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4.

1
4. I.I

Hydrostatics
Buoyancy
V

The apparent weight of a submerged body is less than its weight in air or, more strictly, a vacuum. It can be shown that it appears to weigh the same as an identical volume having a density equal to the difference in densities between the body and the liquid in which it is immersed. For a partially immersed body the weight of the displaced liquid is equal to the weight of the body. 4. I .2

Archimedes principle

Weight of liquid displaced =Weight of body or PLVS= PB V B


S Therefore: Vs= VBP B or -=P 2

Submerged body
Let : W = weight of body V = volume of body = W/pB pB= density of body pL=density of liquid Apparent weight W = W-p,V Then: W = V ( p B - p p , )

PL

VB

PL

4. I.3

Pressure of liquids

The pressure in a liquid under gravity increases uniformly with depth and is proportional to the depth and density of the liquid. The pressure in a cylinder is equal to the force on the piston divided by the area of the piston. The larger piston of a hydraulic jack exerts a force greater than that applied to the small cylinder in the ratio of the areas. An additional increase in force is due to the handleflever ratio.

4.1.4

Pressure in liquids

Gravity pressure p =pgh where: p =fluid density, h =depth. Units are: newtons per square metre (Nm-) or pascals (Pa); lo5N m-2 = lo5 Pa = 1 bar = lo00 millibars (mbar).
F Pressure in cylinder p =A

Floating body
Let :
VB=volume of body Vs= volume submerged

where: F=force on piston, A=piston area.

FLUID MECHANICS

147 Symbols used: p =density of liquid A=plate area x =depth of centroid I =second moment of area of plate about a horizontal axis through the centroid 6 =angle of inclined plate to the horizontal

--

-E
Pressure

F
Piston area A

1 1

w
Hydraulic jack
A relatively small force F, on the handle produces a pressure in a small-diameter cylinder which acts on a large-diameter cylinder to lift a large load W:
4F 4W a Pressure p =-=-, where F = F nd2 nD2 ,b Load raised W=F-=F,-d2 Force on plate F=pgxA Depth of centre of pressure h=x+h=X+-

I Ax

D2

aD2 bd2

I sin26 (for the inclined plate) Ax

CG = centroid CP=centre of pressure

4. I .5

Pressure on a submerged plate

The force on a submerged plate is equal to the pressure at the depth of its centroid multiplied by its area. The point at which the force acts is called the centre of pressureand is at a greater depth than the centroid. A formula is also given for an angled plate.

148

MECHANICAL ENGINEERS DATA HANDBOOK

4.2

Flow of liquids in pipes and ducts


The continuity equation is given as are expressions for the Reynolds number, a non-dimensional quantity expressing the fluid velocity in terms of the size of pipe, etc., and the fluid density and viscosity.

The Bernoulli equation states that for a fluid flowing in a pipe or duct the total energy, relative to a height datum, is constant if there is no loss due to friction. The formula can be given in terms of energy, pressure or head. 4.2. I

Bernoulli equation

Symbols used: p =pressure p =density h =height above datum V=velocity A = area For an incompressible fluid p is constant, also the energy at 1 is the same as at 2, i.e. E , =E , or p I / p + V:/2+gh,=p,p+ V:/2+ghZ+Energy loss (per kilogram) In terms of pressure: p1 + p v:/2 pgh, = p 2 p ~ : / 2 pgh, Pressure losses

If p1 = p z (incompressible fluid), then: A,V,=A,V, or Q 1 = Q 2 where Q =volume flow rate

4.2.3 Reynolds number (non-dimensional velocity)


In the use of models, similarity is obtained, as far as fluid friction is concerned, when: V D V D Reynolds number Re = p -=P is the same for the model and the full scale version. For a circular pipe: D =diameter p =dynamic viscosity v =kinematic viscosity

In terms of head: pl/pg v:/2g h , =p,/pg

+ Vi/2g + h, +Head losses

Velocity pressure p, = p v2/2 Velocity head h, = V2/2g Pressure head h, =p/pg

For a non-circular duct:

-_ D =equivalen?.diameter= 4 x Area - 4A Perimeter P


4.2.2
Continuity equation

Types o flow f
In a circular pipe the flow is laminarbelow Re N 2000 and turbulent above about Re = 2500. Between these values the flow is termed transitional.

