203, cuts through the inner wall until it reaches the north
end of north-south Cross Wall 2012. Basin B53:11 appears to serve
as a capstone where Wall 2014 enters the inner wall line (Fig. 5.27).
On either side of Wall 2014 is a single row of cobble size chert,
several courses deep, that extends through the thickness of the Inner
Wall, marking the end of Wall 2007 to the west and the beginning of
Stratum-VIIIA Wall 1004 on the east.
45
Field A
Inner Casemate Wall 1004+1010 (Fig. 5.28)
Evidence for the construction of a new Wall (W1004) slightly north of
the earlier inner casemate wall (W1030) increases toward the walls east
end. Before construction of this inner wall segment, the builders laid a
plastered surface (A3:10), covering part of Surface A3:15 in Room 103.
Plaster Surface A3:10 continues through Doorway H into Casemate
44
A comparable round shallow basin was located to the east of Building F607 at Tel
Batash (Mazar 1997: P/S 102; Photo 248).
45
What remains unclear is the state of the casemate walls during Stratum VII. It is
possible that the wall in Field B was refashioned, and that the basins were part of an
industrial area created above the Stratum VIIIA destruction debris. This would help
to explain the presence of a large limestone olive crushing stone (B44:20; ca. 0.75 in
diameter, and 0.25 m thick) embedded in the topsoil nearby.
qo cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.28. Inner Casemate Room 201+R200 and Room 101 in Stratum VIIIA.
Room 101. This surface (A2:10) covers Debris Layer A2:11 that had
accumulated in Stratum-VIIIB Casemate Room 121, subsequent to the
partial collapse of Wall 1003 along its southern perimeter. Founded on
this Surface, Wall 1004 runs west for 12.45 m, where it abuts the chert
courses that seal Wall 2014+2012 and Inner Wall 2007 in Square B53.
A partial foundation trench (A3:14), dug to receive Wall 1004, cuts
through the south end of Wall 1012 (Stratum IX); this is visible on the
north side of Inner Wall 1004. This trench (A3:13) is also visible in
the east balk and consists of an area of soft soil, ca. 0.30 m in width,
along the north face of Wall 1004. In Square A3, Wall 1004 is a 3
row, boulder-and-chink wall built of small to medium size limestone
and chert boulders (0.250.75 m). It is preserved to a height of 34
courses (0.90 m) and measures 1.401.50 m in width. The fact that the
alignment of this wall varies slightly several times along its length, and
that it is not in perfect alignment with Wall 1010, east of Doorway H
in Building 113, may indicate haste on the part of the builders.
Casemate Rooms 101, 200 and 201 (Fig. 5.28)
Evidence for use and reuse of Casemate Room 101 is seen in the
presence of a foundation trench (A2:27), which cuts through Plaster
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx q:
Figure 5.29. Casemate Room 201 on right of Inner Casemate Wall 1004.
Layer A2:10. The trench runs along the south face of Inner Wall 1004,
beginning west of Doorway H, and extends as far as the east side of
Wall Stub 1012. This trench is lled with moderately loose soil (A2:25)
that extends into Doorway H (A2:26). Within the trench was the neck
and shoulder of an inverted storejar (V174) that shows signs of burning
and appears to have been used as an oven.
46
The oven (A2:17) was
subsequently sealed by a beaten earth surface (A2:23) that covers the
trench to the level of Plaster Layer A2:10. The nal surface (A2:29) in
use in Room 101 may be a continuation of the plaster surface (B63:14)
exposed further west in Rooms 200+201.
Additional evidence for the reconstruction and nal use of the case-
mate system during Stratum VIIIA was uncovered west of Room 101
in Room 201 (Fig. 5.29). Although it is apparent that the earlier, inner
wall (W1030) continues to run below Wall 1004, its southern face is
not visible in Room 201. In this casemate room, a Stratum-VIIIA oor,
consisting of a agstone surface (B63:14=15) coated with plaster, seals
46
Comparable ovens formed of inverted storejars are reported from houses 14a and
14 at Hazor in Stratum VI, Room 14a, and in Stratum V, Room 16 (Yadin et al. 1960:
pl. VII 3, 5); Chapter 6 below.
q. cn\r+rn ri\r
against both inner (W1004) and outer casemate walls (W1003). A single
cross wall (W2017) dividing these surfaces is only a short partition wall
that leaves barely enough space (0.70 m) for Doorway G, between
adjoining rooms. Wall 2017 is formed of 2 rows of small and medium
boulders that appear to be only one course high, although the bottom
of this partition wall was not exposed beneath Plaster Surface B63:14=
B63:15.
Casemate Room 201 measures 1.60 m wide and 4.00 m in length.
East of Partition Wall 2017, the dimensions of Room 200 (=R101)
could not be determined, because its eastern end remains unexcavated
in the west half of Square A2. Based on the relative elevations of the
oors in Rooms 200 and R101 and their relationship to Inner Wall
1004, it is clear that these rooms were contemporary, and may even be
two sections of the same room.
Destruction of Stratum VIIIA
Evidence for the collapse of the Stratum-VIIIA fortication system was
seen in all excavation areas on the north, west and southwest sides of
the tell (Fields E, B, and A). At the end of Stratum VIIIA, the Stratum-
VIIIA debris layer (E55:12) in Casemate Room 301 was covered with
a series of soil and rockfall layers (E55:9, 7=5), probably collapse from
the casemate ceiling and superstructure. In the midst of the rockfall
located at the foot of Outer Wall 3006 was a well-preserved limestone
roof roller (TJ 381; Chapter 10) and several ground stone tools, objects
which could have been in use on the roof of Casemate Room 301.
Recent soil accumulation and rockfall (E55:4) from modern Wall 3049
sealed the ancient remains. In Field B, Guardroom 221, north of Drain
B24:24, was lled by a series of rockfall layers that included large
fragments of wall plaster which sealed the nal use surface. While it
may not be possible to locate chronologically the various phases of
destruction or abandonment of the wall system, a destruction level in
Field A was evident in the rock tumble (A3:19, 2:4=8) that extended
between the outer (W1002) and inner (W1004) casemate walls. This
tumble fell onto Plaster Surface A2:29 lling Room 101. What was
most distinctive about this collapse was that Outer Wall 1002 slipped to
the north or uphill rather than down the south slope. Additional rock
tumble (A2:5=9), probably from the last use phase of Wall 1002 itself,
continued down the slope (as Locus A1:6) to the edge of the bulldozer
cut along the front edge of Wall 1001.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx q
While this same pattern was not as obvious in Rooms 200 and 201 to
the west, these rooms as well were lled with fallen wall stones marking
the end of occupation on this side of the tell. Additional collapse was
especially evident along the length of Outer Wall 1002, where the
uppermost preserved course of wall stones was at the same level as
the latest oor in Casemate Room 201. In the southwest corner of
Room 201, the Plaster oor (B63:15) itself had been exposed and its
surface was damaged before it was sealed by wind blown soil (B63:4,
10). Finally, the inner wall (W1004+W1010) was covered in modern
times by a property wall (W1031; A3:2+A13:6), formed of boulders
which were piled up along the ancient wall line by farmers.
STRATUM VI
Only very limited evidence was recovered that may point to activity on
the tell during the Persian period. A single Athenian coin, recovered
from the oor in Room 200, may have been lost accidentally by a
traveller and may not represent any use of the tell itself.
More perplexing is Burial 3 (B34:10), which was uncovered above
Casemate Room 210, near the southwest corner of the wall system.
The grave was located among the wall stones of the south face of
Inner Casemate Wall 2007. The skeleton had been laid on a lower
course of wall stones and covered with 3 rows and several courses of
cobblestones, in an area 0.50

1.00

0.50 m in depth. When found,


the bones were disarticulated and in very poor condition. Only the
identication of the bones as human and the presence of jewellery
conrmed that this was indeed a burial and not just debris associated
with a repair to the wall.
The jewellery consisted of 32 beads (TJ 1015/132) made of stone,
glass
47
and faience, a lapis lazuli cylinder seal (TJ 965), and a bronze
bula (TJ 995; Daviau 2002:3537, 45). Most distinctive is the bula,
which was a plain semicircular bow with a rectangular section and a
hole for rivet attachment, similar to Stronachs Type I 2 (1959: g. 3.1).
Stronach (1959:187) dated this type of bula to the 6
th
4
th
century BC.
Muhly and Muhly (1989: g. 25.13:260, 263) compare similar bulae
from Tel Michal to one from the Iron Age at Lachish (Muhly and
Muhly 1989:288). Such nds suggest a date in the late Iron Age or early
47
The glass beads were identied by W. Nassau, Professor Emeritus, Wilfrid Laurier
University.
q cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.30. Total Wall System in Field C (C-west and C-east).
Persian period, rather than one in the Christian or Islamic periods.
This evidence is helpful in view of the extremely poor preservation of
the human remains and the lack of a proper grave (see Excursus below,
this chapter).
FIELD C-WEST and C-EAST
Fortication Walls in C-west
The only signicant break (ca. 48.00 m wide) in the east-west trajectory
of the casemate fortication system is located between Squares C17
and C86. These squares are on the south side of the tell, east of Field A
(Fig. 5.1), at a point where the southeastern terrace extends south of the
wall line (Daviau 1992b:152). In Squares C6C7, excavation exposed a
casemate room (R801) in which it was clear that the casemate walls had
at least two phases of use. We can only assume that these phases were
both in Stratum VIII, although some evidence for repair suggests that
the wall system may have been in use during Stratum VII. However,
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx q
Figure 5.31. Casemate Room 801 with relevant locus numbers.
the exact stratigraphic relationship of Casemate Room 801 to Stra-
tum VII Building 800 remains unclear.
48
Stratum IX Offset/inset Solid Wall (Figs. 5.3032)
The evidence for the presence of a Stratum-IX offset/inset wall in
Field C-west is limited to Outer Casemate Wall 8002. This wall contin-
ues the trajectory of Outer Wall 1003 in Field A. In Field C, its phasing
48
The small number of late Iron II ceramic sherds found in Fields A, B, and E
suggests that the wall system went out of use at the same time as the buildings of
Stratum VIIIA. However, this is not denitive; the wall may have been refashioned and
continued in use during Stratum VII.
q6 cn\r+rn ri\r
Figure 5.32. Casemate Room 801 with later phase
Inner Casemate Wall 8004 over Wall 8005.
and founding level were not exposed; however it appears that Outer
Casemate Wall 8002 was reused in Stratum VIIIB, covering an earlier
wall. Wall 8002 appears to end where north-south Wall 8001 abuts it
on the south. Both walls are formed of 3 rows of limestone boulders,
with a core of smaller stones. Wall 8001 runs south through Squares
C6C5 into Square C4, where a modern path cuts through the upper
courses, damaging the wall line. An east-west wall line, visible at inter-
vals on the south crest of the terrace (W8035), may have served as the
southern wall line in this area. Also due to the location of the mod-
ern path, Wall 8035 could not be connected either to Wall 8001 or to
Solid Wall 9000 excavated in Squares C43C63.
49
On the slope of the
terrace, another wall (W8036) that is visible at ground level in Squares
C2C12, soon runs completely underground, in contrast to the wall
lines (W9000 and W9009) on the crest of the slope in Field C-east,
which remain above ground. Wall 8036 was also visible in a scarp at
the east end of the bulldozer cut that exposed retaining Wall 1001 in
Field A. Although Wall 8036 appears to be in line with Wall 1001,
50
49
Further excavation in this area would be indicated in order to explore this
sequence and determine the earliest occupation on the terrace.
50
When these walls (W8035, W8036) were rst documented in 1991, they were
identied as part of a casemate system (Daviau 1992b:152), although other explana-
tions for the rockfall patterns on the south slope were just as likely. If lower Wall 8036
were indeed a continuation of Wall 1001, then it would have functioned as a retaining
wall in Stratum IX, in association with a solid wall higher up on the crest of the hill.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx q
Figure 5.33. Bastion 9007 with Buttress Wall 9008 and Retaining Wall 9015.
the connection between these walls is missing. So too, the connection
of Wall 8036 with Retaining Wall 9015 in Field C-east was not deter-
mined during excavation.
The Lower Retaining Wall in Field C-east (Fig. 5.33)
The earliest wall (W9015) on the southeastern terrace was revealed in
a deep probe against the south face of Buttress Wall 9008. Founded
on bedrock (C71:20), Wall 9015 was only partially exposed (0.75
1.30 m wide over a length of 3.00 m), due to the presence of the
overlying wall system. The uppermost course appears to lean upslope,
although that may have been an accident of preservation. Where it
is visible, Wall 9015 stands 3 courses in height (ca. 0.850.90 m), is
formed of small and medium limestone and chert boulders, and is at
least 2 rows wide. The large amount of chert (ca. 60%) is unusual in
q8 cn\r+rn ri\r
that the typical defensive wall (e.g. W1002) consisted predominantly
of limestone boulders (90%). The composition and position of Wall
9015 suggests that it was a retaining wall, similar to Wall 1001 in Field
A. Although the face of such a wall is visible on the north slope (see
Field E, above), the extension of Wall 9015 around the east end of the
tell could not be demonstrated due to heavy overburden and to the
presence of a modern cemetery, adjacent to Field C in Squares C91
C92, and to a g orchard on the northeast.
Two soil layers (C71:19, 18) which seal up against Wall 9015 con-
tain organically stained patches and ash pockets, along with one frag-
ment of Quercus libani,
51
and a concentration of small, medium and
large boulders. Sealing these layers and covering Wall 9015 was a deep
(ca. 0.30 m) destruction layer (C71:15) of ash stained soil, burnt pot-
tery and large boulders, especially one, trapezoidal chert slab (C71:16)
measuring ca. 1.80 m in length. Pottery associated with retaining Wall
9015 and the destruction debris is predominantly Iron Age II, with a
single red slipped and burnished rim sherd from a vertical rim bowl
(C71.55.1) resting on the preserved top of Wall 9015.
52
The debris lay-
ers (C71:15+18) that sealed Wall 9015 also contained pottery dating to
Iron Age I, most characteristic were triangular rim cooking pot sherds
(C71.52.3; C71.54.2), crude bowl rims (C71.52.4), a heavy ring base
covered in white slip (C71.13.10), and a painted body sherd (C71.50.1).
Flanking Walls 9007+9008 (Figs. 5.33, 34)
Following the destruction associated with Wall 9015, a defensive wall,
constructed in two units (Wall 9007+Buttress Wall 9008), was built
into the slope for a length of 15.30 m. Originally thought to be the
foundation for a tower (Daviau 1993c:333), comparable to Tower 2024
outside West Wall 2023 (Field B), Flanking Wall 9007+9008 can only
be identied with certainty as a solid wall, 3.40 m thick. Each compo-
nent in this east-west wall line consists of 2 rows of boulders that range
in size from large to very large (0.751.50 m); these stones are vertically
dressed on their outer faces and packed with cobble size chink stones
(Daviau 1993c: g. 7).
53
The southern buttress wall (W9008) has a bat-
51
Identication was provided by Pierre Bikai, Director of ACOR, #Amman, Jordan.
52
Carinated bowls with a vertical rim rising directly from the shoulder (vertical
rim bowls) are present in both Stratum VIII and VII, although they are in decline
in Stratum VII.
53
In this drawing, Locus C61:16 is Buttress Wall 9008, C61:3 is Wall 9007, and
C61:7 is the wall plaster.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx qq
Figure 5.34. Bastion 9007 with Buttress Wall 9008 on left.
tered outer face, designed to exert pressure against Inner Wall 9007
and support this wall on the steep slope of the underlying bedrock and
debris layers.
This battered south face of Buttress 9008 was exposed in a deep
probe in Square C71 that reveals the sequence of its founding layers.
The presence of a re pit (C71:14) within a circle of stones above
destruction Debris C71:15 suggests a period of time between the col-
lapse of Stratum-IX Wall 9015 and the construction of Flanking Wall
9007 and Buttress 9008. How long that period was cannot be deter-
mined on the basis of the pottery, since other walls on the crest of the
terrace may have been constructed during the interval. When construc-
tion was undertaken, a sequence of superimposed soil and stone layers
were installed to provide support for Buttress 9008. The debris (C71:15)
is covered by a soil layer (C71:13) packed with cobbles and small boul-
ders. Uppermost is a clean layer of soil (C71:11) with a heavy concen-
tration of chalky pebbles, well scattered, and little in the way of pottery.
Soil Layer C71:11 serves as the founding level for the boulders of
Buttress 9008, which consists of an outer row of large to very large
boulders and 12 rows of medium boulders. Plaster (C71:5) seals the
entire lower course of boulders, lling gaps between the stones to a
depth of 0.08 m, and extending up the face of the wall. This lime
plaster, comparable in composition to that from West Wall 2023 and
:oo cn\r+rn ri\r
Tower 2024, served as a protection against water damage to the wall
face, and was able to stand up to a winter season (19931994) of rain
even after so many centuries.
Preserved to a height of 1.78 m (usually 3 courses), the buttress runs
east, extending the full length of Wall 9007. The east end of both walls
is built of very large limestone boulders, hewn to form well dressed
edges.
54
At its base, the buttress ranges in thickness from 1.691.74 m,
and at the top, it is 1.301.41 m thick. The degree of slope for the
outer, south face of Buttress Wall 9008 is 26.
At the southwest corner of Buttress 9008, a similar sequence of
make-up layers is present, beginning with a agstone pavement
(C61:10) that extends north along the west face of Wall 9008 and Wall
9010. On this support is a layer of cobbles (C61:15), followed by a soil
layer (C61:14) containing pottery sherds that is sealed in turn by two
layers of cobbles (C61:12=8, +C61:13=9). These layers seal around
one very large (0.50

0.95 m) boulder (C61:17) that extends beyond


the outer edge of Buttress Wall 9008 and supports the southwest cor-
ner. The preserved height of Buttress 9008 is one course lower than
Inner Wall 9007. Whether this is a feature of these walls, that served as
a method for supporting the superstructure, or whether it is due to the
pattern of collapse, could not be determined because no evidence for
the superstructure is preserved.
Preserved in place against the north face of Buttress Wall 9008 is
Inner Wall 9007. Along its north face, the upper course of Wall 9007
is formed of large and very large boulders (1.001.50 m in length) that
were hewn along the outer wall face. The stones at the west end of
Inner Wall 9007, where it bonds with north-south Wall 9010, are less
well hewn than the stones at the east end, suggesting that more of the
wall was below ground level at this point. There is no evidence to show
that Wall 9007 bonds with the outer Buttress Wall (W9008). Instead,
one row of chink stones appear to separate the inner wall (W9007)
from Buttress Wall 9008, suggesting that Wall 9007 and West Wall
9010 were constructed rst, and the battered buttress wall (W9008) was
added later as a support.
55
54
Fallen stones adjacent to these boulders indicate the importance of these walls;
however, excavation was not possible since Walls 9007 and W9008 ended on the east
in the modern cemetery.
55
The 3zone wall at Tell el-Hesi provides a comparable construction sequence
(Daviau 1993c:334, n. 7).
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx :o:
Excavation north of inner Wall 9007 was extremely limited. Only a
sequence of soil loci (C71:7,3=C72:3) representing nal collapse, soil
accumulation and the construction of an Umayyad(?) period eld wall
(W9009) were identied. However, what is visible in the north-south
trench (C6162) is the full construction sequence of Wall 9010 along
its west face, demonstrating that it is sealed against at its south end by
Buttress Wall 9008.
56
Inner Wall 9007 and Wall 9010
Wall 9010 runs up the slope of the hill beginning at its meeting with
inner Wall 9007, immediately north of Buttress 9008. Evidence for the
founding of Wall 9010 is preserved in a line of boulders (C61:22, 23)
that jut out below the west wall face. These stones follow the slope of
the underlying debris or bedrock, so that Wall 9010 climbs at an even
rate. Sealing up against these boulders from the west is a layer of rm
moist soil (C61:20) that contains additional boulders and cobblestones
and pieces of lime/nari (C61:19). This accumulation is covered in
turn by a layer of loose soil (C61:18) that is the bedding layer for a
plaster glacis (C61:6). The glacis, or plaster surface, consists of lime
plaster with pebbles, small cobbles and ceramic sherds embedded in it.
Damaged by fallen stones (C61:11) to which a ne plaster coating still
adheres, Glacis C61:6 is rough and irregular in thickness in the areas
where it is preserved.
Wall 9010 is itself coated with lime plaster (C61:7) which covers the
west face of the wall stones, sealing crevices lled with chinkstones.
This plaster appears to continue to the level of plaster surface C61:6,
although its composition becomes increasingly composite the further
west it is from the wall face (Chapter 14).
Further upslope, Wall 9010 continues (Square C62), but is dam-
aged by collapse (C62:10) and modern earth moving activity. An east-
west line of stones (W9009), probably boulders from the gate complex
located on the terrace (C6467), has tumbled over the crest line and
become embedded in debris. Along with these boulders is a heavy accu-
mulation of pebbles (C62:6) that forms a pavement on the slope west
of Wall 9010. Cut by a pit (C62:18), these features may date anytime
after Iron Age occupation ended at Tall Jawa. Wall 9010 ends south
56
The slope of support stones underlying Wall 9010 indicates the rise of the under-
lying bedrock, leading one to suspect that Wall 9007 itself could have been founded on,
or just above, bedrock.
:o. cn\r+rn ri\r
of the point where it was expected to join Wall 9000, a solid wall that
forms the southern perimeter of a group of rooms (R901, R902) which
yielded evidence for domestic activity. Nor does Wall 9010 join with the
gate structure (B910; Chapter 9) further north. On the east, a modern
property wall (W9043), formed of boulders and socket stones
57
from the
ancient structures, extends 40.03 m north-south in Squares C81C86.
This wall limited excavation so that we could not investigate the rela-
tionship of the L-shaped formation of Walls 9007 and W9010 with a
possible roadway into the Iron Age town. In spite of this limitation, the
southern terrace appears to be the most likely place for a road, since
the casemate wall system can be clearly identied in Squares C86C96,
at the northeastern corner of the terrace.
Pottery and Chronology
Soil layers that seal up against Inner Wall 9007 contain predominantly
late Iron Age II pottery forms. Four very characteristic types consist of
saucers, black burnished bowls, mortar bowls and an incised grater
(Daviau 1997b: g. 8). Most distinctive were the black burnished bowl
rims.
58
While there is only one instance where sherds mended, sev-
eral sherds were probably from the same vessel. In addition there is
a thick black-slipped bowl base. Red slipped saucers, already begin-
ning to appear in Stratum VIIIA become much more common in Stra-
tum VII.
59
The ceramic mortar bowl (C72.4.2) with external ridges and
tripod feet appears during both Strata VIII and VII. Such bowls with
white exterior slip and pink interior surface are also known in Building
800 in Field C-west. However, the grater with impressions on its inte-
rior is denitely a seventh century form. In the case of C71.15.9, the
bowl is not an imitation of basalt bowls with ring base, but is a some-
what deeper bowl with a disk base. This bowl style was the common
bowl modied by wedges or small round depressions in the interior, just
above the base; examples are reported by Chambon (1984: pl. 56:21,
22) from Tell el-Far#ah (N) and by Lapp from Tell el-Fl (Lapp 1981:
pls. 64:19; 65:20).
60
At Tall Jawa, only the shallow bowls which imitated
57
A comparable stone socket was reported from Tell en-Na
.
sbeh (McCown 1947:
pl. 92.1).
58
Black burnished forms include C71.13.18+15.11; C71.7.6; C71.10.6, 7; C72.2.7.
59
Several sherds mended to form V910, a red slipped and burnished saucer with
the splayed rim indicative of its development during Stratum VII; additional random
sherds of the same vessel type were also recovered (e.g. C71.18.1).
60
This type has been studied by Zertal (1989), Worschech (1991), London (1992),
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx :o
basalt mortars had true wedge impressions; Bowl C71.15.9 had impres-
sions made after ring with a tool that left a cup-shaped hollow. This
style may have preceded the shallow wedge impressed bowls.
The stratigraphic sequence of the fortication system in Field C
is not linked to that in Field A to the west. Nevertheless, it is clear
that the walls were all in use during Stratum VII, when the buildings
in Field C were constructed and in use. Whether the wall system in
Field C-east was already in use in Strata IX is less certain. In Fields
A, B, and E, the casemate wall system appeared to collapse at the end
of Stratum VIIIA, possibly due to earthquake activity or to an attack
on the town. It cannot be determined with certainty whether a new
superstructure was constructed in Stratum VII, or whether the walls
served merely as integral components of the Field C buildings.
Summary: Characteristics and Parallels
The Solid/Outer Wall
The solid wall with offsets/insets is similar to walls systems at sev-
eral sites in Cisjordan, such as Megiddo, Gezer, Lachish, and Hazor
(Herzog 1992:27071). The spacing of the offsets/insets and the thick-
ness of these walls varies from site to site. Nevertheless, in some cases,
these walls include offsets/insets which are only ca. 0.400.60 m in
depth, that do not allow for their full exploitation as shooting platforms.
Examples of shallow offsets/insets include the walls at Megiddo (Stra-
tum IVB) with salients of 0.500.60 m in size; Beer-sheba, where the
recess is 0.55 m deep (Aharoni 1973:9); at Hazor (Area B), near Room
3103c, where two insets are 0.30 m and 0.60 m deep respectively, while
the offset/inset in Casemate Walls 3608 and 3708 are 0.50 m deep
(Yadin et al. 1989: plan XX); and at Tell el-Kheleifeh in the Period II
settlement, where the depth was 0.37 m (Pratico 1993:26). This use of
shallow offsets/insets is the same construction technique employed at
Tall Jawa, where the offsets/insets appear to facilitate slight changes in
wall direction to accommodate the foundations to the underlying slope
of the natural hill.
61
Such protrusions of the wall face do not by them-
selves allow for the proper angle of defensive shooting along the wall
and Daviau (1997b).
61
Herzog (1992:271) identies certain walls as saw tooth in style, where the
pattern of offset and inset is not regular, or where all the adjustments to the wall face
are in the same direction; see also Wright (1985:190).
:o cn\r+rn ri\r
face. Herzog (1992:271) suggests that such offsets/insets would allow
for balconies that projected beyond the face of the wall in order to pro-
tect the outer wall face. Whether such features were known in ancient
Ammon cannot be determined from the evidence available at this time.
The thickness of the Stratum-IX Solid Wall at Tall Jawa is in the
range of 2.002.50 m, somewhat thinner than the Stratum-V wall at
Beer-sheba (ca. 4.00 m; Aharoni 1973:9, pl. 87), and the massive mud
brick walls at sites such as Ashdod (4.505.60 m thick).
62
On the other
hand, as an Outer Wall in the Stratum-VIII casemate system, the wall
at Tall Jawa is somewhat thicker than outer walls at contemporary sites
in Israel and Judah, where the average is 1.45 m thick.
63
Inner Wall and Casemate Room Size
For long stretches of the Inner Wall (W3000W1004) on both the north
and south crests of the tell, the upper course of stones in the inner wall
was preserved at approximately the same level. This phenomenon may
represent the surface on which a mud brick superstructure was posi-
tioned, although the oor levels of the casemate rooms (101, 200, 201)
in Field AB were at various levels below the tops of the walls. Much
of the collapse in the rooms on the south side consists exclusively of
rockfall with no remains of mud brick. A somewhat different deposition
history can be seen on the west side (Chapter 6), where the stone walls
were standing to the second storey level, although in the case of Case-
mate Room 215 mud brick did fall into the room. Here also, the outer
west wall on the crest has a course of chert as its uppermost preserved
wall stones suggesting a moisture barrier immediately below the mud
brick superstructure.
A Transjordanian parallel for such construction techniques can be
seen in the Iron Age I remains at Tall al-#Umayri. Evidence for a
mud brick superstructure (7J89:29, 30, 21), that had collapsed into the
casemate rooms, indicates that mud brick was only used for the upper
storey walls since the stone walls of the lower room are still standing
62
Another type of solid wall with towers instead of offsets/insets, called massive
by Herzog (1992:270), was considerably thicker (4.508.90 m) than the Solid Wall at
Tall Jawa. Examples include Hazor Area G and Tell en-Na
.
sbeh.
63
Outer wall thicknesses were taken from Lapp (1976: g. 2); examples of town sites
include Hazor (Area A), 1.501.60 m; Shechem (Area G), 1.55 m; Tell Beit Mirsim,
1.50 m; Beth Shemesh, 1.401.60 m; Megiddo (VAIVB), 1.00 m; Arad (VI), 3.00
4.00 m; Tell el-Kheleifeh, 1.00 m; Samaria, 2.00; Beer-sheba, 1.60 m; and Tell el-Fl
(IIIA), 1.101.50 m.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx :o
2.30 m above the latest oor (7J89:33; Clark 1997:63). Unfortunately,
at Tall Jawa, the presence of modern eld walls immediately above
the remaining upper course of the ancient walls suggests that whatever
mud brick wall material might have existed was removed by erosion in
antiquity.
The inner casemate wall at Tall Jawa is considerably thicker (1.30
1.50 m) than the average of 1.12 m documented at sites in western
Palestine.
64
On the other hand, the space between the walls is not
quite as great, measuring only 1.502.25 m versus 2.28 m on aver-
age.
65
These variations may be related to building materials or to room
arrangement at certain sites where the casemates were integrated into
houses built up against the wall system. This pattern was seen only
in two areas at Tall Jawa (Building 200 in Field B; Building 113 in
Field A), since the inner wall lacks doorways along most of its excavated
length on the north and south. Whether this style was a local tradition
cannot be determined due to the stage of excavations in Jordan, espe-
cially in the area of #Amman. Certain differences are, of course, due to
the availability of building materials, their quality and the manpower
needed for the task. Nevertheless, it is clear that the tradition of case-
mate wall construction was already known in Transjordan before it was
adapted to the needs of Tall Jawa.
Total Thickness: In spite of the variations in the thickness of the outer
and inner walls and the size of casemate rooms, the total thickness
of the fortication system (5.50 m on average) is quite consistent with
defensive walls at contemporary sites (4.80 m). This consistency speaks
of a shared awareness of the strength needed for defence against weap-
ons of the day. This means that the site of Tall Jawa was protected
to the same degree as sectors of Hazor, Megiddo, Shechem, Tell Beit
Mirsim and Beer-sheba. Clearly the Ammonite kingdom had building
traditions similar to those of its neighbours to the west.
64
Inner Wall thicknesses from a sample of town sites include Hazor (Area A), 1.10
m; Shechem (Area G), 1.50 m; Tell Beit Mirsim, 1.10 m; Beth-Shemesh, 1.10 m;
Megiddo (VAIVB), 1.00 m; Arad (VI), 1.30 m; Tell el-Kheleifeh, 1.00 m; Samaria,
1.00; Beer-sheba, 1.00 m; and Tell el-Fl (IIIA), 1.10 m (Lapp 1976: g. 2).
65
The reported sizes of casemate rooms at Megiddo (2.004.00 m) and at Arad
(Stratum VI, 3.50 m wide) are comparable to the width of rooms in domestic structures.
In these cases, the differences in construction and room arrangement must be taken
into account.
:o6 cn\r+rn ri\r
Parallels
Lapp (1981) and Pratico (1993) have both published studies of the
distribution of casemate walls at Palestinian sites during the Iron Age
and in earlier periods. Among the 35 sites studied by Lapp (1976: g. 2),
only the ashlar, outer casemate wall at Samaria is 2.00 m thick, whereas
at all other sites the outer wall was in the range of 1.001.60 m thick.
66
This is true even of Hazor, which is in many respects a close parallel to
Tall Jawa in its stone masonry and construction techniques.
In the recent excavations at Tel #En Gev, two parallel walls described
as a city-wall, an adjacent built moat and a counterpart wall seem to
fall within the parameters of typical casemate wall systems of the Iron
Age. Here the outer wall was ca. 1.70 m thick, the inner wall was 1.50
m and the intervening space was ca. 2.00 m (Kochavi 1993:188). The
total width of this wall system is ca. 5.20 m, very close to the Tall Jawa
specications. Secondly, the outer wall at #En Gev appears to have had
an offset along its outer face, but not on its inner face (Kochavi 1993:
g. 3). This is also a characteristic of the Tall Jawa outer wall, although
it is a feature which is not common at other Palestinian sites; another
exception is the casemate wall at Tell el-Kheleifeh (Pratico 1993: pl. 4).
For the most part, excavators are not consistent in presenting detail-
ed architectural information that would allow for accurate compari-
son. Tables 5B and 5C include measurements compiled from published
reports and measurements made by the author for sites recently exca-
vated in Transjordan and Palestine.
Table 5B. Casemate Walls at Town Sites in Central Transjordan
67
Site Outer Inner Room Total Reference
Name Wall Wall Width Width
Tall Jawa 2.002.25 1.50 1.502.10 5.005.85 m Daviau 1993c
Tall al-#Umayri 2.002.50
68
1.00 2.75 4.756.25 m Clark 1997
Khirbat al-Mudayna 2.002.25 1.301.60 1.50 -1.85 4.805.70 m Chadwick et al. 2000
(Wadi ath-Thamad)
Khirbat al-Mudayna 1.00 1.00 1.702.00 3.704.00 m Olvarri 1983
(al-Ma#arradjeh)
66
These measurements take into account only the Iron Age walls and not the
Middle Bronze Age examples of casemate construction. Certain Iron Age forts and
farming settlements in the Negev have walls that are even thinner, as at Qasr er-
Ruheibeh, where both inner and outer walls measure 0.70 m.
67
Data from Wilfrid Laurier University sponsored excavations have been culled
from original eld notes; Tall Jawa, 19891995 eld reports, Fields A, B, C, E; Khirbat
al-Mudayna (on Wadi ath-Thamad), Square A26 eld report (1999), as well as based
on information in published reports.
68
Herr (2000:172) gives the size of the Iron Age I outer wall as 1.602.00 m.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx :o
Site Outer Inner Room Total Reference
Name Wall Wall Width Width
Khirbat al-Mudayna 1.101.20 0.801.00 2.002.40 3.904.60 m Routledge 2000
(al-#Aliya)
Balu# 1.20 200 3.003.50 6.206.70 m Worschech and Ninow 1992
Lehun 0.700.80 0.75 2.50 4.00 m Homs-Fredericq 1997
Dhbn 1.10 1.10 2.20 4.50 m Tushingham 1972
Table 5C. Casemate Walls at Palestinian Town Sites from Recent Excavations
69
Site Outer Inner Room Total Reference
Name Wall Wall Width Width
#En Gev 1.70 1.50 2.00 5.20 m Kochavi 1993
#En
.
Ha
.
seva 2.503.00 2.00 Cohen 1994
Re
.
hov 1.25 0.75 Mazar and Camp 2000
Yoqne#am 2.002.20 1.601.70 1.501.60 5.005.50 m Ben-Tor et al. 1983
Function
The term casemate, frequently understood to be derived from false
room, implies that the primary purpose of the space between the two
parallel walls was military or strategic. The space was not intended to
be used as a true room within an adjoining structure. In his discussion
of the casemate wall systems in ancient Israel, Yadin (1963:370) sug-
gested that the casemate rooms constituted storage space or barracks
and that this system was strong enough to withstand the battering ram
in use during the reign of Solomon, although this was not the case
later in the Iron II period. During the 9
th
century BC, the space was
lled with rubble to strengthen the fortications or support a walkway
for defenders of the town. Current scholarly discussion is divided on
the function of such walls, interpreting the ll as a necessary feature of
construction.
70
At Tall Jawa, there were only two cases where casemate rooms could
be interpreted as integral components in adjoining buildings, Room
213 and R215 in Building 200 and Room 103/123 in Building 113
(Chapter 6). In all other cases, the casemate rooms were cut off from
the adjoining structures. At the same time, their use as storerooms
69
Since Lapps treatment (1976) of casemate walls at Palestinian sites, several new
sites have been excavated that contain casemate walls. Certain of these sites are in-
cluded here, along with the fortress at #En
.
Ha
.
seva.
70
Herzog does not accept Yadins view that the purpose of rubble ll in casemate
rooms is to strengthen the walls in time of attack. Rather, he sees this construction
technique as necessary when a strong foundation is needed to support very high walls
(Herzog 1992:270).
:o8 cn\r+rn ri\r
is supported by the presence of storejars and pithoi (R301), and of
specially prepared oor surfaces (R200, R201), which were plastered
or partially stone paved. The method of access to such rooms was not
determined during excavation, although the operating assumption is
that access was gained from upper storey rooms via ladders or stairs.
Excursus:
The Persian Burial
[by Margaret A. Judd and Ryan Defonzo]
The Archaeological Context
One intentional burial (B34:B3) was detected in Field B, Square 34,
located in the southwestern corner of the casemate system at Tall Jawa.
The installation was cut into the inner fortication wall (W 2006),
which was built in boulder and chink style. This inner wall, composed
of boulders (0.301.10 m) and smaller stones (0.100.15 m), varied
from 1.502.00 m in thickness. The burial was cut into the south side
of the wall where two rows of stone were removed for an area of 1.00 m
(east-west axis) and 0.50 m north-south, leaving a single row of stones
to form the north edge of the wall (Fig. 5.18). The grave was originally
contained in an area of three rows of six cobblestones that were three
courses deep.
The burial feature contained poorly preserved osteological remains.
Many small bone fragments were also present in the casemate room,
immediately south of the burial. It was this sample that led archae-
ologists to remove a few of the inner wall stones of Wall 2006, thus
recovering the primary burial area. Artefacts associated with the cob-
bles underlying the skeletal remains consist of a broken millstone (TJ
1749) and a mortar fragment (TJ 2035; Daviau 2002:CD database), in
addition to a worn, pale red cylinder seal (Daviau 2002:89; g. 2.46.1),
32 beads of glass and stone (Daviau 2002:3637), and a bronze bula
(Daviau 2002:45, g. 2.23.1). The bula was dated to the Persian
Period (500400 BC); the only other contemporary nd at Tall Jawa
was an Athenian tetradrachm coin dating to 449 BC (Beckmann 1994,
Daviau, 2002:89).
The bones were extremely fragmentary and, as a result, were sorted
by bone type and conjoined where possible. The minimum number
of individuals (MNI) for the humans was established by inventorying
each bone or diagnostic landmark by the left or right side and the
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx :oq
developmental stage of growth in order to determine the number of
humans that contributed to this sample (White 1992:8489). One adult
and one child were identied.
The Adult
Adult cranial fragments were clustered in situ at the east end of the
burial and when conjoined formed the posterior half of the left parietal
and an adjoining portion of the right parietal; the parietal eminence
was distinctly bossed. Though metric measurements were not possible,
the size of bone and the fusion of the posterior sagittal sutures at
lambda and obelion indicates that the bones were those of an older
adult.
Some of the conjoined long bone fragments formed recognisable
portions of long bones. Portions of lateral segments of two clavicles
were identitied as the left and right from one individual. The left
and right tibial shafts were identied and sided based on the pres-
ence and orientation of the popliteal lines and nutrient foramina. The
distal left femur was identied by the linea aspera and nutrient fora-
men. In all cases, the muscle insertion markings were robust. Other
long bone fragments included the left distal humeral shaft; a proxi-
mal and midshaft portion of the left radius with the nutrient foramen
and radial tuberosity preserved; a distal radial fragment; and two ulna
shaft fragments. Small fragments of at bones included four rib body
fragments and fragments of the left scapula from the spine and bor-
der.
Bones of the extremities were also identiable. The hands are rep-
resented by the left fth metacarpal, the right second and third meta-
carpals, and four proximal phalanges. The left foot is composed of the
navicular, rst cuneiform, and the fourth and fth metatarsals. The rst
and third metatarsal were recovered from the right foot, in addition to
the rst proximal phalange; four unsided proximal phalanges were also
recovered.
One cervical vertebra is the only bone recovered from the spinal
column and could only be identied as one of the third to sixth ele-
ments. This lone cervical vertebra has a low bone mass, projecting bone
extensions on the vertebral body (osteophytosis) and some bone growth
on the joint margins of the articular facets (osteoarthritis). The fth
and sixth cervical vertebrae are commonly affected by these two dis-
ease processes, which are multifactorial in aetiologythe aging process,
weight bearing, locomotion, and upright posture, while specic activ-
::o cn\r+rn ri\r
ity is regarded as a secondary cause (Bridges 1994, Jurmain 1999:119,
Jurmain and Kilgore 1995). Excessive cervical osteophytosis and osteo-
arthritis has been noted in past populations and attributed to carrying
loads on the head or using a tumpline (Bridges 1994, Judd 2001:472
476, Lovell 1994). Clinical studies of the modication to the cervical
vertebrae due to habitual activity are few and support for this aetiology
varies between investigators (Jager, et al. 1997, Scher 1978).
Dental Inventory and Palaeopathology: Six permanent teeth were recovered
and most are heavily worn to Stage 4 of Smiths scale (1984: 4546)
and nearly all exhibit some type of trauma:
1. Right maxillary canine: one tooth fracture on the distal-buccal
occlusal edge; Smiths scale=4.
2. Right maxillary second incisor: no damage; Smiths scale=4.
3. Right mandibular premolar 1: peri- or post-mortem tooth fracture
of the mesial buccal surface resulting in a linear fracture; Smiths
scale=4.
4. Right mandibular rst molar: one large chip on the occlusal edge
of each of the tooths sides; Smiths scale=4.
5. Right mandibular second molar: gross fracture of the enamel
crown and root on buccal surface with heavy cupped wear on
all quadrants; the enamel of the mesial-lingual crown is not as
extensively worn as the other sides, although chipping occurs;
Smiths scale=7.
6. Right mandibular M3: complete enamel fracture of buccal side of
crown, particularly on the distal-buccal quadrant; Smiths scale=
4.
Turner and Cadien (1969:307) reported pressure chipping of tooth
crowns among the dentitions of 324 prehistoric and protohistoric
Aleuts, Eskimos and northern Indians that they attributed to the use
of teeth as tools and as marrow extractors. This crushing or aking of
the tooth crown also characterised the molars of the adult from this
burial context, and even though there is a vast environmental differ-
ence between these New World populations and the Jordanian adult,
the occurrence of fractures and chipping indicate that the teeth were
used as a tool.
The heavy and cupped dental wear is associated with tough foods or
coarse particle inclusions introduced to the diet, which is most typical
of an agricultural subsistence pattern (Larsen 1997:254255). Basalt
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx :::
processing tools were indeed common at Tall Jawa (Daviau 2002:102
105, 122161) and may well have been the culprits that introduced grit
into the diet during food preparation. However, other sources of hard
granules should not be excluded, such as sand, soil introduced during
cleaning, shells, husks, and insects (Leek 1972, 1973).
The Child
The inventory of non-adult remains consists of one bular diaphysis,
one portion of a proximal tibia epiphysis, a cranial vault fragment, one
proximal hand phalange, three metatarsal shafts and the rst proximal
phalange of the right foot. The deciduous dentition includes three
complete teeth and one fragment. The right maxillary rst incisor
was completely formed, while the root of the canine was incomplete
and partially diverged; the roots of the left lower canine were broken,
but divergence into two roots was visible. The developmental stage
of these three deciduous teeth placed the child at 3 years +/- 12
months (Ubelaker 1978:47). Although the bula was not complete,
the diaphysis was measured in order to get some lower limit of the
individuals age. A length of 152.9 mm placed the child at being at least
2.5 years (Scheuer and Black 2000:Table 1117).
Taphonomy: Taphonomy is the study of processes affecting the bone
after death has occurred (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994:182). Both indi-
viduals were extremely fragmentary and the fragments poorly pre-
served, both factors that limit the biocultural data obtainable from
the sample. The fragments can best be identied as Stage 4 on the
Behrensmeyer scale (1978). Bone in this stage is described as brous
and rough in texture, with some splintering; cracks are open and may
have splintered or rounded edges. A few factors may explain the poor
preservation of this burial. Firstly, the grave was quite shallow and
located in an area, which experienced much of the sites water runoff.
Water movement and micro-organisms enhance natural bone decay.
Secondly, the land was also used in modern times for animal hus-
bandry; tooth gnawing marks were identied on the bone material in
two long bone fragments.
Brothwell (1981:2) cautions that loose, fragmented remains may not
reect the original burial type. This particular taphonomic alteration
was also mentioned by Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994:106). Indeed, in
this instance the carnivore tooth marks may provide the proof needed
to understand the cause of the skeletal materials extension southward,
::. cn\r+rn ri\r
outside of the burial boundaries within Wall 2006, in addition to the
absence of most of the childs bones. The destruction of this burial was
likely due to some combination of water runoff, faunal turbation and
perhaps tomb robbing.
Persian Burials in the Levant
The majority of Persian cemeteries that could provide an adequate
parallel for this burial are located in Israel rather than Jordan and were
excavated during the second half of the 20
th
century. Persian burials
were found at #En Ha-Na
.
siv located approximately 1.3 km south of
Beth Shean. The burials were typically a side niche cut into a vertical
pit, which was closed by stone slabs (Porath 1973).
At #Atlit shaft burials with stone slabs protecting the inhumation were
excavated by Johns (1933:5859). Although no osteological data was
presented, as the skeletons were deemed to be too fragmentary, many of
the tomb shafts and artefacts provide a good basis for comparison with
other sites; dates, however, were not supplied. The author described
the graves in sequence from the Hellenistic Period back to 1000 BC
without specically dating any of the interments. From the selection of
the graves it was possible to observe that most of the individuals buried
at #Atlit were laid with the head to the east and aligned in an east-
west orientation, as was the case of the Field B burial at Tall Jawa. Of
the few bronze bulae found, one was denitely with a mans burial
(Burial 859), although females, such as Burial 994, were also interred
with bronze bulae (Johns 1933:55). It is important to note, however,
that the sexing of skeletal material was determined by the artefacts
associated with the skeletons.
Eighty-four burials were excavated at Tall al Mazar in Jordan, a
cemetery dating to the Iron Age IIC, Persian and Late Ammonite
periods (Yassine 1984). Although the majority of the graves were simple
pits, brick or stone lined pits were also observed. A distinct pattern
occurred in the burial attitude and grave good assemblages: the males
were in an extended position and accompanied by weapons, while the
females were in a exed position and were buried with cosmetics and
jewellery, including bulae (Yassine 1984:97); nearly all of the skeletons
were on an east/west axis with the head to the east.
A Persian cemetery of more than 40 graves was excavated at the base
of the southeastern slope of Tell el-Hesi, located in southwestern Israel.
Twelve of the interments held grave goods which included juglets,
copper anklets, iron rings, a copper toggle pin, bead, iron dagger, seal,
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx ::
and assorted potsherds (Coogan 1975, Coogan and Blakely 1989:328
334). Coogan and Blakelys (1989:326) comparison of the Hesi burials
with those from Atlit, Gezer, and Lachish found that the east-west
orientation, though most common, was not consistent. In addition,
most of the skeletons were on their backs with the arms either at
their sides as at #Atlit, or with the right hand over the pelvis as seen
at Lachish. In most cases, the skull faced north. The location of the
Hesi cemetery was responsible for the poor preservation of most of the
bones, which lay in shallow graves often only a few centimetres below
the surface and were, therefore, exposed to water run-off (Coogan
1975:37). Other similarities exist between the burials at Tell el-Hesi
and at Tall Jawa.
1. Some of the graves were dug into existing mud-brick walls and
75% were oriented east-west with the head to the east.
2. Burials 5.008 and 13.013 contained a mixture of immature and
mature skeletal fragments and the cists were relled with the
original grave soil over top of the bodies.
3. Eleven of the Hesi graves were capped with limestone slabs of
local, unworked limestone, some of which became displaced due
to tomb robbers or environmental elements.
4. Coogan (1975:46) concluded from the number of graves and the
sparseness of grave furnishings that the community buried at Hesi
was not wealthy, but likely represented a small agricultural com-
munity. Tell el-Hesi is probably the best site with which parallels
can be drawn with the interment at Tall Jawa.
Summary and Conclusions
The fragmentary nature of the skeletal remains from the Field B inter-
ment leaves little material for a macroscopic osteological analysis. The
burial itself, though a lone specimen, can be compared to surrounding
Persian period burials and some similarities are apparent: isolated buri-
als were frequently placed in standing walls built by preceding commu-
nities; children were often interred with adults; stone slabs were popular
as a lining or cover for the grave; and bulae were often included with
the inhumation for both sexes. What may have once been considered a
haphazard, unplanned interment within Wall 2006 can now be better
understood as a common mode of interment utilised throughout the
Levant during the Persian Period.
:: cn\r+rn ri\r
References for the Excursus
Beckmann, M.
1994 Fraternizing with the enemy: an Athenian coin from Persian Palestine. The
Picus:2838.
Behrensmeyer, A. K.
1978 Taphonomic and Ecologic information on bone weathering. Paleobiology
4:150162.
Bridges, P. S.
1994 Vertebral arthritis and physical activities in the prehistoric Southeastern
United States. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 93:8393.
Brothwell, D. R.
1981 Digging Up Bones. 3rd ed. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
Buikstra, J. E. and D. H. Ubelaker (eds)
1994 Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Fayetteville: Arkansas
Archaeological Survey Research Series, Vol. 44.
Coogan, M. D.
1975 A cemetery from the Persian Period at Tell el-Hesi. Bulletin of the American
Schools of Oriental Research 220:3746.
Coogan, M. D. and J. A. Blakely
1989 A cemetery of the Persian Period. In Tell el-Hesi: The Persian Period (Stra-
tum V), edited by W. J. Bennett and J. A. Blakely, pp. 325334. Winona
Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns.
Daviau, P. M. M.
2002 Excavations at Tall Jawa, Jordan: Volume 2: The Iron Age Artefacts. Culture and
History of the Ancient Near East, 11/2. Leiden: Brill.
Jager, H. J., L. Gordon-Harris, U. M. Mehring, G. F. Goetz and K. D. Mathias
1997 Degenerative change in the cervical spine and load-carrying on the head.
Skeletal Radiology 26:47581.
Johns, C. N.
1933 Excavations at #Atlit (193031): The South Eastern Cemetery. Quarterly of
the Department of Antiquties in Palestine 2:41104.
Judd, M. A.
2001 The Human Remains. Pp. 458543 in Life on the Desert Edge. Seven thousand
years of settlement in the Northern Dongola Reach, Sudan, by D. Welsby. London:
Sudan Archaeological Research Society Publication Number 7.
Jurmain, R.
1999 Stories from the Skeleton. Behavioral Reconstruction in Human Osteology. Amster-
dam: Gordon and Breach.
Jurmain, R. D. and L. Kilgore
1995 Skeletal evidence of osteoarthritis: a palaeopathological perspective. Annals
of the Rheumatic Diseases 54:443450.
Larsen, C.
1997 Bioarchaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leek, F. F.
1972 Teeth and bread in ancient Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 58:126
132.
1973 Further studies concerning ancient Egyptian bread. Journal of Egyptian
Archaeology 59:199204.
Lovell, N. C.
1994 Spinal arthritis and physical stress at Bronze Age Harrapa. American Journal
of Physical Anthropology 93:149164.
ron+iric\+iox svs+rx ::
Porath, E.
1973 #En Ha-Na
.
siv. Israel Exploration Journal 23:259260.
Scher, A. T.
1978 Injuries to the cervical spine sustained while carrying loads on the head.
Paraplegia 16:94101.
Scheuer, L. and S. Black
2000 Developmental Juvenile Osteology. London: Academic Press.
Smith, B.
1984 Patterns of molar wear in hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists. American
Journal of Physical Anthropology 63:3956.
Turner, C. G. and J. D. Cadien
1969 Dental chipping in Aleuts, Eskimos and Indians. American Journal of Physical
Anthropology 31:303310.
Ubelaker, D. H.
1978 Human Skeletal Remains. Chicago: Aldine.
White, T.
1992 Prehistoric Cannibalism at Mancos 5MTUMR-2346. Princeton: Princeton Uni-
versity Press.
Yassine, K.
1984 Tell el Mazar I: Cemetery A. Amman: University of Jordan.
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cn\r+rn six
THE IRON AGE II TOWN
FIELDS AB: BUILDINGS 102, 113, 100, 200
AND 204 (19891995)
Introduction
The principal occupation levels in Fields AB (Strata IXVIIIA) repre-
sent the full span of Iron Age II, prior to the large scale introduction
of Assyrian elements in Stratum VII. Three phases represent early and
middle Iron Age II occupation in Field A, where both the Solid Wall
(Stratum IX) and the Casemate Wall system (VIIIB, VIIIA) are associ-
ated with structures inside the town. One complete building (B102) and
sectors of several other houses and work areas lled the entire exca-
vation area in the southwest corner of the town. Surprisingly, no two
structures were alike, each one having its own unique plan, although
features within these structures, such as ovens and wall construction,
show a common tradition. The pottery corpus is heavily contaminated
by Iron Age I sherd material that was present in the ceiling makeup.
Nevertheless, the beginnings of certain ceramic styles can be docu-
mented, especially the introduction of red slipped pottery and the tran-
sition from Iron Age I collared-rim pithoi to later Iron Age II forms.
Excavation in Fields AB was located in a trapezoidal area that
measures 51 m east-west, 18 m north-south along Outer West Wall
2023+2002 in Squares B14B16, and 30 m north-south on the east in
Squares A1A15 (Fig. 6.1). A modern eld wall (W1018) runs east-
west just north of the outer north wall of Building 102, and then
curves to the southeast limiting the exposure of Building 113. Within
these parameters, excavation was undertaken each season in order to
investigate the Iron Age town and understand its architectural and
cultural traditions. In this chapter, the major structures and work areas
are presented, along with the artefactual and ceramic evidence for
various types of domestic and industrial activities. Special attention
is given to the functional analysis of artefact and pottery assemblages
related to the preparation, consumption, storage, and disposal of food,
::8 cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.1. Excavation Grid in Fields AB.
a focus which derives in part from the overall Madaba Plains Project
food system methodology (LaBianca 1990: 121), and from the special
interests of the author.
1
Discussion of individual buildings will begin
in Field A, with B102, and will continue with B113 on the east, and
1
For a discussion of the theoretical framework concerning functional activity sets,
see Daviau 1993: 3468, 437448; this framework has been utilized in the analysis of
Tall Jawa artefacts (Daviau 2002).
rirrns \n ::q
B100 on the south. This last building or work area extends into Field B,
where two other structures, B200 and B204 are associated with Work
Area 211. Of these, Building 102 appears to be the earliest structure
and is here assigned to early Iron Age II (Stratum IX, 9th century)
with occupation continuing into the late 8th century (Stratum VIIIB
VIIIA).
Table 6A. Strata for Field A
STRATUM FIELD PHASE(S) PERIOD
IAIB 12 modern
II no remains post-Umayyad
III pottery only Umayyad
IV no remains Byzantine
V pottery only Roman
VI burial/coin Persian
VII pottery, work area Late Iron II
VIIIA 3/repairs Middle Iron II
VIIIB 4/casemate wall Middle Iron II
IX 5/solid wall, B102 Early Iron II
X 6/deep probe Iron I
XI pottery only Late Bronze (?)
BUILDING 102
Introduction
During six seasons of excavation, only one complete structure (Build-
ing 102) was delineated in Fields A and B. This structure
2
is located
1.00 m west of Building 50, which was uncovered in a deep probe
(Chapter 4), and 3.00 m north of the Stratum-VIII Inner Casemate
Wall 1004/1030. The northern wall (W1024=2034) of Building 102
is in close proximity to a modern property wall (W1018) that restricts
excavation to the north and east. Fortunately, the upper courses of the
outer walls
3
of B102 could all be uncovered within the excavation area.
Although excavation reached the lower oor level only in Room 120,
the overall plan and several features of the building could be identied.
2
In an earlier report, this structure was labeled Building 101 (Daviau 1994:178).
3
Each of the outer walls of Building 102 was given a single number, except where
the continuity of the wall or the contemporaneity of its construction was not apparent;
W1006 (east wall, south of Doorway F), W1011=2020 (south wall), W2032 (west wall),
W1024=2034 (north wall), W1026 (east wall, north of Doorway F).
:.o cn\r+rn six
When rst exposed in Field A, it was not immediately apparent that
more than half of Building 102 was located in Field B. Following the
1989 season, the excavation area was expanded of to the west of Field
A as the result of a change in research strategy that developed when
the importance of Tall Jawa for Ammonite history and culture became
clear. In 1991, Squares B61B70 were laid out along the west side
of Squares A1A10, with Squares B1B10 running south to north,
adjacent to two modern houses located on the west slope of the tell.
The addition of Field B made it possible to complete the excavation of
Building 102.
History of Excavation (Fig. 6.2)
When excavation began in 1989, two rooms (R104, R105)
4
in the
southeast corner of Building 102 were exposed in Field A. As horizon-
tal exposure expanded in succeeding seasons, additional rooms were
revealed to the north (Squares A5) and to the west (Squares B64). Only
during the nal season (1995) were all four outer walls uncovered (in
A15 and B65), and the plan of the structure fully revealed.
The construction of the outer walls, formed of 23 rows of lime-
stone boulders in boulder-and-chink formation, is in contrast to the
inner walls, such as Wall 1005 and W1008, which consist of only one
row of at topped boulders. It was not known during the rst two sea-
sons whether these walls were ground oor walls or were supports for
upper storey masonry. The presence of several stone pillars, fallen in the
debris, suggested a complicated construction history that was not clar-
ied until the nal season (1995), when lower storey oor levels were
reached in Room 120, below Room 110.
The construction history of Building 102 is still tentative in that
secure stratigraphic links were never established between it and the
adjoining buildings and work areas. Evidence from changes in ceramic
morphology over time suggests that Building 102 was in use both
before and after the construction of the Inner Casemate Wall (W1004).
Thus, Building 102 was a major structure in the southwest sector of the
town and, in its nal phase, it opened onto an alley (R107) leading to
one of the few entrances (Doorway H) into the casemate room system.
5
4
These rooms were originally numbered Room 4 and Room 5 respectively (Daviau
and Dion 1994:158; g. 1).
5
P. M. M. Daviau (1989, 1991), B. Silver (1992), and R. Defonzo (19931995) were
eld supervisors.
rirrns \n :.:
Figure 6.2. Building 102 in Fields A and B.
Building Plan (Fig. 6.2)
Already in 1989, the plan of Building 102 suggested an original design
with long, narrow rooms running from east to west (Daviau 1992:
g. 3). Only one Doorway (F) to the outside from long Room 109
was located in the east wall (W1006+1026). In shape, Building 102 is
almost square (ca. 12.0012.20