If no fluid is gained or lost in a conduit: Mass flow m=p,A,V,=p,A,V,

FLUID MECHANICS

149

4.2.4

Friction in pipes

Pressure loss in a pipe ~ ~ = 4L - p - ( N m - ~ ) f v2 D 2


Friction factor f This depends on the Reynold's number

The formula is given for the pressure loss in a pipe due to friction on the wall for turbulent flow. The friction factor f depends on both Reynold's number and the surface roughness k, values of which are given for different materials. In the laminar-flow region, the friction factor is given by f = 16/Re, which is derived from the formula for laminar flow in a circular pipe. This is independant of the surface roughness. For non-circular pipes and ducts an equivalent diameter (equal to 4 times the area divided by the perimeter) is used. Let : L=length (m) D 5 diameter (m) V-5 velocity (m s- I ) p=density (kgm-3)

Re=- P V D
P

and the relative roughness k/D (for values of k, see table). For non-circular pipes, use the equivalent diameter

D = ,

4xArea -_ -4A Perimeter P

Example
For a water velocity of 0.5 m s- ' in a 50 mm bore pipe of roughness k = 0 . 1 mm, find the pressure loss per metre (viscosity=0.001 N - S ~ and p = lo00 kgm-3 - ~ for water).

Laminar region

~~

Critical zone FTurbulent

region

t i

0 --

0 .-

Recr,,

Reynolds number, Re
Smooth pipe

150 lo00 x 0.5 x 0.05 a . 5 x 104 0.001 0.1 50

MECHANICAL ENGINEERS DATA HANDBOOK

Reynolds number Re =

Pressure loss pr=pr

+pf2+

Relative roughness k / D =- = 0.002 Friction factor (from chart)f= 0.0073 The mass flow rate is the same in all pipes, i.e. Pressure loss
1 1000~0.5~ pf = 4 x 0.0073 x -x = 7 3 N m-2 0.05 2
m=m - m 2-etc. - -

where: m l = p A I V l , etc. kgs-

Pipes in parallel Laminar (oiscous) flow


The pressure loss is the same in all pipes: For circular pipes only, the friction factor f= 16/Re. This value is independant of roughness. Pressure loss pr=pr
=pf2 =etc.

Typical roughness of pipes


Roughness, k (mm) Smooth (k -0)
0.05 0.12 0.15 0.25 0.2-1.0 0.3-3.0 1.0-10

The total flow is the sum of the flow in each pipe: Total flow m=hl+m2+. . . where: pf1=4fl-p---,v: pf2=4f2-p-. v: etc. Ll L2 Dl 2 D2 2

Material of pipe (new) Glass, drawn brass, copper, lead, aluminium, etc. Wrought iron, steel Asphalted cast iron Galvanized iron, steel Cast iron Wood stave Concrete Riveted steel

4.2.6 Pressure loss in pipe fittings and pipe section changes


In addition to pipe friction loss, there are losses due to changes in pipe cross-section and also due to fittings such as valves and filters. These losses are given in terms of velocity pressure p(v2/2) and a constant called the K factor.

4.2.5

Pipes in series and parallel

Sudden enlargement

v: Pressure loss pL=Kp -, where K =


2
ID
I h

Piperoughness

Pipes in series
The pressure loss is the sum of the individual losses:

FLUID MECHANICS

151

Sudden exit
Pressure loss p L = p - v: ( K =1) , 2

Losses in valves
Globe valve wide open K = 1 0 Gate valve wide open K =0.2 Gate valve three-quarters open K = 1.15 Gate valve half open K = 5.6 Gate valve quarter open K =24

I I v,_
Sudden contraction

Rounded entry
K z 0.05

v: Pressure loss pL= K p 2


0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

10 .

Re-entrant pipe
K
0.5 0.45 0.38 0.28 0.14 0

K =0.8-1.o

r l

I I
Sudden entry
Pressure l s p , = K p - - ,v: where K z 0 . 5 os 2

Bends
The factor K depends on RID, the angle of bend 0, and the cross-sectional area and the Reynold's number. Data are given for a circular pipe with 90"bend. The loss factor takes into account the loss due to the pipe length.