12.60 m; ca. 152.46 m


2
). The arrange-
ment of rooms is surprisingly regular with a major division down the
middle from east to west (W1008). On both sides of this central divide
is a long room (R105 and R109) anked on the outer side by a some-
what broader but shorter room, namely Room 104 south of Room 105,
and Room 110 north of Room 109. The remaining space is L-shaped,
surrounding the long rooms along the outside and wrapping around to
serve as the back or western rooms. Each of these rooms is further sub-
:.. cn\r+rn six
divided by a wall stub that continues the wall line of the narrow rooms;
Room 204 on the south is partially separated from Room 216 on the
west, while Room 217 on the north is partially separated from Room
214. Room 217 is an anomaly in that it is further divided by Wall 1025,
which forms a small alcove (Room 111).
This regular plan has no parallel at Tall Jawa among the houses
from Stratum VIII (Building 200, see below, and Building 300, Chap-
ter 7), or among the residences of Stratum VII (Building 800 and B700,
Chapter 8). Building 102 is clearly an orthogonal structure, constructed
independent of the fortication system and standing alone in relation
to other structures built nearby. At the same time, the typical build-
ing techniques seen in other structures at Tall Jawa also appear in
Building 102, including boulder-and-chink walls standing full height,
stacked-boulder pillars, doorways located in the corners of rooms and
positioned between the end of one wall and the vertical face of a per-
pendicular wall.
Few parallels are known from other Iron Age sites in greater Syria-
Palestine. One might see a certain similarity with Palace 418 at Tell el-
Far#ah (N), which is close in size (12.00

17.00 m) and also has a four-


part regular plan (Chambon 1984: Pl. 19). At the same time, Building
102 does not resemble the typical four-room style house (Braemer
1982), especially in overall size (ca. 152.46 m
2
vs. 75.00 m
2
on average).
6
Rooms
During the nal phase, there were nine rooms in Building 102.
Table 6B. Room Size and Proportion in Building 102
Room Width(m) Length(m) Ratio W/L Bounded by Walls
104 2.50 4.50 .55 1005, 1006, 1011, 1027
105 1.75 8.10 .21 1006, 1005, 1008, 2026
109 1.70 8.00 .21 1006, 1008, 1022, 2026
110/120 2.50 4.35 .57 1022, 1023, 1024, 1026
111 0.80 2.50 .32 1022, 1023, 1024, 1025
204 2.80 6.50 .43 1027, 2020, 2021, 2032
214 2.50 4.80 .52 2025, 2026, 2032, 2034
216 1.80 2.50 .72 2021, 2025, 2026, 2032
217 1.50 2.50 .60 1025, 2033, 2026, 2034
6
Houses at Tell el-Far#ah (N) are on average 75 m
2
with the exception of Building
355 (Chambon 1984: from Tableau 1).
rirrns \n :.
Range of sizes (omitting Room 111)
Width 1.50 2.80 average 1.88 m
Length 2.50 8.10 average 5.15 m
(including the width of Room 111 with that of Room 217)
Width 1.50 2.80 average 2.30 m
The average width of these rooms is comparable to that of rooms in
Building 200 (1.96 m) but considerably narrower (1.88 m on average)
than the rooms in Building 300 (2.322.46 m). The contrast is even
greater with Stratum VII Building 800 where the average room width
is 2.432.73 m.
All rooms in Building 102, except for Room 110/120, were assigned
only one number even though there may have been additional rooms
on an upper storey. More likely is the case that the Stratum VIII Build-
ing had rooms comparable in size and shape to those in the Stratum
IX building. Since no other wall lines belonging exclusively to Stratum
VIII were identied, we can only assume that these rooms had similar
measurements to those found on the ground oor. The regularity of
plan is also apparent in the measurements of rooms with only Rooms
105 and R109 out of range in terms of their length. Even in this case,
the rooms were well paired, with only the southwest corner of Room
109 out of alignment due to the presence of a blocked Doorway (J).
Doorways
Doorway (F) on the lower oor is the only entrance into Building
102 from the outside, suggesting a considerable amount of security.
This entrance is also one of the smaller openings by comparison with
doorways between interior rooms.
Table 6C. Location and Width of Doorways in Building 102
Doorway Room Width (m)
D 214, 217 1.40
E 111, 217 0.75
F 107, 109 0.90
G 204, 216 1.75
J 105, 109 1.15 (blocked)
L 109, 217 1.40 (blocked)
Average width 1.22 m (all doorways)
Average width 1.42 m (without Doorways E and F)
:. cn\r+rn six
The average width of interior doorways is considerably wider (1.42 m)
than the average width of doorways in Building 200, which are 0.78
m wide, and in Building 300 (Field E), where the average is 0.84 m.
Whether this difference is related to the function of individual rooms
or to the construction techniques of the building as a whole remains
unclear. These wide doorways certainly allow for easy movement of
persons and equipment from one room to another.
Walls
The exterior walls of Building 102 were all of boulder-and-chink con-
struction with a coating of plaster (A14:33) visible on the east face of
Wall 1006, adjacent to Doorway F, and with a crumbly plaster (B54:12)
on both sides of the walls forming the southwest corner (W2020+
2032). Whether plaster was present on the remaining walls was not
determined due to the limits of excavation outside this structure.
Table 6D. Wall Thickness in centimetres (Building 102)
Wall 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100
1005

1006

1008

+
1011

+
1022

1023

1024=2034

+
1025

1026

1027

2020

2021

2025

2026

2032

2033

2035

Like the plan of the building itself, the walls show unusual consistency
in thickness. All of the exterior walls were in the range of 0.800.85
m thick except for the west end of south Wall W2020, which was 1.00
m thick. This anomaly may be due to repairs to the upper courses
of this wall at the end of Stratum VIIIB. Interior walls also clus-
tered together in the range of 0.600.65 m thick. The rare exceptions
rirrns \n :.
were the blocking walls (W2033 and 2035) that were somewhat thicker
(0.70 m).
The most apparent difference between the inner and outer walls
is in their construction techniques. Whereas all of the exterior walls
consist of 23 rows of small and medium limestone boulders with an
occasional large boulder, especially at the outside corners, all interior
walls are formed of one row of medium to large at-topped boulders.
In contrast to the outer boulder-and-chink walls, which were all bonded
at the four corners of the building, the interior walls abut the exterior
walls and one another, with the possible exception of the join between
Walls 2025 and W2026. Clearly, Building 102 was built according to
a preconceived plan whereby the outer walls were built rst and the
interior space was subsequently divided.
Stratigraphy (Table 6A)
At least two phases of occupation (Stratum IXVIIIB) are apparent in
the architecture, especially where the lower storey walls show signs of
repair. Since this evidence was restricted to Room 120, the only room
where ground oor levels were reached, discussion will focus rst on
the northern rooms and then discuss the remains of Stratum VIII from
north to south within the building. While the stratigraphic deposition
within Building 102 was fairly clear, less well known is the association
of this structure with adjoining buildings on the east, south and west.
Stratum IX
Room 120 (Fig. 6.3)
Room 120 is located in the northeast corner of Building 102 and is
surrounded on the east and north by the outer walls (W1026 and
W1024 respectively). Wall 1024 remains standing 1.83 m above the
oor (A15:40), the lowest level reached in Building 102 during exca-
vation.
7
A boulder-and-chink wall (W1023), 0.65 m thick, formed of
1 row of medium and large size boulders marks the western limit of
Room 120. This wall (W1023) abuts both Outer Wall 1024 and Wall
7
The Stratum-IX oor levels in Square A15 are at an absolute elevation of 921.59
921.87 masl, whereas the Iron I Walls (W1015, W1016) and debris under Room 107
are at 923.30922.00 masl. While this does not represent Iron Age I oor levels, it does
suggest that either Building 102 was cut into Iron I remains, or that the level of the
underlying bedrock was sloping from east to west. Of course, both factors may have
been involved.
:.6 cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.3. Stratum IX loci in Room 120.
1022, which forms the southern limit of both Rooms 120 and Room
111. Wall 1022 consists of three stacked-boulder pillars (A15:37, 38,
39, east to west), each formed of medium to large size boulders stand-
ing three courses high (ca. 1.50 m). The pillars were connected to one
another at the top by one or two courses of at boulders (A15:9), which
were wedged in place, with a roughly corbelled construction, giving
Wall 1022 a maximum preserved height of 1.701.80 m (Fig. 6.4).
The western pillar (A15:39) is supported on a base of agstones
(A15:44) which are set in position on Surface A15:40. The pillars
appear to be free standing, with open spaces measuring 0.400.50 m
between them. These spaces probably served for air circulation rather
than as doorways, although this cannot be ruled out. The largest space
rirrns \n :.
Figure 6.4. Room 120 partially lled with upper-storey
mud-brick collapse; stacked boulder pillars visible in Wall 1022.
(ca. 0.70 m) is located to the west of Pillar A15:39, just east of the south
end of north-south Wall 1023. This space would have served as the
most convenient doorway from Room 120 into Room 109(b).
8
Beaten earth surface A15:40, exposed in the western half of Room
120, seals up against the base of the walls. This surface is stained
with ash, charcoal ecks, nari, and brick material indicating exten-
sive use. Immediately above Surface A15:40 was a superimposed sur-
face (A15:36) with a small assemblage of pottery and artefacts that
included a saddle quern (TJ 2161) and a ceramic spindle whorl (TJ
2183). Due to the limited exposure within Room 120, we can only
assume that these very typical nds suggest domestic activities. The 133
ceramic sherds represent bowls, juglets, jugs, storejars and a pithos with
a collared-rim (see Chronology below), although it is difcult to sepa-
rate these sherds from vessels that broke when they fell from the upper
storey.
8
In order to discuss lower storey rooms which were not fully exposed, these areas
will be designated with the same number as the upper storey room but will have the
sufx (b).
:.8 cn\r+rn six
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey
Fallen onto Surface A15:36 was an oak beam,
9
probably part of the
ceiling which collapsed into Room 120. A succession of soil and rockfall
layers (A15:35, 34, 33) lled with mud bricks, pieces of charcoal and
lumps of plaster covered the beam. These debris layers also contained
food processing and textile manufacturing tools and mendable ceramic
sherds. The presence of these nds is evidence of a second storey above
Room 120 that was also in use during the earlier phase of occupation.
This upper storey room may have had a somewhat different layout than
Room 120 since a heavy concentration of fallen mud brick (A15:11), in
position midway along the length of the room, points to a possible cross
wall on the upper storey.
Table 6E. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 120, upper storey
10
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A15:33, 34 3 bowls V120, V181, V182 red slip
15:35+36 cup V161 one handle
cooking pot V178
krater V179 inverted rim, smudged
decanter V142 crisp ware
lamp V160
590 ceramic sherds
11
stone tool TJ 2092
2 pestles TJ 2095, 2096 basalt
grinder TJ 2050 basalt
millstone TJ 2097 basalt
point TJ 2090 iron
spindle whorl TJ 2051 ceramic
The destruction of Building 102 appears to have caused the central
pillar (A15:38) in Wall 1022 to shift northward against the collapsed
mud brick, since it is not in line with Pillars A15:37 and A15:39. At
the same time, a clear plaster line, visible in the soil between the pillars
suggests the level at which Building 102 was reconstructed.
9
The wood of this beam was identied in 1995 by P. Bikai, Director of the
American Center of Oriental Research in #Amman.
10
The list of ceramic vessels represents a minimum number of vessels, namely those
that have been reconstructed to date. The purpose of the list is to indicate the range of
vessel types and artefacts in use in a given room.
11
Total numbers of ceramic sherds are listed, even though several of these sherds
may be partially restored in vessels with vessel numbers. This listing provides a means
of comparison among loci.
rirrns \n :.q
Figure 6.5. North end of Building 102; Room 214 in foreground
leads into Rooms 217 and R111; Room110/120 is in the upper left.
Room 214 (Fig. 6.5)
Only one other room was excavated to Stratum IX levels. Room 214
is a rectangular space that extends north-south within the northwest
corner formed by exterior Walls 2034 and W2032. Exterior west Wall
2032 appears to have lost a course of stone for a distance of 2.00 m
beginning north of its meeting with Wall 2025, the southern wall of
Room 214. Interior Wall 2025 is constructed of one row of medium
boulders with cobble chink stones; it abuts exterior Wall 2032 on the
west and appears to bond with interior Wall 2026 on the east. Even
though excavation exposed only the uppermost boulders of Wall 2025,
there is no evidence of damage to this wall, even at the point where it is
adjacent to the damaged area of Wall 2032.
12
A single doorway (D) in the northeast corner of Room 214, appar-
ently in use during both Strata IX and VIII, provides a bent-axis
entry from Room 217. The south jamb of the doorway consists of
semi-dressed medium boulders, which also form the north end of east
Wall 2026. This Stratum IX wall consists of stacked-boulder pillars on
12
It was not determined during excavation whether this damage is due to modern
agriculture, or whether it marks the position of a Stratum VIII doorway into Building
102 on the west.
:o cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.6. Building 102, with relevant Stratum-VIII locus numbers.
the lower level with capping stones forming the support for the upper
storey wall, comparable to Wall 1022 in Room 120.
The earliest exposed surface in Room 214 (B65:32) and in Door-
way D (B65:33) was in a probe (1.50

2.50 m). The irregularity of


these surfaces suggests an underlying ll that was left in place when the
building was re-designed for use in Stratum VIII. While no other rooms
within Building 102 were excavated to Stratum IX levels, all rooms did
yield evidence for Stratum VIII occupation above Stratum IX debris.
Stratum VIII (Fig. 6.6)
Building 102 continued in use after the collapse of the Stratum IX
ceilings. From the appearance of the outer walls, only exterior Wall
1011=2020 on the south was rebuilt, at least in its uppermost courses
where smaller boulders and chink stones were used (Fig. 6.6). Limited
evidence for the rebuilding of interior walls is seen on the south sides
of Rooms 217 and R209, where two Doorways (J and L) were blocked
rirrns \n ::
Figure 6.7. Room 110, looking west at Wall 1023.
(in W2035 and W2033 respectively) in order to extend Walls 1022 and
W1008 as far west as Wall 2026. Evidence for renewed occupation was
uncovered in almost every room, although disturbance of the ancient
remains by modern agriculture is extensive. As a result, it is extremely
difcult to determine the location of activity areas within the architec-
tural space.
Room 110 (Figs. 6.6, 7)
Above the collapsed debris (A15:32+33) and mud brick (A15:11) of
Stratum-IX Room 120, the pillars in Wall 1022 appear to have been
modied with the use of a large boulder put in place at the top of
each pillar (A15:373839), and the capping stones put back in position
between the pillars to consolidate stone ceiling supports/pillars for the
new structure. One such monolithic pillar (A15:14; 0.25

0.50

0.70
m tall) had fallen north into Room 110. This pillar and the stones
capping the pillars would have raised the ceiling 1.87 m above the
Stratum VIII oor.
13
Whether this ceiling (A5:18+A15:12) was also the
13
This height does not include the space of wooden beams put in place to support
the packed mud ceiling. With the beams in place, the actual ceiling would have been
ca. 1.952.00 m above the oor.
:. cn\r+rn six
roof could not be ascertained denitively due to the severe disturbance
of the upper debris layers in which terra rossa had been added to the tell
surface and subsequently ploughed.
The accumulation of debris (A15:33) that serves as makeup below
the Stratum VIII oor is covered by a thin plaster line which is most
clearly visible in the soil between Pillars A15:373839. This thin sur-
face is covered in turn by a beaten earth oor that was itself severely
damaged by subsequent collapse. Surface A15:31( =A5:19) was prob-
ably the principal oor in Stratum VIII Room 110. Evidence for use
of this room is present in the form of 773 ceramic sherds and a group
of artefacts partly embedded in the collapse of mud brick and plaster
(A5:18=A15:12) that covers the oor.
Table 6F. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 110
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A5:19+15:31 bowl V184 vertical rim
15:8, 12, 13 bowl V183 red slip
2 kraters V185, V186 inverted rim, smudged
juglet V141 red slip, not burnished
amphora V140 white slip, black bands
773 ceramic sherds
stone object TJ 2028 imported
3 pestles TJ 1893, 1909, 2016 basalt
grinder TJ 1949 basalt
millstone TJ 1579 upper loaf-shaped, basalt
pounder TJ 1577 chert
unregistered basalt fragments
3 fragments TJ 1569, 1570, 2233 ceramic
spindle whorl TJ 1901 ceramic
loom weight TJ 1902 unred clay
The small assemblage of food processing tools found here is typical
of the range of tools needed to crush, grind and pound grains, legumes
and nuts. The full range of these tools also includes pestles and mortars.
An essential tool within this group is the hammer stone or pounder,
almost exclusively made of chert or int rather than basalt (Daviau
2002:297313).
Most surprising among these artefacts are the 3 ceramic fragments,
one (TJ 1569) of which was carefully painted red and black in an intri-
cate lattice pattern within a black border. This fragment was nished
on two adjoining edges suggesting that it was part of a larger ele-
ment. The closest parallel for the style of decoration is the facade of
a small model shrine, supposedly from the Mount Nebo region (Wein-
berg 1978:31, 33). The remaining fragments were not painted but
rirrns \n :
were clearly broken off from a clay object that was of unusual shape.
These artefacts should be considered in relation to other artefacts from
Rooms 105, R217, and R204 in Building 102 that include a group of
clay cylinders (TJ 1816, 2234) in the form of free-standing or attached
columns, the largest measuring 9.50 cm (TJ 1829+2234), a ceramic
decoration in the form of a miniature Proto-Aeolic capital (TJ 218),
possibly a crown of a gurine (Harding 1951: Pl. XIV) or of a col-
umn on a ceramic shrine (Chambon 1984: Pl. 66:1), a ceramic limb
(TJ 2062), the torso of a stone gurine (TJ 1872), a silt stone male g-
urine (TJ 1877; Daviau 2002:6570, 8084), and the ceramic head of
a male deity wearing the atef crown (TJ 100; Daviau and Dion 1994).
Such artefacts suggest cultic materials, possibly used in domestic cult
practices (Daviau 2001b).
Room 111
The smallest enclosed space within Building 102 is Room 111. Located
west of Room 110, Room 111 has a single entrance from Room 217.
In view of the regular layout of this building, Room 111 appears to
be the result of dividing the area of Room 217 into two unequal parts
with the construction of Wall 1025 (Figs. 6.5, 6). By comparison with
other interior walls, Wall 1025 is exceptionally well built of medium
and large at-topped boulders making it quite thick (ca. 0.70 m), which
is surprising given its position and function. Excavated only to oor
level (A5:15) for Stratum VIII, Room 111 probably served as a storage
area. The principal nd is a pithos, smashed in place on a beaten earth
Surface (A5:15) in Doorway E. This vessel (V143), stands 1.00+m in
height, when complete, and is similar to those found in Building 113 to
the east (Daviau 1995). Also on Surface A5:15 was a basalt pestle (TJ
1254).
Room 217 (Figs. 6.5, 6)
Between Room 111 on the east and Room 214 on the west is Room
217, a space which forms a Z-shaped passage with Doorway E in the
southeast and Doorway D on the northwest. A single beaten earth sur-
face (B65:21), marked only by the presence of ceramic sherds, a camel
jaw bone and an iron arrowhead (TJ 2166), was badly damaged by
fallen mud bricks, plaster and collapsed wall stones (B65:18). This evi-
dence for severe destruction makes it impossible to identify the function
of Room 217. Only in the overlying material (B65:10) is there evidence
for the collapsed roof in the form of mud brick, rockfall and patches of
: cn\r+rn six
plaster along with the artefacts in use on this upper surface, including
a basalt mortar (TJ 1865), an iron point (TJ 1847), and the silt stone
male gurine (TJ 1877), mentioned above.
Room 214 (Figs. 6.5, 6)
The use of Room 214 during Stratum VIII is most clearly seen in a
probe in the northeast quarter immediately west of Doorway D. Finds
from loci in the probe consist of artefacts and a heavy concentration of
pottery (568 sherds), especially cooking pot sherds. A limestone mortar
embedded in the oor (B65:30) and an upper loaf-shaped millstone (TJ
2173) fragment in Doorway D were also in use in Room 214; such nds
point to domestic and craft/industrial activities.
Table 6G. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 214
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B65:25 cooking pot sherds
+65:30 753 sherds ceramic
polishing stone TJ 2135 crafts and industry
mortar TJ 2143 limestone
grinder TJ 2153 basalt
stone baetyl TJ 2236 crystalline
The most surprising nd (TJ 2236) was a large piece of crystalline stone
(graphic granite)
14
that was unique at Tall Jawa and must have been
imported. What its precise importance was to the Iron Age inhabitants
is not clear, although it appears to have fallen from the upper storey or
roof area and may have been a baetyl, due to its rectangular shape and
exotic character (Daviau 2001b:219; g. 5:3).
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey
The presence of a considerable amount of mud brick and scattered wall
stones in the overlying locus (B65:25) suggests that this material is the
Stratum VIII roof that collapsed into the room. This collapse continued
across the room (B65:25), but was not excavated. The nal use of
Room 214 is poorly represented, although the pottery from the upper
debris layers (B65:23, 7) is clearly that of Stratum VIII. The remains
of an installation (B65:19) built up against the east face of exterior Wall
14
I am grateful to Dr. G. Hall, Department of Geography, Wilfrid Laurier Univer-
sity, who determined the precise geological identication of this stone.
rirrns \n :
2032 consist of a semi-circle of cobbles and small boulders.
15
Within
this installation there was an accumulation of soil and pebbles and a
basalt pestle (TJ 1982). In the surrounding soil layer (B65:23), there
were typical domestic artefacts.
Table 6H. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 214, upper storey
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B65:23 286 sherds
2 millstones TJ 1989, 1999 basalt, upper loaf-shaped
spindle whorl TJ 1936 ceramic
pillar TJ 1829 (gurine?) mends with fragment TJ 1696
16
This scattered distribution of nds among various rooms is further
evidence of the disturbance of occupational material within Building
102 after it went out of use.
Room 109 (Figs. 6.5, 6)
Room 109/209
17
is one of two parallel, long rooms (1.70

8.00 m)
that occupy the centre of Building 102. It is bounded on the north
and south by Walls 1022 and W1008 respectively, which are both one-
row walls, formed of medium, at-topped boulders (0.55

0.75 m), in
position above Stratum-IX stacked-boulder pillars that remain mostly
unexcavated on the lower level. One well-dressed, at-topped stone
(A5:13), probably a pillar base, had slipped off the wall line into Room
109. Two Doorways (J and L) at the far west end of Room 109, both
on the lower level, were blocked up (W2035 and 2033 respectively) and
served as supports for renewed occupation above the underlying debris.
Wall 2026, itself a stacked-boulder pillar wall from Stratum IX that
runs north-south, forms the west end of Room 109. The Stratum-IX
doorway (F) in exterior Wall 1006 on the east may have been reused
in Stratum VIII to provide access to adjoining structures, especially
Building 113. The south jamb (A4:20), coated with plaster (A14:33)
on its eastern face, consists of the north end of Wall 1006, while
the north frame consists of the south end of Wall 1026 at the point
15
The exact nature of this installation was not determined during excavation.
However, its position against the west exterior wall (W2032) of Building 102, adjacent
to a work area in Courtyard 211, suggests a bin.
16
This second fragment was located in Room 109.
17
This long room was excavated in two different squares and was assumed to be
two separate rooms; both numbers are given here for coordination with the Locus List
(CD-ROM).
:6 cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.8. South side of Building 102, with Rooms
104 and R105 at the end of the 1989 season.
where it is a continuation of the south face of perpendicular Wall 1022.
This construction technique is extremely common at Tall Jawa (Daviau
1999:216), and indicates that Building 102 was part of a continuing
architectural tradition at the site.
In Room 109 there were several large boulders fallen at intervals
along the length of Wall 1008, indicating the position of these ceil-
ing supports (see A15:14). In this room also, the disturbance of the
Stratum-VIII occupational remains caused by fallen stones and mud
bricks from the exterior wall (W1006) renders the evidence for room
function negligible. Ceramic sherds, charcoal and ash, a chert jar stop-
per (TJ 1317), and a ceramic spindle whorl (TJ 1316), while suggestive,
are too common to indicate more precisely the activities carried out in
this room.
Room 105 (Figs 6.6, 8)
Immediately south of Room 109 is its twin (Room 105), which is
similar in size and shape (1.75

8.10 m). Room 105 shares a party


wall (W1008) with Room 109 on the north and the continuation of
rirrns \n :
Wall 2026 on the west. Wall 1005 forms the southern wall of Room
105 and is also a stacked-boulder pillar wall with at-topped boulders
linking the pillars to form the foundation for the Stratum VIII ceiling
supports (B64:12). On the east, exterior Wall 1006 closes off Room 105
from Alley 107.
Only Stratum VIII remains and subsequent destruction levels were
excavated in Room 105. Built above Stratum IX collapsed mud brick
(A4:18), soil layers representing a beaten earth oor (A4:16) with bro-
ken pottery, animal bones and a handful of artefacts were sealed by
mud brick collapse. Most interesting among these nds was a ceramic
attachment in the shape of a Proto-Aeolic capital (TJ 218). Such attach-
ments appear at the top of columns on the faade of a model shrine
from Tell el-Far#ah (N); de Vaux 1955: pl. XIII). In the western half
of Room 105, a circle of stones (B64:13) in the shape of an oven was
built up against the south face of Wall 1005. Although this installation
was lined with stones, the soil inside (B64:14) did not show evidence
of use as a hearth. The only nds were 5 pieces of chert. This dearth
of domestic equipment throughout Room 105 (i.e., one spindle whorl,
TJ 207) may point to a specialized function for this room, although the
only positive evidence that can be put forth to identify activities or use
is a ceramic male gurine head (TJ 100, Daviau and Dion 1994). How-
ever, this in itself is not determinative; the gurine may have been in
use on the roof and not in Room 105.
Room 104 (Fig. 6.6, 8)
In the southeast corner of Building 102 is Room 104, comparable in
size and orientation to its opposite, Room 110, in the northeast corner.
The eastern and southern perimeters of Room 104 consist of exterior
Wall 1006 and Wall 1011, both boulder-and-chink walls formed of
cobbles and small boulders. A cross wall (W1027) of small and medium
size boulders serves as the western limit while, on the north, Room 104
shares Wall 1005 with Room 105.
Evidence of Stratum IX destruction was only apparent along south
Wall 1011, where an ash concentration was exposed. Burnt rocks in the
wall itself (W1011) suggest the place where ceiling beams rested while
they smouldered. Flotation recovered wood charcoal and burnt bone,
but the wood itself was not identied.
Stratum VIII use of Room 104 appeared to be disturbed by recon-
struction of the Inner Casemate Wall (1004) and the adjoining building
(100). Indeed, the south wall (W1011) of Building 102 was different in
:8 cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.9. Building 102, looking east with Rooms 214, R215 and R204 (left to right).
construction than the other exterior walls, in that small boulders and
cobbles were used, suggesting severe damage that was repaired at the
beginning of Stratum VIIIA. Along the north wall (W1005) of Room
104 was a stone built semi-circular installation (A4:4) lled with loose
soil, cobbles and small boulders (A4:3). Although it was once thought
to be a concentration of rockfall, the stones that lined this pit/silo do
not represent the pattern of collapse seen in Room 120. Excavation
reached a depth of 0.801.05 m inside Installation A4:4 without any
change in the stone liner. Within the ll were a basalt pestle (TJ 14) and
an upper loaf-shaped millstone (TJ 15).
Table 6I. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 104
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A4:3, 8 bowl V157 large, hemispherical, burnished
krater V158 piriform
400 ceramic sherds
2 grinders TJ 15, 31 basalt
millstone TJ 14 basalt, upper loaf-shaped
sherd TJ 89/214 reworked
awl TJ 34 iron
rirrns \n :q
Room 204 (Fig. 6.6, 9)
Only in the southwest corner, west of Room 104, is the plan of Build-
ing 102 slightly irregular. Here, Room 204 extends the full distance
between Wall 1027, which it shares with Room 104, and exterior west
Wall 2032. In contrast to its construction along the west side of Rooms
216 and 214 to the north, where it consists of small boulders, exterior
Wall 2032 consists of medium and large boulders along the west end
of Room 204. At this point, its exterior west face is coated with plaster
(B54:12) near the southwest corner. Plaster is also in place on the south
face of South Wall 1011 further east (see Room 203 below).
Room 204 constitutes the single largest space (18.2m
2
vs. 14.1 m
2
in R105) for a Stratum-VIII room. Floor levels were not exposed in
this room; only Stratum VIII collapse was recovered. Within the debris
layers (B64:3, 6, 7, 9) was a representative group of ground stone tools
and sherds of ceramic vessels.
Table 6J. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 204
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B64:3, 6, 7, 9 bowl V231 smudged
bowl V232 inverted rim, smudged
small jug V230
lamp V223
lamp V212 miniature
5,214 sherds ceramic
small mortar TJ 122 limestone, cosmetic
mortar TJ 153 basalt, with spout
mortar TJ 1738 limestone
grinder TJ 205 basalt
4 millstones TJ 162, 188, 197, 1719 basalt
millstone TJ 180 basalt, iron rust
pounder TJ 213 chert
button/buzz TJ 144 ceramic
spindle whorl TJ 136, 217 ceramic
Room 216
Adjoining Room 204 on the northwest is Room 216. Its entrance is
through Doorway G, the widest (1.75 m) in Building 102. This doorway
was created by the extension of Wall 2021, the north wall of Room 204,
which forms the east jamb. North of Wall 2021 is north-south interior
Wall 2026, a two-row wall formed of small and medium boulders.
Because exposure of this wall did not extend below Stratum VIII
levels, it could not be determined whether there were stacked pillars in
:o cn\r+rn six
Stratum IX. Stratum IX debris (B65:27) consisting of soil and rockfall,
was sealed by a rm soil layer, probably a beaten earth surface (B65:11).
Although there was a considerable number of ceramic sherds (1101) in
this locus and in the overlying soil layer (B65:6 and B64:8), only a small
number of artefacts consisting of three spindle whorls (TJ 161, 166,
208) were recovered.
Destruction
The disaster that ended Stratum VIIIB occupation, and necessitated
the reconstruction of Inner Casemate Wall 1030 further south (Chapter
4), was probably the same event that brought about the end of Build-
ing 102. In Room 110, the nal destruction of Building 102 is marked
by chunks of ceiling plaster (A5:18=A15:8) scattered on oor Surface
A5:19=A15:31 and in the debris layers (A5:12, 17=A15:13, 12) imme-
diately above. This debris consisted of collapsed and burnt mud brick
from the exterior walls, ash, and pieces of charcoal, which accumulated
for a total depth of 0.75 m.
In Room 111, falling wall stones (A5:11) smashed the pithoi which
stood in place (A5:15) within this small room. Ash lenses were also
present in Debris Layer A5:17 and on Floor A5:19. In Room 217,
fallen stones and mud brick material (B65:10) extended along the
length of the exterior north wall (W10242034). The amount of mud
brick appears to diminish in Room 214 in the northwest where soil
and rockfall (B65:23) mark the end of Stratum VIII occupation. This
pattern of collapse strongly suggests the use of mud brick for the super-
structure of the exterior walls and a direction of collapse toward the
northwest.
In the central rooms (R109, R105), mud brick fragments are more
concentrated along the east end (A4:18, 14), while in the west half of
these Rooms, mud brick is widely scattered (B65:17), and the accumula-
tion of debris consists of loose soil, scattered cobbles and small boulders
(A5:6, 10; A4:7). Ash pockets are still common throughout these loci.
In the southern rooms (R104, R204), the pattern is different yet again,
in that there is a heavy concentration of fallen wall stones (A4:8; B64:5,
6, 7, 8). It seems most likely that this represents the collapse of exterior
south Wall 1011, itself repaired during Stratum VIII.
Chronology
The surface treatment of many of the vessels from the lower oor of
Building 102 (Stratum-IX Room 120) suggests that this structure was
rirrns \n ::
built and rst occupied at a somewhat earlier date than Building 300
in Field E, which was clearly built after the construction of the inner
casemate wall (Chapter 7). How much earlier is hard to tell, although
the collars on the pithos sherds in Room 120 appear to be vestigial,
probably at the point of transition to the double ridge form which is
characteristic of Iron Age II pithoi found in association with red slipped
and burnished pottery (see Buildings 100, B113 and B200 below). This
later form is present in the upper storey collapse of Room 110 along
with one unburnished red slip juglet (V139) and an imported Cypriot
amphora (V140). Such characteristic forms suggest that the earlier
phase of occupation was within the early Iron Age II (Stratum IX),
probably contemporary with the Solid Wall, while the later phase was
during Stratum VIIIB.
BUILDING 113
Introduction
East, south and west of Building 102 were various structures (Building
113, B100, B204, and B200) built in association with the construction
of Inner Casemate Wall 1020+1030 in Stratum VIIIB. These build-
ings and work areas ran up to the earlier phase of the Inner Wall and
showed severe disturbance where the inner wall was rebuilt in Stra-
tum VIIIA. Although only exposed along its west side, Building 113
yielded oor levels from both Stratum VIIIB and VIIIA and a ceramic
corpus that set the standard for Middle Iron Age II pottery forms and
wares at Tall Jawa.
History of Excavation (Fig. 6.1)
Building 113 is located in Squares A313 and A14A24, and was exca-
vated only during 1989 and 1991. In following seasons, excavation
did not continue to the east or north due to the presence of mod-
ern property walls that cut diagonally across Squares A14A24. When
rst exposed in 1989, little was known about the style of architec-
ture employed in domestic structures of Iron Age II or in the range
of ceramic ware form types in use. The presence of a number of
iron points both inside and outside the fortication system led to the
assumption that the site had experienced repeated attacks, although it
was later realized that such weapons were also a common item in store-
rooms. Only with the exposure of Building 300 in Field E in subsequent
:. cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.10. Building 113 in relation to Building 102 and the Casemate Wall System.
seasons (Chapter 7) was Building 113 put into an architectural and cul-
tural framework, so that the renement of its building phases could be
attempted.
Building Plan (Fig. 6.10)
Although the excavation of Building 113 was extremely limited, two
large Rooms (R106, R108) could be identied as belonging to this
structure. West of the principal north-south wall (W1009+1014) were
rirrns \n :
two additional Rooms, R103/123
18
and R107/127, that may also have
been an integral part of this building. Room 103/123 opens into Case-
mate Room 101/121 through Doorway H, while Room/Alley 107 to
the north appears to serve as a link with Building 102 on the west.
On the south, Building 113 was built up against Inner Casemate
Wall 1020 and its re-build, Wall 1010. No other possible exterior wall
was identied even though there was a considerable amount of rockfall
along the east balk of Square A13, a sure sign of a major wall. The
location of Doorway H between Casemate Room 101/121 and Room
103/123 on the west suggests that the casemates were part of the
adjoining building. As with Building 200 against West Wall 2023 (see
below), no complete plan could be designed which would illustrate this
style of room arrangement.
Rooms
While no complete rooms were excavated in Building 113, the length
and width of several areas are suggestive. The largest space was Room
106 which measures a minimum of 4.50 m east-west and 5.50 m
north-south. To the north, Room 108 was at least as wide. Room 103
occupies the space (3.10 m) south of Building 102, between Wall 1012
and the west wall (W1009) of Room 106 (3.75 m). On the north, Room
107 extended at least 6.50 m along the east side of Building 102 as
far as Doorway F. Whether it continued beyond that point to east-west
Wall 1028 remains uncertain, due to the limit of excavation.
Doorways
The principal Doorway (H) was that from Room 123 into Casemate
Room 121. At a width of 0.80 m, it was a standard size (compare 0.846
m average in Building 300). This doorway continued in use during
Stratum VIIIA, when the inner casemate wall sections were rebuilt
along the same lines.
Walls
The majority of walls assigned to Building 113 date to Stratum VIIIA
although Wall 1012 was in use at least as early as Stratum VIIIB. No
evidence for other Stratum VIIIB walls was exposed.
18
R123 represents the earlier of the two phases identied in this room; the same
applies to R121, R126, R127.
: cn\r+rn six
Table 6K. Wall Thickness in centimetres (Building 113)
Wall 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100
1009