L " 2

1.0 0.4 0.2 0.18 0.2 0.27

0.33 0.4

152

MECHANICAL ENGINEER'S DATA HANDBOOK

Cascaded bends
Plate : K = 0 2 .

K =0.05 aerofoil vanes, 0.2 circular arc plate vanes

Aerofoil : K

0.05

4.3

Flow of liquids through various devices


Flow in channels depends on the cross-section, the slope and the type of surface of the channel.

Formulae are given for the flow through orifices, weirs and channels. Orifices are used for the measurement of flow, weirs being for channel flow.

4.3. I

Orifices

Let: C , = coefficient of discharge C, =coefficient of velocity C , =coefficient of contraction H =head A = orifice area Aj =jet area

TIT

FLUID MECHANICS

153

Values o C, f

oiie type rfc


Rounded entry Sharp edged Borda reentrant (running full) External mouthpiece

C d Nearly 1.0
0.61-0.64

About 0.72 About 0.86

+!I 4
Arrangement
0

c-, I
-

4.3.2

Weirs, vee notch and channels

Unsuppressed weir
Flow Q =2.95C,(b-0.2H)H1.

Suppressed weir
Flow Q=3.33bH1.

flow Q=2.36C,tan-H2.

Vee notch

where C,=discharge coefficient

154

MECHANICAL ENGINEERSDATA HANDBOOK

Channels
Symbols used : m =hydraulic mean radius =A/P i=slope of channel C =constant =87/[ 1 + (K/&)] A=flow area P =wetted perimeter Mean velocity V = Flow rate Q = V A

Values of K
Surface Clean smooth wood, brick, stone Dirty wood, brick, stone Natural earth

K
0.16

~Jmr

0.28 1.30

Maximum discharge for given excavation


Channel Rectangular Trapezoidal Condition Arrangement

d=b/2 Sides tangential to semicircle

4.3.3

Venturi, orifice and pipe nozzle

These are used for measuring the flow of liquids and gases. In all three the restriction of flow creates a pressure difference which is measured to give an indication of the flow rate. The flow is always proportional to the square root of the pressure difference so that these two factors are non-linearly related. The venturi gives the least overall pressure loss (this is often important), but is much more expensive to make than the orifice which has a much greater loss. A good compromise is the pipe nozzle. The pressure difference may be measured by means of a manometer (as shown) or any other differential pressure device. The formula for flow rate is the same for each type.

Let : D =pipe diameter d =throat diameter p =fluid density p, =density of manometer fluid p1=upstream pressure p =throat pressure C, =coefficient of discharge h =manometer reading Flow rate Q = C,E 4

/?

FLUID MECHANICS

155

Inlet
Throat

Values of C,
Cd

Venturi Orifice plate Nozzle

0.974.99 0.60 0.92 to 0.98

4.4
4.4. I

Viscosity and laminar flow


viscosity
V+dV

In fluids there is cohesion and interaction between molecules which results in a shear force between adjacent layers moving at different velocities and between a moving fluid and a fixed wall. This results in friction and loss of energy. The following theory applies to so-called laminar or viscous flow associated with low velocity and high viscosity, i.e. where the Reynolds number is low.

At

Dejnition of viscosity
In laminar flow the shear stress between adjacent layers parallel to the direction of flow is proportional to the velocity gradient. Let : V=velocity y =distance normal to flow p =dynamic viscosity dV Shear stress 7=constant-=pd Y dV d Y

Flat plate moving overjixed plate of area A


Force to move plate F=7A=pAA

V
Y

--Iy

Flua.mkKitypmfile

156

MECHANICAL ENGINEER'S DATA HANDBOOK

Kinematic viscosity
Kinematic viscosity = Dynamic viscosity Density
P

in a circular pipe is parabolic, being a maximum at the pipe centre.

or v = -

Dimensions o viscosity f
Dynamic viscosity: ML- TKinematic viscosity: L2 T- '

'