1012

1013

1014

The size of these interior walls is surprisingly consistent, in the range of
0.700.75 m. By contrast, their style varies from one wall to another;
Wall 1009 consists of limestone boulders that served as pillar bases with
cobblestones between the bases, Walls 1013 and W1014 appear to be
simple boulder-and-chink, while Wall 1012 is a stone foundation with
a mud brick superstructure. In spite of this variety, Walls 1009, W1013
and W1014 meet to form the northwest corner of Room 106.
Stratigraphy
Two Stratum VIII occupation phases
19
are clearly represented in Build-
ing 113 and its adjoining rooms (R103, R107) which were constructed
with the inner casemate wall already in place. Although this same
sequence will be seen south and west of Building 102, the assump-
tion that these phases were absolutely contemporary from one area to
another has yet to be demonstrated.
Table 6L. Strata for Field ABuilding 113
STRATUM FIELD PHASE(S) PERIOD
I 1 modern
II no remains post-Umayyad
III pottery only Umayyad
IV pottery (?) Byzantine
V no remains Roman
VI no remains Persian
VII pottery only Late Iron II
VIIIA 2/repairs Middle Iron II
VIIIB 3/casemate wall Middle Iron II
IX pottery only Middle Iron II
X pottery only Iron I
19
The principal occupation in B113 was originally identied as Field Phase 5 (Da-
viau 1992:149).
rirrns \n :
Stratum VIIIB
Stratum-VIIIB remains were excavated in Casemate Room 121 and
in Rooms 123 and 126. Within these rooms, the beaten earth sur-
faces appear to support several Stratum-VIIIA walls (W1009, W1013,
and W1014). Whether there were Stratum-VIIIB walls, other than the
inner casemate and the exterior walls (W1006, W1011) of Building 102,
was not determined during excavation.
Casemate Room 121 (Fig. 6.11)
With the construction of Inner Casemate Wall 1020+1030 in Stra-
tum VIIIB, a single casemate room (R121), with an entrance (Doorway
H) into Building 113, shared in the activities of the adjoining rooms.
The only Stratum VIIIB surface identied in Room 121 was a hard-
packed oor (A2:31) with at lying pottery that seals against the north
side of Outer Wall 1003 and the west side of Inner Wall 1020, at the
point where it forms the eastern frame of Doorway H leading into
Room 123 (Chapter 5). While its full length is not known with cer-
tainty, Room 121 could have been up to 8.25 m long
20
and 2.75 m
wide between the inner and outer casemate walls (W1003). The func-
tion of Room 121 is amply demonstrated by the large amount of pot-
tery sherds (2000+) and artefacts, including spindle whorls (TJ 81, 86,
87, 88), found in the debris that lled this narrow space at the end
of Stratum VIIIB. The consistency of the material culture remains in
this room with the nds from Rooms 123 and R126 suggests exten-
sive food preparation and cooking along with other domestic tasks such
as spinning, and recreation. In this room, there were 24 disc-shaped
reworked sherds and 5 ceramic triangles; this is the largest assemblage
of reworked sherds of any locus in Field A (17.3%). Faunal remains
consist of 48 large mammal bones, 7 cow bones, 6 pig bones, 3 don-
key bones, 2 small mammal bones, and 294 sheep/goat bones from
approximately 330 baskets of soil.
Room 123 (Fig. 6.11)
Stratum-VIIIB living surfaces, north of Inner Casemate Wall 1030,
were rst exposed in Room 123 in 1989.
21
With further excavation
20
As suggested above (Chapter 5), Wall 1012 may have served as a room divider. In
this case, the length of Room 121 is only 3.70 m.
21
At the time of excavation in Square A3, two rooms were identied (R2 and R3;
Daviau 1992: g. 3), one on either side of a north-south wall (W1012). These rooms,
:6 cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.11. Building 113 with relevant locus numbers for Strata VIIIBA.
along the casemate wall system in Field B, it became apparent that
Room 123 had rst been in use in Stratum VIIIB in association with
the original casemate wall (Chapter 5). A series of beaten earth surfaces
were in position below the lowest course of Stratum-VIIIA Inner Wall
subsequently renumbered (R102 and R103; Daviau 1994: g. 2), were assumed to be
part of a single Building (B100). With the removal of balks in 1995, it became apparent
that Room 102 constituted the eastern sector of Room 202.
rirrns \n :
1004. The level (923.23923.21 masl) of the earliest surface (A3:31)
in Room 123, along with that of Surface A2:31 in Doorway H of
Casemate Room 121 and of Surface A13:31 further east (see Room
126), was consistent throughout the contiguous squares, suggesting that
this extensive area of domestic activity adjacent to the fortication
system was all in use at the same time.
The western half of Room 123 is framed by Inner Casemate Wall
1030 on the south, Wall 1012
22
on the west and the southern exterior
wall (W1011) of Building 102. The earliest surface (A3:31) which sealed
up against all three walls is a packed earth oor of yellowish brown soil
(10YR 5/4). Better understood is a second beaten earth surface (A3:30)
which is marked by an accumulation of charcoal, 57 sheep/goat bones,
1 chicken and 9 large mammal bones, (some mendable) and several
artefacts.
Table 6M. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 123
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A3:30 cooking pot sherds
storejar sherds
302 ceramic sherds
grinder (unreg) basalt
pounder (unreg) chert
serrated tooth TJ 65 shark
3 whorls TJ 99 ceramic spindle whorls ( +2 unreg)
animal bones
Surface A3:30 may have extended across the east half of Room 123
and continued as Surface A13:40 in Room 126, the principal room in
use during Stratum VIIIB.
An accumulation of friable soil (A3:25+22) covering Surface A3:30
also contained abundant faunal remains consisting of 141 sheep/goat
bones, 2 of which were burned, 5 large mammal, 2 pig, and 1 bird
bone. In addition to the ceramic repertoire (561 sherds), there were 7
reworked sherds. Although it is not yet clear where the eastern perime-
ter of Room 123 was located, Debris Layer A13:26 appears to seal
the Stratum-X collapse (A13:29, 32) and extend the full length (north-
south) of Square A13 east of the east balk of Square A3. Within this
debris there were 509 ceramic sherds, 2 upper loaf-shaped millstones,
22
See discussion of Room 102+202 for description of Wall 1012.
:8 cn\r+rn six
2 ceramic spindle whorls (TJ 90, 91), 1 unnished whorl, and a large
number of animal bones (3 donkey, 3 cow, 2 pig, 24 large mammal,
and 130 sheep/goat). This assemblage of ceramic sherds, artefacts and
animal bones in A13:26 appears to be a continuation of the food prepa-
ration and/or consumption activities in Room 123 represented by Sur-
faces A3:30 and A3:31.
Evidence for the nal Stratum VIIIB occupation phase in Room
123 is most clearly seen at the top of Soil Layer A3:22. Here a row of
cobbles (A3:12) runs along the east face of Wall 1012 at the point where
the stone foundation (A3:18) is covered by mud bricks (A3:11). This
construction feature, seen already in Casemate Room 201, as well as
along the north face of Outer Wall 3006 and Inner Wall 3000 (Chapter
5), appears to mark the point at which a surface meets a wall. The
associated Stratum-VIIIB Surface (A3:15) of hard-packed beaten earth
joins plaster Surface A3:10, which runs under Inner Wall 1004 into
Casemate Room 121.
Room 126
The largest excavated space in Building 113 is Room 126, which in-
cludes the same area as Stratum-VIIIA Room 106, and is adjacent to
Room 123. Apart from Inner Casemate Wall 1020, no other walls can
be assigned to this room. The earliest surface (A13:40) was exposed
at the point where it runs under Stratum-VIIIA Inner Casemate Wall
1010, adjacent to Doorway H. Immediately east of this doorway was
an ash accumulation (A13:31), probably a cooking area, although there
was no evidence for an oven in use with this surface.
23
The most clearly dened surface (A13:30) in the centre of Room
126 is a beaten earth oor that seals up against a hearth (A13:34) con-
structed out of mud bricks. The hearth is founded on earthen Surface
A13:41, which was itself stained with ash. Evidence for domestic activi-
ties was preserved on Surface A13:30, which was also stained with ash,
and was covered with several pieces of charcoal, 16 artefacts, more than
500 pottery sherds and an intact red juglet (V102). This oor (A13:30)
was severely damaged by rockfall (A13:39, 17), especially on the south
and east sides, a pattern of collapse which suggests that the major walls
of Building 113 fell toward the northwest.
23
Excavation ended at this level in 1989; Surface A13:40 was only exposed along
the north face of Wall 1020; it was not excavated through the west balk of Square A13
to determine precisely its relationship with Room 123 further west.
rirrns \n :q
Table 6N. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 126
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A13:30+39 bowl V113 burnished
cooking pot sherds
jug V103, V124 V124=red slip
juglet V102=TJ 77 red slip
486+ceramic sherds
weight TJ 70 basalt, perforated
2 pestles TJ 63, V249 basalt
2 grinders TJ 72, V251 sandstone
millstone TJ 252 upper loaf-shaped, basalt
5 pounders TJ 62, 73, 74 chert
5 metal points TJ 66, 68, 69, 71, 75 iron
animal bones
The hearth, cooking pot sherds and ground stone tools indicate the
extensive food preparation activities which took place on this oor.
This functional interpretation is supported by the faunal remains which
consisted of 85 sheep/goat bones, 6 large mammal, 2 pig, and 2 cow
bones. Although the presence of metal arrowheads and javelin points
may suggest the reason for the subsequent rebuilding of Wall 1020 (as
W1010), and the apparently hasty construction of Wall 1004 west of
Doorway H, defence of the town is not the only possible explanation
for these nds.
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey
Within Building 113, Debris Layer A13:22 accumulated on Surface
A13:30 in the southern and eastern sides of Room 126. This debris
probably represents a collapsed ceiling along with fallen wall stones.
This ll itself contained numerous artefacts, tools, ceramic vessel sherds
and animal bones associated with food preparation activities.
Table 6P. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 126, upper storey
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A13:22 bowl V123 red slip
842 ceramic sherds
2 whetstones TJ 40, 42 42=sandstone
roller pestle TJ 41 limestone
tray TJ 43 basalt
grinder TJ 46 basalt
millstone TJ 44 upper loaf-shaped, basalt
saddle quern TJ 253 basalt
pounders TJ 47, 48 chert
:o cn\r+rn six
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
2 metal points TJ 60, 61 iron
spindle whorl TJ 92 ceramic
sharpened sheep incisor
worked int fragment
9 reworked sherds
animal bones
The faunal remains consist of 173 sheep/goat bones, 3 donkey, 32 large
mammal, and 2 cow bones. The location of this upper storey work
area within the connes of building 113 cannot be determined within
a complete building plan, because no exterior walls were uncovered
in the excavated area, apart from Inner Casemate Wall 1020. Rock
fall A13:39, apparently from a north-south wall along the east side of
Room 126, accumulated in association with Soil Layer A13:22 in the
northeast corner of the square and represents the destruction of Room
126 in Stratum VIIIB.
Destruction
Comparable debris (A13:29) accumulated on Surface A13:40, adjacent
to cooking area A13:31.
24
This area, just north of Doorway H was
severely disturbed, probably at the time of construction of Stratum-
VIIIA walls (W1010, W1009). Evidence for similar domestic activities
was present in Casemate Room 121 to the south, and to the north of
the doorway as far as the northeast corner of Room 123 where it meets
Room 127, the only Stratum-VIIIB remains exposed in that area.
Room 127 (Fig. 6.11)
Remains of Stratum VIIIB were only located in the southern half of
Room 127. These remains consist of a soil layer (A13:26) which covers
the Stratum-X remains in the deep probe (Chapter 4) and constitutes
a ll under the Stratum-VIIIA occupation of Room 107. This ll was
most probably contemporary with Stratum-VIIIB Surface A13:30 and
24
It is difcult to interpret these debris layers, since there is no preserved evidence
for ceilings in this area. The buildings were not burned and, as a result, ceiling material
was not consolidated. When the ceilings collapsed, the soil they contained covered the
lower oor surface forming make-up for a new (Stratum-VIIIA) surface, but did not
retain its character as a ceiling. This situation is common in several buildings at Tall
Jawa, and is in contrast to the archaeological record at Khirbat al-Mudayna (Thamad),
where two layers of hardened ceiling material could be easily identied (Chadwick,
Daviau and Steiner 2000:262).
rirrns \n ::
the collapsed debris above it, although this was not determined during
excavation because a subsidiary balk was left in place for safety sake.
The presence of 2 spindle whorls (TJ 90, 91), 2 upper loaf-shaped mill-
stones (unregistered), 500+ceramic sherds and 130 sheep/goat bones
indicates a continuation of domestic activities, either of food prepara-
tion as in Room 126 further east, or the discarding of domestic refuse.
Because of the disturbed nature of this debris, it is not clear whether
we are dealing with ceiling collapse, or with the remains of the lower
storey surface. Room 127 represents the space between Building 102
and Room 126 in Building 113.
Stratum VIIIA (Fig. 6.11)
Evidence for the collapse of the Stratum-VIIIB Inner Casemate Wall
(W1020 and W1030) was evident along its entire length on the south
side of the tell (Chapter 4). Fallen stones covered Stratum-VIIIB oors
and the work of reconstruction disturbed these debris layers and the
underlying occupational remains. The end of occupational use of the
food preparation area in Room 123 was marked by the collapse (A3:20)
of the mud brick superstructure (W1011) of Wall 1012 above Sur-
face A3:15. This collapse may have occurred at the same time as the
collapse of Outer Wall 1003 and Inner Casemate Wall 1020, which
both fell onto Debris Layer A2:13 in Casemate Room 121, and were
later sealed by Debris Layer A2:11. This ll extended from the north
side of collapsed Wall 1003 to the south side of Inner Wall 1020 and
continued through Doorway H into Building 113 (as Loci A2:28 and
13:25).
Into the debris caused by the collapse of Stratum-VIIIB Inner Wall
1020, and the construction of Inner Wall 1010, several new walls
were built east and north of Doorway H. These walls (W1009+1014,
W1013) framed a series of rooms that lay to the east of Building 102.
Although these rooms (R103, R106, R107, R108) constitute only the
partial remains of a larger complex, they are still assigned to Building
113. The association of Casemate Room 101 with Building 113 is
less clear than in the previous phase, although Surface A2:29 may
represent the latest occupational level. Better preserved is the evidence
for occupation in Stratum-VIIIA Rooms 106, R107 and R108.
:. cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.12. Pithoi smashed on oor in Room 106, around Mortar A13:23.
Room 106 (Fig. 6.11, 12)
Rooms 106 and R108 shared a major north-south wall (W1009 and
1014) constructed immediately east of Doorway H. For a distance of
5.50 m, this pier-and-cobblestone wall (1009), founded on Soil Layer
A13:22, formed the western perimeter of Room 106. North of that
point, Wall 1014 appears to be constructed in boulder-and-chink style
and is bonded to east-west Wall 1013 that forms the north wall of
Room 106. In its construction, Wall 1009 shared some characteristics
with Walls 1005 and W1008 in Building 102, notably in the size of
its boulder pillars or pillar bases, which were the full thickness of the
wall (0.600.70 m). At the same time, Wall 1009 differed from these
walls (W1005, W1008) in the use of full-width cobblestone wall sections
between the boulders. In this way, Wall 1009 is closer in style to Wall
3007 in Building 300 (Chapter 7, Figs. 7.19, 22).
Doorways into Room 106 from Room 103 on the west probably
led through Wall 1009 between certain well-spaced pillar bases. For
example, at the south end, the distance between the last known pillar
base and Inner Wall 1010 was 2.00 m,
25
while the space at the north
end was 1.00 m, a reasonable size opening for a doorway.
25
Serious disturbance of this area due to the location of the deep probe may have
dislocated a pillar base located ca. 1.00 m north of the inner wall (W1010).
rirrns \n :
The principal occupation phase in Room 106, is represented by
a beaten earth oor partially paved with cobblestones (A13:12+21).
Embedded in this surface and centrally placed was a large boulder
mortar (D 45 cm; A13:23) surrounded with chink stones (Figs. 6.12,
10.8). The mortar was used in association with 2 chert pounders,
a broken basalt millstone, 13 ceramic disks, ceramic spindle whorls,
and numerous ceramic vessels, all Iron Age II in style. The heaviest
concentration of vessels consisted of a row of pithoi along the west and
north sides of Room 106 (Fig. 6.12).
Table 6Q. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 106
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A13:12, 21 bowl V115 red slip, hemispherical
bowl V118
krater V126 red slip
cooking pot V135 miniature
9+pithoi V137139, V144149
jug V105 no slip, painted
jug V122 red slip
juglet V101 red slip, intact
4 juglets V106, V107,
V108, V110 3=red slip
2,568 ceramic sherds
shell pendant TJ 33
26
Glycymeris
pestle TJ 12 basalt
2 grinders TJ 29, 32 basalt
metal point TJ 30 iron
5 whorls TJ 78, 79, 80, 92, 95 ceramic spindle whorls
Among the ceramic vessels found smashed in situ in Room 106 was
a complete juglet (V101) which was a twin to the earlier one found
on Surface A13:30 (V102). These small at bottomed juglets are com-
mon throughout the Stratum-VIII ceramic corpus while dipper juglets,
common at Palestinian sites (for example, at Hazor; Yadin et al. 1960:
pl. LXXXVI:715) and in the Jebel Nuzha and Madaba tomb mate-
rial (Dornemann 1983: g. 25:815), are unknown. This was unex-
pected given their usefulness for extracting a small amount of liquid
from larger jars. This was clearly their use at Tell Miqne where Indus-
trial Building 1 yielded 25 dipper juglets, and Industrial Building 2,
10 dipper juglets (Gitin 1989: Tables 14). Among the storage ves-
26
For a study of the shell material from Tall Jawa, see Reese (2002).
: cn\r+rn six
sels, the most distinctive characteristics of the pithoi from Room 106
is their height (up to 1.10 m tall), and the fact that at least three vessels
were perforated, each with two holes located approximately one half
of the distance from base to rim.
27
Perforated jars or kraters were used
at Iron Age Tell Miqne in the production of olive oil (Gitin 1990: 38;
1989: 39) and at Tell Hadidi, Syria, during the Late Bronze Age in the
production of beer (Dornemann 1981: g. 3:2, 3.; Gates 1988:6668).
The storejars from Gibeon that Pritchard thought were used to store
wine
28
during fermentation in underground cellars were perforated at
the shoulder but differed from the Tall Jawa pithoi in that they mea-
sured only ca. 0.70 m (Pritchard 1964: 25; g. 32:8). Unfortunately,
no parallels to the Tall Jawa jars have been published that have simi-
lar holes, so that we cannot exclude the possibility that the holes were
formed accidentally at the time of the rooms collapse.
29
Ridged-neck hippo style storejars, which also served as liquid storage
containers, were found in association with the pithoi, jugs, small jugs
and juglets. Such an assemblage suggests a considerable amount of
liquid storage along with food processing and preparation.
30
Room 108 (Fig. 6.11)
The northern limit of Room 106 is marked by east-west Wall 1013
which forms the south wall of Room 108. This wall was built of two
rows of small and medium size boulders and small cobble-size (0.06
0.25 m) chink stones and measures 0.600.70 m thick. It remains
standing for only 12 courses in height above cobbled surfaces A13:12
in Room 106 and Surface A14:15. As such, it appears to be an example
of a stone foundation wall whose superstructure was not preserved.
31
The second major wall (W1014) of Room 108 is a party wall shared
with Room 107 on the west. Although Wall 1014 appears to have
been a continuation of Wall 1009, it is built of boulder-and-chink
27
For a study of the forming techniques employed to produce these pithoi, see
Daviau (1995).
28
Cross accepts Pritchards initial identication of the jars as containers for wine
(1962:18).
29
The suggestion that pithoi used to store oil were coated with plaster on their
exterior to reduce loss and discoloration (Artzy 1987:3) was not borne out at Tall
Jawa, even though several pithoi were stained yellowish-green on their interior surface,
indicating oil residue.
30
L. E. Toombs (oral communication, July 24, 1990) has suggested that the pithoi
could have been used as settling vessels in the process of wine making.
31
The preserved top of Wall 1013 was ca. 0.23 m below topsoil in Square A14.
rirrns \n :
construction, ca. 0.60 m thick, rather than of boulder pillar bases. Wall
1014 bonds with Wall 1013 at the corner where pillared Wall 1009
abuts them on the south. It does appear, however, that these walls are
all part of the same structure (Building 113).
In Room 108, the principal oor is a partially plastered (A14:14)
cobbled Surface (A14:15), which extends north from Wall 1013. While
it is likely that the entire oor was originally plastered, there is insuf-
cient preservation to make this assumption. Scattered across Floor
A14:15 ( +14+16), and in the superimposed debris layer (A14:12) were
numerous mendable ceramic vessels and artefacts.
Table 6R. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 108
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A14:12 bowl V125 hemispherical, red slip
2 bowls V124, V136 red slip
bowl V118 smudged
2 saucers V129, V130 red slip
cooking pot sherds
jug V136
juglets V116, V117
lamp V172=TJ 225
680 ceramic sherds
bow drill bit TJ 108 bronze
polishing tool TJ 240 stone
raw materials TJ 131, 132, 257 pink quartz
raw materials TJ 239 porphyry
small trough TJ 140 rectangular, limestone
grinder TJ 129 basalt, miniature
saddle quern TJ 141 basalt
2 pounders TJ 121, 174 chert
4 metal points TJ 109, 115, 150, 241 iron
spindle whorl TJ 118, 202 ceramic
oven V169 inverted pithos
The bow drill bit (TJ 108) and the small, semi-precious stones indicate
an area of craft activity, probably related to jewellery making. The
remaining nds are more typical of food preparation and cooking,
probably associated with Oven A14:25, located in the southeast corner.
Oven A14:25 (Fig. 6.13): Just past the east end of Wall 1013 was a
shallow depression cut into Floor A14:15. Set into the depression was
the inverted shoulder, neck and rim of a pithos (V169) that served as an
:6 cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.13. Pithos Oven A14:25.
oven. Inside the pithos, which was discoloured by burning, additional
sherds appear to form a partial liner, although they may merely have
broken off from the upper body.
32
A layer of packed sherds lls the
neck to form the oor or cooking surface of the oven. At its upper
edge, Oven A14:25 measured 54.00 cm-close to the standard shoulder
measurement of ca. 50.0052.00 cm for pithoi found in Room 106.
On the outside of the oven, cobblestones (A24:9) seal up against its
shoulder where a single ue is cut through the ceramic. The ue is an
oval opening (5.50

9.30 cm) located 13.00 cm from the rim. The total


preserved height of the oven itself is 26.70 cm. This style of oven is
similar to two pithos ovens found in Room 222 in Building 100, south
of Building 102 (Daviau 1992:148149; pl. I.1).
33
32
With the discovery of additional ovens, it became apparent that the base of
the pithos was removed from the vessel, and the cut edge formed the rim of the
oven when it was inverted. In the case of Oven A14:25, the upper edge was badly
damaged, suggesting that it had suffered during the destruction of Room 108 and from
subsequent deep ploughing.
33
Ovens of this same style were also found in Room 222 and R319, see discussion
below.
rirrns \n :
North of Oven A14:25 is a rectangular depression (A24:7) with a
cobblestone perimeter. Due to the dearth of nds in the immediate
area of Installation A24:7, its function was not determined. What was
evident is that the paved oor Surface (A14:15) in Room 108 did not
extend east of Oven A14:25 and Installation A24:7 into Room 112.
Room 112
The easternmost Room (R112) in Building 113 was only exposed in
the southwest corner of Square A24 (3.00 m east-west

3.354.90
m north-south), in order to leave in place the modern property wall
(A24:2) which runs diagonally through the Square. In line with Oven
A14:25 and Installation A24:7 is a single limestone boulder (A24:8)
that may mark the northern end of both Rooms 108 and R112. This
boulder was probably one in a line of similar ceiling supports or pillar
bases comparable to those of Wall 3013 in Building 300 (Chapter
7). The presence of this boulder pillar is evidence that Building 113
extends north of the excavation area, probably as far as Wall 1028
which runs east from the northeast corner of Building 102. At the same
time, boulder Pillar A24:8 may indicate the trajectory of the east wall
of Room 106.
34
Segments of this wall appear to have been robbed out
ca. 2.00 m north of the south balk and again at 3.00 m north.
The most signicant nd in Room 112 is a limestone roof roller
(TJ 229), which fell into the room when the ceiling collapsed (A24:5).
The presence of a roof roller, clear sign of roofed space, is especially
important here where the major support walls are missing or were
robbed out. Evidence for one such wall is seen in the collapse of cobbles
and boulders (A24:4) partially excavated in the centre of Square A24.
Included in the collapse were fragments of a chert rod (TJ 147), a basalt
grinder (TJ 152), ceramic spindle whorls (TJ 154, 159), and a saddle
quern (TJ 170).
Room 107 (Fig. 6.11)
The Iron Age II occupation preserved in Room 107 can be sepa-
rated into two eld phases, the earlier of which may have preceded
the Stratum-VIIIA surface (A13:12/21) uncovered in Rooms 106 and
R108 on the east. The primary evidence is the sequence of construc-
tion for Walls 1014 and 1009, with the latter abutting the former. For
34
Boulder Pillar A24:8 lines up well with the wall collapse (A13:39) exposed in
Room 106.
:8 cn\r+rn six
the purposes of this discussion, Room 107 will be limited to the space
west of Wall 1014, while Room 103 to the south remains assigned to
the space adjacent to Wall 1009. The west wall of Room 107 was the
exterior, east wall (W1006) of Building 102. Although no north wall
was exposed, Wall 1014 appears to end opposite Doorway F into Room
109 of Building 102, possibly to form the south jamb of a doorway. The
southern limit of Wall 1014 is marked by the presence of a single boul-
der (A14:31) that may have been a component in a cross wall at the
north end of Wall 1009.
In Stratum VIII, a series of superimposed surfaces (A14:24, 20,
17 and 6) seal against the west side of Wall 1014. The earliest loci
(A14:24, 20) seal against a stone-lined Installation/Bin (A14:22) and
extend south along the wall to meet boulder A14:31. The installation
consists of an L-shaped wall line (W1017), which is built on beaten
earth Surface A14:24, and continues in use with Surface A14:20. Inside
Installation A14:21 is a hard-packed oor (A14:27), which seals against
Wall 1014. Above the oor, the soil within the installation consists of
a layer of wind-blown soil (A14:22) which suggests that this area may
have been open or unroofed at some time during antiquity. A similar
feature, rectangular in shape, was reported from Gezer (Stratum 8A,
Field II). Here again, a single row of cobbles, 1 course high, marks off
an area whose precise function remains unclear (Wright, Dever and
Lance 1970:59).
35
Surface A14:24 extends west and seals against Wall 1006 of Building
102. This connection indicates that Building 102, built in Stratum IX
was still in use with this surface and with Wall 1014. The composition
of Surface A14:24 was beaten earth and scattered small cobbles. In
Room 107, a pumice pendant (TJ 155), 2 grinders, one basalt (TJ
210) and the other limestone (TJ 209), a spindle whorl (TJ 212) and
a representative collection of Iron Age II pottery sherds were spread
across the oor and embedded in the overlying soil layer (A14:23). A
third grinder (TJ 193), this one of sandstone, was located in the ll
(A14:22) inside Installation A14:21.
35
Dever (Wright et al. 1970:59) assumed that the presence of a tabun (1069) in
this area proved that it was an open courtyard rather than a roofed room. This is
surprising in view of the size of the area (2.6

4.5 m), and the fact that it was bounded


by walls on all sides and had a doorway to another area that also contained a tabun
(L. 1087; Plan XIII). See Rogers (1989:356, rpt of 1862) who describes a typical one-
room house with cooking installations inside the house and soot stained walls. Also see
the arguments by Daviau (1993: 44952) for the use of closed rooms for cooking.
rirrns \n :q
A second use of Room 107 is represented by Surface A14:20, also a
beaten earth surface with scattered cobbles. On Surface A14:20, there
was a group of artefacts including one spindle whorl and two groups of
at-lying Iron Age II ceramic sherds. Within overlying Debris Layer
A14:17 was a ceramic zoomorphic bull(?) vessel (TJ 139) decorated
with red slip and black painted bands. Only the head, shoulders and
sherds from the torso were preserved. Although the best example of its
kind, it was not unique at Tall Jawa.
36
Table 6S. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 107, late phase
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A14:17+20 725+ceramic sherds
awl/needle TJ 149 bronze
mortar bowl TJ 151 basalt
millstone TJ 204 lower, basalt
pounder TJ 201 chert
bull vessel TJ 139 ceramic
2 whorls TJ 167, 211 ceramic spindle whorls
The small number and the types of nds from these loci suggest a
work area or craft centre. This corresponds to the nds from Room
108 where stones for the manufacture of jewellery and a bow drill bit
were in use. Such activities may be appropriate in this southern sector
of the town that also included an extensive cooking area (R202) and an
area where ground stone tools were refashioned (R211).
The artefacts on Surface A14:20 and their associated ceramic vessels
were in use together before the latest Stratum-VIIIA surface (A14:6)
was laid. This layer of cobblestones may have been part of a pavement
during the nal use phase of Room 107, when it was converted into
an alleyway leading south to the entrance (Doorway H) into Casemate
Room 101. On Surface A14:6 was a basalt grinder (TJ 236), a chert
pounder (TJ 117), and almost 800 Iron Age II ceramic sherds. In
the topsoil layer covering these northern rooms of Building 113, there
were remains of 2 storejars (V126, V170) and 2 jugs (V131, V132),
providing clear evidence that modern ploughing has severely disturbed
the archaeological record.
36
Another example (TJ 1900), lacking the red slip and paint, was recovered from
Building 700, which also yielded a badly damaged head with a spout through the
muzzle (TJ 1286). For a typological study of zoomorphic vessels from Tall Jawa, see
Daviau (2001:7379)
:6o cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.14. Building 100 in Fields AB, showing position of ovens.
BUILDING 100
Located between the Stratum-VIIIB Inner Casemate Wall (W1030)
and the south exterior wall (W1011+2020) of Building 102 is a single
row of rooms designated Building 100 (Fig. 6.14). Room 123, described
above, is better understood as part of Building 113 even though the
disruption of this area during the rebuilding of Inner Casemate Walls
1004 and W1010 severely disturbed the evidence that could clarify
the stratigraphic links with Room 106 in Building 113. West of Room
103/123 are two rooms (R102/122+202/222 and R225) that served
as a large food preparation and cooking area (3.00

9.50 m).
37
Room
122 is blocked on the east by a north-south wall (W1012) that runs
between the inner casemate wall and Building 102, while on the west
Wall 2014 serves as the limit of Room 225.
37
Originally these rooms were numbered Rooms 102 and 202 (Daviau 1994: g. 2).
With the renement of the numbering system, all rooms associated with the Stra-
tum VIIIB Inner Casemate Wall were given numbers in the range 120129. Where
this distinction was not possible, the original numbers were retained.
rirrns \n :6:
Figure 6.15. Building 100, with relevant locus numbers, Stratum VIII.
History of Excavation (Fig. 6.1)
Excavation began in Square A3 in 1989 and exposed almost the entire
area of Room 102/122. In 1991, excavation immediately west of
Square A3 was located in Square B63. This square included a sec-
tion of the inner casemate wall (W1030), Casemate Room 201, and
Room 202/222, to the north. During the 1995 season, excavation in
the western rooms of Building 102 claried the sequence of walls asso-
ciated with Room 102+202. It is possible that this large room was
originally part of Building 102, although the latest repair of south Wall
1011+2020 of Building 102 cut this area off from the nal phase of
occupation in B102. In the rooms themselves, two occupation phases
were identied, although they do not t neatly into Stratum VIIIA
and VIIIB. What is certain is that the earliest oors were in use with
the Stratum VIIIB inner casemate wall (W1030).
Room 122 (Fig. 6.15, 16)
East Wall 1012 consists of two rows of small and medium boulders in
boulder-and-chink construction.
38
This wall, preserved to a height of
four courses (0.600.80 m), appears to serve as the foundation for a
38
This is the same wall that served as the west wall of Room 103 (see above).
:6. cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.16. Room 122 with Wall 1012 above Surface A3:29.
mud brick superstructure (A3:11). The lowest stone course was set on
beaten earth Surface A3:29, which was exposed only in Room 122.
Wall 1012 abutted the south wall (W1011) of Building 102 at a level
that demonstrates the priority of Building 102. On the south end, the
situation is less certain, because Wall 1012 runs under Inner Casemate
Wall 1004 and appears to have been built over by Inner Wall 1030
in Stratum VIIIB (Room 121, above). Although exposed only on the
north of Inner Casemate Wall 1030, Surface A3:29, along with Wall
1012, may have been contemporary with Surface A2:31 in Casemate
Room 121 on the south, since both oors were at the same absolute
level (923.22923.23 masl).
39
On the west, Room 122 opens into Room
222, an area of ovens and hearths (2.80

7.75 m). The west wall of


this large area is Wall 2014, a two row boulder-and-chink wall that also
serves as the east wall of Room 203 (see B204, below).
39
Whether these surfaces had been in use during Stratum IX was not established
due to the end of excavation in Room 103 at Surface A3:31 and in R102 at Surface
A3:29, both Stratum VIII oors. The amount of red slipped and burnished vessels in
Building 100 suggests a somewhat later phase than the construction and rst use of
Building 102.
rirrns \n :6
Smashed on Surface A3:29 and resting against the south wall
(W1011) of Building 102 was a red slipped, bent-sided bowl (V120)
40
with burnishing on the rim. Additional vessels and artefacts probably in
use on this oor were attributed to an overlying surface (A3:28) also of
beaten earth. Both hard-packed surfaces (A3:29, 28) consist of soil that
is dark greyish brown (10YR 4/2), and stained throughout by ash from
the cooking and food preparation activities which apparently occurred
here over an extended period of time. The depth of Surface A3:28 was
0.090.20 m deep with the greatest ash accumulation on its uppermost
surface. On this surface also, there were artefacts related to food prepa-
ration and consumption; the nds from both surfaces are presented
together in Table 6T.
Table 6T. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 122, earlier phase
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A3:28+29 shallow bowl V120 red slip
cooking pot V153
256 ceramic sherds
millstone TJ 53 upper loaf-shaped, basalt
saddle quern TJ 59 basalt
2 pounders TJ 51+1 unreg chert
tabun fragments
animal bones
lithic fragments
The artefacts on Surface A3:28 consist of the typical tools for food pro-
cessing, preparation and cooking. Although the basalt saddle quern and
upper millstone were both broken, numerous examples of such tools
in situ indicate that they continued in use. These were accompanied
by two chert pounding stones (Daviau 2002:297313) and numerous
fragments of a clay oven. While the outline of the oven could not be
dened with absolute clarity, it appeared to be located against the west
side of Wall 1012. Also present on Surface A3:28 were faunal remains
(55 sheep/goat1 burned, and 2 large mammal bones), ashes, and 24
lithic fragments. All of the pottery can be dated to the early Iron II and
Iron II periods.
A similar food preparation area on Surface A3:24 was located imme-
diately above Surface A3:28 in Room 122. Surface A3:24 was also
40
Bent-sided bowls is the designation for bowls with a single change of direction in
the body wall. The term carination is used for vessels with two changes of direction.
:6 cn\r+rn six
stained with ash (10YR 5/2, greyish brown), although there was no
clear evidence of an oven. The surface of this oor was disturbed by
clumps of nari that were also present in later loci (see A3:23, below).
The presence of cooking pots and of numerous animal bones (161
sheep/goat, 2 cow, and 8 large mammal bones) indicates clearly that
Surface A3:24 was used for cooking. Additional artefacts, along with
several stone tools, suggest that food preparation and spinning were
also carried out in Room 122.
41
Table 6U. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 122, later phase
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A3:23,24 2 bowls V119, 121 inverted rim
bowl V152 red slip, hemispherical
cooking pot V187, 188 +sherds
907 ceramic sherds
raw materials TJ 52 carnelian
grinder TJ 49 basalt
cube grinder TJ 50 miniature, basalt
millstone TJ 45 upper loaf-shaped, basalt
spindle whorl TJ 247 ceramic
lithic fragments
The position of Soil Layer A3:23 in Room 102, just below the found-
ing level of Wall 1004, and the presence of ash layers, fragments of a
clay oven, cooking pots, small bowls, and animal bones (32 sheep/goat
and 2 large mammal), suggests that this locus was an accumulation
of debris, or a collapsed ceiling, above the earlier cooking area. This
soil layer (A3:23) was disturbed by the presence of large amounts of
white (5YR 8/1) plaster (A3:21) and 125 pieces of chert akes, evidence
which suggests that this material was produced during the construction
of the new inner casemate wall (W1004), probably the result of trim-
ming the wall stones.
42
Additional evidence for this Stratum-VIIIA con-
struction is present at the south end of the stone foundation of Wall
1012, which was cut down to form a foundation trench. A second,
shallow foundation trench which cut into the upper courses of Wall
41
While the small number of registered nds does not allow for statistical analysis,
the same range of nds in greater numbers in Building 300 allow for distribution studies
and the identication of activity areas.
42
This interpretation was suggested by L. T. Geraty, July 1989. The same phe-
nomenon is seen in Debris Layer A3:8 in Room 103 where 303 chert fragments were
recorded.
rirrns \n :6
1012 at its north end is the only evidence to suggest the reconstruction
at the same time of Wall 1011 along the south side of Building 102.
While comparable evidence does not exist for the east wall (W1006) of
Building 102, it is clear that these earlier walls (W1006 and W1007),
were both still in use during this latest phase. Following repairs to Walls
1004 and W1011, mud brick material was packed into the founda-
tion trenches at both ends of Wall 1012, although the reason for this
remains unclear, unless it was just a matter of levelling off the collapsed
debris and re-establishing an east wall for Room 102.
Room 102
No living surfaces were preserved in Room 102 following the construc-
tion of the Stratum-VIIIA inner casemate wall (W1004). Instead, a
deep (0.250.30 m) layer (A3:17, 8, 5) of soil, broken pottery and arte-
facts appears to represent the collapse of upper storey rooms, possibly
from Building 102, at the end of Stratum VIIIB. In Room 102, there
was an accumulation of ash (A3:6; 1.10

1.30 m in size), which was


located in Soil layer A3:5. Although few bones were associated with this
locus (5 sheep/goat), botanical remains were plentiful and consisted of
barley, wheat, lentil, coriander, sweet helby, olive pit, and green bean.
43
This ash concentration was surrounded by a compact soil layer (A3:5),
which may represent the nal accumulation before modern times. All
associated pottery was Iron II or earlier, suggesting that this replace
was in use subsequent to the abandonment of the town (see below).
Room 202/222 (Figs. 15, 17)
To the west of Room 102/122 is Room 202/222, an area with six
ovens in use over a period of time.
44
The sequence of oor levels and
the evidence of two ues in the largest oven (B63:30) point to the use of
this room in Stratum VIIIB and possibly in Stratum VIIIA as well.
At the same time, the exact contemporaneity of all phases of these
ovens with Stratum VIIIB surfaces in R122 was not demonstrated
univocally, although the continuation of surface A3:28 was reached in
1995 in the east balk of Square B63 (B63:53). For greater clarity, the
43
Processing of botanical remains was carried out by R. Hubbard of the Madaba
Plains Project. These were subsequently revised by R. Low (report unavailable).
44
With additional excavation in the east balk of Square B63 during the 1993 and
1995 seasons, it became clear that there was no north-south cross wall separating the
two rooms.
:66 cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.17. South half of Room 202 with ovens and
Partition Wall 2019; Inner Casemate Wall 1004 on right.
earlier installations (east to west) will be presented rst, followed by
a discussion of overlying installations and of those ovens that showed
evidence of reuse.
45
The earliest Stratum-VIIIB occupation level is represented on the
east end of Room 222 by Surface B63:53( =A3.28+29), which was
exposed in a very limited area (1.00

2.00 m). One artefact, a small,


round basalt mortar (TJ 1819) embedded in the overlying soil layer
(B63:54), identies the surface as a continuation of the food processing
area located in Room 122. Soil Layer B63:54 served later as the under-
lying support for Oven B63:40, which was in use with overlying Surface
B63:46, a bright red mud brick surface (5YR 5/8)
46
which covers the
45
A detailed preliminary report (Daviau 1992:148149) presented the results of the
1991 season. Removal of the east balk in 1993 and 1995 revealed the remainder of
Oven B63:40. Presented here are renements to the stratigraphic sequence and a fuller
description of Oven B63:40.
46
The brick material (B63:46) itself contains lumps of nari, chert chips, and char-
rirrns \n :6
Figure 6.18. Oven B63:29 on left; Hearth B63:32 on right.
eastern half of Room 222. Surface B63:46 was baked hard by the pres-
ence of overlying ovens and strained with ash and charcoal. This ash
stained surface may be contemporary with soil and ash Layer A3:24 in
Room 122 on the east, as both were in use with Inner Casemate Wall
1030.
In the western half of Room 202/222, Surface B63:46 continues
as Surface B63:44, a hard-packed beaten earth oor stained grayish
brown with ash (10YR 5/2). Surface B63:44 runs up to a stone par-
coal, evidence that the soil used to make this oor was collected from the debris that
resulted from trimming the stones for Wall 1030.
:68 cn\r+rn six
tition wall (W2019); west of this short wall is Room 225, a small area
adjacent to the oven room.
47
Oven B63:40: Located at the east end of Room 222 is a pithos oven
(B63:40) in position against the west face of a row of support stones
(B63:51), mud plaster (B63:52), and brick material (B63:50).
48
Oven
B63:40 was installed on a hard-packed beaten earth surface (B63:53),
and consists of an inverted pithos, ca. 0.55 m in diameter at the shoul-
der, with its base cut off. This pithos (B63:49)
49
was wedged in place
with 5 cobblestones (B63:48) packed with plaster, forming a circle 0.71
m in diameter to allow space for the handles.
50
Partially red clay,
orange in colour, lls the rim where it is embedded in the underlying
ll.
The pithos oven (B63:40) contains small amounts of ash and plaster
(B63:47), and a lump of iron. In addition, there is an accumulation
of very black, oily material (B63:39) that might be decayed organic
matter (saved for future analysis), and an inverted cooking pot lled
with white chalky lime.
51
These contents were sealed with clay that
served as the support for a second oven (B63:37), also formed from
an inverted vessel.
Oven B63:37: Put in position above the ll within Oven B63:40 was
an inverted storejar (V218; hippo style), with an interior rim diameter
of 8.00 cm. Little can be said about this poorly preserved installation,
except that sherds of the storejar were concentrated on Surface B63:46
along with a deposit of ash (B63:45), ca. 0.14 m deep, that extends
across Room 222 between Ovens B63:37 and B63:36 and Hearth
47
The function of Room 225 is incomplete, due in part to the fact that the north
balk was left in place; only the southern half of Rooms 222 and 225 were excavated to
oor level.
48
Excavated during three seasons (1991, 1993, 1995) in the east balk of Square B63,
this feature is less well understood than the ovens excavated during the 1991 season.
49
Each oven was given a locus number which represents the entire installation
(B63:40). The pithos used as the oven wall, the ll inside the pithos, the support stones,
and the plaster also have their own numbers (B63:47, 49, 48, 51, 52, etc.), since the
measurements and composition of each component is recorded on a separate locus
sheet for greater control.
50
The oven was damaged following the end of the 1991 season, but the handles and
shoulder sherds were recovered in place.
51
The presence of lime and lithic debitage may indicate repair to the inner case-
mate wall.
rirrns \n :6q
B63:32. Above this installation, in the East balk of Square B63, is a
deep (ca. 0.38 m) ash accumulation or repit (B63:47), 0.50 m in diam-
eter, containing fragments of mudbrick and pockets of plaster. Within
the ash, there was a piece of oak and lumps of camel dung containing
chaff.
52
Oven B63:36 (Fig. 6.15): West of Oven B63:37, another storejar oven
(B63:36) was built up against Inner Wall 1030 and founded on mud
brick Surface B63:46. In position on this surface is a broken, basalt
saddle quern (B63:43=TJ 226; 0.35

0.37

0.09 m thick), that forms


the base rock for the oven. An inverted storejar (V219) with a rim
measuring 10.8 cm in diameter was placed on the quern and the upper
part of the jar was surrounded with 12 cobblestones and plaster. These
stones form the upper edge of the oven while the jar forms the lower
wall. The oven is bonded for support with mud plaster to Wall 1030 on
the south. Both Ovens B63:36 and B63:37 were subsequently covered
by mud brick collapse (B63:22), putting these installations out of use.
The storejars used as ovens are similar to one another in ware and
form, with rims that identify these jars chronologically as Iron Age II,
probably 9
th
8
th
century.
Oven B63:32 (Fig. 6.18): Installation B63:32, constructed directly on
Surface B63:46, is approximately 0.40 m north of Oven B63:36. This
installation is an open hearth or re pit formed of a circle of 10 medium
cobblestones and a reused basalt weight (TJ 222). The stones are par-
tially sealed with mud plaster, which forms the oor of the hearth and
was itself covered by an accumulation of ash (B63:33), 0.050.10 m
deep. The original exterior measurement of Hearth B63:32 was 0.90
1.00 m. Flotation of Ash B63:33 yielded only one small animal tooth.
53
Over time, ash and debris (B63:45) built up on Surface B63:46
and a new oor surface (B63:41) was installed. As a result of this
accumulation, certain ovens were modied and new installations were
constructed and were in use long enough to stain Surface B63:41 with
ash and organic material. On this surface there was a ceramic spindle
52
P. Warnock conducted otation analysis of samples from the 1993 season and
identied the wood as FAGACEAE, cf. Quercus.
53
Samples for otation from the 1991 season were processed by D. Thomas and C.
A. Cullingworth in 1995. Additional samples from these ovens, entrusted in 1992 to
R. Low of the Madaba Plains Project, were not analyzed prior to publication; they
were returned to the project in 1999.
:o cn\r+rn six
whorl (TJ 177), a basalt scraper (TJ 173), and an upper loaf-shaped
millstone (TJ 198).
Oven B63:29 (Fig. 6.18): Built over the eastern edge of Hearth B63:32
is Oven B63:29, a free-standing installation, 0.31 m high and 0.42 m
in diameter at its base.
54
It was carefully constructed on a at stone
(B63:31; 0.15

0.25 m) base. The stone itself is surrounded by a layer


of clay (0.050.10 m. deep) that supports an inverted storage jar (V216).
This jar is blackened on the interior and its fabric is very friable, due
to repeated exposure to heat. The base of the jar had been removed
and the opening was surrounded by 15 stones, one reused from Hearth
B63:32. Inside this stone circle, there is packed clay (B63:19) and sev-
eral storejar sherds that line the storejar and seal against the stones.
The stone circle, thus formed, is also plastered on its outer face and
measures 0.38 m at its upper edge. The circle appears to have a single
opening on the north side, where the stones form a narrow channel or
ue. Flotation of material (B63:19) within B63:29 yielded only sherds
from the storejar oven, int chips and pieces of plaster.
Oven B63:30 (Figs. 6.19, 20): The largest and best preserved oven
(B63:30) is located near the west end of Room 222, east of Partition
Wall 2019
55
and north of Inner Casemate Wall 1030. Partition Wall
2019 was constructed of one row of small limestone and chert boulders
and stands 23 courses in height. It abuts Inner Wall 1030 and forms
the western limit of a work area adjacent to Oven B63:30. Leaning
against Wall 1030, there was half of a cooking pot (V221), adjacent to
a group of food processing tools and several animal bones.
Table 6V. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 222, earlier phase
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B63:44 cooking pot V221
133 ceramic sherds
2 mortars TJ 192, 200 basalt, square
pestle TJ 203 limestone
grinder TJ 199 basalt
animal bones
54
This installation was damaged by vandalism before it could be excavated system-
atically.
55
B63:28; see Daviau (1992:148).
rirrns \n ::
Figure 6.19. Oven B63:30 with stones and plaster
around upper edge; plaster seals against Wall 1004.
Immediately east of these remains of food preparation activity is
Oven B63:30, which was installed in a depression cut through Surface
B63:44. The rim of an inverted pithos (V217) was set in place on this
hard-packed surface; the neck and shoulder were supported by stones
and soil, and a ue was cut in its shoulder. The oval ue hole is located
7.00 cm from the rim and measures 4.50

7.50 cm. The upper part


of Oven B63:30 consists of the tapering body of the pithos, for a total
height of ca. 53.00 cm. Eight at stones (ca. 0.16

0.26 m), standing on


end, surround the upper opening, where the base has been removed.
The stones are in turn sealed with plaster to the outer surface of the
pithos and to the north face of Inner Casemate Wall 1030.
56
56
Although this type of oven is not common at sites in Cisjordan, there are several
examples at Hazor that were constructed in the same way (Yadin et al. 1961: pls.
:. cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.20. Oven B63:30 with pithos body and rim exposed.
Oven B63:30 measures 0.47 m inside the top opening, and 0.60
0.66 m on the outside (including the plaster and stones), while the
largest interior diameter across the shoulder was 0.53 m. The oven had
a total interior depth of 0.46 m, from the preserved height of the stones
to the inverted pithos rim, and contained, at its lowest level, ca. 0.10 m
of layered sherds (B63:17) which facilitated the circulation of heat inside
the oven. A basalt pestle (TJ 128) was on top of the layered sherds
along with broken cooking pot sherds, and pieces of charcoal. Under
the sherds, in the neck of the pithos, there was an astragalus. Both the
interior of the pithos and the cooking pots were blackened, although
no ash was found inside the oven. Additional cooking pot sherds were
broken against the outer east wall of Oven B63:30. Evidence for the
use of this oven comes from the friable condition of the pithos which
showed repeated exposure to heat
57
and from the heat-baked plaster
and mud brick material surrounding it.
XVII:2, 4; XXIII:2). A full study of traditional and Iron Age ovens is in preparation
(Daviau, ed.).
57
Traditional clay ovens still produced in Jordan today have a life span of only 3
4 years. One might suspect that a red clay pithos might have a longer life since the
original fabric was prepared to withstand the high ring temperatures of the kiln.
rirrns \n :
Room 225
Contemporary with these ovens was Room 225, a small work area
located west of Partition Wall 2019. This small room (1.75

3.00 m)
lls the space between Partition Wall 2019 on the east, Inner Casemate
Wall 1030 on the south, north-south Wall 2014 on the west, and the
south wall of Building 102 on the north (W2020). Wall 2014 runs north
and seals against the plaster covering the southwest corner of Building
102, thus providing good evidence for the building sequence of Rooms
225 and 222. The principal surface (B63:35) excavated in Room 225 is
of beaten earth and supported only one small mortar. This object may
very well have been in use with the ground stone tools found at the west
end of Room 222 (see Table 6V, above).
Stratum VIIIA
Room 202
The clearest evidence for the reuse of Room 222 (as Room 202) during
Stratum VIIIA is Oven B63:30, whose upper edge was plastered to
the lowest course of stones of Inner Casemate Wall 1004, and the
construction of a new partition wall (W2018). Inner Wall 1004 was
built on a line that was ca. 0.15 m north of Stratum-VIIIB Wall 1030.
This overhang was especially noticeable on the south side of Oven
B63:36 that is now below the level of the later wall. West of Oven
B63:30, a north-south mudbrick wall (W2018) was keyed into a recess
in the Inner Wall (W1004). Wall 2018 consists of cobblestones and
brick material that includes chips of int, organic matter, and plaster,
all hardened by the heat of the oven. This wall served as a windbreak
and separated Room 202 from work area (R205) to the west.
Additional evidence for a second period of use for Oven B63:30 can
be identied by the presence of a second ue hole located 10.50 cm
from the lower one. The need for an additional opening coincided with
a rise in level of the oor in use with this oven. We can only assume that
the cooking pot (V220) found in situ in the upper part of Oven B63:30
dates to its nal period of use. Additional broken cooking pots were in
position against the stones that formed the upper east edge of the oven.
At this point, Oven B63:30 was resting against the north face of Wall
1004.
In the eastern half of Room 202, an uneven accumulation of plaster
(B63:25) built up on Soil Layer B63:34, which seals up against Ovens
B63:29, 32, 36 and 37. Adjacent to Wall 1030, Oven B63:36 was cov-
: cn\r+rn six
ered with a layer of brick material (B63:22) which may have been the
remnants of wall collapse from the superstructure of Wall 1030, that
then hardened in place due to heat from the oven. Additional remains
of this brick material (B63:20) is evident across Room 202, although the
absolute level of Oven B63:29 suggests that it may have been reused
with Surface B63:20. Eventually, all of these ovens went out of use and
were sealed by a layer of collapse (B63:12). This soil contains lumps
of plaster or nari (B63:16), comparable to the accumulation (A3:23) in
R122 that resulted from the trimming of limestone blocks to form Wall
1004. Within this soil layer (B63:12) was a large ash pocket (B63:8,
comparable to A3:6), suggesting reuse of this area at a later time (see
below). Although far from certain, it is possible that these features were
contemporary with the latest use of Building 102, since all pottery
forms from these loci were consistently Iron Age II.
The End of Iron Age Occupation in Field AB
All of the Stratum-VIIIA surfaces and features within Buildings 113
and B100 went out of use at the same time as the fortication system.
In Building 113, the latest surfaces in Rooms 108 and R112 were cov-
ered with rock fall (A14:11, 12, 16 and 24:4), which was sealed in its
turn by Debris Layers A14:5, 7 and 24:5. Immediately south in Room
106, the clearest sign of the nal destruction of Iron Age Jawa was
the accumulated pottery smashed in situ against Wall 1009, spreading
across the top of Mortar A13:23 and Floor A13:12/21.
58
Deep accu-
mulations of loess, along with pottery churned up by ploughing from
the underlying occupation levels (A13:3, 4, 10), covered the remains
of Room 106. Within Soil Layer A13:10 was an unslipped and unbur-
nished krater (V168), which may have been on an upper storey.
In Building 102, Locus B64:3, which probably represents a collapsed
ceiling, contained an exceptionally large number of ceramic sherds
58
Amid the wall collapse (A13:16) on the east side of Room 106 were two iron
points (2074, 2076). Thirteen additional iron arrowheads were found outside the wall
system, embedded in the nari Surfaces (A2:7, 9, 30) which sealed against the outer
foundation courses of Wall 1003. The location of these weapons, especially those
outside the fortication system strongly suggests an attack on the town, although it
is not certain that this was the event which brought about the end of Stratum-VIII
occupation. As suggested above, the weapons embedded in the glacis may testify to
the end of stratum IX and have nothing to do with the Stratum VIIIVII transition.
Another possible explanation is earthquake.
rirrns \n :
(3369), chert akes (258)
59
and animal bones. This pattern of debris
is similar to that in all the rooms along Inner Casemate Wall 1004.
The functional interpretation of this debris is more difcult, since it
may consist of the collapse of the rooms in the wall system. However,
evidence for chronology is supplied by the ceramic remains, which are
consistent with middle Iron Age II(B) wares and forms comparable to
those from sealed loci, especially from the nal phase in Building 300.
At or subsequent to the end of this occupation, Inner Casemate
Walls 1004 and W1010 collapsed (Debris Layers A3:9 and A13:18),
lling Doorway H in the casemate system, while Outer Wall 1002
collapsed onto Surface A2:29 lling Casemate Room 101 with debris
(A2:6). Probably at the same time, the stones of Walls 1011, W1005
and W1008 in Building 102 slipped off their foundations and collapsed
north onto Debris Layers A4:12, 4:18 and 4:17 respectively.
Although the historical cause of Jawas destruction remains a mys-
tery, there was no evidence of re. No clear ash layers, comparable to
the accumulation in the deep sounding (Building 50), appears in the
debris that seals the upper parts of walls in Buildings 100, 102 and 113.
While occupation continued, or resumed, in Fields C and D (Chap-
ters 8, 9), no Stratum VII occupation took place in the excavated area
of Fields AB adjacent to the casemate wall system, with the possible
exception of repairs to the wall system and some industrial activities.
This may account for the presence of two basins (B44:4 and B53:11)
positioned on Inner Casemate Wall 2007, above the south ends of Walls
2014 and W2011 respectively (Chapter 5). The position of these basins
suggests that the inner wall was without a superstructure along its inner
face at this point, or was part of a larger structure whose function is no
longer apparent.
Other anomalies in this area include an olive crushing stone (B44:20)
at topsoil level, west of Room 207, and a smashed pithos adjacent to
Wall 2028, north of Work Area 211. The ware of this vessel was very
brittle, unlike any of the wares used to make the more than 50 pithoi
typical of Stratum VIII (Daviau, in preparation).
59
The lithic nds from 1989 were identied as unworked and discarded by Schnur-
renberger (Herr, personal communication). They may, however, represent debitage
aked off of the tools used to trim the stones of the Inner Casemate Wall.
:6 cn\r+rn six
STRATA VIIII
Some time after the nal Iron Age destruction phase, a 1.00 m wide
foundation trench (A3:13) was cut into Debris Layers A3:17 (in Room
102) and A3:8 (in Room 103), as well as through the upper, mud brick
courses of Wall 1012. The continuation of this trench appears to be
represented in Pit A13:15, observed in the western balk of Square A13.
Within the trench, large amounts of limestone detritus was exposed,
possibly the result of repairs to the wall in Stratum VII, or possibly
during construction of later structures on the tell in the Umayyad
period, or even robbing of fallen wall stones in modern times.
60
No evidence for Umayyad period (Stratum III) building activity in
Field A was identied,
61
although a collapsed building north of mod-
ern Wall 1032 may be an indication of the spread of occupation across
the tell during that period. Sherds identied as late Roman or Byzan-
tine appeared in topsoil layers, probably spread by ploughing. Before
the 1991 season, occupational remains on the tell from the Umayyad
period were not recognized, with the result that all late Byzantine-style
pottery was identied as Byzantine, without making any allowance
for possible Umayyad occupation. Since no subsequent occupation
(apart from Byzantine-Umayyad) occurred on the tell before modern
agricultural activities began, it was a surprise to discover one Fatimid
sherd from Topsoil Layer A3:3 (Pail 7).
62
STRATUM I
The undisturbed appearance of the soil and surface vegetation on the
slopes of the tell (A1:6=2:2, A2:1, A2:19, A3:1) and above the walls of
the fortication system (W1002, W1004) in Field A seems to indicate
that this accumulation had changed little in the intervening millennia.
Topsoil A2:19, with its covering vegetation, sealed up against displaced
60
The early 20
th
century AD settlement of Jawa to the east of the tell shows reuse of
building stones from the Iron Age site and from a Byzantine site in the area. Numerous
dressed stones with crosses carved in relief are indicative of this collection of building
materials from abandoned structures
61
A small number of Umayyad sherds were present in topsoil layers, although these
may have been deposited at any time since the construction of Building 600 in Field D.
62
Unfortunately, this sherd was not registered. Another remnant of the Medieval
period is V1201, an Ayyubid painted jar.
rirrns \n :
boulders of the inner casemate wall and was present on the crest
of the tell under the modern eld wall (W1031), demonstrating the
depositional sequence in this area. Ceramic sherds in these loci were
mixed, including late Roman, Byzantine, and Umayyad with Iron II
forms dominating the eld readings.
The latest activity on the tell is represented by a series of ploughed
elds within the lines of the modern eld walls that run east-west
and delimit familial property rights. In Squares A4 and A14, red terra
rossa added to the elds to increase their fertility produced a very
compact soil layer now embedded in the plough zone. In recent years,
windblown soil layers (A3:3, 4:1, 13:1, 2, 14:1 and 24:1) accumulated
between the ploughed ruts formed in underlying soil layers and piled
up against the north face of Inner Casemate Wall 1004=1010.
The date for the construction of the modern eld walls above the
line of the ancient walls in Fields AB is not known for certain although
it seems apparent from aerial photographs taken in 1981 that these
walls, along with all other eld walls on the tell, were already in
existence. Because the tell was being cultivated at the time of Gluecks
survey in 1933, it is probable that some walls were already in place,
although he does not mention them. According to the principal land
owner, Mr.
.
Hamad Talaya, the walls indicate property lines and not
just eld clearing activities (oral communication). These modern walls
appear to be formed by the reuse of ancient building materials even
though they contain a larger proportion of chert boulders than the
ancient walls, where uncut chert boulders represented only 1015% of
the wall stones. Numerous quarry marks in the bedrock out-croppings
that extend to the south and west of the tell are evidence for the source
of much of the ancient stone (see Chapter 12, below).
Evidence for the build up of wind blown soil was also present against
the face of Wall 1001, which runs northwest-southeast through Squares
A111 and B62 at the foot of the tell. This accumulation (A1:1) was
subsequent to recent bulldozer activity that cut into and removed the
lower slope exposing, and partially destroying, retaining Wall 1001.
Prior to the bulldozer activity, the bedrock may have been covered with
an earlier revetment comparable to that still visible on the north (Field
E) and southeast (Field C) sides of the tell (Chapters 5, 7, and 9).
:8 cn\r+rn six
FIELD B BUILDING 200
History of Excavation
With the discovery in 1993 of Drain B24:24 at the southwest corner
of the site, it became imperative to expose the structures immediately
inside the town to determine the origin of the drain and the types
of structures associated with it. Excavation in Squares B34B35 com-
pleted the investigation of the casemate wall system (Chapter 5), and
exposed four rooms of a building (B200) adjacent to Outer West Wall
2023. In the following seasons, Squares B45, B55, and B65 were also
opened, in order to establish the connection of this area of the town
with the large cooking and storage complexes further east in Buildings
100 and 102.
Excavation along West Wall 2023 began already in 1992 in an at-
tempt to identify the style of fortication system in place along the west
side of the town, since only one wall line was visible at ground level.
The discovery in 1993 of an inner casemate wall (W2004+W2029)
with doorways which opened into rooms on the east provided evidence
of a different pattern of room arrangement for Building 200,
63
when
compared to Building 300 on the north, where there was no direct
access to the casemate rooms. Even though Building 200 was not com-
pletely excavated, the oors of three rooms were reached with interest-
ing results for our understanding of the range of Iron Age II architec-
ture and for the relative chronology of occupation during Strata VIII
and VII, especially in the style of ovens (see Room 212, below).
Building Plan (Fig. 6.21)
Building 200 has a unique plan for a Stratum-VIII house at Tall Jawa.
It is the only structure which incorporates two casemate rooms (R213,
R215) into its plan, with a doorway (B) leading directly from the main
room (R212) into the casemates. The only other case where there was
direct access is Doorway H in Building 113. The best examples of this
pattern are seen in the Stratum-VII houses at Beer-sheba.
64
In each of
these cases, the back room of the house forms a single casemate room,
and the outer wall is that of the house proper rather than a continuous
63
Field reports were prepared by L. Cowell and R. DeFonzo.
64
A group of 5 houses of the four-room type in Stratum VII at Beer-sheba are
classic examples (Herzog 1984: gs. 711, Buildings 2524, 2060, 2309, 2358, 2356).
rirrns \n :q
Figure 6.21. Building 200 in Field B.
wall line independent of the rooms built up against it. Somewhat later
at Tell Beit Mirsim, houses were located up against a previously existing
outer wall. In this case also the back room of each house formed one or
more casemate rooms (Albright 1943: plan 3).
Rooms
The rooms framed by the southwest corner of the fortication system
include Building 200 and Casemate Room 210.
:8o cn\r+rn six
Table 6AA. Room Size and Proportion in Building 200, and Casemate Room 210
Room Width(m) Length(m) Ratio W/L Bounded by Walls
207 3.75 -? 2007, 20112022
208 -? -? 2028
209 1.50 3.75 .40 2004, 2005, 2022, 2031
210 1.60 8.35(?) .19 2001, 2002, 2009, 2006
65
212 2.70 4.50(?) .60 2004, 2029, 2028, 2031
213 2.00 3.75(?) .53 2023, 2030, 2029, ?
215 1.90 2.50 .76 2003, 2004, 2030, 2023
Range of sizes (omitting Rooms 207, R208)
Width 1.50 2.70 average 1.96 m
Length 2.60 8.35 average 4.59 m
(omitting Room 210)
Length 2.60 4.50 average 3.65 m
The casemate rooms on the west (R213, R215) are both ca. 2.00 meters
wide, while casemate Room 210 on the south measures 2.00 m wide at
its east end, but decreases to 1.40 m on the west. Because it was not
excavated to oor level, the full length of Room 210 may not be an
accurate measurement; this space may be divided in two by a partition
wall, as was the case with Rooms 213 and 215 (Partition Wall 2030).
Room 209 of Building 200 was somewhat narrower than the case-
mate rooms, being in the range of 1.50 m wide. Room 209 and Case-
mate Room 213 were both 3.75 m long, although the full length of
Room 213 remains uncertain. The same uncertainty exists for Room
212, where no east wall was located within the excavated area.
Doorways
Two doorways with dressed stone jambs cut the inner casemate walls
on the west (B) and on the south (A). Doorway M, in the northeast
corner of Room 209 was more typical in that it was framed by the end
of one wall (W2022) and the perpendicular face of another (W2031).
65
The solid stone ll between Outer Wall 2009 and Inner Wall 2006/2007 formed
the east end of R210.
rirrns \n :8:
Table 6BB. Location and Width of Doorways in Field B (west)
Doorway Room Width (m)
A 210, Channel 218 1.00
B 212, 213 0.75
C 213, 215 0.90
K 210, Channel 218 (early phase) 1.90
M 207, 209 0.70
Average width1.05 m (all Doorways)
Average width0.84 m (without Doorway K)
Doorways A and K both served as entrances into Casemate Room
210. The true size (1.90 m) of Doorway K during Stratum VIIIB
remains tentative, because of the rebuilding activities evident along
Drain Channel 218. Blocking Wall 2000 appears to reduce the width of
Doorway K in half with Doorway A in use during the nal occupation
phase (VIIIA).
Walls
Wall sizes for domestic and industrial rooms are anomalous because the
Inner Casemate wall served as house walls, which are compared with
other interior walls in the house.
Table 6CC. Wall Thickness in centimetres (Building 200)
Wall 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100
2000 130
2001 120
2003 125
2004 110
2005

2006=2007 125
2022

+
2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

The walls associated with the casemate system are all in the range
of 1.00 m or more thick. The narrowest wall (W2030, 0.50 m) is a
cross wall between Casemate Room 213 and 215. The least sturdy wall
dividing two rooms along its entire length appears to be Wall 2031,
:8. cn\r+rn six
which was built of stacked-boulder pillars and cobblestone connecting
units standing full height. Wall 2031 was also damaged; it appears
to buckle midway along its length so that the central pillar juts out,
leaning to the north.
Stratigraphy
The only excavated feature in Field B that is assigned to Stratum IX is
the solid wall with Passageway 219, which cut through the wall, just
north of the southwest corner. No oor levels of buildings contem-
porary with Passageway 219 were exposed. The principal occupation
phase for Building 200 is Stratum VIII, with fragmentary evidence for
rebuilding evident in Drain Channel 218.
Table 6DD. Strata for Field B-Building 200
STRATUM FIELD PHASE(S) PERIOD
I 1 modern
II no remains post-Umayyad
III pottery, artefacts Umayyad
IV pottery (?) Byzantine
V no remains Roman
VI no remains Persian
VII no remains Late Iron II
VIIIA 2/repairs Middle Iron II
VIIIB 3/casemate wall Middle Iron II
IX 4/solid wall Middle Iron II
X pottery only Iron I
STRATUM VIII
Construction and Use of Building 200
North and east of Drain Channel 218 are the remains of a single
house (B200) and an industrial work area (211). House 200 lls the
space between the channel and the inner casemate wall on the west,
incorporating its rooms into the house. During the nal season of
excavation in 1995, the Stratum-VIII oors were reached in Rooms
209 and R212. Since these rooms were built in association with the
Stratum-VIII casemate walls and drain, a single occupation phase will
be described.
rirrns \n :8
Figure 6.22. Building 200, with relevant locus numbers.
Room 212 (Figs. 6.22, 23)
The principal room appears to be Room 212, a rectangular space that
extends east-west and leads into the casemate rooms (R213, 215) at
the back of the house. Among the rooms in Building 200, Room 212
is the largest (2.702.75

4.50+m), due in part to the fact that the


eastern wall was not exposed during excavation. Along the north side
is a major east-west wall (W2028), which extends 12.50 m east from
Inner Casemate Wall 2029 until it forms a corner with Wall 2027. At
:8 cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.23. Looking south into Room 212 in Building 200.
a distance of 3.00 m west of this corner is a single monolithic pillar
(B45:2), which measures 0.45

0.56

1.50 m in height, comparable to


Pillar C17:13 (Chapter 8). This pillar may have served as a ceiling sup-
port for an upper storey room. Unfortunately, no additional informa-
tion is available, due to the limited exposure of the north face of Wall
2028. This extra-long boulder-and-chink wall (W2028), built of small
and medium boulders, may have been the support for the ceilings of
more than one room, leaving the question of the length of Room 212
still unanswered.
The south wall (W2031), between Room 212 and 209, is formed
of stacked-boulder pillars, positioned 0.70 m apart, and consisting of
small and medium boulders. The spaces between the pillars are lled
with cobblestone connecting units standing full height. Both the pillars
and the cobblestone wall units are capped by large and very large
limestone slabs. Built up against its north face and lling the southwest
corner formed by Wall 2031 and Inner Casemate Wall 2004 is a
group of installations including two ovens and an L-shaped partition
wall (W2039). All of these installations are embedded in a hard-packed
rirrns \n :8
Figure 6.24. Oven B34:54 at left and Pithos Oven B34:50 at right.
beaten earth surface (B35:29) which is heavily stained with ash in an
area measuring 1.05

2.00 m in front of the ovens.


The Ovens (Fig. 6.24): Two ovens (B34:50 and B34:54), each with its
own construction style, were set side by side against the north face of
the south wall (W2031). The larger (B34:50) of the two ovens is located
in the southwest corner (Fig. 6.25). Its footing consists of a group of
stones embedded to a depth of 0.100.15 m into beaten earth Surface
B35:29. Positioned above these stones was an inverted pithos body, 0.50
m in diameter and preserved 0.60 m in height. Although the rim
66
and
base of the pithos had been removed, the diameter and the presence of
the handles reveal that the entire shoulder and upper body were used to
66
Among the six ovens formed from pithoi, Oven B34:50 is the only one without its
rim.
:86 cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.25. Pithos Oven B34:50, in situ.
form the oven.
67
Evidence that the pithos had been cut to these precise
measurements is apparent on examination of the oven wall and of the
broken sherds recovered from inside. When in use, the oven was round
and had an opening only at the top. Packed between the outer wall of
the oven and the surrounding house walls were a basalt saddle quern,
ceramic sherds, cobblestones and mud plaster (B34:58). Such packing
was common for ovens formed of inverted vessels (B63:30, E63:10).
Inside Oven B34:50 there was a number of pithos sherds forming
the oor above the foundation stones. These sherds were covered by
a 0.10 m deep accumulation of ash (B34:51), which lled the bottom
of the oven. Botanical remains within the ne fraction of this ash
sample include malva, grape, legumes (peas and beans), and barley.
68
This ash was covered in turn by soil and stones (B34:49) that appear to
67
This same treatment of a pithos for use as an oven is seen at Tall al-#Umayri
in Phase 9 (late Iron I; Lawlor 2000: g. 3.20). Although Lawlor (2000:3839) thinks
that this oven fell from an upper storey, the oven itself shows the fracture pattern that
is typical of a ceramic vessel used as an oven; its fragility would have resulted in its
complete breakage if it had fallen from above.
68
My sincere thanks S. Ellis-Lopez for oating our samples and to D. McCreery for
his identication of the botanical material from the 1995 season.
rirrns \n :8
Figure 6.26. Clay Oven B34:54, in situ.
have fallen into the oven when the surrounding walls (W2004, W2031)
collapsed, breaking the upper edge and wall of Oven B34:50 on its
north side.
East of Oven B34:50 is a second oven (B34:54), also in place against
Wall 2031 (Fig. 6.26). Oven B34:54 is set in position on a chert slab
(0.30

0.40

0.110.15 m thick), which serves as a support stone


(B34:56). This stone is itself surrounded by cobblestones, which hold
it in place; in addition, the stones probably provided insulation for the
oven. Support Stone B34:56 was severely burnt indicating high heat
levels in Oven B34:54.
69
The oven itself is horseshoe-shaped, and was
hand built of clay; it measures 0.300.36 m wide, 0.36 m long and was
preserved 0.150.31 m in height. Shortest on its northern side where
it was broken by rockfall (B34:48), Oven B34:54 was probably cylindri-
cal when is use, with a single opening at the top. Where it was com-
plete, the clay oven was 1.401.60 cm thick and had a nished rim at
the top. On the outside, the oven was surrounded by stones, including
69
Support stones under Ovens C27:63 and C27:68 were stained with ash and also
showed signs of burning. However, the damage to Support Stone B34:56 was much
more serious and suggests higher heat levels. The recovery of slag from soil sent to
the sifter points to craft activity that may have required increased temperatures.
:88 cn\r+rn six
one agstone (0.28

0.40

0.05 thick), potsherds and an upper loaf-


shaped millstone standing vertically; this support is packed in mud plas-
ter (B34:59). Adhering to the north side of Oven B34:54 is an accumu-
lation of clay-like material that appears to seal a 10.00 cm ue hole
located immediately above Support Stone B34:56. On the outside, the
hole is plugged with pebbles and soil. Whether the sealing of the ue
represents a change in function for this oven at some time during its use
could not be correlated with the material preserved in the surrounding
ash accumulation, although the pieces of slag-like material recovered
from the ash and from otation of soil samples suggests some kind of
industrial activity.
Inside the oven was a 0.32 m deep accumulation of ash (B34:55) and
the oven wall itself was crumbly, badly damaged by the heat. On the
east side, a 0.60 m deep accumulation of ash (B35:24+26) lled the
space between Oven B34:54 and Partition Wall 2039. This L-shaped
Partition Wall was formed of 12 rows of large cobbles and small
boulders set into Surface B35:29. When found, this feature stood 2
3 courses high and its lowest course extended west toward the oven.
Both this stone course and Partition Wall 2039 itself were covered with
ash. It appears to have served both as a windbreak and as a retaining
wall for ash from Oven B34:54.
Oven B34:54 was the only one of its type among the 14 ovens
exposed in Fields A, B, and E that date to Stratum VIII. The closest
parallels are twin ovens C27:63 and C27:68 in Stratum-VII Building
800 in Field C.
70
This fact, and the style of Oven B34:50, which did
not have its rim and neck attached, suggests that these ovens were
some of the latest Stratum VIII features built at Tall Jawa. At the same
time, their construction techniques indicate the short transition period
to Stratum VII.
Additional features which suggest domestic activities, especially food
preparation, include a limestone mortar located north of Oven B34:50,
a second mortar on the surface (B35:21) in Doorway B, and cooking
pot sherds in position on surface B35:29. A second installation (B35:28)
is located in the northwest corner adjacent to Doorway B and opposite
Oven B34:50. This feature includes a narrow, L-shaped Partition Wall
(W2038), built of one row of cobblestones forming the eastern and
southern limits of a packed earth shelf. Unfortunately, only a handful
70
Rim fragments (D12.45.4) of a comparable oven were recovered from Building
700 in Field D. These sherds were 3.40 cm thick and had a nished rim.
rirrns \n :8q
of sherds were found here, not enough evidence to determine with
certainty the function of this feature.
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey
Soil Layer B35:23=27, containing pebbles, ceramic sherds, a basalt
pestle (TJ 2089), fragments of a basalt quern, and a spindle whorl (TJ
2053), seals Surface B35:29. Packed hard by rockfall, Locus B35:23=
27 is covered by additional soil (B35:20) that may represent the col-
lapsed ceiling in Room 212. Although destroyed in antiquity, Building
200 was not burnt, with the result that ceilings are only evident when
marked by the presence of plaster or scattered artefacts as on a surface.
All organic remains within the ceiling makeup, such as wooden beams
and reeds, decomposed with time. By contrast with Room 209 on the
south, the collapsed ceiling in Room 212 was more difcult to distin-
guish. The presence of numerous artefacts and a high sherd count (835)
in this overlying rockfall and soil layer (B35:20) do suggest an upper
storey room, as in Room 209. Certain nds, such as a small limestone
trough (TJ 1606) and a chert pounder had fallen with ceiling material
into Doorway B.
Table 6EE. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 212, upper storey
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B35:20+ 835 ceramic sherds
35:14 trough TJ 1606 limestone
mortar basalt
2 pestles TJ 1387, 1388 basalt
grinder TJ 1386 basalt
millstone TJ 1343 loaf-shaped, sandstone
pounder TJ 1523 chert
point TJ 1371 iron
Additional rockfall (B35:7, 15) yielded similar nds, 729 sherds, 1 basalt
pestle (TJ 1283), 1 grinder (TJ 1256), and 1 upper loaf-shaped mill-
stone.
Casemate Room 213 (Fig. 6.22)
Doorway B leads directly from Room 212 into a pair of casemate
Rooms (R213+R215). This doorway is framed by two sections of the
inner casemate wall, Wall 2004 on the south and Wall 2029 on the
north. Each wall end is reinforced with dressed limestone boulders,
somewhat larger than the undressed stones that comprise the remain-
:qo cn\r+rn six
der of these walls;
71
on either side of the doorway, these walls remain
standing 1.501.66 m above Surface B35:21=29. The position of a
doorway in the middle of a wall line is rare at Tall Jawa; the more typ-
ical position is in a corner, where the entrance is formed by the end of
one wall and the face of a perpendicular wall, for example Doorways C
and M.
72
The anomaly of Doorway B may be explained by the fact that
Casemate Rooms 213 and R215 were an integral part of Building 200,
itself a rarity at Tall Jawa.
Room 213 is framed on the west by Outer Casemate Wall 2023 and
on the east by Inner Wall 2029. On the south, Partition Wall 2030 and
Doorway C separate Room 213 from Room 215. Partition Wall 2030
abuts Outer Wall 2023 and extends east 1.00 m, leaving a space of
0.90 m for Doorway C.
73
A few missing wall stones suggest that this
wall stub (W2030) was probably incomplete at a height of only 0.75 m
above oor level; it may have had additional stone courses or a mud
brick superstructure, since large amounts of brick material were present
in the collapse.
The debris immediately above oor level was reached in Doorway C
(B25:28) and north of Wall 2030 (B25:24). Only the uppermost layers
of collapsed wall stones (B25:9, 10) were removed in the remainder of
Room 213 while additional layers of rockfall (B25:19) were left in situ.
Casemate Room 215 (Figs. 6.22, 27)
South of Doorway C is the southernmost room of the western case-
mates (R215). At this point, Outer Wall 2023 again serves as the west
wall of the room, while the east wall (W2004) runs south from Doorway
B and bonds with east-west Wall 2003 to form the south wall of Room
215. Both of these walls are more than 1.00 m thick, which indicates
their importance in the defensive system and makes it likely that they
supported a superstructure of one or two additional oors.
Floor level was reached in Room 215, revealing a beaten earth
surface (B24:37). Although Room 215 provides no evidence of an oven,
its proximity to Room 212 with its two ovens made the casemate room
71
This same construction was used at numerous sites including Tell el-Far#ah (N)
(Chambon 1984: g. 6c).
72
A good example of this same style of doorway in the corner of a room formed by
perpendicular walls is seen at Hazor, between Room 44a and 14a (Yadin et al. 1960: pl.
VII.1).
73
In Field B, Square 63, Doorway G was formed by a comparable partition wall
(W2017), which separated Casemate Room 200 from Room 201.
rirrns \n :q:
Figure 6.27. Casemate Room 215 with
Doorway C on left and Doorway B in upper left.
an ideal place to store ceramic vessels in use with these ovens. Indeed,
the sherds on the oor and in the overlying soil layer (B24:36+B25:28)
include a heavy concentration of cooking pot ware.
Table 6FF. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 215
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B25:26+ 843 ceramic sherds
B24:36 cooking pot sherds
bula TJ 2217 copper/bronze
tray TJ 2214 basalt
rubbing stone TJ 2210
point TJ 2216 iron
chert nodule TJ 1678
loom weight TJ 1680 unred clay, burnt
2 weights TJ 2218, 2219 unred clay loom weights
Clear evidence of collapse was visible in the section through the debris
that accumulated in Room 215. Rockfall smashed down on ceramic
vessels resulting in tip lines that slope sharply from west to east. Be-
tween each layer (B24:15, 16) were lenses of plaster (B25:25) and pieces
of mud brick, probably originating from the superstructure of the forti-
cation system. Plaster layer B25:25 appears to represent a ceiling that
:q. cn\r+rn six
served as the oor of an upper storey room. Preserved on this surface
were ceramic sherds, a basalt pestle and 2 upper loaf-shaped millstones
(TJ 1628) and a faience bead (TJ 1628). This in turn was covered by
another layer of rockfall and mud brick material which is sealed by an
upper layer of plaster (B24:15=B25:22). This surface appears to repre-
sent the roof of Casemate Room 215 that was itself used for domestic
activities. Above Surface B24: 15+16 were a small group of domestic
tools including a basalt millstone (TJ 980), a saddle quern (TJ 1000)
and a polishing stone. These tools were surrounded by burnt ceramic
sherds, consisting primarily of cooking pot sherds.
The function of the casemate rooms in Building 200 was certainly
related to the activities carried out in the rest of the house, especially to
the use of the ovens in Room 212. Although there is no direct access
between R215 and R209, there is evidence for the same kind of textile
manufacturing equipment in both rooms, although the smaller number
of loom weights in Room 215 suggests that here they were in storage.
Room 209 (Fig. 6.22)
The north and south walls of Room 209 were constructed after the
inner casemate walls were in place. The south wall (W2005) of this
room abuts the southeast outside corner of Room 215, formed by Inner
Casemate Wall 2004 and Crosswall 2003. The result is a continuous
wall line (W2005+W2003) that serves simultaneously as the south wall
of Building 200 and the north wall of Drain Channel 218. On the west,
Inner Casemate Wall 2004 serves as the back wall of the room. On
the east, a single doorway (M) ran through short Wall 2022 into R207.
From within Room 209, there is no direct access to Room 212 on the
north.
A surface of hard-packed earth (B34:31) forms the oor, which seals
up against the surrounding walls to a height of 0.100.20 m and is
packed into the corners. Patches of this mud plaster were present on
the north face of Wall 2005 to a height of 0.75 m above the oor. We
do not know whether this wall face was completely covered, although
this is likely in view of the presence of Drain Channel 218 along its
south face. Stains and ash on the oor surface suggest a variety of
activities including food preparation. Botanical remains recovered from
the surface consist of 10 grape seeds, 1 chenopod, wheat, and Pistachia
atlanticus (McCreery). Although no actual oven was found in Room 209,
the presence of two ovens in Room 212 to the north indicates the
proximity of a cooking area. This is consonant with the presence of
rirrns \n :q
cooking pot sherds and ash in Room 209 itself. Also on the oor was a
lamp, providing evidence that this was a roofed room. Beside the lamp
was a group of unred clay loom weights, a smashed pithos and other
ceramic vessels.
Table 6GG. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 209
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B34:3031 juglet V203=TJ 1879 intact
lamp
cooking pot sherds
pithos sherds
480 ceramic sherds
7 weights TJ 18411846 unred clay loomweights
1881
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey
Within Room 209 were two superimposed layers of brick material, soil
and wall stones, indicating an upper storey room (B34:28+29) and a
roof (B34:15). The presence of a considerable amount of mud brick,
unusual in the houses of Tall Jawa, points to a single, massive collapse
of the superstructure of the house. In Room 209, it is not possible to
identify a second period of use with a clear oor level. Instead, the mud
brick material was scattered across the room, broken into clumps and
embedded in the ceiling that was immediately above the ground oor
artefacts. Included in this collapse were numerous artefacts, especially
tools used in processing and preparing food.
Table 6HH. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 209, upper storey
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B34:2829 455 ceramic sherds
pendant TJ 1813 pumice
mortar TJ 1786 limestone
mortar TJ 1749 basalt, reused millstone
grinder TJ 1796 basalt
millstone TJ 1801 upper, loaf-shaped
2 querns TJ 1752, 1753 basalt, saddle querns
2 pounders TJ 1750, 1793 chert
jar stopper TJ 1745 ceramic
murex shell TJ 1812
spindle whorl TJ 1818 limestone
:q cn\r+rn six
The second superimposed soil layer (B34:15), which was identied
as the roof, was extremely hard-packed along the west wall (W2004),
and included brick material in which mortar lines were visible.
74
In
this uppermost locus there was a basalt pestle (TJ 1730), a grinder (TJ
1734) and a small square mortar (TJ 1737). The presence of a single
murex shell in the second storey assemblage and the purple-stains on
the basalt grinder (TJ 1734) from the roof suggests additional craft
activity, possibly related to the textile tools uncovered on the lower oor
of Room 209.
Room 220 (Fig. 6.22)
Located parallel to Rooms 209 and R212 and North of Wall 2028,
Room R220 was not excavated below the level of its collapsed ceiling
(B35:9). This ceiling was marked by the presence of hard-packed soil
with pieces of chert and worked bone inlay (TJ 1218). On the basis of
the pattern seen in Rooms 209 and R212, we would expect a series
of rooms to be built up against Inner Casemate Wall W2029, with
access into additional casemate rooms. Although this may in fact have
been the case, the northern and eastern limits of Room 220 were not
exposed during excavation. Room 220 may have been connected with
a second room that extended east along Wall 2028, as far as the corner
with Wall 2027.
Room 208 (Fig. 6.28)
Along the south side of Wall 2028 is Room 208, only partially exposed
during the 1994 season. This room appears to form the eastern extrem-
ity of Building 200. Wall 2028, which serves as the north Wall of Room
212, is also the north Wall of Room 208. Due to the limited excavation
in this area and the presence of balks which remain unexcavated, the
evidence for the use of the upper storey room was limited to an accu-
mulation (B55:1) of pithos and krater sherds smashed in place at the
south of Wall 2028
75
along with several ground stone tools.
74
This hard-packed material (B34:15) and the underlying locus (B34:27) were locat-
ed in a restricted area along the west side of Room 209. These loci may represent
the eastern extent of collapse from inner Casemate Room 215 that had a different
composition than the roof over Room 209.
75
The absolute level of these sherds (923.85) was 2.00+m above the oors in Rooms
209 (921.65) and R212 (921.78) and 0.80 m above the nal level (923.05) of Work Area
211 to the east.
rirrns \n :q
Figure 6.28. Building 204, Work Area 211, Room 207 and R208.
Table 6JJ. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 208, upper storey
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B55:4, 7 worked stone TJ 1304 limestone
tray TJ 1308 basalt
mortar TJ 1307 basalt
grinder TJ 1305 reused as a mortar, basalt
spindle whorl TJ 1306 ceramic
Room 207 (Figs. 6.22, 2829)
Excavation in Square B44 revealed a single room (R207) built up
against the Inner Casemate Wall (W2006). Located between Room 206
on the east and the head of Drain Channel 218 on the west, Room 207
:q6 cn\r+rn six
opens into Room 209 through Doorway M. Only the southeast corner
of Room 209, formed by Walls 2005 and W2022, marks the western
extent of Room 207. Due to the limits of excavation, the north wall of
Room 207 was not exposed, although there is clear evidence that this
had been a roofed room adjacent to or part of Room 208 on the north.
Wall 2011 of Room 206 constitutes its eastern limit.
On the south, the Stratum-VIIIB phase of Inner Casemate Wall
2006 extends below the earliest exposed oor (B44:18) in Room 207.
This hard-packed, beaten earth surface was only uncovered in a 1.50
m probe that produced Iron Age II painted pottery, a basalt grinder
(TJ 987) and animal bones. While these nds suggest typical domestic
activities, the limited exposure is insufcient for determining the func-
tion of the entire ground oor room. Also on this surface, and sur-
rounded by collapsed ceiling material, was an ash deposit (0.85

1.38
m, and ca. 0.52 deep) that contained pieces of charcoal, mud bricks and
burnt pottery. Although other suggestions are lacking, this may have
been a cooking area. However, no univocal evidence was preserved to
suggest that this accumulation marked the position of an oven, hearth,
or pit. The ash was located against the north face of Inner Wall 2006
and east of the stone spillway (B44:22) at the head of Drain Channel
218. Unfortunately, this location does not do anything to clarify the
deposition history or function of the ash.
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey
Fallen on Surface B44:18 were two superimposed ceilings (B44:14+15
and B44:11). The oor of the second storey room (B44:14+15) was
marked by extensive rockfall, rm soil and a lens of rm plaster against
the west face of Wall 2011. The use of this surface in an upper storey
room is suggested by the presence of several artefacts and a signicant
amount of broken pottery.
Table 6KK. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 207, upper storey
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B44:14+ 871 ceramic sherds
B44:15 scraper bone
stone TJ 840 limestone, polishing
raw material TJ 838, 839 green stone
pounder chert
2 points TJ 869, 931 iron
hook TJ 837 metal
rirrns \n :q
Figure 6.29. Building 204 and Work Area 211 with relevant locus numbers.
Additional rockfall was sealed beneath the collapse of the uppermost
ceiling, or roof (B44:11). That this was in fact the roof is supported
by the discovery of a roof roller (TJ 814) among the artefacts and
mendable pottery (1258 sherds) scattered throughout the overlying soil
layers (B44:910). Whether all of the nds from these loci can be
assigned to activities carried out on the roof is difcult to determine
due to the subsequent collapse (B44:87) of the fortication system and
modern agricultural activity that disturbed the uppermost soil layers
(B44:2, 1).
:q8 cn\r+rn six
Table 6LL. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 207, roof level
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B44:9+10 1258 ceramic sherds
B44:11 roof roller TJ 814 limestone
small trough limestone
mortar TJ 782 miniature
mortar TJ 750 limestone
gurine TJ 826 zoomorphic, fragment
2 whorls TJ 793, 794 ceramic, spindle whorls
2 points TJ 787, 788 iron
Work Area 211 (Figs. 6.29, 30)
An area (R211) immediately west of Building 102 was exposed only
in the southern 3.00 m of Square B55. Its eastern limit is Wall 2032,
the exterior west wall of Building 102, while the southern limit is the
north wall (W2015) of Rooms 203 and 206, although a balk was left
in place between these units. On the west are north-south Wall 2027,
and Rooms 207 and R208. A beaten earth Surface (B45:8) that runs
along the south side of Wall 2028 is assumed to be part of Room 208,
because it did not yield the same kind of artefacts as the surface in Work
Area 211. This distinction suggests that Surface B45:8 was adjacent
to or within Building 200, whereas Work Area 211 was outside the
house.
Work Area 211 may very well have been unroofed, given its location
between the two principal buildings (B102 and B200) in the southwest
sector of the tell. Its nds distinguish it from enclosed rooms, which are
characterized by a heavy concentration of food processing and prepa-
ration tools. Here in the work area, there was a series of superimposed
soil layers (B55:19, 20, 21), above a hard-packed surface (B55:22), all of
which were stained gray (10YR 5/2) due to a heavy accumulation of
ground basalt. These layers contained a minimum of 93 broken basalt
artefacts, along with 8 chert pecking stones. Sixteen complete artefacts,
possibly manufactured from the broken millstones, were also recovered
from this area (Fig. 6.31).
Table 6MM. Pottery and Artefacts in Work Area 211
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B55:19, 561 ceramic sherds
20+21 mortar TJ 1287 basalt
2 pestles TJ 1289, 1290 basalt
2 grinders TJ 1291, 1292 basalt
rirrns \n :qq
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
6 millstones TJ 12941299 upper, loaf-shaped, basalt
millstone TJ 1293 lower, basalt
saddle quern TJ 1300 basalt
3 anvils TJ 13011303 stone working surfaces
pounder TJ 1288 chert
pecking stones TJ 632=L-524, TJ 873, chert
TJ 1521, L 429, L 510,
L 598, L 658, L 690
2 metal points TJ 1309, 1310 iron
Along with the registered artefacts, there were 14 additional pieces of
upper loaf-shaped millstones and 10 saddle quern fragments. These
nds in Area 211 indicate extensive refashioning of broken millstones
and querns into hand grinders, pestles, and small mortars. Tools for
this work consisted of chert pounders and pecking stones along with
stone working surfaces (anvils). The layering evident during excavation
suggests an area used over a considerable period, allowing for the build
up of wind blown soil and debris from the grinding process. Such a
suggestion implies that Work Area 211 was an open court, although it
was certainly surrounded on the east, south and west by roofed rooms
and was within the size range for a roofed space (4.50

5.00 m between
anking walls).
Work Area 211 went out of use and was sealed by a series of hard-
packed surfaces (B55:10, 12+16) that included a limestone mortar
(TJ 1235), a basalt pestle (TJ 1192), a limestone millstone (TJ 1195)
and broken pottery. These soil layers along with Rockfall B55:18 may
represent the collapsed ceilings from the upper storey rooms of Building
200 on the west and the Stratum VIIIA collapse of Building 102 on the
east. Uppermost (B55:4+6, 7) was the continuation of the smashed
pithoi located at the southeast corner of Wall 2028 (R208 above).
BUILDING 204
Excavation History (Fig. 6.1)
Excavation along the north face of the inner casemate wall (Square
B53) in 1992 exposed this wall at a point where it forms a solid
foundation for Tower 2013 (Chapter 5). Excavating further north in
1993 (Square B54), two small rooms (R203, R206) built up against the
wall and against the southwest corner of Building 102 were cleared.
.oo cn\r+rn six
These rooms shared a party wall with Room 205, to the east. These
two rooms were without doorways, suggesting that they were entered
from above.
Building Plan (Fig. 6.28)
Rooms 203 and R206 are located south of Work Area 211 and east of
Room 207; they seal up against the north face of Wall 2007=Tower
2013 (Chapter 5). At this particular point along the inner casemate
wall, there are no rooms in the casemate, only a solid stone foundation
that is a component of the second construction phase (VIIIA) of the
wall system. The complex sequence of construction techniques is dif-
cult to unravel; only the presence of a sharp break in the continuous
wall face of the inner casemate wall, clearly seen at the point where the
eastern wall (W2014) of Room 203 runs south through the inner wall
(W2007), suggests that Wall 2014 preceded the other walls of Room
203. At the same time, Wall 2014 abuts the south face of Wall 2020 at
the southwest corner of Building 102.
Table 6NN. Room Size and Proportion in Building 204
Room Width(m) Length(m) Ratio W/L Bounded by Walls
203 2.00 3.75 .57 2014, 2015, 2016
206 2.60 2.75 .94 2015, 2016, 2011
Range of sizes
Width 2.00 2.60 average 2.30 m
Length 2.60 2.75 average 2.68 m
The ratio of width to length clearly shows that Room 206 was practi-
cally square, rare among the rooms in Fields AB, where long narrow
rooms are the dominant shape.
Surprising is the fact that no doorways are present, either between
these rooms or with adjoining Room 207 and Work Area 211. The
question that this evidence poses is the manner of access. Assuming
that these rooms were entered from above, how were the upper storey
rooms connected to Room 225 or 207 to make this access possible? It is
possible that access could be had from a room in Tower 2013, however
there is no evidence for stairs from the tower or from any adjoining
room.
rirrns \n .o:
Figure 6.30. Broken artefacts on surface in Work Area 211.
Table 6PP. Wall Thickness in centimetres (Building 204)
Wall 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100
2011

2014

+
2015

+
2016

Wall 2015 serves as the north wall of both rooms. This wall also abuts
Building 102, sealing up against the west, plastered (B54:12) face of
Wall 2032. At its west end, Wall 2015 bonds with north-south Wall
2011, the west Wall of Room 206, and forms a corner marked by a
very large limestone boulder. Dividing the two rooms is Wall 2016,
which abuts both Wall 2015 on the north and the inner casemate wall
face (W2007) on the south. The rooms within these walls measure only
2.00

3.75 m (R203) and 2.60

2.75 m (R206), slightly larger than the


average width (1.96 m), but smaller that the average length (3.65 m) of
rooms in Building 200.
Stratigraphy
Only one phase of occupation is represented by the oor surfaces in
Building 204, Stratum VIIIB (Fig. 6.29, 31, 32). This judgment is based
.o. cn\r+rn six
Figure 6.31. Work Area 211 in relation to Building 204.
on the position of Wall 2016, which extends under the later phase
of Inner Casemate Wall 2007. At the same time, there is nothing to
suggest that these rooms did not continue in use during Stratum VIIIA,
except for the lack of clearly dened superimposed surfaces.
The sequence of deposition was similar in both rooms. Underlying
the hard-packed beaten earth surface in Room 203 was a make-up
layer of plaster and ash (B54:17). Although not as elaborate, a make-
up layer of pebbles and small cobbles (B54:16) was exposed in part
in Room 206. Each room was paved with a beaten earth surface
(B54:13=R203 and B54:14=R206) that seals against the surrounding
walls. Smashed on these surfaces by fallen wall stones were several
rirrns \n .o
Figure 6.32. Building 204 looking East.
mendable vessels along with a modest number of food preparation
tools.
Table 6QQ. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 203
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B54:9, 13 bowl V228 red slip
587 ceramic sherds
2 grinders TJ 803, 810 basalt
spindle whorl TJ 792 ceramic
Table 6RR. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 206
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
B54:11, 14 cooking pot sherds
juglet V227 red slip
decanter V201 painted
277 ceramic sherds
whetstone TJ 885 sandstone
2 mortars TJ 880, 916 basalt
.o cn\r+rn six
Pottery and Chronology
The sherd material in Room 203 is quite different from the pottery in
Room 222/202 to the east, where cooking pots and food preparation
utensils and tools were in clear evidence. Instead, Room 203 contained
a corpus primarily of bowls (51%), kraters (12%), and jugs (11%), with
61% of the entire corpus having some type of surface decoration. In
addition, 5% of the pottery was black burnished ware, more typical of
Stratum VII, but representative of high status vessels. Apparently, this
room was used for the storage of ceramic vessels, since so little in the
way of artefacts and ecofacts were recovered.
76
For the most part, the ware form types from Rooms 203 and R206
were comparable to those in Buildings 102 and B200, although few
fully mendable vessels were recovered. Several pithos rims retained col-
lars (B54:26.7, B54:26.8), indicative of early Iron Age II, while sherds of
a ask (B54.49.15+B54:53:10) and of a tripod, perforated cup
(B54.41.6+ B54.41.12) are similar to those from Building 300 (Stra-
tum VIII). Bowls with thickened rim and ridge/bar (V228) found be-
tween the stones of Wall 2015 are typical of forms that span Stra-
tum VIIIVII. The red slip and burnishing on these bowls points to
Stratum VIII rather than VII, where this form appears in black bur-
nished ware.
Summary
The construction history in Field B reveals a sequence that gives prior-
ity to the construction of the casemate wall system. Building 200 was
constructed when the inner wall and Drain Channel 218 were already
essential features of the town plan. The relationship of Work Area 211
to the drain is less clear, although water may have been a necessary
element for the refashioning of broken basalt artefacts into new ground
stone tools. In the case of Building 204, the north face of Tower 2013
forms the back wall of both Rooms 203 and 206, and east Wall 2014
cuts through the inner casemate to form the eastern perimeter of the
tower. This integration of rooms and features of the casemate system
with the adjoining buildings is not represented in the Stratum-VIII
building complex (B300) in Field E to the north.
76
Brenda Silver undertook the research on ceramic distribution.
cn\r+rn sr\rx
FIELD E: THE DOMESTIC COMPLEX (19921995)
BUILDING 300
Introduction
The largest Stratum-VIII domestic complex is located in Field E. This
is the designation for the northwest sector of the grid, where Squares
E1E61 are adjacent to Field B (Squares B10B70), while Squares
E7191 are north of Field A (Squares A10A30; Fig. 7.1). Along the
west side (B23E24), the tell is only ca. 66.0070.00 m wide and the line
of the fortication system is clearly visible above the present surface.
Also visible in Field E are several modern property walls, some consist
of stones piled up above the casemate system (W3051), and other walls
run east-west across the tell. A very large (ca. 0.90

1.40 m) limestone
boulder (E23:2), with two circular depressions on its upper surface, was
found leaning against fortication West Wall 3050; it was probably an
industrial installation. Although found in association with a tether stone
and the Iron Age II walls, the date of these installations could not be
determined.
1
They remain, like the press in Field L, some of Tall Jawas
mysteries.
Beyond the Outer North Wall (W3006), the tell slopes steeply toward
the north where it is cut by a modern road. Along this scarp (E58
78), the bedrock and overlying soil layers are visible as are sections of
a retaining wall (W3023). Depressions in these soil layers and natural
caves in the bedrock itself hint at the presence of Iron Age tombs
or installations. Exploration of this slope in a trench which ran north
18.00 m (E55E57) from the south edge of Inner Casemate Wall 3000
revealed instead the construction techniques of the fortication system
1
E. Meyers examined installation E23:2 during an ASOR-CAP inspection tour in
1994 and noticed a semi-circular relief on one of its long faces. This suggested to him
the garland decoration on stone-carved sarcophagi. If this function was the original
intended use, this stone certainly ended up fullling a very different purpose. However,
the observation by Meyers puts the date of this feature in even greater doubt.
.o6 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.1. Excavation Grid in Field E.
and its glacis, without answering any of our other questions concerning
the original surface outside the wall and its appearance in antiquity.
However, this investigation did coincide with the primary research
strategy designed to dene the characteristics of a walled town in
Iron Age II, and to test the hypothesis that the wall system was a
royal project, built to protect a strategically located settlement on the
southern ank of the Ammonite kingdom.
2
2
Subsequent excavations at Jalul (Younker et al. 1996:73) and preliminary results
of the Wadi ath-Thamad survey demonstrate that the southernmost border of the
Ammonite potting tradition with its characteristic double disc bases on bowls and
juglets appears to run between sites on either side of the Wadi ath-Thamad, 30 k
south of Tall Jawa. While this evidence may extend the border of ancient Ammon, the
strategic location of Tall Jawa and its proximity to #Amman indicate its usefulness as a
defence of the Ammonite core or heartland.
rirrn r notsr .o
History of Excavation
Excavation began in 1992 with three squares (E55, 56, 57) as part
of a sampling strategy designed to investigate the extent and style of
the casemate wall along the north side of the tell (Chapter 5). Prior
to excavation, such sampling was deemed necessary because the West
Wall (W2023=3050) appeared to be a single wall rather than the outer
wall of a casemate system, even though two parallel walls could be
identied at other points around the tell. Secondly, the presence of Iron
Age structures adjacent to the inner casemate wall face in Fields A
B on the south side of the tell (Chapter 6) suggested that this pattern
was characteristic of Iron Age town planning at Tall Jawa. To test this
hypothesis in Field E, Square E55 was positioned across the inner wall
face (W3000) of the casemate system to expose a small area adjacent
to it on the south. The goal was to investigate the relationship of the
defensive wall system to structures located in the northwest quadrant of
the site.
The results of the 1992 season showed that the inner casemate wall
face (W3000) served as the back wall of an adjacent work area that
contained a shelf/bench and an assemblage of domestic artefacts and
pottery (Room 302A; see details below). Following analysis of these
nds, Field E was expanded in subsequent seasons along the south face
of Wall 3000 in ve squares (E44, 54, 65, 75, 76)
3
and in a second
row of squares further south (E53, E6364, E74). With the discovery
in 1993 of a narrow passage (R309) that ran perpendicular through
the casemate wall in Square E76 (Chapter 5), it was apparent that the
domestic complex (Building 300) extended east only as far as the west
wall (W3016) of Passageway 309.
For the 1994 and 1995 seasons, the excavation strategy was to expose
the western and southern outer walls of Building 300 in order to clar-
ify its plan and establish the type, style and function of the building
and of its individual rooms. Functional analysis of all artefacts and
their distribution within the architectural space was planned to fur-
ther dene activity areas, and correlate those areas with the room
arrangement within the building. In 1994, it became evident that cer-
tain rooms within Building 300 had successive oor surfaces preserved
3
Due to the topography of Field E and the position of the wall system in relation
to the location of the squares, balks were established on the north and west sides rather
than on the north and east as in Field A.
.o8 cn\r+rn sr\rx
within rooms that had undergone minimal rebuilding. Additional exca-
vation was undertaken beneath the oors identied in 1993 and balks
were removed to expose entire rooms and uncover each oor level in its
entirety, to the extent that time allowed.
4
STRATUM IX
The Fortication System and earliest Occupation
The clearest evidence for Stratum IX activity in Field E is the con-
struction of North Wall 3006 that was exposed above ground along
the entire north side of the tell. While it is certain that this defensive
wall preceded the complete casemate system of Stratum VIIIB (Chap-
ter 5), it could not be ascertained whether the area inside the Solid Wall
was occupied. In Field E, there was no Stratum IX architecture uncov-
ered beneath Stratum VIII remains in Building 300, since bedrock was
used as the footing for walls and work areas. Only under the oor of
Casemate Room 301 was there the remains of pithoi smashed against
the south face of North Wall 3006 that could be assigned to Stra-
tum IX. However, in style these vessels are homogeneous with the Stra-
tum VIIIB jars in Building 300.
STRATUM VIII
With the construction of an inner wall to form a casemate system of
defence, occupation appeared to spread across the tell, completely ll-
ing the enclosed area. The principal structure in Field E was Building
300.
Building Plan (Fig. 7.2)
Building 300 is the only structure excavated in the northwest quarter of
the tell. Located immediately inside the inner wall of the casemate sys-
tem, this structure consists of ve rooms built up against the defensive
wall (Rooms 302, 303, 306, 312+Bin/Room 321, 313).
5
Additional
4
Field reports for the 19921995 seasons were prepared by Robert Hutson, Mar-
garet Judd, Stanley Klassen, Lynda Manktelow, Paul Sodtke and Tracy Wilson, who
served as eld supervisors.
5
A sixth room on the west (R304) also abuts Wall 3000 but appears to be outside
Building 300 (see detailed discussion below). Only additional excavation within the
rirrn r notsr .oq
Figure 7.2. Building 300.
rooms immediately to the south (Rooms 305, 307, 308, 314, 324, 326)
all appear to have been an integral part of the same structure, although
Building 300 may in fact be more than a single house. The northern
rooms are separated from one another by six parallel walls (W3001,
W3003, W3005, W3011, W3025, W3016), which run southeast, gener-
ally perpendicular to the inner face of Wall 3000. In some cases, cross
walls abut these walls (W3011, W3025) as they extend south, forming
the perimeter of more than one room.
The eastern end of Building 300 is enclosed by Wall 3016, the west
wall of Passageway 309. The west side was not as clearly marked due to
the presence of Room 304 that appears to be either outside of Building
300, or an abandoned room. The full length of this building, excluding
Room 304, is ca. 20.90 m. Although by the end of the 1994 season the
full width had not been exposed, Building 300 appeared to contain at
least 11 rooms and consist of more than 213 m
2
of living space.
6
northwest corner of the tell will fully explain the function of this area and its association
with neighbouring structures.
6
In 1995, only the southern 2.00 m of Square E53 in Room 318, and the west end
of Corridor 319 were added to the total oor space. This calculation does not include
the cistern room.
.:o cn\r+rn sr\rx
Rooms
Within Building 300, any space that is enclosed by at least three adjoin-
ing walls is identied as a room. Due to the central location of Cistern
13 of Stratum VIIIA, several rooms do not have a solid wall enclosing
them on the fourth side. If the fourth wall is not present, measurements
are taken at a right angle from the maximum extent of the existing
walls. Of the 16 rooms in Table 7A, only one (R312A+B) was rela-
tively square while all others were rectangular (see Table 7A for ratio of
width to length). Certain areas around the central cistern (R308+326,
R324, R325), and rooms only partially exposed (R318, R322, R323),
are not included in Table 7A.
Table 7A. Room Size and Proportion
Room Width(m) Length(m) Ratio W/L Bounded by Walls
302 3.00 5.00 .60 3000, 3003, 3005, 3013
303 3.00 4.70 .63 3000, 3001, 3004, 3003
304 2.20 ? ? 3000, 3001, 3002, ?
305 2.50 4.50 .55 3004, 3001, 3024, 3035+3037
306 2.00 3.75 .53 3000, 3005, 3030, 3011
307 1.70 3.10 .54 3007, 3013, 3024, 3039
312(A) 3.50 4.00 .87 3000, 3011, 3025, ?
312(B) 2.75 3.20 .78 3000, 3025, 3043, 3041
313 2.20 6.00 .36 3000, 3016, 3025, 3026
314+327 2.75 6.75 .40 3027, 3028, 3036, 3043?
315 2.00 3.00 .67 3031=32, 3033, 3034, 3035=37
316 1.00 2.00 .50 3024, 3034, Doorways B, J
317 2.60 4.30 .60 3026, 3027, 3048, 3016?
319 1.00 5.00 .20 3033, 3038, 3040, 3047
320 0.700.80 2.35 .33 3008, 3011, 3030
321 1.10 2.40 .45 3011, 3042, 3028, Doorway N
Range of Sizes (omitting Rooms 304, 312(A), 316, 319, 320)
W 1.70 3.00 m average 2.46 m
L 3.00 6.75 m average 4.43 m
Range of Sizes (omitting Rooms 304, 312(B), 316, 319, 320)
W 1.70 3.50 m average 2.32 m
L 3.00 6.75 m average 4.51 m
Doorways
By the end of the 1994 season, there were nine doorways visible within
the building complex (AI, L), with another (K) only partially exposed.
Several different styles of doorjambs were in use simultaneously; for
rirrn r notsr .::
example Doorway L has two dressed stone wall ends on opposite
sides of the entryway, Entrance G consists of stacked boulders forming
anking pillars, Doorway I in Room 305 has the north face of Wall
3031 as its southern doorjamb and the south end of Wall 3001 as its
northern jamb.
Table 7B. Location and Width of Doorways
Doorway Room Width (m)
A 303, 305 1.10
B 305, 316 1.00
C 302, 307 0.70
D 302, 306 0.90
E 302, Cistern 13 0.85
F 302, 320 0.75
G 305, 315 0.65
H 303, 305 0.90
I 304?, 305 0.90
J 319, Corridor 316 1.00
K 313, 314+327 0.85
L 314, 325 0.65
M 314+327, 317 0.60
N 308, 326 1.00
P 319, ? 1.00
Average width - 0.846 m.
Of the fteen doorways identied during excavation, Doorways B, F, J,
N and P are at the end of narrow rooms or corridors and extend the
full width of the room. Of these entrances, all (except Doorway P) are
constructed between parallel walls. Of these, all are in the size range of
1.00 m except Doorway F. Without these doorways in our calculations,
the average width is 0.79 m.
The most common location for a doorway is in a corner where it
is framed by two perpendicular walls, such as Doorway A between
Wall 3001 and the end of Wall 3004, and Doorways C, D, H, I, K,
M (Fig. 7.2). This choice of location had a long history at Tall Jawa and
is seen also in Stratum VII structures. Only Doorway G, which leads
into the centre of Room 315, and Doorway E into the cistern area are
located in the middle of a wall line.
.:. cn\r+rn sr\rx
Walls
The major support wall for Building 300 was Wall 3000, the inner
wall of the casemate system, which ran along the entire north side
of the tell and measures ca. 1.301.60 m thick. This wall consists of
three rows of medium (0.500.75 m) and small boulders, chinked with
cobblestones. Within Building 300, Wall 3000 stands to a height of
2.203.00 m above oor level. Seven walls within the building and the
west wall of Room 304 (W3002) abut the south face of Wall 3000.
Of these eight walls, six were built of limestone and one of chert in
boulder-and-chink construction and the eighth, Wall 3005, consists of
large boulders (ca. 0.75 m) stacked on one another to form pillars that
are connected by cobblestone wall units.
7
This style is seen already in
the Iron Age I house at #Ai where rough boulders were stacked to form
pillars which were linked to one another by boulder-and-chink partition
walls (Callaway 1970: g. 6).
Table 7C. Wall Thickness in centimetres (Building 300 only)
Wall 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100
3000 140
3001

3002

3003

3004

3005

3007

3008

+
3009

3010

3011

3012

3013

3014=3028

+
3016

3024

3025

3026

3027

+
3029

3030

3031

+
3032

7
Although only one of the walls built up against Casemate Wall 3000 was of
stacked boulders, this style was more common as a dividing wall within the domestic
units in Field E and around Cistern E64:13.
rirrn r notsr .:
Wall 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100
3033

3034

3035

3036

3037

3038

3039

3040

3041

3042

3043

3044

3045=3008

3047

Walls in the fortication system are not included here.
The limestone boulder-and-chink walls (W3001, W3002, W3003,
W3011, W3016, W3025) that abut Casemate Wall 3000 are all in the
range of 0.701.00 m thick, load-bearing walls that can easily support
an upper storey, although irrefutable evidence for upper storey rooms is
lacking for some rooms. These walls consist of boulders chinked with
cobblestones in a two-row construction. Each wall is stone built for
a considerable height above oor level without any evidence of mud-
brick superstructure. A typical example is Room 313 where Wall 3016
remains standing 2.25 m above Floor E76:16.
By contrast, secondary interior walls sufcient for roof support mea-
sure 0.550.70 m thick. Besides the difference in thickness, there is also
a marked difference in construction techniques employed in the design
of these secondary walls. In several cases (W3004, W3005, W3007),
the wall was formed of stacked boulders that could have supported
wooden pillars up to ceiling level. A third style of roof supporting wall
was built of a single row of at-topped boulders (W3024; Fig. 7.2). In
this case also, such a wall could have supported wooden or stone pil-
lars, although there is at present no positive evidence for the pillars
themselves in Field E.
8
Pillared walls of this style would allow for light
and air to circulate into the surrounding rooms.
Partition wall (3030) and low walls surrounding Cistern E64:13 (e.g.
3009, 3012) are even narrower (0.400.55 m thick). While the large
8
See above, Field A, Building 102, where collapsed stones appear to have been
pillars supported on Wall 1005.
.: cn\r+rn sr\rx
boulders at the ends of Wall 3013 and 3008 may have supported
wooden pillars, it is not clear that partition walls were intended to
reach ceiling height. They may have been designed for safety in the
cistern area, rather than for room division or roof support. The pres-
ence of these three types of walls, sometimes enclosing a single room,
and the arrangement of doorways between rooms strongly supports the
view that this was one, or at most, two houses sharing party walls.
Stratigraphy
The construction, use and abandonment of Building 300 appears to
date to the middle Iron Age II (B) (Stratum VIII). No subsequent occu-
pation occurred at this location during the late Iron Age II period
(Stratum VII), contemporary with Building 800 in Field C or B700 in
Field D (Chapter 8). Nor were there any architectural remains from the
early Islamic period (Stratum III), even though there are several struc-
tures to the east (Field F; Fig. 1.2), whose pattern of collapse appears
similar to that of Building 600 in Field D, prior to its excavation (Chap-
ter 8). Serious disturbance of debris in Room 314 and partially robbed
out walls (W3036, W3043) suggest a major transformation at the end
of Stratum VIIIB, possibly at the same time as the digging of Central
Cistern E64:13. Two occupation phases of Stratum VIII (B, A), dis-
tinguished clearly in Rooms 302, 303 and 306, were represented by
sequential living surfaces rather than by distinct construction levels.
9
In Rooms 303 and 304, certain walls (W3001, W3002), rst identi-
ed with the later oor levels of Stratum VIIIA, were seen to be the
same walls in use during the earlier phase (Stratum VIIIB). In some
cases the phasing is difcult to determine due to the construction style
employed in Building 300, where walls were built in short segments that
abut rather than bond with perpendicular walls (e.g., W3032, W3033,
W3047, see Chapter 12). Particular problems will be discussed on a
room by room basis.
The ceramic remains and the artefact assemblages from the rooms
in Building 300 were exceptionally rich. Floors were covered with as
much as 0.300.65 m of smashed vessels, artefacts and ecofacts. For
9
The distinction between major construction phases and the local resurfacing of
certain rooms, along with the simultaneous abandonment of other living areas, has
been recognized by several scholars as a major factor in the archaeological record
(Schiffer 1987:89; Voigt 1983: 1112).
rirrn r notsr .:
the rooms in which such assemblages were completely uncovered, an
attempt is made in their description to list all vessels and artefacts.
While there was a certain amount of contamination from the sherd
material included within the beaten earth ceilings which collapsed into
these rooms, the vessels listed represent the minimum number that
could be partially or completely reconstructed and clearly identied in
primary context.
In order to do justice to the archaeological record, this housing
complex is divided into three sectors, the western unit (a group of
rooms that lead into one another (R303, R305, R315, R316, R319)
along with two rooms further west (R318 and R304); the central unit
(R302, R306, R307, R308, R324, R326, and Cistern E64: 13 in Stra-
tum VIIIA); and the eastern unit (rooms along Passageway 309 (R312+
321, R313, R314+327, R317, R323). While we have not found evi-
dence for two phases within each room, discussion of individual rooms
will begin with the western unit where this sequence (Strata VIIIB
and VIIIA) was evident in Room 303.
Table 7D. Strata for Field E
STRATUM FIELD PHASE(S) PERIOD
I 1 modern
II pottery only post-Umayyad
III pottery only Umayyad
IV pottery (?) Byzantine
V no remains Roman
VI no remains Persian
VII no remains Late Iron II
VIIIA 2/repairs Middle Iron II
VIIIB 3/casemate wall Middle Iron II
IX 4/solid wall Early Iron II
X pottery only Iron I
STRATUM VIIIB
The earliest occupation in Field E is represented by the founding of
walls on bedrock and the lling of depressions in the bedrock to create
level oor surfaces. Bedrock itself was uncovered in Rooms 302 and
314. A gravel ll that served as oor makeup was exposed in Rooms
302 and 303. In the northernmost rooms, walls and oor surfaces ran
up to Inner Casemate Wall 3000 and sealed against it.
.:6 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.3. Excavation Grid in Field E.
The Western Unit: Rooms 303, 304, 305, 315, 318 (Fig. 7.3)
Three parallel, broad rooms (R303, 305, 315) are located along the
west side of Building 300. The northernmost room (R303) is the largest
(3.00

4.70 m), while Room 315 on the south is the smallest (2.00

3.00 m), because it shared its space between the principal eastern
(W3024) and western (W3032) walls of the unit with Corridor 316
(Table 7A). Due to the limits of excavation in Field E, it remains
unclear whether Building 300 was a single free-standing structure or
adjoined another domestic complex further west. Secondly, the rela-
tionship of Rooms 304 on the west and R318 on the south to Rooms
303 and R305 in Stratum VIIIB remains unclear, since Square E43
was not excavated, with the result that the south end of Room 304
remained undened. In addition, no exterior wall was identied on the
west and south sides of the building.
rirrn r notsr .:
Figure 7.4. Building 300, Room 303+304, showing makeup (E44:12) under
earliest surface (E44:11); row of cobbles (E44:13) at base of W3000.
Room 303 (Fig. 7.4)
The Stratum VIIIB construction phase of the western unit was located
only in Room 303.
10
Locus E44:12=E54:57 consisted of two layers
of cobblestones, the rst of medium size stones (0.120.18 m), then
small cobbles covered by a layer of pebbles (0.030.06 m) and sur-
rounded by hard-packed soil that served as makeup for the earliest
oor (E44:11=54:32). Visible within this makeup was a row of stones
(E44:13=14) along the base of the inner casemate wall face (W3000);
these stones may represent either the lowest course of the wall itself
or, more likely, a technique used as a support for the earliest surface
at the point where it sealed against a major wall.
11
These cobblestones
(E44:13=14) were sealed rst by the upper pebble layer of Makeup
E44:12 and subsequently by the oor of Room 303.
10
Bedrock (E64:50) and a makeup layer (E54:49) were also identied in Room 302
located in the central unit, see below.
11
At the time of excavation, it appeared that Cobblestones E44:13, 14 were ll
within a foundation trench for Inner Casemate Wall 3000. Because there was no other
evidence for a foundation trench, another explanation was sought. This feature is
comparable to the single row of cobblestones (E56:8) set against the outer casemate
.:8 cn\r+rn sr\rx
The Stratum VIIIB oor (E44:11) consists of a beaten earth sur-
face laid above the pebbles of makeup Layer E44:12. While its western
continuation was not located below Wall 3001, and may have been fur-
ther west in the area of Room 304, Floor E44:11 extends east over
the entire room (as E54:32) as far as Wall 3003. This surface consists
of very brown soil (10YR 6/4) with orange ecks and random pock-
ets of charcoal and ash. There was a substantial patch of ash in the
extreme northeast corner along with several smaller ash lenses scat-
tered across the room. This evidence points to a considerable amount
of burning, presumably for cooking purposes. This interpretation is
further supported by the presence of a large patch of ash (E54:40;
0.42

1.08

0.02 m thick), immediately above Floor 54:32. This ash


was associated with a hearth formed of a circle of stones embedded
in the oor surface. A group of severely burnt cooking pot fragments
found on Floor E54:32 suggests that this area was used for cooking
over a considerable period of time. Other nds embedded in or lying
on the oor surface consist of artefacts, lithics and animal bones.
Table 7E. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 303(B)
12
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E44:11/7 saucer V422 red slip
54:32/31 3 bowls V479, V480, V483 red slip, knobs
3 bowls V478, V481, V482 red slip
3 bowls V431, V484, V485
3 kraters V416, V433, V473
2 cooking pots
16+pithoi V439, V459468,
V470472, V475476
storejar V438 hole mouth
juglet V423 red slip
lid V378 mushroom shape
1275 ceramic sherds
bead TJ 1219 faience
ring/earring TJ 1151 bronze
pin/needle TJ 1233
knife TJ 1029
2 akes L612, L620 utilized
1 blade L625
mortar TJ 1031
wall face (W3006) at the level of sloping Plaster Surface E56:10, which was sealed in
turn by Plaster Layer E56:7 (see also, cobbles along face of W1012 in B113).
12
M. Judd prepared the initial quantication of pottery and objects for Rooms 302,
303, 305, and 306.
rirrn r notsr .:q
Figure 7.5. Building 300, Room 303, with pottery in situ on Surface E54:31.
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
4 grinders TJ 1018, 1021, basalt
TJ 1026, 1154
3 millstones TJ 870, 1013, 1022 upper, loaf-shaped
2 querns TJ 962, 1032 basalt, saddle querns
7 pounders TJ 808, 1012, 1025, 1028, chert
TJ 1109, 1143, 1226
point TJ 1006 iron
gurine head TJ 1249 zoomorphic
stone weight TJ 899 limestone, perforated
stone TJ 824 unworked basalt
tool TJ 1024 stone
animal bones
animal teeth
In the debris (E54:31=44:7) immediately above the oor, was a collec-
tion of pottery that consists mainly of storage vessels, especially pithoi
(at least 16 were identied) and storejars, mixed with ne red slipped
bowls, a ceramic footed-bowl, jugs and juglets (Fig. 7.5).
13
The assem-
blage of chert pounders, basalt grinders, millstone fragments, a quern
13
This pottery was mended in the Near Eastern Archaeology Laboratory at Wilfrid
Laurier University by students employed by the Ontario Work Study Programme.
..o cn\r+rn sr\rx
and a large mortar suggests that food was prepared, stored and cooked
here. Metal tools include one iron point as well as a knife (TJ 1029)
with part of the handle still attached. The knife was positioned beside
the skeletal joint of an animal, one of 15 animal bones in this locus. All
the nds from the 19931994 seasons conrm the functions attributed
to Room 303 in 1993, namely cooking, storage and food processing
(original research by M. A. Judd, unpublished). The depth of this accu-
mulation of soil, cobblestones, pottery and artefacts was ca. 0.520.67
m.
Wall 3004 is a short wall between Doorways A and H that separates
Room 303 from Room 305 to the south. The wall itself is formed of
three stacked-boulder pillars connected by units of wall consisting of
two rows of cobblestones (Fig. 7.6).
14
The wall is preserved to a height of
0.560.74 m and measures ca. 3.00 m long. One boulder at the eastern
end of Wall 3004 serves as the western frame of Doorway H and is
coated with plaster (E54:56) on its vertical face. Although pottery on
Floor E54:32 appeared initially to continue under Wall 3004, it became
clear during excavation that the cobblestone units had slumped onto
the oor at the time of destruction sealing the pottery in place. The
material on the oor was covered by a hard-packed soil layer (E54:19),
which contained a succession of plaster surfaces, visible only in patches
across the room. These surfaces may have constituted a ceiling or, more
likely, a Stratum VIIIA oor that was subsequently damaged when it
too was destroyed (see below).
Pottery and Chronology
While many ceramic vessel types do not have good parallels from sites
in western Palestine, the pithoi with rolled rims and the hippo style
storejars with rounded bases from Room 303 are identical to those
from Field A, Building 113 (Daviau 1992: g. 7). The best date for the
storejar forms appears to be between the 860 BC and 732 BC horizons
(Hazor, Str. Xb-IX; Yadin et al. 1961: pls. CLXXII:10; CCXI:3). Jars
with a similar shape continue to appear throughout Iron Age II at
Tall Jawa. The best parallels for the hippo jars are those from
.
Horvat
Rosh Zayit, although these are dated to the 10
th
century by Alexandre
14
The use of stacked boulders/drums that supported wooden pillars was common
in the Iron Age I buildings at Shiloh. Here too, the pillars were connected by low cob-
blestone walls that served to separate rooms from one another (Finkelstein, Bunimovitz
and Lederman 1993:23, gs. 2.13, 2.18).
rirrn r notsr ..:
Figure 7.6. Building 300, Room 303 in background,
Room 305 in foreground; Room 302 on right.
(1995:8687). At the other end of the chronological spectrum is a vessel
from Tall as-Sa#idiyya (Pritchard 1985: g. 9:12) that is assigned to
Stratum VI (early 8th century BC). A second chronological indicator
for the pottery from Field E Stratum VIII is the high percentage
(36.3%) of red slipped and red slipped and burnished pottery. This
is in contrast to Building 800 in Field C, where the percentage is much
lower (11.2%), suggesting a 7
th
century date for Stratum VII (Daviau
1993).
15
Room 305 (Figs. 7.3, 6)
Room 305 is located immediately south of Room 303 and has a broad-
room plan. Two doorways (A and H) lead from Room 303 into Room
305 at either end of Wall 3004 (see above), which is plastered along its
south face (see E54:19, 56). The wall plaster is 0.025m thick and con-
tains a considerable amount of organic material. Although plaster coat-
ing on wall faces appears in other rooms within Building 300, it does
not appear anywhere else in Room 305 or in Room 315 to the south.
15
These data are based on a count of Stratum VIII vessels recovered during the
1992 and 1993 seasons.
... cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.7. Building 300, Room 315, Oven E53:23.
The east side of Room 305 is formed by Wall 3024, which consists
of a single row of medium to large boulders, in the 0.600.75 m
range, xed in place by cobblestones.
16
Two distinct units comprise the
south wall (W3037, W3035), one on either side of Doorway G, which
is located between stacked-boulders E53:9 and E53:10. Altogether in
these two walls, there are three pillars formed of medium size (ca.
0.49 m) boulders stacked in two or more courses, and standing ca.
0.610.75 m in height. Each boulder is rounded in shape and held
in place by a few chink stones. On the east of Doorway G, Pillars
E53:10 and E54:8 are joined to one another ( =W3037) by a low
mud-brick bench (E53:19), 0.31 m in height and 0.43 m in width.
The height and composition of this unit makes it clear that it was
the stacked-boulder pillars that supported the ceiling in this room and
may have served as a type of pillar base with an additional support,
possibly in wood, set between the upper boulder and the ceiling. An
accumulation of collapsed mud brick and stone above Debris Layer
E54:51, which rested in turn on Floor E54:53, suggests that Bench
E54:19 may originally have stood higher and served as a connecting
16
This wall (W3024) is comparable in construction style and width to Walls 1005
and 1008 in Building 102 in Field A.
rirrn r notsr ..
Figure 7.8. Building 300, Room 305, Mortar
E53:54, and bench with loom weights in situ.
wall in its own right. On the west side of Doorway G, in Wall 3035,
Pillar E53:9 stands 0.54 m in height and is connected to west Wall
3031+3032 by another mudbrick connecting wall/bench (E53:22) that
is only 0.280.43 m in height. The function of these low wall units was
probably to give support to the stacked boulders and allow light and air
to circulate between Rooms 305 and 315.
Along the west side of Room 305 was the continuation of Wall
3001 with Doorway I located in the southwest corner. The bottom
elevation of this section of wall suggests that it was also a Stratum VIIIA
construction with the result that the true size of Room 305 during
Stratum VIIIB remains unclear.
The earliest oor (E54:53=E53:27) in Room 305 was a hard-packed
beaten earth surface stained with nari and ash pockets. The greatest
concentration of ash (E53:24) in Floor E54:53=E53:27 was immedi-
ately north of Oven E53:23, which was in position against the north
side of mudbrick Bench E53:19 in Wall 3037. This oven consisted of
an inverted cooking pot (V415), broken at the point of carination, and
buried in the oor surface (Fig. 7.7). The oven (V415) was supported by
eight small stones, three of which were broken basalt tools (2 millstones
and a small quern fragment), sealed in place with packed mud. A few
animal bones were also associated with the oven.
.. cn\r+rn sr\rx
In the southwest corner of Room 305, in front of Wall 3035, were
two slabs of stone, possibly a shelf/bench (E53:26; 0.18

0.86 and
0.18

0.93, respectively). When found, it appeared that these horizon-


tal slabs had been stacked one on top of the other and that the upper
slab had slipped out of position when Room 305 was destroyed. Behind
and underneath these dislocated bench stones were 8 unred-clay loom
weights (donut-shaped) and one at perforated stone disk, objects which
indicate textile production in the area (Fig. 7.8).
17
A limestone boulder mortar (E54:54), 0.550.63 m in diameter, was
embedded in the oor surface (E54:53) north of bench/shelf E53:26.
This mortar is comparable to Mortar E54:38 located in the earliest
oor (E54:41) of Room 302 (see below). Smashed in situ on the rim of
Mortar E54:54 were sherds of red slipped bowls, jugs, juglets, ordinary
cooking pots and pithoi. A funnel
18
whose spout t snugly into the neck
of the typical Stratum-VIII storejar was located north of the mortar.
Additional sherds of vessels in use with Floor E54:53 were contained in
Debris Layer E54:51 which covered the oor and its installations. All
the pottery dates to the early Iron II and middle Iron II periods.
Table 7F. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 305(B)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E54:51, 53 2 bowls V412, V414 red slip
+53:20, 27 bowl V437 no slip
bowl V430 burnished, vertical rim
2 bowls V325, V427 red slip, knobs, V427=paint
krater V429 small, smudged
krater V418 large, pink interior
cooking pot V413
pithos
jug V314 small, red slip, paint
jug V321 red slip
ask V303 small, painted
17
Unred clay loom weights of similar shape and size to those in Room 305 were
common at other Iron Age sites. One such group was located in the domestic buildings
in Area B at Hazor where they are dated to Stratum VA (740732 BC; Yadin et al.
1960:63; pl. XVIII:2). Another group of 34 unred loom weights from Tell el-Far#ah
(N) date to a somewhat earlier period (Stratum VIIB=10th century BC; Chambon
1984:12; pl. 76:1). For a typological study and additional comparative material, see
Daviau (2002:191197).
18
Funnels similar in form are known from Gibeon (Pritchard 1964: gs. 33:16;
48:16), Tell en-Na
.
sbeh (Wampler 1947: pl. 77:1775) and Tall Dayr #Alla (Franken 1992:
g. 53:11).
rirrn r notsr ..
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
funnel V436
1253 ceramic sherds
tripod mortar TJ 1547 basalt
shell TJ 2228 Arcularia gibbosulus
3 pestles TJ 1596, 1597, 1600 basalt
grinder TJ 1598 sandstone
3 grinders TJ 1653, 1619, 1688 basalt
pounder TJ 1652 chert
8 weights TJ 16691976 clay, unred loom weights
stone disk TJ 1668 limestone, perforated
point TJ 1613 iron
Pottery and Chronology
The pottery in Room 305 is homogeneous with that in Room 303,
although this could also be said of the somewhat later material from
Stratum VIIIA. In fact, these two occupation phases must have fol-
lowed each other quite quickly as the rooms in Building 300 seem to
have retained similar functions over the two phases. The presence of
Mortar E54:54 in the oor of Room 305 is no guarantee that it was
part of the earliest phase of Building 300 (Cf. Mortar A13:23 which
was embedded in the second phase oor of Building 113). This occu-
pation phase came to an end with the collapse of the ceiling and stones
(E54:51) from the surrounding walls. In spite of this destruction, occu-
pation resumed in Room 305 and in Room 315 to the south.
Room 315
The Stratum VIIIB phase of Room 315 was not exposed during exca-
vation. From the Stratum-VIIIA conguration of this room it is clear
that there had been a doorway in the southeast corner that led orig-
inally to Room 316 and was blocked (W3034) in Stratum VIIIA. If
Wall 3034 was itself part of the redesign of the entire area after Stra-
tum VIIIB was destroyed, then Room 315 would have been 4.60 m in
width, a broad room with two doorways (G, B) like Rooms 305 and
R303. For a discussion of its nal occupation phase, see Stratum VIIIA
below.
Room 304
Doorway I in Room 305 led west into the south end Room 304, a
space surrounded in Stratum VIIIA by Casemate Wall 3000 on the
north and Walls 3001 and 3002 on the east and west sides respectively.
As we saw earlier, Walls 3001 and 3002 were not in use with the
..6 cn\r+rn sr\rx
earliest, Stratum- VIIIB oor (E44:11) in Room 303, although the
western wall associated with this oor was not recovered. A deep debris
layer (E44:9=E44:16), possibly the collapse of Stratum-VIIIB walls and
ceiling material, accumulated in the area of Room 304 and was used as
the foundation for both Walls 3001 and W3002 (see Stratum VIIIA
below). Only the presence of a hard-packed surface (E53:31) over a
soil and rockfall layer (E53:32) within Doorway I provides evidence for
additional occupation at the level of Stratum-VIIIB Floor E53:27 in
Room 305.
Room 318
South of Room 304, only the northeastern half of Room 318 was
exposed, leaving the north (W3031) and east (W3047) walls to continue
into the balks. These walls were party walls shared with Rooms 315 and
319 on the east and Room 304 on the north. The discovery of this addi-
tional room on the west side of the building suggests that Building 300
was indeed a complex of rooms without clearly dened exterior walls.
During four seasons a total area 24.00 m east-west by 12.50 m north-
south of contiguous rooms was uncovered. The position of Room 318
suggests that this pattern extended even further to the west and south.
The north wall (W3031) of Room 318 consists of small and medium
limestone boulders with one very large stone that may have been a sup-
port for the superstructure. Wall 3031 is founded on a layer of hard
packed soil, 0.40 m below the earliest known living surface (E53:39),
which suggests that this wall belongs in fact to Stratum VIIIB. The east
wall (W30323047) is composed of three segments that all abut one
another, including in its length the thickness of Wall 3033. Even though
many of the architectural features in Room 318 clearly date to Stra-
tum VIIIA, the presence of two surfaces, each with abundant mendable
pottery, as well as evidence for activities on the roof, demonstrate that
two occupation phases (VIIIB and VIIIA) can be identied. The lack
of staircases
19
in Building 300, and the thickness and construction tech-
niques employed in the major walls, suggest single storey occupation
over two phases, rather than two-storey domestic quarters.
19
Staircases in Buildings 700 and 800 (Chapter 8) are well built between solid
support walls and remain standing to the seventh step. If a second story were intended
over the rooms in the western unit of Building 300, one would expect some evidence in
the construction techniques of walls and door frames needed to support the weight of
upper storey walls.
rirrn r notsr ..
The principal Stratum-VIIIB surface (E53:39) of beaten earth with
nari and plaster inclusions was packed in place above a ll (E53:43)
consisting of soil, pebbles and pottery dating to Iron I and early Iron
Age II.
20
Surface E53:39 sealed up against the surrounding walls and
was itself covered with broken pottery vessels and ground stone tools.
Table 7G. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 318(B)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E53:39 bowl V534 red slip, hemispherical
jug V529
juglet V326 red slip
tripod cup V359 paint
674 ceramic sherds
2 pendants TJ 2059, 2085 limestone, shell
bead TJ 2061
2 mortars TJ 1993, 2036 limestone, basalt
2 pestles TJ 1983, 2017 basalt
4 grinders TJ 1987, 1988, 1991, 2020
column TJ 2123 ceramic
spindle whorl TJ 2070
The Central Unit: Rooms 302, 306, 320 (Fig. 7.9)
Immediately east of Rooms 303 and R305 is the largest interior space
(4.8

5.5 m) in Building 300, formed by Rooms 302, 306, and R320.


Rooms 302 and 306 are divided by Wall 3005, constructed of stacked
boulders and low cobblestone units (E65:21), which are an integral
part of the wall, and were probably built to support the pillars (Daviau
1999:119120; g. 5.3c). This style of wall construction allowed a cer-
tain amount of air and light to enter the smaller of the two rooms
(R306). On the south side of these two rooms, there was a second series
of low partition walls (W3008, W3013) associated with Central Court-
yard 308+324. These walls, formed of tall boulders and cobble con-
necting walls also allowed light and air into the northern rooms. Room
320 is a narrow space, parallel to the south end of Room 306, which
opens directly into Room 302.
20
Within the underlying ll there was no evidence for Iron Age I architectural
remains even though small numbers of typical Iron I ceramic forms, such as collared-
rim jars, could be identied among the ceramic remains.
..8 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.9. Building 300, central unit, Stratum VIIIB.
Room 302 (Fig. 7.10)
The area of Room 302 covers part of four squares (E54E55 and E64
E65).
21
Running through Squares E54E55E65 is Wall 3000, the inner
casemate wall face that serves as the north wall and main support for
both Rooms 302 and R306. In Room 302, Wall 3000 remains stand-
ing 2.002.07 m above the Stratum VIIIB oor. On the west, Room
302 is bounded by Wall 3003, a 2-row boulder-and-chink wall that is
21
To facilitate recording the location for elevations and artefact nds, a 1.00 m grid
was established for Room 302, rather than using the grid numbers for each of the four
squares (see recording methods, above). In addition, the designation of Debris Layer
E54:37 became the locus number for material in all four Squares (E54:37=55:37=
64:37 =65:37).
rirrn r notsr ..q
Figure 7.10. Room 302, with Bench E54:24 on left, Bedrock
work surface in center, Boulder Mortar E54:38 in between.
preserved 1.34 m in height and continues south as Wall 3024. This
southern extension is formed of one row of large, at-topped boulders
that stand only 0.80 m above Room 302 oor level and separates
it from Room 305 in the southwest. Wall 3013 marks the southern
perimeter of the room and forms the western frame of Doorway E. In
this stratum, there may also have been a doorway (C) at the west
end of Wall 3013 into Room 307. On the east side, Doorway F into
Room 320, Doorway D into Room 306 and Wall 3005 constitute the
perimeter of Room 302.
The founding level for the earliest Stratum VIIIB oor in Room
302 consists of Bedrock E64:50 and Makeup Layer E54:49, an accu-
mulation of rocky debris consisting of small and medium size cobbles
exposed over an area of 0.99

2.08 m from Hearth E54:43 to Boulder


.o cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.11. Room 306 on the right; Room
302 on left with Hearth E54:43 on upper left.
Mortar E54:38. In consistency and elevation (921.84921.96 masl), this
locus was comparable to Makeup E44:12 in Room 303.
22
Within the
excavated area of Room 302, there were no artefacts or pottery present
in the makeup, although its surface was stained by the ash from Hearth
E54:43.
The earliest oor (E54:41=E64:40) in Room 302 was a beaten earth
surface, approximately 2.82

4.69 m in length and 0.10 m deep. From


north to south over the length of the room, the elevation rose from
922.07922.14 to 922.19922.22 masl. Changes in elevation were also
evident around Mortar E54:38, where it was 922.11922.13 masl and
in the area around Hearth E54:43; here the elevations ranged from
921.98 922.08 masl. Thus it appears that the oor sloped toward the
two installations, although the surface may have subsided over time,
affected by the level of the underlying bedrock.
Hearth E54:43 and Boulder Mortar E54:38 were built into Floor
E54:41 and were in use simultaneously (Fig. 7.11). Hearth E54:43 was
founded on Makeup Layer E54:49 and consisted of a single circle of
22
A small area of Makeup E54:42 under Floor E54:41 was uncovered south of
boulder Mortar E54:38. In Room 306 on the east, the makeup (E65:33) under Floor
E65:29 remains unexcavated.
rirrn r notsr .:
stones with exterior measurements of ca. 0.961.06 m, and was 0.23
0.26 m in height. A layer of rm soil (E54:47) formed the oor and one
side of the hearth and sealed against the lower edges of the hearth
stones, but did not line the sides of the hearth as such. Inside the
hearth was Locus E54:44, a very soft, ne ashy soil that contained
pottery sherds standing vertically within the ll. These sherds, along
with four iron points, apparently fell into the hearth when Room 302
was destroyed. This appears to have happened while the hearth was in
use, because the collapsed debris and artefacts fused with the sherds.
Some stones and ceramic sherds around the hearth area also showed
signs of burning, evidence that the hearth was probably in use for some
time before its destruction.
The ashy soil in Hearth E54:43 was comparable in texture to Locus
E54:48, an accumulation of ash immediately south of the hearth. This
ash pit was 0.51

0.76 m in size and at least 0.10 m deep. It appears


to have built up over time, suggesting that the hearth was occasionally
cleaned out to facilitate cooking. The relationship of Ash Pit E54:48 to
Floor E54:41 remains unclear in that the sides of the oor appear to
end at the perimeter of the ash. However, it seems probable that Floor
E54:41 did in fact lie under the ash and was stained by it.
Directly south of Ash Pit E54:48 was boulder Mortar E54:38, which
was embedded in Floor E54:41 and adjacent to an outcropping of
bedrock (E64:50). The exterior of the mortar was squared, while the
interior depression was rounded, ca. 0.30 m in diameter and 0.16 m in
depth. This central depression was lled with soil (E54:39) of the same
composition as Debris Layer E54:37, which covered Floor E54:41.
Sherds of a pilgrim ask and other Iron II vessels were uncovered inside
Mortar E54:38. Two murex shells
23
and polishing stones were found on
the oor beside the mortar.
A third installation, also in use with Floor E54:41, is Shelf/Bench
E54:24, which was founded in Stratum VIIIB and continued in use
in Stratum VIIIA. In its earlier phase, Shelf/Bench E54:24 was built
against the east face of Wall 3003 for a length of 3.34 m. It is ca. 0.50
m wide and 0.35 m high, and was built of two rows of small boulders
and chink stones.
23
A murex shell (murex brandaris) found at Tall Dayr #Alla (Van der Kooij and
Ibrahim 1989:60) poses the same question as those found at Tall Jawa; namely what
could a small number of shells have been used for, since commercial dyeing took such
enormous quantities?
.. cn\r+rn sr\rx
On the east side of Room 302 was a plaster layer (E65:23), which
seals against the cobblestone unit of Wall 3005. Although the plaster
did not cover all of the cobbles, it did seal against the bottom course
of cobblestones sloping down from 922.09 masl to 922.06 at the level
of Floor E65:41. The plaster extends west from the wall face approxi-
mately 0.130.15 m, a feature designed to reduce damage to the foot
of Wall 3005, which itself did not appear to extend below the Stratum-
VIIIB makeup layer (E54:49). Although Plaster E65:23 did not con-
tinue further west across Floor E65:41, these loci were contiguous and
apparently from the same occupation phase.
The primary function of Room 302 during its time of use was
domestic activity, including food storage, storage of equipment and
food preparation. Only a few of the items in use in the room were
embedded in Floor E54:41, while the majority of pots and objects
were contained in the overlying soil layer (E54:37) that lled the room.
Debris Layer E54:37 was a thick (ca. 0.25 m) deposit of pale brown
soil (10YR 6/3) which included ca. 55 objects and 1786 ceramic sherds
from reconstructible vessels. These sherds were lying almost horizon-
tally in numerous superimposed layers that were both above and below
the layers of artefacts, including a group of metal points. Altogether 33
iron points were recovered from Floor E54:41 and Layer E54:37, some
of which were fused to each other and originally counted as one item.
Since several points (TJ 1379) were fused to a sherd from a jar; it seems
likely that these weapons were in storage at the time Room 302 was
destroyed.
24
Ceramic vessel types present in this ll were bowls, kraters,
cooking pots, jugs, juglets, asks and storejars.
Table 7H. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 302(B)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E54:37+41 4 bowls V357, V474, V493,
E55:37 V 525 red slip
E65:37 bowl V363 inverted rim
pithos V496
2 asks V302, V304
decanter V309 white slip, black paint
1786 ceramic sherds
24
A similar nd was reported from Late Bronze Age Tell Batash, where a broken
jug contained almonds and a groups of metal points fused together (Kelm and Mazar
1982: g. 11).
rirrn r notsr .
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
bead TJ 1247 starsh fossil
pestle TJ 1340 basalt
2 grinders TJ 1267, 1268 small, cosmetic
7 grinders TJ 1271, 1283, 1285, basalt
TJ 1345, 1347,
1405, 1406
grinder TJ 1400 large
millstone TJ 1238 upper, loaf-shaped
2 scrapers L619, L640 lithic
stone chisel TJ 1408
whetstone TJ 1278
3 stone tools TJ 1246, 1270, 1274 chert, polishing
2 pounders TJ 1349, 1401 chert
spindle whorl TJ 1381 ceramic
spatula TJ 1507 bone
35 iron points TJ 1245, 13191331, iron, fused in 2s and 3s
TJ 13601362, 1364,
TJ 13721374, 1376
1379
2 stones TJ 1269, 1370 worked limestone
worked stone TJ 1279 sandstone
stone nodule TJ 1402 sandstone
2 murex shells samples
animal bones
A modest amount of wall collapse in the form of small (0.060.12
m) and medium (0.120.18 m) sized cobblestones was present in the
midst of the broken pottery and objects in Room 302 sealed under a
plaster surface (E54:26), suggesting only minor destruction at the end
of Stratum VIIIB. This deposit was probably the result of cobblestone
wall units that fell when the ceiling collapsed and lled the room. Since
the arrowheads and javelin points appear to have been in storage, the
cause of the collapse was probably not an attack on the town. Evidence
from other rooms in the same building may help to clarify the factors
that brought Stratum VIIIB to an end.
Room 306 (Figs. 7.9, 11)
Adjacent to Room 302 is a small space (2.00

3.60 m) designated
Room 306, which can be classied as a long room with bent axis
entry, because Doorway D is situated at the south end of its long, west
wall (W3005). In this room also, the inner Casemate (W3000) serves as
the north wall of the room. A boulder-and-chink wall (W3011) abuts
Wall 3000 at an acute angle (80
o
) and runs south for 5.90 m, ending
with a well-dressed doorframe just beyond the southern limit of Room
. cn\r+rn sr\rx
320. At a width of 0.75 m, Wall 3011 was a major support for the cen-
tral unit. Six courses were exposed in Room 306 above the earliest oor
(E65:29), where the wall stands at a height of 1.251.38 m. Due to the
limits of excavation during the 1995 season, it is not clear whether Wall
3011 divided two buildings or merely two rooms in the same structure.
The remaining architecture in Room 306 consists of one wall
(W3005) on the west formed of stacked pillars, one pillar (E65:7) at the
north end that abuts inner Casemate Wall 3000 and a second (E65:14)
on the south that forms the north edge of Doorway D. On the south is
a two-row cobblestone wall (W3030) with one limestone pillar (E65:20;
0.46

0.65 m), which marks the west end of the wall, for a total length
of 2.56 m. Pillar E65:20 is in line with Wall 3005, and it forms the
south frame of Doorway D. On the east, the cobblestone unit (E65:32)
of Wall 3030 abuts Wall 3011, ca. 1.50 m north of its south end. Even
though it remains standing ca. 0.70 m above Floor E65:29, Wall 3030
may have been a partition wall between Room 306 and Room 320,
since it was only ca. 0.350.45 m thick.
25
The Stratum-VIIIB oor (E65:29) was a hard packed, beaten earth
surface with red and black ecks that sealed against all four walls and
the threshold (E65:32) in Doorway D. Although this surface was not
removed, its levels (922.04922.14 masl) correspond closely to those
in Room 302 (922.07922.22 masl), supporting its identication as a
Stratum-VIIIB surface. On this surface were 21 objects and numerous
ceramic vessels smashed in situ. Comparable nds, many mendable with
those on the oor, were present in the overlying Debris Layer (E65:28,
see Table 7J).
Threshold E65:32 in Doorway D consists of one small boulder em-
bedded in Floor E65:29, covered by several rows of small cobblestones
standing two courses high (ca. 0.10 m). The upper surface and west
side of the threshold was covered with a layer of Plaster (E65:31) that
obscured further construction details. Together these loci had a total
width of 1.001.05 m between the ends of Walls 3005 and 3030.
Because Threshold E65:32 was so low, the ceramic vessels and artefacts
from Rooms 302 and 306 were scattered across its width and were
sealed in the overlying deposits (E65:30, 65:27+28) which accumulated
at the time these rooms were destroyed. Of special note within Layer
25
The closest parallel for a side room separated from the main room by both a
stacked pillar wall and a low cobblestone partition wall is Room 335 in Building 335 at
Shiloh (Finkelstein, Bunimovitz and Lederman 1993: gs. 2.3, 2.18).
rirrn r notsr .
E65:30 are half of a perforated disk and 1 complete perforated disk,
both probably related to the disks inside Room 306.
Debris Layer E65:28 was a yellow brown (10YR 5/9) soil layer lled
with smashed pottery vessels and artefacts for a depth of 0.150.23
m above Floor E65:29. Artefacts included 1 bone spatula, an undec-
orated bone or ivory spindle (Riis and Buhl 1990: g. 97:744, also
undecorated), 2 spindle whorls (Daviau 1996: g. 6:5, 6), and 16 per-
forated stones (Daviau 1996: g. 6:7, 8), that may have been associated
with the production of textiles.
26
Architectural elements consisted of 2
limestone door weights and part of a roof roller. Personal possessions
included 6 metal points, a bead, and several pendants. Among the food
processing and preparation tools was a selection of ground stone tools
and broken ceramic vessels. The small and medium size ceramic ves-
sels, including 2 intact juglets (Daviau 1996: g. 6:1, 2), were covered
with pithos sherds, a pattern of deposition seen repeated in the super-
imposed Stratum-VIIIA levels of smashed pottery in this same central
unit.
At the south end of Room 306, Debris Layer E65:28 became more
hard packed and was lled with collapsed debris (E65:27), including
mud-brick material concentrated in front of Wall 3030. Some of the
stones within this layer were burnt, although no distinct cooking area
was identied. The pottery again included cooking pots, red slipped
bowls and juglets, and storejars.
Table 7J. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 306(B)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E65:27+26 bowl V424 red slip
28, 29 3 bowls V450, V451, V458 red slip, simple rim
2 bowls V352, V452 red slip
bowl V342 red slip, paint
3 bowls V337, V338, V444 inverted rim, smudged
krater V341 small
krater V375 smudged
jar V453 hole mouth
4 pithoi V454, V455,
V461, V463
storejar V456 2 handles
amphoriskos V307 white slip, paint
2 jugs V306, V308 painted
2 jugs V311, V334 small
26
For a complete study of textile production artefacts at Tall Jawa, see Daviau
(2002).
.6 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
juglet V312( =TJ 1548) white slip
2 juglets V313( =TJ 1511),
V348 red slip
juglet TJ 347 painted
ask V301 painted
2 lamps V346, V379
964 ceramic sherds
pendant TJ 1627 greenstone
bead TJ 1609 faience
2 shells TJ 1610, 2230 conus
cowrie shell TJ 2231 Cypraea annulus
roof roller TJ 1552 limestone
mortar TJ 1654 limestone
mortar TJ 1660 basalt, red stain
tray TJ 1531 basalt
2 pestles TJ 1633, 1651 basalt
grinder TJ 1514 basalt
millstone TJ 1601 upper, loaf-shaped
6 points TJ 1592, 1611, iron
TJ 1612, 1615,
TJ 1617, 1618
2 spindles TJ 1530, 1603 ivory
spindle whorl TJ 1689 ceramic
2 stones TJ 1624, 1638 limestone, perforated
12 stone disks TJ 15341540, nari, perforated
TJ 1593, 1594+1602,
TJ1595, 1607, 1665
2 shells
Doorway D
E65:30 bowl V336 inverted rim
pithos sherds
jug V332 small
tray TJ 1637 basalt
mortar TJ 1654 limestone
2 disks TJ 1634, 1666 nari, perforated
Among the bowls and juglets, there is a heavy concentration of red
slipped vessels. In many cases, these vessels are not burnished or have
burnishing only on the rim and interior of bowl forms. In the case of
shallow saucers, which appears to be a form that has just entered the
ceramic repertoire, the burnishing is radial from rim to centre (V421)
and the rim continues the line of the bowl without splaying outward.
27
27
In Room 305, there was a unique example of a saucer with black painted
lines forming a cross (Daviau 2001b: g. 3.11) that has a parallel in Tomb C at
Amman (Harding 1951: g. 1:5=Dornemann 1983: g. 32:1). Harding emphasized
that Tomb C should be dated to the 8th century rather than the 7th because the
rirrn r notsr .
Other bowl forms are similar to those found in Room 302 and in Fields
AB, namely hemispherical bowls (Dornemann 1983: g. 20:3), vertical
rim carinated bowls (Dornemann 1983: g. 44:LXIII), shallow bowls
with rounded sides and thickened rims (Dornemann 1983: g. 43:XIX),
and inverted rim bowls.
28
Although the fabric of ceramic vessels at Tall Jawa comes in a vari-
ety of wares, most of these are now known to us. In all the pottery
from Building 300, only one vessel from Room 306 appears to be an
import, namely the larger of two white-slipped amphorae. This vessel
(V307=E65.88.13) has a very thin-walled, pale red (2.5YR 7/3) fab-
ric covered with a thick, very pale brown (10YR 8/2), almost white,
slip that has been heavily polished. The folded rim is tall and rectan-
gular in section. Two at strap handles (not otherwise represented in
the Stratum VIII corpus) spring from a mid-neck ridge and are painted
with short black dashes on each edge (Daviau; 1996: g. 6:3). Numer-
ous black painted bands appear on the rim and sides of this biconi-
cal vessel, similar to the pattern on Cypriot White Painted IIIII ware
imported to Hama (Riis and Buhl 1990: g. 82:652).
29
In the case of
the Tall Jawa vessel, the base is a ring base, in contrast to the typical
double disk base found on a smaller white-slipped vessel from Room
302 (V309, Stratum VIIIB) that appears to be a local imitation.
The presence of a roof roller fragment in Debris Layer E65:28 is
evidence of the roof collapse in Room 306 that brought Stratum VIIIB
to an end. Fallen wall stones were present at the north end of Room
306, where the accumulation was deepest. Additional evidence for roof
ceramic wares appear to be earlier than those from the Tomb of Adoni Nur and the
tomb at Meqabelein (1951:37). Dornemann appears to agree, since he locates Tomb C
in the range of 780660 BC (1983: Table 4).
28
Dornemann (1983: g. 20:3), in his Sequence I from the early Iron Age, illustrates
a wide range of bowls with rounded sides that fall into the category of hemispherical
bowls. Bowls with vertical upright rims appear in the corpus from Tall al-#Umayri
(Lawlor 1991: g. 3.26:1) and in Dornemanns own sounding on the #Amman citadel
(1983: g. 44: LXIII). Shallow bowls with rounded sides and thickened rims are usually
red slipped and burnished and are common at #Amman (Dornemann 1983: g. 43:
XIX). Bowls with inverted triangular rim and smudged interior were also common at
sites in ancient Ammon (Lawlor 1991: g. 3.13:2226).
29
The pattern of black painted lines on the sherds recovered at Hama (Riis and
Buhl 1990: g. 82:652) that probably come from a vessel comparable to an amphora
(Riis and Buhl 1990: 138, g. 63:426) appears comparable to the Tall Jawa vessel; the
painted sherds from Hama are dated to the 720 BC destruction. However, V. Kara-
geoghis afrms that unlike the Hama imports, the Tall Jawa amphora is not of Cypriot
manufacture (personal communication, May 1988).
.8 cn\r+rn sr\rx
collapse is the continuation of smashed pottery in Debris Layer E65:24,
which covered sherd-lled Layer E65:28 These two loci could only be
distinguished from on another by the presence of a circular ring of
stones that formed Rockfall E65:25. This pattern of collapse, which was
incomplete on the north side, measured 1.001.25 m across and had a
depth of 0.140.24 m. Within the circle, its ll (E65:26) contained pale
brown soil (10YR 6/3), burnt stones and a broken pithos. This feature
suggests the pattern that results from the collapse of upper wall stones
around a large pithos, in this case one that was located against Wall
3005. Vessels and a rectangular basalt mortar from the upper storey or
roof terrace were scattered in the collapse.
Although no clear surface sealed Layer E65:24, the presence of
another superimposed debris layer (E65: 18=13) suggests a collapsed
ceiling. When Room 306(B) was destroyed, the uppermost cobblestones
of Wall 3005 fell into the room and smashed the vessels in use at
the time. At this point, the surrounding walls with cobblestone units
(W3005, 3030) remained standing, ca. 0.40 m above the oor to heights
of at least 922.79922.87 masl. With its mud-brick superstructure,
Wall 3030 may even have had a top elevation of 923.01 masl, while
boulder-and-chink Wall 3011 on the east was preserved to 923.23
923.33 masl. The pottery contained in soil Layer E65:18 was smashed
in situ and much of it was mendable. Some sherds were burnt and
the collapsed mud-brick superstructure of Wall 3030 was reddened
suggesting damage that occurred when Stratum VIIIB ended.
The presence of additional soil layers within Room 306 (E65:11, 8)
suggests Stratum-VIIIA occupation at a somewhat higher level than in
Room 302 (922.50 vs. 922.22 masl). This may have been due to the
small size of Room 306 that made it difcult to remove collapsed wall
stones before the installation of a new oor.
Room 320
Along the south end of Room 306 is a small space (R320; 0.70

2.35
m) that opens directly through Doorway F into Room 302, adjacent
to the southern entrance (E).
30
Boulder-and-chink Wall 3011 forms the
back end of Room 320, while its side walls (W3030, W3008) consist
of low cobblestone partition walls. Wall 3030 on the north consists of
one large boulder (E65:20) that separates Doorway D on the north
30
Although the south wall of Room 320 was in Square E64, the oor levels were
dug as E65 due to their close relationship to oors in Rooms 302 and R306.
rirrn r notsr .q
from Entrance F to the south, along with 2 rows of cobbles and small
boulders that stand 36 courses high and run east to Wall 3011. On the
south is a well-built wall unit (E64:32) of 2 rows of cobblestones capped
by at topped small boulders running west from Wall 3011 to meet 2
large boulder pillars (E64:7) that form the south side of Entrance F and
the east frame of Doorway E.
Entrance F is the full width of Room 320 and provided easy access
to the ceramic vessels in storage within the room. Here were a pithos,
a very small red slipped bowl (V382), a miniature krater (V383), and a
basalt grinder (TJ 2187). This small room would have been a suitable
place for storage of extra vessels when not in use. This same function
was probably continued in Stratum VIIIA, where evidence for the
position of an upper surface is marked by the base of a toppled pithos
(E64:27=33) smashed by rockfall.
The Central CourtyardR308+324
The central and eastern rooms in Building 300 suggest by their loca-
tion, orientation, and style of architecture the presence of a central
courtyard (designated R308+324). The digging of Cistern E64:13 in
this area in Stratum VIIIA obscured to a certain extent the evidence for
the earlier use of this court. At the same time, the proximity of bedrock
to the surface, visible in the cisterns mouth and three drain holes, indi-
cates the suitability of this area for an open court, where water would
drain away quickly into natural underground cavities. The deep soil
layers, lled with broken pottery, preserve the remains of activities car-
ried out here in Stratum VIIIB before the construction of the mouth
of the cistern and Stratum-VIIIA Partition Wall 3012, which separates
the Courtyard into two rooms; R308 on the north and R324 on the
south. Each room was dug separately because of the size of the area
(4.70

5.00+m), and the constraints of time during the nal season.


An attempt will be made to discuss the courtyard during Stratum VIIIB
as one unit.
Courtyard 308/324
The earliest oor in the central courtyard was a beaten earth and plas-
ter surface (E64:59) uncovered in the northeast quarter. This surface
appears to cover a layer of cobble size stones evident in the western half
of the locus. The absolute level (922.24 masl) of Surface E64:59 was
just below that of the top edge of the stones (E64:9, 14; 922.29 masl)
which lined the mouth of the later cistern. This same surface extended
.o cn\r+rn sr\rx
underneath the packed soil (E64:71, 64:54) which built up across the
area over time
31
and supported Stratum VIIIA Partition Walls 3009
and W3012 around the cistern mouth. Additional evidence for a Stra-
tum VIIIB surface was located on the south side of the courtyard (in
R324) along the balk where the consistency of the surface (E64:70)
changed as it ran east from beaten earth to gravelly soil with pebbles
and small cobbles. The use of the courtyard is seen most clearly here in
the south where a 0.25 m thick layer of soil (E64:63, 64),
32
containing a
noticeable amount of animal bones and 1100+ceramic sherds, built up
on Surface E64:70.
Along the west side were two holes that may have been connected
to Drain #1, although the holes themselves did not appear to join.
One such hole was rectangular (0.10

0.20 m) and surrounded by


large pebbles while the shape of the second hole was more amorphous.
Although the proximity of the beaten earth surface (E64:70) to bedrock
was suspected, excavation ended before the underlying makeup could
be investigated. So too, the exposure of a direct continuation of this
locus (E64:70) as far north as Surface E64:59 in Room 308 remains
incomplete. At the same time, it is clear that this courtyard provided
access to the rooms surrounding it on all sides, and continued to serve a
vital function after Stratum VIIIB ended and the area was remodelled
during Stratum VIIIA (see below).
Room 326
In the northeast corner of the central courtyard (R308) is a small room
or corridor designated R326. The west face of Wall 3028 and the east
face of Wall 3011 form this narrow space (1.15

2.40 m), which leads


directly into the courtyard through Entrance N, marked by the dressed
south end of Wall 3011. At the north end, the space becomes even
narrower and may have served as a bin (R321) or dry well, west of
Stratum-VIIIB Room 312.
The earliest soil layer (E65:53=56) exposed in Room 326 was only
excavated in part and the remainder was left in place when it was
realized that this soil seals against the bottom course of Wall 3042 at
31
Pottery scatters within E64:54, immediately below Wall 3012, suggest continuous
use and a quick succession of phases.
32
Only in the southeastern corner was there a concentration of pebbles and gravelly
soil comparable to that in Surface E64:70.
rirrn r notsr .:
922.26 masl, and then extends under it to cover Room 321.
33
The level
of this soil layer is clearly in the same range as the Stratum-VIIIB sur-
face (E64:59) in the central courtyard and probably represents Stra-
tum VIIIB in R321, where Soil layer E65:55 runs under Wall 3042
from the north. Because this locus was not excavated all the way to
the northern limit of Room 321, against Casemate Wall 3000, the
evidence for the Stratum-VIIIB relationship of Rooms 326 and 321
remains incomplete.
A similar build-up of soil layers seen in the courtyard was present in
R326, where Soil Layer E65:52 contained patches of plaster, a water
channel along the west face of Wall 3028, animal bones and pockets
of hard packed soil and scattered stones. Since this layer reached the
same level (922.43 masl) as Stratum-VIIIA surface E64:52, the upper
part of this locus (E65:52) may represent collapsed ceiling material, as
was the case for Soil Layer E75:21 in Room 312, and Layer E65:54
in Room 321. Since there was evidence of reuse at an even higher
level, the space of Room 326, along with R321, appears to have been
incorporated into the nal Stratum-VIIIA occupation of Room 312.
Room 321
North of Room 326, and divided from Room 312 by Wall 3041, is
an even narrower space (0.80 m) that extends south (2.80 m) from
Casemate Wall 3000, as far as the north end of Wall 3028. At this
point, Wall 3041 seals against the west face of Wall 3028. The lowest
soil layers (E64:55, 56) in Room 321, excavated only in a probe at
the south end (0.75

1.25 m), consist of soil mixed with a considerable


number of cobble size stones and pebbles, some of which showed signs
of burning. Animal bones were frequent, although pottery was rare.
Whether this narrow space served to compensate for the rapid drop in
bedrock levels (see below) or had a more specic function, such as a
midden, which also served as a dry well that would help to channel
water away from the lower oor level of Room 312 and into the
courtyard, was not determined during excavation. The only evidence
for the latter is the high percentage (90%) of chert in W3041, an
amount which is in sharp contrast to the typical wall, where limestone
33
Although further excavation was not possible, one can only suppose that the south
end of Wall 3041, which reduced the width of Room 321 due to its alignment, would
have been visible from Room 326 if in fact there had been an earlier surface running
the full length of both rooms at a lower level.
.. cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.12. Building 300, eastern unit, with relevant locus numbers.
boulders and cobbles are in the 8090% range. This choice of an
impermeable stone and the impression of a water channel in R326,
south of Wall 3042, point to a special relationship of this narrow space
with the nearby courtyard. At the same time, the channel may have
been formed during the intervening centuries and not have been part
of the original features in this area.
These debris layers were in turn covered by another layer (E65:54)
of loose soil with areas of hard packed earth on its upper surface. There
were also pockets of ash and nari, animal bones and 120 ceramic
sherds. There is, however, no assemblage of artefacts and pottery in
this locus that would indicate the function of this space during Stra-
tum VIIIB.
The Eastern Unit: Rooms 312, 313, 314, 317, 327 (Fig. 7.12)
The evidence for Stratum-VIIIB construction and occupation of the
eastern unit of rooms is more complex than that for Rooms 302 and
303 further west. For example, in Room 312 just east of Room 321
rirrn r notsr .
and the central courtyard, the bedrock slopes steeply from west to
east, dropping ca. 1.00 m from the level (922.27922.06 masl) of the
bedrock outcrop (E64:50) in Room 302. This factor is true for all the
rooms in the eastern unit since they share the same deep oor levels
(921.25921.00 masl). When they went out of use, these rooms were
buried under 2.352.80 m of collapse and ll. Construction techniques
necessary to adjust to this change in elevation are also apparent, since
here the walls in these rooms measure 0.701.00 m thick.
At least ve rooms in the eastern unit are located between a series
of north-south walls (W3011, W3025, W3016, W3028 and W3027),
that tend to form long rooms. For example, Rooms 313 and 314 were
both 6.00+m in length.
34
At the same time, these parallel walls are
mostly boulder-and-chink construction and remain standing 2.00+m
in height, by comparison with the walls in the western unit that remain
standing only 0.651.30 m high. When found, several rooms were
without doorways (R312, R321), and could be understood as basement
rooms, which supported an upper storey, although that is not the only
suitable interpretation of the evidence. Due to the limits of excavation
in this area, the full stratigraphic association of these rooms to Room
327 and to the remainder of the house was not determined with
certainty, although it is clear that the north-south walls of these room
were built with Inner Casemate Wall 3000 already in place. In addition
to the depth of deposition, a ll layer of extremely hard red soil
with numerous nari inclusions was present in several rooms indicating
a peculiar destruction history, unlike the rest of Building 300.
Room 312
Built up against the inner casemate Wall (W3000), Room 312(B) is
a square room (2.75

3.20m) that shares the space between Walls


3011 and 3025 with R321. Separating Room 312 from R321 is Wall
3041, a thin (0.50 m thick) boulder-and-chink wall, which abuts inner
Casemate Wall 3000 on its south face. At the point where it reaches
911 courses high, this 2row chert wall (W3041) is capped by small
limestone boulders. At this height, Wall 3041 is ca. 0.450.53 m below
the top of the major north-south walls (W3011, 3025, 3028) and of
Casemate Wall 3000, which was 11 courses high and stood ca. 3.00 m
above the earliest oor (E75:26).
34
This assumes that Room 314 included the area labelled R327 that was not excav-
ated.
. cn\r+rn sr\rx
On the east of Room 312, Wall 3025 runs the length of Room
313 as far as Doorway K (5.40 m) into R327/314. This is an excep-
tionally well built wall, formed of small boulders and chink stones,
except at its south end, where large, semi-hewn boulders frame door-
way K. The total width of Wall 3025 is 1.101.20 m. Although one
would expect a doorway between neighbouring Rooms 312 and 313,
no Stratum-VIIIB access was discovered, either through Wall 3025 or
into R327/314 on the south. This is somewhat surprising since the
second wall to be constructed in the formation of Room 312 was most
probably Wall 3028, which runs parallel to Wall 3025, and whose north
end of dressed boulders marks the south side of Room 312. Inserted
between Wall 3028 and Wall 3025 is a thin (0.50 m thick) partition
Wall (W3043) which stands 0.60 m lower than the top of the major
walls.
35
Possibly a doorway between Rooms 312 and 327=314 was
blocked by the construction of Wall 3043, although this is not evident
in the wall itself. At the same time, Wall 3043 bonds with the north
end of Wall 3028, and the earliest known oor surface in Room 312
seals against and runs up the sides of the surrounding walls, making
it clear that there was no reconstruction of Room 312 during Stra-
tum VIIIB. This well-preserved beaten earth surface (E75:26), probably
just above bedrock, forms the oor and seals up against the walls, lling
in the corners. Crushed on the oor and within the overlying soil layer
(E75:25) were numerous artefacts and mendable vessels, most notably
a pithos with a potters mark (V392) and a red slipped and painted jug
(V310).
Table 7K. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 312(B)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E75:2526 saucer V397 red slip, thick walled
bowl V364 red slip, vertical rim
bowl V405 inverted rim
cup V403
krater V345 3 loop-handle feet
2 pithoi V392, V407
2 storejars V391, V393
jug V310 red slip, paint
juglet V316 small, black burnished
1859 ceramic sherds
astragalus TJ 2818 perforated
35
The height of these thin walls (3041, 3043) marks the level at which Stratum
VIIIA oors covered the underlying debris (see below).
rirrn r notsr .
Figure 7.13. Room 312, pithos (V392) in situ.
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
lithic ake L856
2 stone tools TJ 2068, 2184 polishing stones
2 mortars TJ 2082, 2180 limestone
2 grinders TJ 2071, 2078 basalt
2 millstones TJ 2139, 2176 basalt
stopper TJ 2057 stone
spindle whorl TJ 2146 ceramic
loom weight TJ 2164 clay
2 points TJ 2074, 2075 iron, one with rivet
metal TJ 2169 copper fragment
4 sherds 95/153, 156, 162, 172 reworked
Pithos V392 was in situ on an angle that brought its rim to a point
0.30 m above Surface E75:26 (Fig. 7.13). This indicates the amount of
ceiling debris (E75:25) that collapsed into the room. Above the ceiling
material was another living surface (E75:2122) with an assemblage
of pottery and artefacts that were broken in the collapse. Whether
these items were in use in an upper storey room or were on the roof
cannot be determined denitively, but the amount of rockfall in both
Soil Layers E75:21 and E75:22 suggest the former. Within these loci
were two installations; Saddle Quern TJ 1898 on a compact plaster
patch attached to the quern itself and located adjacent to south Wall
3043, and Installation E75:24, a stone working surface that measured
0.350.43 wide

0.64 long

0.15 m thick.
.6 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Table 7L. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 312(B), upper storey/ceiling
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E75:2122 bowl V401 red slip, vertical rim
2 bowls V402, V404 red slip
bowl V396 inverted rim
krater V406
cooking pot V395
jar V408 hole mouth
2 jugs V344, V394
1291 ceramic sherds
socket stone TJ 2060 limestone
stone tray TJ 2011 basalt
bowl/mortar TJ 1935 basalt
knife TJ 2029 iron
lithic blade L837 chert
3 pestles TJ 1914, 1966, basalt
2032
grinder TJ 1924 basalt
millstone TJ 1917 upper, loaf-shaped
3 querns TJ 1898, 1899 saddle
2045
2 pounders TJ 1944, 1965 chert
The pottery and artefacts within Room 312 were all part of the equip-
ment of food processing and preparation activities typical of Building
300. Although it is not possible to determine how long these activities
continued in this room, it is apparent from the archaeological record
that Room 312 was lled with additional rockfall (E75:18) and then
reused in Stratum VIIIA.
Room 313
At 6.00 m in length, Room 313 is one of the longest rooms in Building
300.
36
By contrast with Rooms 302 (4.80 m) and R303 (4.70 m), the
narrow end of Room 313, with a width of 2.30 m, is along inner
Casemate Wall 3000. Wall 3016, which is footed on bedrock at the
south end of Room 313, forms the eastern wall of this room and the
west wall of Passageway 309. No doorway connects Passageway 309 to
36
The other long room is Room 314, exposed only in its southern two thirds. Since
there is a possibility that Wall 3026 continued west beyond Doorway K as a partition
wall, the northern third was labelled R327. Together, Room 314+327 are 6.75 m long.
rirrn r notsr .
Room 313, so that the function of the corridor in relation to Building
300 remains obscure. While it appears that Wall 3016 was the outside
wall, it had a thickness of only 0.75 m and was a 2-row thick wall,
whereas Wall 3025, the west wall of Room 313, was a 1.00 m, 3-
row wall, more appropriate for an outer wall. Be this as it may, both
walls abut the inner casemate wall face (W3000) and are capable of
supporting one or more upper stories. The only entrance is Doorway
K at the south end of Wall 3025, leading into Room 327/314.
The earliest oor in use is Surface E75:16, an earthen surface imme-
diately above bedrock, that was covered in places with ca. 0.02 m of
plaster. Floor E76:16, exposed only in a 1.00 m square probe, seals
against Wall 3016 on the east and Wall 3026 on the south. Resting on
the oor in Room 313 were sherds of a smashed pithos, ashes and ani-
mal bones in a layer (E75:15) of darkened soil (10YR 4/4) that suggests
extensive organic remains, possibly from the storejars which had been
propped up along the wall. All ceramic vessels were associated with
food preparation and storage. No evidence for other activities could be
identied.
Table 7M. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 313(B)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E75:1516 cup V403 1 handle
pithos V387
amphoriskos V389 biconical, white slip
ask V388 painted
A series of soil layers (E75:14, 13, 12) which accumulated above Debris
Layer E75:15 probably consist of collapsed ceiling remains, as evident
in the presence of plaster lenses, crushed mud-brick, pottery, especially
cooking pot sherds, 23 animal bone fragments, broken millstones, and
a limestone mortar (TJ 1605). The source of the mud brick is uncer-
tain, since Casemate Wall 3000 remains standing 3.00 m above Floor
E75:16, and its superstructure could hardly have tumbled into Room
313 to the depth of Soil Layer E75:14. A more probable source would
be the superstructure of anking Walls 3016 and 3025, or of south
Wall 3026 which is formed of one row of medium sized boulders and
remains standing 2.09 m above the plaster oor.
Where one would expect evidence for Stratum VIIIA reuse of Room
313, there is instead a reddish soil layer (E75:11; terra rossa) with plas-
ter/nari inclusions, especially in the south end of the room. This layer
.8 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.14. Room 314, looking north, Wall 3027 on right.
appears to have been a deliberate ll that marks the abandonment of
Room 313 and is even more evident in Room 314 (see below). In con-
trast, at the north end of Room 313, there was a group of ground stone
tools including broken millstones, a saddle quern (TJ 1506), a limestone
door weight (TJ 1508), and a chert blade (L863). Since no mendable
pottery was associated with these artefacts, it is not clear whether this
represents a work area on the roof that had a different pattern of col-
lapse, or was just a midden. Additional rockfall loci (E75:3, 5), which
represent the end of occupation in Building 300, cover the anking
walls of Room 313 and extend the full length of the square over south
Wall 3026.
Room 314 (Fig. 7.14)
Another rectangular room (R314), comparable in size to Room 313
(2.75

4.25 m; +R327=6.75 m long), runs parallel to Room 317 and


Passageway 309 to the east and anks the central Courtyard (Room
308) to the west. Doorway K from Room 313 leads into the northern
third of Room 314 (designated R327), framed by the end of Wall 3025
and the north face of Wall 3026. Doorway M is framed by the south
face of the same wall (W3026) and by the end of Wall 3027. A third
doorway (L), located in the southwest corner, is formed by the ends of
rirrn r notsr .q
Walls 3028 and W3029, and opens into Courtyard 308. Wall 3028 is
a two-row wall with boulder-and-chink construction in the size range
of 0.750.85 m thick, which indicates that it served as a major support
wall for Rooms R314+R327. In contrast, Wall W3036, which forms
the south end of Room 314, is only 0.550.60 m thick. Wall 3036 runs
east-west to abut the north end of Wall 3029 and the south end of Wall
3027, where it stood ca. 0.80 m lower than the tops of the anking
walls, suggesting that it may have been robbed out. However, since this
same pattern was also true of Wall 3043 on the south side of Room
312, the full meaning of this anomaly remains unclear. Midway along
its length, Wall 3036 appears to rest on a bedrock step whose north
face was cut away to form the lowest course of the wall itself.
In terms of construction, the most outstanding wall is W3027 (Fig.
7.14), formed of stacked-boulder pillars, one monolithic pillar, and
cobblestone connecting units all topped by large rectangular boulders
(Daviau 1996: g. 7; 1999: g. 5b). Both Walls 3027 and W3036 are
footed on bedrock (E74:24), which was exposed in the eastern half
of Room 314, where excavation reached oor level. In the west half
of the room, rockfall layer E74:18 remains in place to a height of
1.00 m above bedrock. In view of the depth of Stratum-VIIIB oor
levels in Room 314, almost 1.00 m below those in courtyard 324+308,
excavation in this area did not reveal the complete picture of the trafc
patterns among the rooms in the eastern unit or their relationship to
the central courtyard during Stratum VIIIB.
Covering the limestone surface (E74:24)
37
is a thin layer of soil that
lls the shallow pockets in the bedrock. On this oor, and under 0.20
cm of overlying soil, were a bula, tibia and patella of a person who
stood ca. 1.581.67 m in height. While the rest of the skeleton was
not recovered, one may assume that it lies buried in the west half
of the room under the rockfall (E74:18) which remains unexcavated.
The collapse itself (E74:23, 21, 22) appears to have fallen from north
to south, and to have been a ceiling which supported red slipped
bowls, a grinder and tabun fragments. This ceiling was covered in turn
by collapsed wall stones (E74:21), and additional artefacts including
several iron points.
37
Bedrock was initially identied as a plaster surface, when rst uncovered in the
middle of Room 314 at 921.28 masl. A similar situation occurred in Room 313 where
plaster Surface E75:16 was exposed at a comparable elevation (921.25).
.o cn\r+rn sr\rx
Table 7N. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 314(B)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E74:20, 21, 23 2 bowls V409, V410 red slip, black paint
2 bowls V385, V386 smudged
bowl V411 yellow
bowl V390 red slip, vertical rim
miniature jug V526
473 ceramic sherds
2 blades L684, 685 chert
grinder TJ 1661 limestone
millstone discarded burnt fragment
saddle quern TJ 1662
pecking stone chert
2 points TJ 1590, 1614 iron
tabun fragments
Destruction
The cause of the original Stratum-VIIIB collapse and the reason for
skeletal remains in Room 314 are unclear, although earthquake is a
possibility. What is certain is that Wall 3027 with its distinctive architec-
ture remained standing to its full height of 1.802.00 m above bedrock
with its capping stones in place. Rockfall E74:21 fell into Room 314
from the north, possibly representing the collapse of an upper storey
wall or another partition wall that divided the full space into two units
(R314+R327).
Partially covering the rockfall in the south end of Room 314 was
a lens of plaster at the bottom of a deep clay layer (E74: 22, 20,
19) that contained nari inclusions and scattered stones. This compact
material was also found south of Wall 3036 in Room 323 (E74:15,
17), where it was separated from the same ll in Room 314 by a
loose, sandy soil layer (E74:14, 8) which seems to ll a robber trench
38
above Wall 3036. However, this same sandy layer was present both
under (E74:14) and over additional layers of hard soil and nari clumps
(E74:7, 9). The origin of this hard, compact soil, or terra rossa, was most
probably Cistern E64:13, cut at the beginning of Stratum VIIIA. We
can imagine the problem of where to put all the soil from the natural
38
The fact that there are other walls (W3041, 3042, 3043) that are of the same size
as Wall 3036 (ca 0.50 m thick), and did not reach the preserved height of the major
walls which they abut, suggests that these walls were deliberately built in this way at
the same time. Thus the appearance of a robber trench (E74:8) above Wall 3036 may
require another explanation.
rirrn r notsr .:
depression, which the ancient inhabitants emptied and enlarged to
form the cistern.
39
It appears that they sacriced several eastern rooms
whose deep oor levels made reuse unpractical. At the same time, the
death in Room 314 was sealed under the ll, and the area was used
only as an open work area during Stratum VIIIA. Evidence for such
an interpretation is the uneven upper level of the ll layer (E74:7) and
the presence of broken pottery, a limestone mortar (TJ 1503), a spindle
whorl (TJ 1396) and several agstones (one possibly a socket stone) in
the overlying soil layer (E74:4). Caught in the general destruction in
Doorway L was a gurine (TJ 1375; Daviau 2002:6263) consisting of
a red slipped clay tree trunk with the impressed gure of a nude
female on one side. This form is not the usual pillar gurine type,
where the womans skirt forms the pillar. In this case, the female gure
is an addition to clay cylinder.
Additional evidence can be seen in the contrast between this area
and the uppermost remains in Room 312 (see below), and in the
position of stones (below E74:18) within Doorway L that blocked the
entrance to the cistern area almost to the height of Wall 3036. West of
the doorway was Stratum-VIIIA Wall 3044, which surrounds Corridor
325, further cutting off Room 314 from the area around the new
cistern.
Room 317
Room 317 is east of Room 314 and immediately south of Room 313,
separated from it by Wall 3026. Approximately the same width (ca.
2.5 m) as room 313, Room 317 appears to end on the same line as
Room 314 giving it a length of only 4.30 m. Only the southwest corner
of south Wall 3048 was exposed, at the point where it abuts the east
face of Wall 3027. Although not excavated, it seems apparent that Wall
3016, or its continuation along Passageway 309, forms the east wall of
the room. While it would have been interesting to see if Room 317 was
also abandoned after the disaster at the end of Stratum VIIIB, only
the uppermost soil layers and rockfall (E74:3=E75:10) were removed.
At these levels (923.00 masl), the reddish soil that lled Room 314 and
spilled over into Room 313 was not encountered.
39
A similar dilemma was faced annually by the excavation team, since the soil
dumps were restricted to certain areas on the tell itself, due to the rights of the
landowners.
.. cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.15. Building 300, western unit, Stratum VIIIA.
Room 323
South of Room 314, the hard red soil of brick-like material with nari
inclusions (E74:9, 15) is present south of the walls (W3036+W3027+
W3048) which serve as the north wall of Room 323. Although only a
narrow segment (1.001.50 m) of this room was excavated, it is clear
that the same depositional sequence seen in Room 314 is present here
as well. As a result of the depth of deposition, and the apparent aban-
donment of the eastern unit of rooms in Building 300, Stratum-VIIIA
remains can only be described for the western and central rooms.
STRATUM VIIIA
The Western Unit: Rooms 303, 304, 305, 315, 316, 318, 319 (Fig. 7.15)
The rooms of the western unit of Building 300 were reused and, in
some cases, remodelled following the destruction of Stratum VIIIB. Al-
rirrn r notsr .
though the same sequence of superimposed oors and ceilings evident
in the central unit could not be duplicated with the same certainty
in the western unit, it is clear from the addition of new walls, and
especially from the ceramic vessels and artefacts in situ under the nal
Stratum-VIIIA collapse, that these two units were in use simultaneously.
Room 303
In Room 303, the Stratum-VIIIA builders reused Wall 3003 on the
east and founded Wall 3001 within Debris Layers E44:7+9 on the
west. Although Wall 3001 is a two-row boulder-and-chink wall that
is on average 0.80 m thick and could have supported a ceiling over
a major room (303) within Building 300, there is evidence to suggest
that this was not the case. When found, Wall 3001 was preserved only
12 courses in height (0.250.32 m). So too, Wall 3002, which forms
the west side of Room 304, is ca. 0.85 m in width and is preserved to
a height of only 0.350.65 m. This minimal preservation suggests that
these were either partition walls or foundations, which could have been
a footing for wooden pillars or mud bricks, rather than walls that stood
the full height of the room.
Evidence for a Stratum VIIIA oor (E44:7, upper levels =E54:19) in
use with Walls 3001, W3003 and W3004 is marked by the presence of a
number of objects and at-lying pottery at a level of 0.500.80 m above
the earlier oor (E54:32=44:11). This hard-packed soil layer (E54:19),
compressed by the collapse of stones from the surrounding walls when
Building 300 went out of use, contained several superimposed plaster
lenses suggesting a collapsed ceiling.
Table 7P. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 303(A)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E54:19+ saucer V421 red slip
E44:7, upper bowl V425 red, hemispherical
cooking pot V486
jug V434
1566 ceramic sherds
tray TJ 786 basalt
mortar TJ 1130 limestone
grinder TJ 1116 limestone
At a somewhat higher level, above the fallen stones and plaster frag-
ments embedded in E54:19, was a soil layer (E54:14, 13=E44:6) with
ash pockets, animal bones and teeth, indicating cooking areas and a
. cn\r+rn sr\rx
group of food processing tools. From the same loci were a collection of
unique artefacts and ceramic vessels that point to cultic activity, includ-
ing a basalt tray (Daviau 1994: g. 6.2), a strainer bowl,
40
a nearly intact
red slipped juglet (E54.112.1), sherds of a white slipped and painted
decanter, the upper half of a female gurine (TJ 1119) and tripod
cups,
41
one with petals hanging from the carination just above the base.
This assemblage suggests a different range of activities from those on
the lower oor, where artefacts and ceramic vessels seem to have been
used mainly for storage and food processing, while the upper oor or
roof had a greater variety of activities, including elements of a domestic
cult (Daviau 2001b).
Table 7Q. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 303(A), upper level
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E54:1314 bowl V487 burnished
E44:6 cooking pot V488
2 pithoi V489, V490
juglet V360=TJ 1132 red slip
decanter V377 red slip, 2 strainers
strainer bowl V491 red slip, holes in base
tripod cup V358=TJ 1475 painted
miniature cup V492
886 ceramic sherds
gurine TJ 1119 female, mould-made, painted
stone TJ 1114 limestone, perforated
Room 304
The eastern (W3001) and western (W3002) walls of Room 304 are both
boulder-and-chink walls set into a deep Stratum VIIIB Debris Layer
(E44:9=15+16) of yellowish brown soil (10YR 5/4) that continued to
build up inside this room. Probes through the debris did not encounter
either the Stratum-VIIIB or -VIIIA oors uncovered in Room 303 to
the east of Wall 3001. Within this debris layer was a large amount of
sherd material (820), animal bones (569), and a few artefacts consisting
of two basalt hand grinders (TJ 884, 966) and a ceramic spindle whorl
(TJ 947). While these nds suggest domestic activities, their pattern
of distribution appears random and there is no evidence of cooking.
Because no specic activity areas could be identied, the accumulation
40
A strainer cup with handle from Level VII at Beth Shan (James and McGovern
1993: g. 52:4) is the closest parallel in terms of size and shape.
41
Perforated tripod cups are attested as early as the 9th century B.C. at #En-Gev
(Mazar et al. 1964:10; g. 8, pl. 12A).
rirrn r notsr .
of sherds and animal bone fragments in Room 304 suggests a midden
in an abandoned room or in an area especially designed for that
purpose.
Destruction
The pattern of rockfall suggests that the inner Casemate Wall (W3000)
collapsed into Room 304 from the north, covering almost the entire
area of Square E44. Only along the south balk was there an accumu-
lation of gravel (E44:5) that may represent a segment of ceiling, either
from Room 304 itself or more probably from the casemate room at
a higher level. Since Square E43 was not excavated, the continuation
of this locus in the south balk was not traced and its original func-
tion remains uncertain. Of interest is the large number of artefacts (20)
contained within the rockfall (E44:6, 2) from Casemate Wall 3000 and
from the walls of Room 303. While most of these objects were the usual
ground stone tools, there was one complete millstone (TJ 736) and the
alabaster handle of a jug (TJ 688), comparable to a jug from Dayr #Alla
(#Amman National Museum).
42
Room 305 (Fig. 7.16)
Following the end of Stratum VIIIB in Room 305, the ceiling material
(E54:21=50) which accumulated above the fallen wall stones served
as the foundation for Stratum VIIIA occupation. Within this debris,
the inhabitants extended Wall 3001 to the south, so that it formed the
west wall of both Rooms 303 and R305, and the north frame of door-
way I. Wall 3004 on the north remained in use as did Wall 3024 on
the east and Walls 3035+3037 on the south. Doorway H showed evi-
dence for a rebuild in the form of a semicircle of stones that marked
its north side. This same feature, possibly a support for the threshold,
is also seen in Doorway G from Room 305 into Room 315. A hard-
packed soil layer (E54:15) and severely disturbed artefacts and pottery
(E54:12) suggest reuse of this area within the new connes Room 305.
The domestic activities evident in the Stratum VIIIB use of Room
305 probably continued in this nal occupation phase, although the
artefact distribution was less clear in the archaeological record, due
to the severe collapse of the surrounding walls at the end of Stra-
tum VIIIA.
42
Personal observation, 1995.
.6 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.16. Building 300, western unit, Room 319, 315, 305 (left
to right), Corridor 316 with stairs in Doorway J (foreground).
Table 7R. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 305(A)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E54:12+15 bowls
krater
cooking pot sherds
ask V305 painted
strainer sherds
772 ceramic sherds
tray TJ 1351 basalt
stone TJ 1365 polishing
mortar TJ 900 limestone
pestle TJ 781 basalt
grinder TJ 913 basalt
3 millstones TJ 784, 789, 851 upper, loaf-shaped
2 pounders TJ 783, 1422 chert
Collapsed wall stones (E54:9) ll Room 305 and mark the end of
occupation. Within the collapse in Doorway I on the west (E53:21)
was a fragment of worked bone (TJ 1631) and a silver earring (TJ
rirrn r notsr .
Figure 7.17. Building 300, Room 315, with cobblestone oor and pillared walls.
1755).
43
These few rened artefacts can be associated with the numer-
ous specialty items and gurines found in the uppermost loci in Build-
ing 300, pointing to a complex social and economic system in place in
this rural town.
Room 315 (Figs. 7.16, 17)
Adjoining Room 305 on the south is Room 315, a small room only
2.00

3.00 m in size. Excavated in 1994, Room 315 was exposed in the


northern half of Square E53. By the end of the 1995 season, only one
Stratum-VIII oor (E53:17) had been reached. Although it is possible
43
Earring TJ 1755 was a high status possession that was only partially preserved;
for a full description, see Daviau (2002:4243). Several earrings in the gold hoard from
Tawilan with similar characteristics have been compared to the jewellery from Nimrud
(Ogden 1995:72), although detailed publication of the Nimrud tombs has not yet
appeared. A silver earring with a pendant cluster from Tel Michal is also comparable to
Neo-Assyrian jewellery, a style that reached its apex during the Persian period (Muhly
and Muhly 1989: g. 25.10:195).
.8 cn\r+rn sr\rx
that this oor was in use at the same time as Stratum-VIIIB oors
in Rooms 305, R303, and R302, Room 315 is presented here as an
integral part of Building 300 in its later phase. This judgment is based
on the evidence for reconstruction seen in a possible blocked doorway
at the south end of Wall 3034, and on the oor levels, which were
comparable to the Stratum-VIIIA surface in Room 305.
Room 315 is bounded on the west (W3032), south (W3033) and east
(W3034) by 2row boulder-and-chink walls comprised of small (0.25
0.50 m) boulders. Wall 3033 on the south remains standing ca. 0.76 m
in height, with a total width of ca. 0.70 m. Wall 3034 on the east (ca.
0.60 m thick) runs south from a stacked-boulder pillar (E54:8) in north
Wall 3037. Midway along its length, Wall 3034 becomes a cobblestone
unit that abuts south Wall 3033.
44
The north wall (W3035, W3037)
is formed of two units anking Doorway G, each section consists of
stacked boulders (E53:9 and E53:10) with mud-brick or packed mud
connecting units (E53:19, 22), which are preserved ca. 0.32 m and 0.56
m high respectively. Mud-brick detritus within both Rooms 305 and
315 (E53:11) indicates a certain amount of collapse from these units.
The western boundary of Room 315 is composed of Wall 3032
which is formed of several discrete units, including Wall 3031 that runs
west into the balk. Wall 3031 consists of large boulders, two courses
wide (ca. 0.63 m wide); Wall 3032 runs north to seal against its south
face. A stone on the north face of Wall 3032 has a vertical, semi-dressed
side that suggests it was the southern frame of a very large doorway (I)
in an earlier phase. The southern end of Wall 3032 abuts Wall 3033,
the south wall of Room 315.
Cobble Surface E53:17 covers the oor of Room 315 and continues
up the west face of Wall 3034 and along the base of Walls 3033
and W3032. As far as could be observed, this surface is comprised
of limestone cobbles in the range of 0.060.25 m that were laid in
a mud plaster bedding. Three additional stones were positioned in a
semicircle on the cobbles as a threshold between Pillars E53:9 and
E53:10 in Doorway G (see Doorway H above). Running north-south
on Floor E53:17 were two parallel lines of cobbles (E53:11a and 11b)
that connect the south Wall (3033) to stacked pillars E53:9 and 10.
44
This unit in Wall 3034 may mark an earlier doorway between Rooms 315
and R316 that was blocked in Stratum VIIIA, although this sequence could not be
conrmed. At its present level (922.51 masl), Surface E53:17 appears somewhat higher
than the Stratum VIIIB-oors in Room 305 (922.32 masl) to the north.
rirrn r notsr .q
These rows of cobbles were found in a state of collapse along with
a certain amount of mud-brick material, but appear to divide Room
315 into three equal parts, each ca. 0.80 m wide. This arrangement,
and the cobble surface itself (E53:17), which seals the oor and the
lower parts of the surrounding walls, suggests special measures to create
a room impervious to intrusion by small animal pests and moisture.
Room 315 may have served as a kind of bin or granary for sacks
of foodstuffs, although in its latest use period a number of ceramic
storejars were in the room along with millstones, 4 iron points and an
obsidian arrowhead (TJ 1500).
Additional food preparation tools, 917 pottery sherds, and 1 iron
point were present in the overlying debris (E53:6). Evidence for the
destruction of Room 315 is present in the collapse of the ceiling (E53:4)
which lled the room and covered the low mud-brick wall units
(E53:19, E53:22). The most distinctive nds recovered from the ceil-
ing were a tall tripod mortar of vesicular basalt (TJ 1185; Daviau 2002:
g. 2.84:1) and a pumice bead (TJ 1192).
Room 316 (Fig. 7.16)
Room 316 is a corridor (ca. 1.00 m wide

3.00 m in length) parallel to


the east side of Room 315, that connects Room 305 with the cooking
area in Room 319 on the south. This walkway includes two entrances,
Doorway B into Room 305 and Doorway J into Room 319. If the
suggested phasing for Room 315 is accepted, it is possible that Corridor
316 was an integral part of Room 315 during Stratum VIIIB, before
Wall 3034 was constructed, although within Corridor 316 itself there is
no evidence for an earlier phase.
Doorway B on the north leads directly into Room 305, while on
the south Doorway J is marked by a rise of 0.250.30 m. This rise is
accommodated by three steps, which extend the full width of Corridor
316 and are formed of limestone ags held in place with chink stones.
A beaten earth surface (E63:23) seals up against the north edge of the
lowest step and against the anking walls (W3024, 3034). This surface
is marked by the presence of plaster and ash embedded in the oor. At
the south end of the stairs, the stones of the top step serve as a threshold
in Doorway J.
Covering the surface within Room 316 were several concentrations
of broken ceramic vessels surrounded by the soil of the collapsed ceiling
(E53:18=63:15). A group of pithos sherds were smashed on the oor at
the north end of the corridor, while cooking pot sherds were scattered
.6o cn\r+rn sr\rx
along its length. Not surprisingly, no artefacts were located in this high
trafc area. Above the stairs was an accumulation of mudbrick like
material (E63:8) that lled the space between the two anking walls
(W3024 and 3034). While clearly part of the archaeological record for
this corridor, the origin of this hard-packed material may be assigned
to the upper storey. Only one artefact, a chert pounder (TJ 2018), and
33 ceramic sherds were recovered from this locus. Accumulated soil
(E63:3) and topsoil (E63:2) sealed both the collapsed ceiling and the
walls of Corridor 316.
Room 319 (Fig. 7.16)
Parallel to the south wall of Room 315 is a narrow space (1.00

6.30
m), designated Room 319. This area is enclosed on the north by Wall
3033, which it shares with Room 315, and Stairs E63:17; Wall 3047 is
on the west, and Wall 3040 and Partition Wall 3038 are on the south.
All three walls (W3033, W3040, W3047) are 2row, boulder-and-chink
construction with Wall 3033 extending from Doorway J to the west
face of Wall 3047. At this point, Wall 3047 abuts Wall 3033 on its south
face. In turn, Wall 3040 abuts Wall 3047 on its east face. This southern
wall runs east only 2.20 m where it ends adjacent to Oven E63:10. At
this point a 1row, L-shaped partition wall (W3038) abuts the south
face of Wall 3040 and continues east forming the southern perimeter
of the cooking area (E63:21). The east end of Wall 3038 is marked by
a 2row wall stub (E63:22) which may have framed a doorway (P) or
marked the position of a robber trench (E63:7).
Along the south side of Room 319 is a recess (E63:21) which mea-
sures 0.27

2.40 m within its surrounding wall (W3038); here the wall


stands 0.900.93 m high. Within this recess is a large oven (E63:10),
consisting of an overturned pithos without its base (Fig. 7.18). The
pithos measures 0.53 m in diameter at the shoulder and the wall of the
vessel is 0.020.03 m thick. The rim of the pithos is at oor level and its
neck and shoulder are sealed in place by a hardened layer of soil and
plaster (E63:11) that lls the space between the oven and the adjacent
walls.
45
Next to this plaster is an accumulation of ash and soil (E63:24)
45
The utilisation of an inverted pithos packed around with clay to form an oven is
similar to Oven B63:30, which was also anked by a one-row partition wall (W2019;
see above). The location of a pithos oven in the thickness of a wall is also seen at Tel
Dan, where an upside down storage jar lled with ashes was set into W 5070 (Biran
1999:45; gs. 5, 6).
rirrn r notsr .6:
Figure 7.18. Room 319, Oven E63:10.
which built up against a hard-packed earthen bench or shelf (E63:16)
within the eastern corner formed by Wall 3038 and Wall Stub E63:22.
Resting on top of this installation was an iron point (TJ 2073), while
within the soil that formed the bench/shelf were numerous fragments
of int.
Inside the inverted pithos was a layer of loose soil (E63:12) that
lled Oven E63:10 when it went out of use. Below this soil, the neck
of the oven was lled ca. 0.40 deep with hardened soil (E63:13) that
looked like mud-brick material and included 70 fragments of the oven
wall. Another distinct soil layer (E63:14) contained ash pockets and 18
oven fragments. Missing from this assemblage are cooking pots sherds,
although several were recovered from Corridor 316.
The oor of Room 319 is a beaten earth surface with plaster and
hardened earth inclusions (E53:42=63:18).
46
Although this surface is
46
Although identied as mudbrick in the eld, no true bricks with mortar were
found either as a superstructure or as brick collapse. Firm, packed earth or pis with
organic inclusions appeared scattered throughout the soil layers adjoining Oven
E63:10.
.6. cn\r+rn sr\rx
best preserved in the western end of Room 319, it clearly seals against
Stairs E63:17 on the east and extends into the recess to form the
surface on which Oven E63:10 was placed. Present on this surface are
the usual ubiquitous ground stone tools used in food processing. Clearly
this area was intended as a food preparation and cooking room. With
the collapse of the surrounding walls and ceiling, Room 319 and recess
E63:21 were lled with the same soil and mud-brick debris and small
boulders (E63:6=53:38, E63:4) seen in Room 316. Here, too the mud-
brick detritus was more plentiful in the west end, near Wall 3047.
Table 7S. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 319(A)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E53:38= small jug V528
E63:6 882 ceramic sherds
mortar TJ 1939 basalt, small
2 mortars TJ 1964, 1994 basalt
mortar TJ 2003 limestone
pestle TJ 2067 basalt
grinder TJ 1959 basalt
millstone TJ 1998 upper, loaf-shaped
quern TJ 2000 basalt
pecking stone TJ 1947 chert
Room 318
To the west of Rooms 315 and 319 is Room 318 where remains of
two occupation levels were exposed in the eastern half of the room.
This can be seen most clearly by the addition of two architectural fea-
tures, stacked-boulder pillar E53:40 and one boulder of a second pillar
(E53:41). Pillar E53:40 stood adjacent to the west balk and remained in
place four courses high (0.96 m) above a hard-packed oor surface. In
use with these pillars was a oor (E53:37), in place above the Stratum-
VIIIB surface (E53:39). The lowest Stratum-VIIIA surface must have
been in use for some time, since it was covered by a layer of soil repre-
senting the build-up of a living surface. Both loci were damaged by
subsequent rockfall that appears to represent wall collapse. Embed-
ded within the surface and the collapse were small boulders and chink
stones, as well as soil with patches of packed earth (mud-brick mate-
rial) and mendable pottery, including cooking pots, red slipped bowls
and juglets. Also on the surface and embedded within it there were 32
artefacts that indicate numerous food processing activities.
rirrn r notsr .6
Table 7T. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 318(A)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E53:37 bowl V319 red slip, paint, very small
bowl V330 red slip, burnished
cup V318
cooking pot V320
juglet V324=TJ 1908 red slip
lamp V371
504 ceramic sherds
pendant TJ 1934 stone
mortar TJ 1946 basalt, small
2 mortars TJ 1897, 1956 broken
mortar TJ 1895 tripod
7 pestles TJ 1911, 1913, 1915, basalt
TJ 1916, 1918,
TJ 1919, 1920
8 grinders TJ 1912, 1921, 1922, basalt
TJ 1938, 1950, 1951,
TJ 1953, 1963
2 millstones TJ 1923, 1925 upper, loaf-shaped
2 querns TJ 1896, 1969 basalt saddle querns
4 pounders TJ 1943, 1945, 1952, chert
TJ 1960
spindle whorl TJ 2026 ceramic
3 stones TJ 1910, 1958, 2008 worked
weight TJ 1941 basalt
Evidence for Features on the Upper Storey/Roof
Superimposed above E53:37 was a soil and rockfall layer (E53:35) that
contained small and medium cobble size stones and small boulders
along with mendable pottery clusters. Two almost complete red slipped
juglets mark this surface while large pithos sherds suggest food storage,
probably on the roof.
Table 7U. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 318(A), upper level
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E53:35 jar V327 hole mouth
juglet V315=TJ 1867 red slip and paint
juglet V366 incised checkerboard
pendant TJ 1930 pumice
2 pendants TJ 1859, 2225 Glycymeris
shell dish TJ 1860 Unio
pestle TJ 1883 basalt, small
.6 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Room 322
East of Room 318 and south of Partition Wall 3038, there was no
evidence for an exterior wall for Complex 300. Instead, a debris layer
(E63:5) exposed in the southwest corner of Square E63, and probably
equal to E53:36 further west, suggests an additional room (R322) which
lay to the south of Corridor 319. As in E53, the soil layer excavated in
1995 (E63:5) was not completely removed as the purpose of excavation
was merely to delineate the south face of the L-shaped walls of Room
319. In spite of this limited exposure, additional rooms surrounding
central Cistern E64:13 seem very likely. No entrance into this complex
of rooms from the outside was identied prior to the end of excavation.
Destruction
Destruction along the west side of Building 300 appears to have oc-
curred in stages. While the major collapse brought down the ceilings
and made it impossible to remodel the building, a midden area (E44:5)
that consists of gravel and 300 ceramic sherds accumulated above
Rooms 303 and 304, just south of wall collapse E44:2. There were no
artefacts in Gravel Layer E44:5, whereas Rock Layer E44:2 contained
a limestone quern and a mortar, a basalt millstone, a chert pounder,
and an alabaster jug handle along with fragmentary ground stone tools.
While E44:2 may represent part of the original destruction, E44:5 may
have been the result of later activity, prior to the full collapse of the
wall system, which nally covered both E44:2 and E44:5 with a layer of
boulders.
The Central Unit: Rooms 302, 306, 307, Cistern E64:13, Cistern Area 308+
324, Room 326 (Fig. 7.19)
Room 302
Following the destruction of Stratum VIIIB in Room 302, the occu-
pants reused the existing walls (W3000, W3003, W3005, W3013), and
levelled the collapsed ceiling to form a new surface. This plastered oor
(E54:26=27=E55:19), initially exposed in 1992, seals up against Case-
mate Wall 3000 on the north, Shelf/Bench E54:24=55:24 and Wall
3024 on the west, Wall 3013 on the south, and slopes up against
Wall 3005 on the east. Shelf/Bench E54:24, originally founded on
Makeup E54:49 of Stratum VIIIB, is formed of 23 rows of semi-
dressed stones and several long stone slabs (E54:24 and E55:24) that
form a corner against Inner Casemate Wall 3000 (Daviau 1993c: g. 4).
rirrn r notsr .6
Figure 7.19. Building 300, central unit, Stratum VIIIA.
The uppermost slab of the shelf/bench measures 0.190.30 wide, 0.94
long, and 0.12 m thick. Bench/shelf E54:24 runs south, ending just
north of a windbreak (E54:28) that consists of a large basalt saddle
quern (0.29

0.57 m) set into the oor on its long edge. The quern
protected a cooking area located in the corner formed by the end of
Bench/shelf E54:24 and Quern E54:28 itself. A scatter of cooking pot
sherds lay on ash stained Surface E54:26, adjacent to the quern.
The eastern extension of Surface E54:26=E65:12 was clearly visible
within a sub-balk left against Stacked Boulder E65:14 of Wall 3005.
Here the surface, a distinct plaster layer, ca. 0.10 m thick, is on an
angle above Stratum VIIIB Debris Layer E65:37, as it slopes down
from Wall 3005. Additional plaster was present on the west face of
the adjoining cobblestone unit (E65:21) of Wall 3005. Further south,
.66 cn\r+rn sr\rx
within the north balk of E64, Surface E54:26=E65:12b is very patchy,
possibly the result of heavy trafc through Doorway E from Room 302
to Cistern E64:13, which was the central feature of Building 300 during
its nal occupation phase.
On this oor (E54:26=55:21), the artefacts that had been in use
during its occupation were broken and scattered across the room and
mixed with the overlying debris (E55:19, 54:23). Along with cooking
pot sherds were those of red slipped bowls, some on the upper surface
of Bench E54:24 (Fig. 7.20), basalt saddle querns, upper loaf-shaped
millstones, pestles, pounders, and a variety of mortars. Sealed in posi-
tion on Bench E55:24 by a layer of plaster (E54:19) were several minia-
ture basalt tools along with the base of a ceramic gurine, a ceramic
strainer vessel, a perforated stone, storejars and pithoi.
Table 7V. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 302(A)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E54:23, 26, 27 bowl
E55:19, 21 cup V399
krater
cooking pots
pithos V469
storejar sherds
strainer bowl V420 nger size holes
887 ceramic sherds
bead TJ 553 starsh fossil
stone TJ 548 chert, polishing
mortar TJ 503 miniature, basalt
pestle TJ 542 basalt
grinder TJ 557 granite?/porphyry
3 grinders TJ 545, 550, 551 limestone
8 grinders TJ 516, 517, 543, basalt
TJ 563, 570, 586,
TJ 977, 1017
4 querns TJ 558, 587, basalt
TJ 929, 996
quern TJ 569 limestone, large
pounder TJ 565 miniature, chert
point TJ 526 iron
gurine TJ 493
loom weight TJ 568 clay
Evidence for the collapse of the Stratum-VIII ceiling (E54:18) and the
superimposed fallen wall stones (E54:5, 7) does not show clearly what
rirrn r notsr .6
Figure 7.20. Room 302, Bench E54:24 with broken pottery.
activities might have been carried out on the roof. Only a small number
(3) of ground stone tools were recovered, and they were scattered over
Rooms 302 and R303. Thus the pattern of destruction in these two
rooms is similar, even though Room 302 leads into the Cistern Area
(R308+324) and a different pattern should be expected, if Room 308
was in fact unroofed. A more complete sequence of use on both the
Stratum-VIIIA oor and upper storey is seen in Room 306.
Room 306
The inhabitants of Building 300 used Walls 3000, 3005, 3011 and
3030 in their reuse of Room 306 during Stratum VIIIA. No plas-
ter surface, comparable to Floor E54:26 in Room 302, was apparent,
but a series of superimposed debris layers, each with at-lying pottery
strongly suggests continued occupation. The lowest Stratum-VIIIA sur-
face (E65:18; 922.46922.58 masl) is marked by an accumulation of
pottery and artefacts, with the heaviest concentration in the centre of
the room. At this point, the oor is ca. 0.110.15 m above the east side
of Plaster Floor E54:26, where it seals up against Wall 3005 at levels of
922.49 and 922.38 masl.
Superimposed above the collapsed stones of E65:18=13 were two
more debris Layers (E65:11, 8). Soil Layer E65:11 contained fragments
.68 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.21. Room 306, pottery in situ.
of plaster and fallen wall stones which lled Room 306. In the southern
half of the room was a small accumulation of pottery along with a bone
spatula and a perforated stone disc (Fig. 7.21). That this was the rst in
a series of superimposed Stratum-VIIIA surfaces, as was apparently the
case east of Wall 3011 in Room 312(A), is conrmed by the fact that
Soil Layer E65:11 was above the topmost stones of Wall 3030.
Debris Layer E65:8 contains the same sequence of accumulation as
Layer E65:18; namely, a layer of smashed ceramic vessels and artefacts
covered by fallen wall stones. This debris layer (E65:8) consists of
light gray soil (10YR 7/2) marked by scattered fragments of plaster,
suggesting a ceiling that broke up when it fell into the room. It extends
the full length of Rooms 306 and 320, representing the nal phase of
R306(A). The pottery scattered across the collapsed stones and soil of
E65:8 consists of ca. 1100 sherds, some from red slipped bowls with
inverted triangular rims that were decorated with black bands and
white wash which lls the space between the bands.
47
These vessels are
associated with spindle whorls, basalt grinders, mortars and millstones,
and an iron point.
47
This decorative scheme is described by van der Kooij and Ibrahim (1989: 103;
g. 117) as characteristic of the Ammonite potters in Iron IIC, 750600 B.C.
rirrn r notsr .6q
Table 7W. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 306(A)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E65:8+11 saucer V333 red slip
2 bowls V356, V451 red slip
bowl V353 red slip, paint
bowl smudged
krater
cooking pot
pithos V449 hole mouth
pithos V495
jug V369 red slip
2 juglets V349, V354 red slip
lamp
1133 ceramic sherds
whetstone TJ 1020 basalt
mortar TJ 985 limestone
millstone TJ 978 basalt
pounder TJ 975 chert
whorl TJ 967 ceramic
spatula TJ 1153 bone
point TJ 985 iron
disk TJ 1167 limestone, perforated
knob TJ 1009 bone, small
3 sherds 93/301, 302; reworked
94/140
The nal destruction of Building 300 consists of more than a few fallen
ceilings. The evidence in Rooms 306 and R302 shows that the walls
also collapsed, lling the rooms with boulders and cobblestones and
smashing all the ceramic vessels in use at the time. Roofs fell in as well,
being covered in turn by more fallen stone, possibly derived from the
cobblestone wall units that were preserved to the same height as the
stacked pillars with which they were associated.
Cistern E64:13 (Figs. 7.2224)
The plan of Building 300 during Stratum VIIIA, especially the layout
of rooms in the central unit, indicates that it was rebuilt with serious
modications, especially the inlling of several eastern rooms (313,
R314+327, R323) when Cistern E64:13 was dug. The cistern itself
appears to have been cut in an area where a natural depression lled
with terra rossa had served as a sump for rain water in Central Court-
.o cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.22. Cistern area with Wall 3009 on
left, and Wall 3008 on right of Cistern E64:13.
yard 308 during Stratum VIIIB.
48
The new cistern was roughly circular
in shape (5.69 m north-south, 5.98 m east-west, carved out of bedrock
to a depth of 2.57 m from ceiling to oor. A ledge/shelf of rock, ca.
0.36 m in height and varying in width from 0.500.73 m, ran along
the southwest perimeter at oor level. The characteristics of this ledge
were not clear,
49
because it was covered with the same plaster (E64:17)
that completely lined Cistern E64:13, except for the ceiling. Marks at
various points on the plaster indicate water levels within the cistern
at various times in the past. At present, there is no way to determine
whether these marks reect ancient or modern water levels, since water
from the surrounding area has continued to collect in the cistern.
50
48
Such cavities are seen wherever bedrock has been cut through as a result of road
building activities in the #Amman area.
49
No attempt was made to excavate the ledge. It may have been merely a harder
vein of bedrock that the rock cutters left in place. However, a similar ledge, also along
the south side, appears in Cistern D15:2, and may have served in both cisterns as a
guide to low water levels.
50
The landowner was not surprised at the discovery of a cistern in this location
since he has seen water, which collected here during a rain storm, seep away quickly
(H. Talayeh, personal communication, June 1993).
rirrn r notsr .:
Figure 7.23. Cistern E64:13, north-south section; drawn by J. R. Batteneld.
Within the cistern, and covering most of its oor area, was a cone
of soil that had ltered in through the principal opening, which is
located off-centre to the north. Probes within the cone (E64:18, 19, 20,
21) yielded soil samples
51
and little else.
52
Although the cone was not
removed, the fact that no pottery was recovered from the probes within
the cistern suggests that it was cleaned out subsequent to the Iron Age,
possibly for reuse during the early Islamic period.
53
In addition to the mouth, there were three blocked openings,
54
which
appeared to be secondary, used only for draining water into the cistern
but not for removing it. These openings (#1, 2, 3) were visible in the
51
A soil sample was also taken by P. Warnock in the secondary cone (E64:22) under
drain opening 2 in the southwest, immediately north of the ledge.
52
Debris containing Iron Age II sherds and a few bones entered Cistern 64:13
during the winter of 19931994. However, this additional material cannot be used to
date the construction or use of the cistern.
53
The cistern in Field D (D15:2) had been partially emptied in modern times and
the debris, containing Iron Age pottery sherds, was dumped onto the northwest corner
of Building 600. The ceramic evidence is not diagnostic, since the neighbouring elds
are lled with Iron Age sherds. Although it may have been rst cut and used during the
Iron Age, its location suggests that this cistern was reused in the Umayyad period, as
was Cistern I at Dhbn (Reed 1964: pl. 99). See Batteneld, forthcoming.
54
The drains into Cistern E64:13 appear to be natural crevices, comparable to
those seen in Cave/Cistern S-1.
.. cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.24. Cistern E64:13, plan and section drawings, showing
location of drain holes and mouth; drawn by J. R. Batteneld.
ceiling from inside (Fig. 7.24). Drain #1 was blocked with stones and
rubble, while Drain #2 appeared to be lled only with soil. By the 1995
season, the opening of Drain #1 had not been found on the surface,
although some evidence for Drain #2 appears in Room 324, while
crevices at oor level in Room 307 indicate the location of Drain #3.
55
55
During excavation, these depressions could not be followed to determine their
exact connection to Drain #3, although they were clearly in the same area as the
opening seen from inside the cistern.
rirrn r notsr .
The principal opening where water could be drawn out of Cistern
E64:13 is a cylindrical shaft (0.95

1.15 m) carved out of bedrock with


a height of 0.680.72 m. Plaster E64:17 ran up to the underside of the
shaft where it still appears in patches, especially at the point where four
stone perimeter walls (E64:9, 64:10, 64:11, 64:14) are positioned above
the shaft. These walls, formed of chert slabs and limestone boulders,
possibly cut out of the cistern itself, stood to a height of 1.40 m above
the base of the bedrock shaft. Traces of plaster (E64:16) were preserved
in the corners between the walls and on their inner surfaces, probably
intended to ll the crevices between the wall stones, and to protect both
the shaft of the cistern and the ceramic vessels lowered into it. The
uppermost course of each shaft wall formed a paved stone oor around
the cisterns mouth. The construction sequence of these cistern mouth
walls is not clear, due to the presence of a series of overlying partition
walls (W3009, 3012). These walls surround the mouth and obscure the
dimensions of the shaft walls. However, it seems that shaft Wall E64:9
on the north was earlier than west Wall E64:10 which abuts it from the
south.
The choice of this precise location for a cistern appears to be based
on the presence of natural drain holes. These holes appear to have
all fed into a natural cave which could account for the shape and
size of Cistern E64:13, since it does not share the proportions of the
standard types known from other Palestinian sites (Wright 1985:
g. 238). Secondly, there is nothing to indicate that a cistern in Field E
was in use before the founding of the Iron Age settlement in Stratum X
or in Stratum IXVIIIB, prior to the rebuilding that took place at the
beginning of Stratum VIIIA. This sequence explains the presence of
the terra rossa in Stratum-VIIIB rooms following the collapse of their
ceilings, and the difculty which the ancient inhabitants would have
had in removing large amounts of soil and stone from this cavity with
the surrounding rooms already in use.
When found, Cistern E64:13 was capped by a single large boulder
(E64:4; 0.70

0.75

0.70 m in height) that t snugly into the mouth


formed by the perimeter walls. Whether this boulder was in use during
Stratum VIIIA cannot be determined with certainty since the cistern
may have been plugged at any time after Building 300 went out of use.
However, parallels such as the cisterns at Khirbet Raddana (Callaway
1983:53) suggest that the mouth was capped during the periods of use
to protect and conserve the contents.
In Transjordan, the site with the most impressive number of cisterns
. cn\r+rn sr\rx
is Dh

bn, where 100 cisterns were located on the tell and in the sur-
rounding area.
56
Cistern I, in use during the Arab period in Build-
ing A, was generally circular in shape with a diameter of ca. 6.50 m
and a height of 5.90 m from the oor to the opening in the bedrock
(Reed 1964: pl. 99). On top of this opening were what looks like two
stages of stone lining for the shaft which measure 3.80 m in depth.
Reed (1964:47) suggested that Cistern I was in fact an Iron Age fea-
ture, probably in secondary use, because the shaft was north of centre.
He does not explain why this characteristic was a sign of Iron Age con-
struction, but it does coincide with Tall Jawa Cistern E64:13, where the
shaft is denitely north of centre.
57
At the same time, Cistern I is very
different in shape from Cistern E64:13.
Hill country sites in western Palestine also contain rock-cut cisterns.
58
The best parallel for cisterns under the oors of Iron Age structures
is Tell en-Na
.
sbeh (McCown 1947:129). Here the cisterns are bottle-
shaped or cylindrical, usually deeper than they were wide. Also at Tell
en-Na
.
sbeh, the location of the cisterns inside the houses was random,
although they appear in three instances to be adjacent to interior walls
(McCown 1947: g. 54).
59
While the excavators admit that the openings
of certain cisterns were in roofed rooms, they assumed that for the most
part the presence of a cistern coincided with an open court area,
60
as
if the only way to collect water would be from rain falling into the
cistern itself (McCown 1947: 215, 217). In fact, this is probably the least
efcient water collection method, at least when compared to collecting
water from surrounding roofs and channelling it to the cistern.
61
The
56
Unfortunately, the precise location of these cisterns was not indicated on the site
map (Reed 1964:46). This omission makes it virtually impossible to evaluate the inter-
pretation of the excavator who correlated the number of cisterns with the injunction of
Mesha that individuals should construct cisterns under their houses (Reed 1964:46).
57
No details of the six cisterns uncovered by members of the Dhbn team in
soundings at "El-#Al near
.
Hesban are included in the brief report on the site by Reed
(1965:1216).
58
Although Tell el-Far#ah (N) shares much in common with Tall Jawa, especially the
use of stone pillars in houses, there are no references to cisterns under the Iron Age
houses (Chambon 1984:3638).
59
Cistern 156 appears to be adjacent to a wall constructed of standing pillars and
cobblestone units, similar to the location of cisterns in Iron Age I buildings at Khirbet
Raddana (Callaway and Cooley 1971:13).
60
While this author assumes a similar situation for Cistern E64:13 at Tall Jawa, it
is important to note that there was a lamp recovered in the collapse beside Wall 3012
(Stratum VIIIA).
61
The plan and section of each cistern is not available in the nal publication; only
rirrn r notsr .
large number of cisterns (53) indicates that Tell en-Na
.
sbeh was not
located near a continuous source of running water sufcient for the
population, a situation comparable to that of Tall Jawa.
The 63 cellars at Gibeon were also rock-cut features that clearly had
a distinct function, since the majority were unlined and very porous
(Pritchard 1964:9). Only two of these cellars (L. 204 and 208, 208s,
209, 209w) were converted into cisterns during the Iron Age (Pritchard
1964:10). Even these cisterns, like the remaining cellars, were bell-
shaped with an average diameter of 2.00 m (Pritchard 1964:1).
62
Late Bronze Age cisterns at Beth-shemesh, some of which were re-
used in the Iron Age, appear to be similar in shape to Cistern E64:13
at Tall Jawa. Among the 24 cisterns reported, Cisterns 17 and 18 are
in the same size range (ca. 4.505.00 m in diameter), with a rock cut
shaft surmounted by unhewn stones (Grant and Wright 1939:41, 43;
g. 4). By contrast, Middle and Late Bronze Age rock cut cisterns,
best represented at Hazor in Areas D and E, are cylindrical in shape.
Cistern 7021 in Area E is bottle-shaped with a diameter of ca. 2.50
m and a depth of 9.00 m (Yadin et al.1958: pl. CLXXXIV).
63
In
Area D, there are four cisterns, three of which (9024, 9027, 9028)
opened directly from the bedrock, while the mouth of Cistern/Silo
9017, had originally been cut from bedrock, but had acquired over
time a shaft built of four to ve courses of eld stones (Yadin et al.1958:
118; pl. CLXXXII). Such cisterns probably served an individual house,
whereas Cistern E64:13 was central to several units of rooms that
surrounded it on all sides.
The Cistern Area (Fig. 7.25)
At least four partition walls (W3008, W3009, W3010, W3012) sur-
round the mouth of Cistern E64:13, with an entrance on the north
(Doorway E) that leads into Room 302. Partition Wall 3008 is paired
with the north wall (W3013) of Room 307 (see below) to form the
frame of Doorway E. In construction, Wall 3008 is similar to the other
a small number of the 53 cisterns are illustrated (McCown 1947: pls. 4445). However,
the photograph of Cistern 363 shows a down-drain which channelled water into the
cistern.
62
At Arad in southern Palestine, large cisterns supplied the Iron Age citadel (Shiloh
1992:288). These cisterns appear in plan to be more than 10 m in extent; detailed
publication is still awaited.
63
Cistern 6243 in Area C is even smaller, 0.90

1.30 m with an elliptical shape, and


ca. 5.20 m deep.
.6 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Figure 7.25. Cistern E64:13 and its surroundings.
partition walls in that it is ca. 0.500.60 m thick and is formed of
small (0.250.50 m) limestone boulders, above two rows of cobblestones
(E64:32). This wall, already in use during Stratum VIIIB, stands (ca.
0.70 m) high and lls the gap between limestone boulder pillar E64:7b
and Wall 3011.
The builders utilized the same construction techniques for Wall
3009, which is formed of one row of small at-topped boulders above
cobblestones. Due to the use of this building technique, it is not possible
to determine on architectural grounds which wall was constructed rst;
Wall 3009 is, however, clearly in position above the eastern perime-
ter wall (E64:14) of the mouth of the cistern, clear evidence that the
partition walls were constructed after the cistern was completed. Walls
3008 and W3009 meet at a right angle formed by pillar E64:7b. At its
south end, Wall 3009 appears to join Wall 3012, although a unit of cob-
blestones may in fact be debris that collapsed into a doorway leading
to the cistern mouth from Room 308. Another partition wall (W3012)
runs east from the south end of Wall 3009 toward Room 314, forming
the south end of Room 308. All of these low walls may have served at
one time or another as shelves for water-carrying vessels, as well as to
keep people and things from falling into the cistern.
Room 324 (Fig. 7.25)
Evidence for a Stratum-VIIIA use of the cistern area is seen most
clearly in southern Room 324, where the soil layers above Stratum-
rirrn r notsr .
VIIIB Surface E64:70 served as makeup for the Stratum-VIIIA oor
(E64:61). This oor surface consists of beaten earth and was covered
with smashed pottery. Surface E64:61 extends across the cistern area
running up to Wall 3010 on the west, W3044 on the east, and W3012
on the north. Wall 3010 appears to rest on underlying Surface E64:70
or to be embedded in the debris layers (E64:64, 63) above it. This wall
is formed of two rows of cobble size stones and capped by one row of
small boulders. Altogether Wall 3010 stands six courses high (0.750.90
m) and forms an L-shaped enclosure against the east face of Wall 3007,
immediately south of the cistern mouth (E64:11). The space between
the two walls is lled with soil and cobbles (E64:25), which initially
suggested that Wall 3007 was strengthened at this point. If this were
not the function of this feature, then its real purpose may be suggested
by the presence of diagnostic storejar sherds that indicate a bin/shelf or
work area.
On the east side of the Cistern Area, Wall 3044 was built imme-
diately above a plaster layer that appears to have been the original
Stratum-VIIIA surface (E64:61) that extends into Room 314, where it
seals the thick layer of terra rossa. Wall 3044, also a one-row limestone
boulder wall, forms an L-shaped recess or corridor (R325) against the
south end of the west side of Wall 3028.
64
This effectively blocked direct
access from Room 314 to the cistern through Doorway L, although
the Corridor may have served as a ramp leading into this area from
the south. The stratigraphic situation of the two walls (W3010, W3044)
south of the cistern area, indicates that both were features associated
with the Stratum-VIIIA use phase.
65
Although pottery was abundant in this use phase (648 ceramic
sherds), it is clear that there was considerable trafc in the cistern area
and vessels cannot be said to be in situ, at least not in a primary context.
The scattered animal bones and the small number of artefacts clearly
indicates that this was not an area where people carried out daily activ-
ities of the kind performed in the adjoining rooms, such as Rooms 302,
303 and even in Storeroom 306.
64
Another example of a partition wall that forms an L-shaped space is Wall 3038 of
Room 319, which surrounded Oven E63:10 (see above).
65
Excavation in Corridor 325 ended at the level of Stratum-VIIIA oor levels with
Locus E64:68.
.8 cn\r+rn sr\rx
Room 308
The debris layer (E64:63, 64) recognized in Room 324 continues along
the east side of Cistern E64:13, where it runs under Wall 3009 (as
E64:71) and extends north (E64:52) as far as Wall 3008+3045. Within
Debris Layer E64:52 were patches of plaster, brick material, animal
bones, a single bead (TJ 2122), a cowrie shell (TJ 2124) and almost
1200 ceramic sherds. Whether these nds are evidence of extensive
use of the area or of a deliberate ll prior to the construction of
Stratum VIIIA features is difcult to determine.
Two partition walls (W3012, W3009) that run along the south and
east sides of Cistern E64:13 were badly disturbed by the nal destruc-
tion of this area, but appear to have been Stratum-VIIIA features built
above debris layers E64:71 and E64:54. These low walls, only two
courses in height, consisted of one row of at topped small boulders.
The north end of Wall 3009 abuts the south face of Wall 3008. At its
south end, Wall 3009 appears to end before it meets Wall 3012 which
runs east. This space left an opening between the walls to access the
cistern. Wall 3012 in its turn ended midway between the cistern and
the west wall (W3028) of Room 314 thereby separating Room 308 on
the north and R324 on the south.
The surface (E64:61) identied in Room 324 appears to continue
east of Wall 3012, where hard-packed soil with pockets of nari and
brick-like material (E64:51) are well preserved. In situ against Wall 3028
is a rectangular limestone trough (E64:57=TJ 1827), which is quite
small in view of its position near the cistern (exterior measurements,
0.26

0.35

0.23 m in height; interior, 0.17

0.27

0.15 m in depth).
Due to the lack of diagnostic nds in the immediate area, the precise
function of this installation remains uncertain.
66
At the same time, the
large number of ceramic sherds, randomly distributed across the area,
indicates discard rather than the nal destruction of the building.
Within Room 308 proper, a beaten earth surface (E64:52) marks
the Stratum-VIIIA use phase. In this area, close to major Walls 3011
and W3028, the surface suffered severe damage from rockfall that
occurred at the end of Stratum VIIIA. Along the east side, closer to
Wall 3028, the surface is in better condition. Here a section of plaster
oor (E64:55) was exposed that probably continues north into an area
(R326) adjacent to Room 308.
66
No evidence for animals in Building 300 has been identied, with the result that
we cannot interpret this trough as a water trough for small animals.
rirrn r notsr .q
Table 7X. Pottery and Artefacts in Cistern Area, Stratum VIIIA
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
R308, R324 lamp sherds
1690 ceramic sherds
3 mortars TJ 689, 694, 849 basalt
millstone TJ 691
loom weight TJ 906 ceramic
spindle whorl TJ 932
trough E64:69 limestone
Room 307 (Fig. 7.19)
South of Room 302 and west of Cistern E64:13 is Room 307. This
small rectangular room is enclosed by two stacked-boulder walls
(W3007 on the east and W3013 on the north), each with connecting
cobblestone units. The east face of Wall 3007 was built over the west-
ern edge of the mouth of Cistern E64:13, clear evidence that the cistern
was dug before the reconstruction of the surrounding rooms. On the
west, Room 307 shares with Corridor 316 a party wall (W3024) which
is formed of at topped boulders, while Wall 3039 on the south lls
the space between Walls 3024 and W3007, abutting both of them. The
only evidence for a doorway (C) was in the northwest corner formed
by Walls 3024 and 3013, where rockfall (E64:38) lled the space at the
west end of W3013.
The principal oor, a beaten earth surface (E64:62) with plaster
inclusions, covers a layer of cobble size stones and seals against all four
walls. Only in the northwest corner is there a hole in the oor that
may be related to the drain holes (especially Drain #3) feeding into
the central cistern. On the oor and within the collapsed ceiling and
rockfall layer (E64:26=58) was a considerable amount of restorable
pottery, including an intact saucer bowl, and a variety of artefacts.
Table 7Y. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 307(A)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E64:26=58 saucer V398=TJ 2159 red slip, intact
E64:62 3 saucers V441, V443, V507 slipped
saucer V513 slipped, incised
small saucer V504
7 bowls V440, V442, V505, red slip
V508, V509,
V516, V517
2 bowls V445, V448 vertical rim
.8o cn\r+rn sr\rx
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
large bowl V511
cooking pot V512
3 juglets V447, V501, V514 red slip, paint
amphoriskos V502
1225 ceramic sherds
bead TJ 2202 glass
mortar TJ 2215 basalt
2 pestles TJ 2137, 2185 basalt
9 arrowheads TJ 2133, 2144, 2145, iron
TJ 22042209
spindle TJ 2203 ivory
2 whorls TJ 932, 2200 ceramic spindle
whorls, broken
loom weight TJ 906 clay
weight TJ 2211 basalt
Pottery and Chronology
The most signicant clue for the identication of the assemblage of
ceramic vessels in Room 307 with Stratum VIIIA occupation is the
presence of an increasing number of saucer bowls. This form was
rare in Stratum VIIIB, where the dominant small bowl forms were
the hemispherical bowl (e.g. V350) and the shallow, bent sided, simple
rim bowl (e.g. V493). The introduction of the saucer, rst with radial
burnishing (V421) and then with ring burnishing, appears in Stra-
tum VIIIB, but develops rapidly in Stratum VIIIA. This development is
an important link with the Stratum VII buildings (B700, B800), where
the hemispherical bowl is absent and the saucer bowl is the dominant
form (see detailed discussion, Chapter 12).
Destruction
The destruction of Stratum VIIIA in the cistern area is marked by col-
lapsed wall stones and accumulated soil (E64:60=23, 26, 15, 12, 5, 3)
covering the entire area, including Room 307. The heaviest concentra-
tion of boulders was present within R324 near the south balk, a fact
which suggests the proximity of a wall running east-west. There was no
evidence of ceiling material;
67
however, it is not certain that this area
was unroofed, since lamp sherds were present. Artefacts of daily use
were also scattered throughout the collapse.
67
Due to the lack of burning during the destruction and abandonment of these
buildings, there is no clear evidence for roof construction.
rirrn r notsr .8:
The cause of this destruction was not apparent in the archaeologi-
cal record. The few iron points recovered in this area from both Stra-
tum VIII phases suggest casual discard or loss, rather than a serious
battle, thus demanding another explanation for the abandonment of
this major domestic complex. While earthquake is possible, political
change may also have been involved. Re-use of the cistern during the
Umayyad (Stratum III) period is possible although the scant occurrence
of Umayyad pottery is not strong evidence for such an interpretation.
Clearly, Cistern E64:13 had its principal use during Iron Age II.
Room 326+321
The narrow space (R326) located between the east wall (W3011) of
Rooms 306 and R320 and the west wall (W3028) of Room 314, con-
tinued in use during Stratum VIIIA. At the same time that Partition
Walls 3012 and 3009 were built in the cistern area, a wall (W3042)
was built that separated Room 326 from R321 further north. This wall
consists of two rows of small limestone boulders that stand 45 courses
high (ca. 0.75 m), and bonds only with the upper courses of Wall 3041,
which runs north to Casemate Wall 3000. What was peculiar about this
construction is the fact that Wall 3042 is only preserved for 4 courses
whereas Wall 3041 is 9 courses deep at the point where it was sealed
against by Stratum-VIIIB Surface E75:26 in Room 312. If Wall 3042
was indeed a Stratum-VIIIA construction, it is strange that there was
no clear evidence of a rebuild of Wall 3041 in its upper courses where
it bonds with Wall 3042.
Within Room 326, beaten earth Surface E65:45 seals up against
Wall 3042 and covers a patch of plaster on the south face of the wall.
The surface itself was covered with gray, black and red ecks and
scattered patches of plaster. Perpendicular to Wall 3042 at the level
of the second course of stone from the top is a single line of small
boulders, which extends along the east face of Wall 3011. This feature
is poorly understood in its present position, although it may have served
as a bench/shelf in the vicinity of the cistern.
68
Surface E65:45 was
sealed by another beaten earth and plaster Surface (E65:44) which
covered the bench/shelf and reached the top of Wall 3042.
68
A single row of cobblestones (E56:8) along the face of a wall was used outside
Casemate Wall 3006 at the point where two superimposed plaster layers meet the wall.
The same technique is also seen in Casemate Room 201 (B53:9), at the point where a
cobblestone oor sealed with plaster (B53:7) meets the west wall (B53:5) of the room.
.8. cn\r+rn sr\rx
On the north side of Wall 3042, additional soil layers (E65:47+48)
built up or were installed as a ll under Soil Layer E65:46, which covers
the top of Walls 3041 and W3042 and forms the foundation for Cob-
blestone Surface E65:43. This surface was well preserved only in the
west half of Room 312(A) above R321, where the pavement covered
both walls that had formed R321(B). A few patches of the pavement,
along with scattered large cobbles (E65:44), were located above R326
along with a limestone door weight (TJ 1795). The cobbles were sealed
by a hard-packed plaster surface (E65:42), fragments of which were
also found among the cobbles in Locus E65:44. Best preserved above
the cobblestone pavement is plaster Surface E65:43, which was present
across the entire area of Room 312(A). From this point on, the super-
imposed soil layers in this area are part of one large room (312A) that
extends from Wall 3011 to Wall 3025.
The Eastern Unit: Rooms 312+321, 313, 314+327 (Fig. 7.26)
Among the ve rooms (312, 313, 314, 317 and 323) located on the
east side of Building 300 west of Passageway 309, only one (R312)
appears to be in use during Stratum VIIIA and associated with those
in the western and central units. The depth of the topsoil and its
conguration above the occupational debris is similar to that over the
other rooms of Building 300. At the same time, the original elevation
of the oor levels in the Stratum VIIIB house points to a different
construction style along Passageway 309, a corridor which was not
signicantly changed in Stratum VIIIA. The boulder-and-chink walls
(W3011, W3025, 3016) of Rooms 312 and 313, that run perpendicular
to the inner casemate wall face, appear to remain functional. These
walls which were all in the range of 0.80 m or more, could easily
be reused following the destruction that covered the lower cross walls
(W3043, W3036) at the north and south ends of Room 314.
The suggestion that the north-south walls (W3011, W3025, W3016)
supported a second storey in the original Stratum-VIIIB occupation is
most clearly seen in the trafc patterns between rooms in this unit.
Doorway K in the southwest corner of Room 313 led into Room
327, and Doorway L, located in the southwest corner of Room 314,
led into the courtyard. Since there appears to be no connection in
Stratum VIIIB between Room 314+327 and Room 312 on the north
and Room 323 on the south, access from above was possible and most
likely. However, this was probably not the case in Stratum VIIIA, when
rirrn r notsr .8
Figure 7.26. Building 300, eastern unit, with relevant locus numbers.
Walls 3043 and 3036 were no longer barriers between occupied areas
and the remaining debris suggests little or no occupation in Room 314.
Room 312
During Stratum VIIIA, Room 312+321 became a single room. As
such, Room 312 shared a party wall with Room 306 on the west and
was divided by a short section of Wall 3028. Soil Layer E65:4 was prob-
ably a surface superimposed above the plaster oor (E65:43), a surface
comparable to Debris Layer E65:8 in Room 306. Typical Stratum-VIII
red slipped bowls with double disk bases, along with domestic ground
stone tools, such as a millstone, pounder and mortar were all smashed
on or embedded in the soil layer/surface. Of special note is a quern
set in place on its long edge with ash and cooking pot sherds in place
underneath the bowls that were broken beside the quern. This use of a
.8 cn\r+rn sr\rx
quern as a windbreak appears in Stratum VIIIA in Room 302, as well
as later in Stratum VII (R802, Chapter 8; R901, Chapter 9). The posi-
tion of the quern is strong evidence that there had been a beaten earth
surface at this level, even thought it has been so severely damaged by
modern ploughing that it was difcult to discern during excavation.
Among the ceramic vessels, there was only one example of a deep
globular bowl covered with red slip and painted with black bands
(V335). There was evidence for slight contamination of the pottery
by the presence of 1 late Byzantine-early Islamic style sherd. Such
contamination is not unusual due to the proximity of the topsoil (<0.58
m above) which had been ploughed deeply in this area of the tell.
Table 7Z. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 312(A)
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
E65:4+16 3 bowls V343, V340, V355 red slip
E65:42 deep bowl V335 red slip, paint
bowl V384 bar handle
cooking pot V457
pithos
jug V329 painted
juglet V367 red slip
stone bowl TJ 1761 basalt
tray TJ 1751 basalt
mortar TJ 946 limestone
grinder TJ 1463 basalt
millstone TJ 941 basalt
pounder TJ 937 chert
Rooms 314+327, 325
Evidence for the reuse of Room 314 is scant, although it was clearly
blocked off from the cistern area by Corridor 325 in Stratum VIIIA.
Only in certain areas was there the usual soil and rockfall (E74:8) with
smashed ceramic vessels and basalt tools in place suggesting a work
area associated with Room 312 to the north. Deep layers (E64:7, 9) of
hard packed clay and nari lled Room 314+327 and did not appear
to have been carefully levelled off for reuse during Stratum VIIIA.
However, there is evidence in Doorway L and in Corridor 325 of the
typical soil and rockfall that marks the end of Stratum VIIIA in the
central rooms. The precise function of this small corridor, apart from
blocking the entrance to Room 314, was never determined. Additional
excavation further south in Room 324 may have revealed a connection
rirrn r notsr .8
between Room 325 and the cistern area or with another housing
complex. At present, this remains only an hypothesis.
Destruction
The walls of the rooms in the eastern unit were very well preserved,
standing 2.00 m high in some places. Although one of the top boul-
ders of Wall 3027 was cracked, the wall appeared to be completely
preserved when found. In spite of the good condition of the walls in
Rooms 313 and R314, occupation did not resume here following the
end of Stratum VIIIB, and the dead were not rescued from their grave.
STRATUM VII
Iron Age occupation was not renewed in Field E following the destruc-
tion of Building 300, but seemed to be concentrated instead in Field C
on the southern terrace and in Field D. No evidence for activity that
would further damage the occupational debris in Field E was present
south of the casemate wall system, probably because of the deep accu-
mulation of collapsed wall stones that began immediately adjacent to
the wall and extended about 2.00 m to the south.
STRATUM III
No building remains from the late Byzantine-early Islamic period are
preserved in Field E. The recovery of ceramic material in the form of
scattered sherds that can be dated to the Byzantine-Umayyad transi-
tion or to the Umayyad period itself is consistent in topsoil loci of all
squares. The presence of this material, along with such nds as Turk-
ish pipe fragments (TJ 649),
69
points to occasional activity on the tell
in later times.
STRATUM I
Activity in Field E during modern times consists of the clearing of
eldstones and agricultural use of the area. Field stones (E55:1) were
piled up on top of the inner wall face (W3000) of the casemate wall
69
The presence of such pipe fragments in Umayyad debris layers at Tall Jawa and
in Roman levels at Khirbat al-Mudayna may suggest an earlier date for these pipes
(Daviau and Tempest, in preparation).
.86 cn\r+rn sr\rx
system. Compared to the accumulation of stones above the casemate
wall in Fields AB, that in Field E was minimal and the upper course
of Wall 3000 was visible at many places.
70
Topsoil
71
covered all the Iron Age remains except for Wall 3000,
which was visible at ground level forming the northern crest of the tell.
Although the landowner suspected the presence of an underground cis-
tern, its exact location was unknown prior to excavation. This means
that the Iron Age structures were not disturbed in antiquity, although
some of the pottery vessels on collapsed ceilings were incomplete. While
this may have been the result of modern ploughing, the close arrange-
ment of sherds from bowls smashed in situ suggests that the missing
sherds were disturbed at the time of destruction or at some time in the
past, but not during the present century.
70
Because of the poor preservation of the modern wall (E55:1=W3049) above
the Iron Age Wall (W3000), the stones removed in cleaning were not given a separate
locus number except in Squares E55 and E76.
71
Locus numbers for topsoil in Field E include E44:1; 53:153:3; 54:1; 55:3; 64:2;
74:1; 75:1.
cn\r+rn rion+
FIELDS C-WEST AND D: THE PILLARED HOUSES
BUILDINGS 800 AND 700 (19911995)
Introduction
Field C is located on the south side of the mound, midway between
the east and west ends of the tell (ca. 70.00 m east of Outer West Wall
2023 in B15; Fig. 1.2). Within the limits of this eld is a terrace that
extends south ca. 18.0024.50 m from the casemate wall line on the
crest of the mound.
1
Beginning at the west, where the casemate wall
is still evident in Square C7, Field C is contiguous to the east end of
Field A (Squares C7C27 are immediately south of A73A93). From
this point, the terrace extends east more than 50.00 m to a modern
property wall, which runs north-south through Squares C81C86, and
forms the western edge of a small modern cemetery (Fig. 8.1). The
terrace is bordered on the west and south by steep slopes that descend
6.00 m to the level of a modern bulldozer cut. Only the modern path
interrupts the scarp as it climbs the tell from the southwest and runs
along the north edge of the southern crest of the terrace (C4C84).
East of Field C, the slope outside the casemate wall is more gentle.
Field C-west (Squares C5C27, A73A94) is the designation for the
excavation area that comprises Building 800, and was excavated sep-
arately from Field C-east. Although the modern path was the clearest
feature in Field C prior to excavation, no squares were opened in the
path itself, due in part to our excavation strategy and to the needs of
the local people. Along the north side of Field C-west is a modern
property wall that begins in Field B on the west, covers the inner wall
of the fortication system and continues along its length as far east as
Square C7, where it turns northeast across Building 800 (A83A94). In
Field C-west, this wall (W8034; C7:1A93:4) was ca. 1.502.50 m thick
and remained standing ca. 1.001.50 m in height.
1
The slope of the terrace itself is ca. 2.002.50 m from north to south over 30.00
m.
.88 cn\r+rn rion+
Figure 8.1. Excavation Grid in Field C.
Before excavation, the entire area of Building 800 was covered by
topsoil, weeds and large boulders, which protruded from the surface.
Although few wall lines were clearly dened, the presence of imposing
structural remains and the interruption of the circumvallation of the
casemate system were both apparent.
rirrn c \xn n nrsinrxcrs .8q
History of Excavation
The interruption of the casemate wall, which appears to end at the west
side of the terrace (C7) and resume its trajectory on the east imme-
diately north of the cemetery (C86), was rst noticed in 1989 when
excavation of the wall system began in Field A (A14). Field C was sub-
sequently chosen for excavation to sample the fortication system and
thus determine the extent of continuity and degree of modication to
the overall defensive strategy during Iron Age II. A second goal was
to determine whether the modern path marked a major entrance into
the town (Chapter 9), since no other comparable break in the wall line
seemed to be suitable for the location of a chambered gate, such as
those known from Palestinian sites, for example at Beer-sheba (Aharoni
1972:37; g. 1).
2
Excavation began in C-west in 1991 (Daviau 1992:152153; g. 2).
The westernmost squares (C5C7) were aligned south to north across
the easternmost room (R801) of the casemate wall to ascertain the
relationship of the fortication system with structures on the terrace.
Additional squares (C16, C17)
3
anked this trench on the east. With the
exposure of a room (R803) in what appeared to be a pillared building,
and a wall with stones measuring 1.202.00+m in length (C17:2), a
new excavation strategy was designed to expose this building (B800) in
its entirety and identify its plan and function. In 1992, Square C17 was
expanded to the northern edge of Field C-west, and Square C27 was
opened to the east.
4
In 1994 and 1995, the northern rooms in Building
800 were uncovered in Squares A7384 and A9394, squares which
are contiguous to the northern limits of Squares C17 and C27.
Already in 1992, it was apparent that the two monolithic pillars
(C17:12, 13) rst uncovered in 1991 (Daviau 1992: pl. II.1) were part
of a series of roof supports in a structure that had at least two par-
allel rooms (R803, R804) and one, perpendicular broad room (R802)
across the back of the building (Fig. 8.2). With additional excavation
in 1993 and 1994 that exposed two stone-built staircases and addi-
2
Chambered gates are best known at the major administrative cities of Hazor,
Megiddo, Gezer and Lachich (Herzog 1992: Table 5), centres which can be distin-
guished from secondary planned towns, such as Beer-sheba and Tall Jawa.
3
In 1991, only half of Square C17 was opened. It measured 6.00 m east-west and
3.00 m north-south.
4
The size of Square C27 (8.30

9.33 m) is anomalous due to the position of


Field D. It was thought desirable to have a long section connecting the west side of
Field D with Field C (Fig. 8.1); for details of the grid, see Chapter 2.
.qo cn\r+rn rion+
tional rooms (R806, R807) further north, it became clear that Build-
ing 800 was much larger than expected, and had a different overall
plan than the typical four-room house (Braemer 1984: g. 11, Shiloh
1970: g. 2).
5
With modern construction rapidly approaching Field C
on the south, an effort was made in 1995 to delineate the outer walls
and excavate the northernmost rooms (808, 809, 810, 811, and 812) to
oor levels. Bedrock was reached in a probe in Room 811, although the
oor was not exposed across the entire room. By the end of the season,
Corridor 810 was only partially excavated and Rooms 808 and 812
remained unexcavated, although their surrounding walls were com-
pletely dened. So too, West Wall 8028+8033 was shown to have an
inset half way along its length, where Staircase A83:19 meets Wall 8010
which runs south, completing the exterior west wall of the Building.
The construction details showing the association of these walls to one
another are not available, because founding levels were not reached.
While further excavation might have claried such details,
6
our project
was only able to recover the plan of the building during its major period
of use.
7
Building Plan (Fig. 8.2)
On the west, Building 800 was built up against Room 801 of the Case-
mate Wall system (Fig. 5.31), and extended north of the inner face
of the fortication system. In shape, Building 800 is somewhat irreg-
ular, with maximum external dimensions of 13.50 (east-west)

18.00
m (north-south) along the west side, and a minimum length of 15.10 m
(north-south) along the east side. Although the function of every ground
oor room could not be denitively identied, there were at least 9
rooms of various sizes arranged around Central Hall 804. Apart from
Building 700 in Field D, which appears to be a somewhat smaller ver-
sion of B800, no comparable building plan is known from neighbouring
sites.
8
5
The careful study by Holladay (1997) of various house plans now replaces the
initial study of Palestinian houses by Beebe (1968).
6
The construction of Building 800 may have coincided with the remodelling
(W8004) of inner casemate Wall 8005 (Fig. 8.2, Daviau 1994: g. 10).
7
M. Wood, S. Thompson, and D. Elder were Field Supervisors.
8
Building 700 shares many formal characteristics in its room arrangement with the
Late Bronze Age Tablet Building at Tell Hadidi (Dornemann 1981: g. 2). However,
the function of individual rooms and of the building as a whole (a brewery, Gates
1988:68) is in contrast to the nds from Tall Jawa. Meijers study (1989:222) may
rirrn c \xn n nrsinrxcrs .q:
Figure 8.2. Building 800.
The present dearth of buildings that appear to share a similar plan may
be the result of limited excavation and publication of sites in the imme-
diate region of #Amman,
9
for example Sa
.
hab (Ibrahim 1975: g. 2),
already have been in press by the time Gates showed the usefulness of correlating room
arrangement, ceramic nds and texts to interpret the utilitarian function (Meijers
term) of a building.
9
Braemer (1982:1) noted the small number of excavated Iron Age houses in Tran-
sjordan available in 1982 for comparison with the four-room houses of western Pales-
tine. Little has changed in the interval. Recent excavations in Moab exposed a pillared
building with 7 rooms at Lehun (Homs-Fredericq 2000), and documentation of the
architecture of pillared buildings at Khirbat al-Mudayna al-#Aliya (Routledge 2000)
add to the number of known buildings with stone pillars.
.q. cn\r+rn rion+
where only a limited area was available for excavation, Tall al-#Umayri
where excavations are still in progress,
10
the #Amman citadel (Humbert
and Zayadine 1992: Foldout A), and Tell Safut (Wimmer 1987). Thus
Building 800, with its full complement of rooms and corridors, along
with twin staircases that lead to a second storey, appears at present to
be the most complete example in central Jordan of a high status house
from the late Iron Age.
11
Rooms
The rooms identied on the ground oor of Building 800 vary consid-
erably in size, shape, and function.
Table 8A. Room Size and Proportion
Room Width(m) Length(m) Ratio W/L Bounded by Walls
802 2.50 5.55 .45 8006, 8011, 8013, 8014
803 2.20 4.20 .52 8011, 8014, 8015, 8016?
804 4.85 8.00 .60 8014, 8015, 8022, 8026
805 1.20
12
3.20 .37 8016, 8017, 8018
806 2.75 2.80 .98 8020, 8021, 8022, 8023
807 2.75 3.00 .91 8025, 8026, 8027, 8028
808 1.25 1.75 .71 8029, 8031, 8032
809 2.50 4.15 .60 8021, 8023, 8024, 8031
810 0.65 2.55 .25 8029, 8030
811 1.85* 2.85 .70 8024, 8025, 8033, A84:6
812 2.50 3.50*
13
.71 8024, 8025, 8033, A84:6
10
At Tall al-#Umayri there also appears to be a chronological difference of occu-
pation phases. A large pillared building (B) excavated over several seasons contained a
storeroom lled with collared-rim pithoi that date to Iron Age I (Herr 2000:173175).
11
Although not identical in plan, the government residences in Area B at Hazor
are comparable in size on the ground oor to Building 800; Building 3100b was
13.00

13.70 m (ca. 178.10 m


2
), while Building 3067b was 12.30

12.60 m (ca. 155


m
2
; Yadin 1960:4445). However these structures are not comparable in terms of total
oor space, in view of the upper storey which covered all of the rooms in B800. The
same is true of the largest houses at Tell el-Far#ah (N), where only two houses exceed
100 m
2
, Maison 327 (103 m
2
) and Maison 355 (108 m
2
; Chambon 1984: Tableau 1, 2).
The palace, with 440 m
2
of oor space, is in a class of its own (Chambon 1984:44).
By comparison, Building 800 at Tell Jawa, with its two storeys, probably had 320 m
2
of interior oor space, denitely much larger (three times) than average Iron Age II
domestic structures such as those at Tell el-Far#ah (N) (Chambon, above).
12
The full size of Room 805 was 3.00

3.20 m, although what is represented here is


the width of the L-shaped passage that results from the position of Support Wall 8018
in the middle of the room.
13
In the evaluation of room size, Rooms 811 and 812, divided only by Pier A84:6,
rirrn c \xn n nrsinrxcrs .q
Range of sizes (omitting Rooms 804, 805, 808, 810)
Width 1.85 2.75 average 2.43 m
Length 2.80 5.55 average 3.72 m
(omitting Rooms 805, 808, 810)
Width 1.20 4.85 average 2.73 m
Length 2.80 8.00 average 4.25 m
Several areas within Building 800 (R805, 810) were not full size rooms
as is evident in the ratio of width to length (less than 40%). Although
Room 808 was almost square, it was the smallest enclosed space. For
the remaining rooms, Central Hall 804 with a length of 8.00 m is
also out of range, being the largest room in the building. Average
sizes were rst calculated for rooms wider than 1.00 m and longer
than 2.00 m, excluding Rooms 804 and 805.
14
Secondly, average sizes
were calculated including Room 804. The average widths (2.432.73
m) probably are indicative of the length of roof beams available during
Late Iron Age II and the engineering skills of the builders. Central Hall
804 was also roofed, although the longest single length needed would
have been 4.00 m, assuming that beams were positioned across the
room at its narrowest point. Additional support for the ceiling could
have been provided by Socket Stone (A83:31), assuming that it held a
roof support (see details below) and not a pithos, several sherds of which
were found in its central depression.
Two units, Rooms 806 (2.75

2.80 m) and R807 (2.75

3.00 m), on
opposite sides of Central Hall 804, are close in size and shape, and
comparable to the full space (3.00

3.20 m) of Entryway 805. Rooms


803 and 809 are medium size rectangular rooms with a maximum
length in the range of 4.20 m, whereas Room 802 and combined Room
811+812, also rectangular in shape, are in the range of 5.506.00 m in
length.
have been considered separately. If R811 and R812 were taken together, this large
room would measure ca. 2.56

6.00 m, similar in size to Room 802.


14
If the full size of Room 805 (3.00

3.20 m) is included in these calculations, the


range of sizes would be: (omitting R804, R808, R810)
Width 1.853.00 average 2.50 m
Length 2.855.55 average 3.65 m
or
(omitting R808, R810)
Width 1.204.85 average 2.76 m
Length 2.808.00 average 4.13 m.
.q cn\r+rn rion+
The presence of two interior staircases suggests that this was a two
storey building with approximately 20 rooms. Finds and architectural
elements (agstones and stone installations) from some upper rooms
were recovered in the collapsed debris (Daviau 1996:92). These nds
clearly indicate that the second storey consisted of nished rooms and
not just a roof terrace. The thickness of the ground oor walls suggests
that the room arrangement of the upper storey was similar to the lower
storey, although the collapse along the south side of Building 800 was
so extensive that no upper storey assemblages could be identied for
rooms above R802 and R803.
Doorways
On the ground oor, only one doorway (A) in the southeast corner
leads into Building 800. This entrance was restricted to an L-shaped
entryway (R805) that provided indirect access into Central Hall 804
at Doorway B. From R804, doorways leading into surrounding rooms
are positioned between standing pillars (Doorways C, D, and F) or at
the end of walls (E, G, H). No doorways are built directly through a
wall, which extends in both directions on the same trajectory, although
this style was common in pillared houses (i.e., Chambon 1984: g. 13,
Houses 327, 362, 366. 148). Doorway K was the only entryway in
Building 800 formed by a truncated wall or pier forming the frame on
one side with only the continuing face of a perpendicular wall forming
the opposite door frame (cf. B700 below).
Table 8B. Location and Width of Doorways
Doorway Room Width (m)
A 805, exterior 1.00
B 804, 805 1.20
C 803, 804 0.80
D 803, 804 0.75
E 802, 804 0.95
F 804, 806 0.65
G 804, 807 0.75
H 804, 809 0.85
I 809, 810 0.65
J 810, 812 0.65
15
15
Corridor 810 was not completely exposed at the point where it enters Room
rirrn c \xn n nrsinrxcrs .q
Doorway Room Width (m)
K 812, 811 1.65
L W8007, W8008 1.40
16
Average width - 0.844 m (not including Doorways J, K and L).
Three of these doorways were above average (0.90+m) in width.
Doorway A into Entrance Room 805 from the exterior of the building
was 1.00 m in width. Its size alone is not evidence that Doorway A was
the principal entrance; a second doorway from the outside may have
been located on the upper storey.
17
Doorway B connecting Entryway
805 with Room 804 south of Staircase C27:43 was slightly larger,
ca. 1.20 m in width, as was Doorway E from R804 into Room 802.
Entrance K formed by Pier A84:6 between R811 and R812 was the
largest doorway on the ground oor, measuring 1.65 m in width.
Walls
Although boulder-and-chink was the dominant construction technique
employed in building the walls of Building 800, several other styles are
represented in this building.
Table 8C. Wall Thickness in centimetres
Wall 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100
8010

+
8011

8012=8014

8013

8015

8016

8017

+
812. The width of the corridor appears consistent along its entire length and serves to
connect Rooms 809 and R812.
16
Doorway L is located between two walls of a structure located south of Building
800. Only limited excavation was carried out in this area (Square C16).
17
Several places along the outer walls may have been suitable for a major entrance,
for example in the northwest corner where a large socket stone (A84:12) was built into
the corner, and at the point where each staircase formed a landing against the outer
wall. Due to post destruction damage to North Wall 8024, the exact position and size
of a doorway in this area cannot be reconstructed. So too, there is insufcient evidence
for an upper storey entrance at the west end of Staircase A83:19, where the west wall
(W8028=8033=8010) forms an offset.
.q6 cn\r+rn rion+
Wall 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100
8018

8019

+
8020

8021

+
8022

8023

8024

+
8025=8030

8026

8027

+
8028

+
8029

8031

8032

8033

The outer walls on the west (W8010 and W8028=W8033), north
(W8024) and east (W8021) sides of B800 are formed of two to three
rows of limestone boulders in boulder-and-chink construction. These
walls, all in the range of 0.901.50 m thick, are 0.200.50 m thicker
than the walls in Building 300 (Field E) of Stratum VIII, suggesting
that Building 800 was constructed of exceptionally heavy masonry and
was designed to support one or two upper stories. The narrowest outer
wall, W8011 on the south, was built of one row of extra large boulders
18
and measures 0.90 m thick, although its extension (W8017) as the south
wall of Room 805 is a full 1.00 m thick. The reason for a thinner
section of this southern wall can only be explained by the presence
of a secondary structure that protected Building 800 at this point.
Unfortunately, erosion and modern construction of the path along the
crest of the terrace have destroyed much of the ancient remains.
Interior walls are of varying thickness depending on construction
techniques (see Chapter 10). Four walls (8013, 8026, 8025=8030,
8027), all of boulder-and-chink construction are in the range of 0.80
1.00 m thick, considerable by contemporary standards for interior
walls.
19
Walls 8013 and 8027 extend east from outer Wall 8010 and
18
One stone in Wall 8011 along the south side of Room 803, originally thought to
be 2.00 m in length, actually measured 4.08+m when completely exposed. Due to a
large crack midway along its length, the measurement is not exact to the centimetre.
19
For example, at Balu in Moab, interior walls were in the range of 0.300.55 m
and outer walls were 0.76 m thick (Worschech and Ninow 1994:195, 198). For the
Middle Bronze Age in Palestine, average wall thickness for single storey houses was in
rirrn c \xn n nrsinrxcrs .q
serve as support walls for Staircase A83:19, as well as perimeter walls
of major rooms (R802 and R807). Wall 8025=8030 serves as the north
wall for Rooms 807 and 804, separating them from the northernmost
rooms (R810R812).
Sturdy free-standing walls, in the range of 0.550.70 m thick, include
those built of medium to large boulders, such as Walls 8019 and W8020
that serve as parallel support walls for Staircase C27:43. Three walls
(W8029, W8031, W8032) in the smallest size range (ca. 0.50 m thick)
surround a small room or bin (R808) built against the south face of
North Wall 8024. The only other walls that measure 0.50 m thick
are W8023, the south wall of Room 809, which stands full height but
is built of only one row of small boulders, and Wall 8018 in Room
805.
Wall 8015 (0.65 m thick) that forms the division between Room 803
and Central Hall 804 consists of three standing pillars connected to
one another by units of boulders and pierced by two doorways (C, D).
On the west, Pillar C17:13 is connected by a stone slab and cobbles to
perpendicular Wall 8012 which constitutes the west wall of Room 803.
This wall (W8012=8014) appears to be formed of boulder-and-chink
limestone boulders at its south end (W8014), but changes its style of
construction as it runs north past Wall 8015, the point where it forms
the division between broad Room 803 and Central Hall 804. Here Wall
8012 is constructed of stacked-boulder piers capped by long (0.751.00
m) rectangular boulders. Between the piers are cobblestone units that
are less thick than the piers and, as a result, form recesses within Room
802. A third variation on this style of construction is seen in Wall 8022
where 2 stone pillars and a stacked-boulder pier are connected to one
another by cobblestone units that stand full height and are as thick as
the pillars (see Chapter 12). The smooth line of the at-topped capping
stones strongly suggests that this was a support wall for the beams of
the second oor of Building 800.
The Staircases
A special feature of Building 800 is its stone-built staircases, one on
the east (C27:43) and the second on the west (A83:19), that both lead
from Central Hall 804 to the upper storey. The eastern staircase is
supported by two, free-standing walls (8019 south; 8020 north), each
the range of 0.500.70 m and for two-storey or high status houses, the average thickness
was 0.701.00 m (see Daviau 1993a:213, Tables 3.603.63).
.q8 cn\r+rn rion+
formed of one row of semi-dressed, medium to large boulders laid
in regular courses (Figs. 8.3, 9). The steps consist of two, small to
medium boulders and an occasional chink stone. West Staircase A83:19
is located between Walls 8013 on the south and W8027 on the north,
both boulder-and-chink walls that form the narrow ends of Room 802
and 807 respectively. At the west end of Staircase A83:19, outer Wall
8028 forms an offset with Wall 8010 that may have served as the
landing, or as the location of a possible doorway into Building 800 at
the top of the stairs. In both staircases the steps are ca. 1.00 m in width,
0.250.35 m in depth and 0.200.30 m in height.
20
Stratigraphy
The construction, use, repair, reuse and abandonment of Building 800
all appear to have taken place during the Late Iron Age II period
(Stratum VII). Evidence of repair to the outer walls in Room 811 and
superimposed oor levels in Room 809 suggest two building phases
(Strata VIIA and VIIB), although only one building phase on the
ground oor could be identied in most rooms. There was little if
any change in the shape or size of these rooms with the exception of
Room 807, where West Wall 8028 is slightly out of alignment and is
thicker (1.50 m) than Wall 8033 (0.95 m), its continuation further north.
Whether this anomaly provided extra support for the upper storey or
was related to the offset between Walls 8028 and 8010 to the south is
unclear. Wall 8023 at the south end of Room 809 may also have been
an addition to support the upper storey during the nal occupation
phase (Stratum VIIA).
Additional support for the hypothesis that Building 800 had only
one major occupation period is seen in the ceramic remains which are
homogeneous among themselves and with those recovered in Field C-
east, both in the domestic structure (Building 900, Squares C4354)
and in the gate complex (Building 910), as well as with the nds in the
lower storey of Building 700 (see chronological discussion below).
Ceramic remains dating to the late Byzantine and early Islamic
periods were deposited in Field C during construction, occupation
and destruction of Building 600 in Field D (see Daviau and Tempest,
20
A comparable staircase (7K61:30) at Tall al-#Umayri (Lawlor 1991:20; g. 3.6) has
six steps preserved. These steps were also ca. 1.00 m wide and varied in height from
0.170.34 m.
rirrn c \xn n nrsinrxcrs .qq
in preparation) and in modern times.
21
No architectural evidence for
occupation during these later periods was recovered above or within
22
the Field C structures.
Table 8D. Strata for Field C-West
STRATA FIELD PHASE(S) PERIOD
I 1 modern
II no remains post-Umayyad
III pottery, etc. Umayyad
IV no remains Byzantine
V no remains Roman
VI no remains Persian
VIIA 2 Late Iron II
VIIB 3 Late Iron II
VIII pottery only Middle Iron II
IX pottery only Middle Iron II
X pottery only Iron I
STRATUM VIIBVIIA
Evidence for the earliest or founding phase of Building 800 was recov-
ered in the northernmost rooms, especially in Room 811. Here the
oor level was ca. 1.05 m below Central Hall 804, and there was no
direct access through Wall 8025=8030 into either Room 807 or Cen-
tral Hall 804. In order to better understand the room arrangement in
Building 800 and the function of individual rooms, the northern rooms
(R808R812) will be described as a unit, separate from Central Hall
804. This large room (R804) along with Staircases A83:19 and C27:43
and anking rooms R806 and R807 will be described as the Central
Unit. Finally, the southernmost rooms (R802, R803, R805) will be dis-
cussed in their relationship to Central Hall 804.
21
Following the beginning of our excavations in 1989, children from the neighbour-
ing village of Jawa would bring sherds from other sites to the tell as gifts. In addition,
they and would leave sherds for us to nd that they had recovered from their own small
excavations, undertaken after we had left the eld for the day. All this adds somewhat
to the contamination evident in Fields C and D.
22
A fragmentary wall (C62:4=72:2) along the crest of the Field C terrace may have
been formed as the result of clearing a modern path that ran eastward onto the tell
through Field C (west and east).
oo cn\r+rn rion+
CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF BUILDING 800
The Northern Unit: Rooms 811812, 810, 808, 809 (Fig. 8.3)
Room 811812
The largest single unit north of Wall 8025=8030 was Room 811
812 (Table 8A). Three boulder-and-chink walls surround this space
on the north (W8024), west (W8033) and south (W8025). Although
all three walls are similar in construction techniques and thickness
(0.901.10 m), Walls 8024 and W8033 are exterior walls, while Wall
8025=8030 is an interior wall. North Wall 8024 consists of two rows
of eldstones with rubble ll and measures on average 1.10 m thick
at its uppermost courses.
23
The foundation course is made of large
(0.751.00 m) boulders, which were laid on bedrock (A84:11, at 922.52
masl), while the upper courses are of small and medium size boulders.
Altogether, Wall 8024 remains standing 10 courses high (ca. 3.50 m).
While the eld stones in this wall can be described as unhewn or, at
best, semi-hewn, the boulders appear to have been hammer dressed
to provide vertical inner and outer faces. No evidence for the use of
mortar was identied. North Wall 8024 bonds with Wall 8033 on the
west to form the northwest corner of Building 800.
Although Wall 8033 measures only 0.95 m thick in its upper courses,
it is similar in construction and building materials to Wall 8024. Here
also, the lowest exposed courses within Room 811 are built of large
to extra large (>1.00 m) boulders, while the upper courses are of small
boulders (0.250.50 m).
24
Beginning 1.20 m above bedrock, these upper
courses, at least in the northwest corner, appear to have been rebuilt
using less care and precision than is evident in the lower courses.
This may account for the awkward position of a socket stone (A84:12)
located at the northwest corner of Walls 8024 and 8033.
Wall 8025 bonds with West Wall 8033 and runs east for ca. 8.50
m to form the southern perimeter of Rooms 811, R812, and Corridor
810 (as Wall 8030). Although it is an interior wall, Wall 8025=8030
23
Of the 50 Iron Age houses studied by Mitchell (1992), only six had walls in the
size range of 0.801.00 m thick: 12) Vered Yeriho (2 houses; Eitan 1983:247248); 3)
Beer-Sheba, House 2060 (Herzog 1984:18); where R175 and R181 are casemate walls
that are thicker than comparable walls in the adjoining houses; 4) Khirbet er-Ras 943
(Gibson and Edelstein 1985:142); 5)Tell Beit Mirsim NW31:1011 (Albright 1943:50;
pl. 6), and 6) SE23:1213 (Albright 1943: pl. 3).
24
A probe along the outer face of Wall 8033 (A84:5) claried the wall line and
exposed the second course of boulders and chink stones.
rirrn c \xn n nrsinrxcrs o:
Figure 8.3. Building 800, with relevant locus numbers.
was 0.900.95 m thick, comparable to outer Wall 8033. As well, these
walls are similar in construction and building materials at least for the
upper 2.00 m, where Wall 8025=8030 is exposed along its north and
south faces.
Room 811812 is divided by a stone-built pier wall (A84:6) located
2.00 m east of the northwest corner of Room 811. This cross wall is
o. cn\r+rn rion+
founded on bedrock and forms an opening (Doorway K) of 1.65 m
between the two rooms. The pier, almost square in plan (0.95

1.10 m),
is built of 10 courses of large (0.751.00 m) eldstones, and stands the
full preserved height (ca. 3.50 m) of North Wall 8024. Like Wall 8033,
the pier bonds with Wall 8024, clear evidence that it was built at the
same time. At present, the precise function of this architectural element
is far from evident, although it may have served both as a room divider
and as a buttress for the exterior wall (W8024).
25
Such a support may
have been needed for an upper storey wall or to stabilize outer Wall
8024 at a point where the bedrock began to slope toward the south.
Immediately above Bedrock A84:11 was a soil layer (A84:10) which
contained small lumps of charcoal and ecks of lime with a concentra-
tion of lime appearing to mark the top of the layer. Within the limits
of the probe it was not possible to recognize the function of this accu-
mulation, although the lime itself and the small number of loose stones
suggest collapsed wall plaster or ceiling. The pottery resting just above
bedrock and smashed within Debris Layer A84:10 consists of one red
slipped saucer bowl and bowl sherds, a juglet, cooking pot ware, and
pithos sherds (Table 8E). As will be seen in the following discussion,
this same range of domestic wares appears in virtually every room of
Building 800.
Above Soil Layer A84:10, the probe was expanded to run the entire
length of Wall 8024 in Room 811 (1.00

1.85 m). Here was another


debris layer (A84:9) which also contained plaster ecks, especially on
its upper surface. Unlike A84:10, this soil layer was damaged by rock
collapse and contained pebbles, cobbles and boulders. The pottery
recovered from this locus indicates the types of vessels in position along
the walls, even though these represent only a small portion of vessels
25
Parallels for Pier Wall A84:6, which separates Rooms 811 and 812, are numerous
at Tell el-Far#ah (N), for example, in Palace 148 and Houses 327, 328 and 411, where
they function as door frames (Chambon 1984: pls. 1822). Also in House 411, there are
two such piers in Room 409 that were not positioned opposite each other (Chambon
1984: pl. 18); these may have had a different function. Chambon (1984: g. 12)
identies examples of such piers that abut the perpendicular wall as well as others
which bond to it. At Tall al-#Umayri, there is a single pedestal located against a wall
immediately adjacent to a doorway (Herr et al. 1994:150, g. 3). In Building 700 at Tall
Jawa, a stone pier wall supports one end of a lintel over a doorway between Rooms
712 and R713 (see below). This same construction technique was used at Busayra,
where a pier wall (90) bonds with the outer wall, and serves as a cross wall between
two rooms (Bienkowki 2001: g. 3; 2002: g. 4.5). While this technique is also used in
casemate wall systems, what is of interest here is its use in domestic structures.
rirrn c \xn n nrsinrxcrs o
Figure 8.4. Deep probe in Room 811, showing Pier A84:6
with Doorway K at right, and upper storey agstones.
used in Room 811. Nevertheless, the concentration of sherds from a
late Iron II wide-mouth pithos with four handles (V844),
26
identical to
Vessel 806 from Room 802, is clear evidence of the contemporaneity
of the rooms in the northern unit with those in the southern part of
the house. In addition, the top of Locus A84:9 may represent a new
oor for the nal occupation phase (Stratum VIIA) of the Building. At
the level of 923.40 masl, it was close to that (923.73 masl) of the main
Floor Surface (C27:66=A83:32) in central Hall 804. Surface A84:9
may also have served as the construction platform from which outer
Walls 8024 and 8033 were repaired. As it was, this beaten earth surface,
marked by a small scatter of at lying sherds, was damaged further by
the nal collapse of the building whereby the ceramic vessels in use at
the time were smashed, their sherds embedded within layer A84:9 by
falling boulders and scattered throughout the overlying debris (A84:8).
A dense rockfall Layer A84:8, excavated over the entire area of
Room 811 for a depth of ca. 1.00 m, contained the collapse of Stra-
26
This wide mouth form does not appear in the corpus of pithoi (40+) from Fields
AB and E in Stratum VIII.
o cn\r+rn rion+
tum VIIA wall stones into Room 811 along with a group of agstones
(Fig. 8.4), probably upper storey paving slabs similar to those recov-
ered in Room 807 to the south. The pottery in use before the collapse,
and subsequently smashed by falling stones, consists of partially mend-
able vessels with clean fractures and little evidence of disturbance after
deposition. Absent from this sherd material are the indicators of wealth
and status found in other rooms of Building 800, namely black bur-
nished ware (only one rim sherd was recovered, TJ A84.26.11) and
painted ware (2 body sherds).
27
This predominantly utilitarian pottery
suggests a variety of domestic activities while the agstones point to a
well-appointed room on the second oor.
Table 8E. Pottery and Artefacts in Room 811
Locus Finds Reg. No. Characteristics
A84:810 saucer bowl V843 red slip
bowl V841 carinated
pithos V844 wide mouth
small jar V842 hole mouth
2 juglets V840, 848
tripod cup V846
mortar bowl V845 ceramic, ring base, wedge decoration
mortar bowl A84.38.3 ceramic, tripod feet
28
stone tool TJ 2174 polishing
lead ingot TJ 2168 pendant?, perforated
millstone TJ 2192 loaf-shaped, broken
pounder TJ 2182 chert
Ceramic nds of special note include the shallow saucer, which became
the most common small bowl form in Stratum VII.
29
The wide mouth
27
As in previous chapters, the vessels listed are those that could be mended in large
part and were clearly distinct from other known vessels. All registered artefacts are
listed, and can be studied in Daviau (2002); for a complete listing with drawings, see
the CD-ROM.
28
Ceramic tripod mortar bowls were in use with basalt mortars in both Strata VIII
and VII. Parallels to this form appear at Tall Dayr #Alla in the Jordan Valley (Homs-