Units with conversions from Imperial and other units


Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity

SI unit: Nsm-2
=47.9 N s m-' llbf-s ft -' 1 lbf-hft-2= 17.24 N s m-2 1 poundal-s ft - = 1.49 N s m-2 llbft-' s - ' = 1.49 kg ms 1 slugft-'s-'= 47.9 kgms-'

SI unit: m2s1 ftz s-

' '
'
Velocity distribution

' =Om29 mz s1ft2h- = 334 mz s-

'

'

Flow Q=?c (Pi -p2)r4 8PL


Mean velocity V = (Pi -P2)rZ 8PL Maximum velocity V , =2V

Viscosity o water f
Approximate values at room temperature: p=10-3Nsm-z y = 10-6mZs-l Temperature ("C)
0.01 20 40 60 80 100

4.4.3

Laminar flow between flat plates

Dynamic viscosity ( x 10-3Nsm-i) 1.755 1.002


0.65 1

Flow Q = (PI - p 2 W 12pL Mean velocity V = (Pi-Pz)t2 12pL Maximum velocity V,=$ V

0.462
0.350

0.278

4.4.2

Laminar flow in circular pipes

The f o is directly proportional to the pressure drop lw for any shape of pipe or duct. The velocity distribution

FLUID MECHANICS

157

4.4.4

Flow through annulus (small gap)

Mean velocity V=

Q
z ( R 2- r 2 )

U e formula for flat plates but with B =zD,, where D, s is the mean diameter.

Flow through annulus (exact formula)


Flow Q =- (PI - p 2 ) ( R 2- r 2 ) (R2 r 2 ) - + 8uL
?K

(R2 r 2 ) R In -

1
is proportional to the mass flow rate. Examples are of jets striking both fixed and moving plates.

4.5

Fluid jets

If the velocity or direction of a jet of fluid is changed, there is a force on the device causing the change which

Change of momentum of aJIuid stream


Let : m=mass flow rate=pAV VI =initial velocity V z=final velocity p =fluid density A=flow area

For flow in one direction, the force on a plate, etc., causing a velocity change is
F = h ( VI - V 2 )

4.5. I Jet on stationary plates

It1
I' i

Jet on u p a t plate
In this case V2 =0, and if VI = V
l

II I

F=mV=

Flat plate, e = Boc

Angled plate, 8c90"

158

MECHANICAL ENGINEER'SDATA HANDBOOK

Jet on angled plate


F=pAP(l-cost?) in direction of VI
For

e=90", F = ~ A V , For t?=180,F=2pAV2.

V
Moving flat plate

't'

Moving angled plate

Example
Angled plate.

e= 180'

If r = -0.4,

4.5.2

Jet on moving plates

t?= 170, V = 10 ms- I , A = 4 cm2 ( = 4 x V 10-4m3)and p=lOOOkgm-'. Then P=lOOox 4x x lo3 x 0.4(1-0.4)(1 -COS 170)=
190.5 watts

Jet on a p a t plate
F=pAV(V- U ) where: U =plate velocity. Power P=FU=pAVU(V-U)
= p A V3r( 1- r )

Jet on jixed curved vane


In the x direction: F,= pA V2(cost?, +cos e, ) In the y direction: F, = p A p(sin 8, -sin e, )

Jet on moving curved vane


sina cost?, sin 8, where: r = -

U where: r = -

V'

Jet on angfed plate

U
V'

F=pAV(V-U)(l--cost?) in direction of V P = p ~ V ~ r ( l - r ) (-cost?)p l

FLUID MECHANICS

159

occurs when the boat speed is half the jet speed and maximum power is attained. When the water enters the front of the boat, maximum efficiency occurs when the boat speed equals the jet speed, that is, when the power is zero. A compromise must therefore be made between power and efficiency. Let: V=jet velocity relative to boat U =boat velocity

m=mass flow rate of jet

Water enters side of boat


Thrust F =m V(1- r ) Pump power P =m 2 Efficiency q =2r( 1-r); q,,=O.S, at r=0.5.

VZ

F,=mV

1-- ?i:)sina

sina cos8, sin 8, sina cos8, sin 8, where: V=jet velocity, a=jet angle, 8, =vane inlet angle, O2 =vane outlet angle.

Water enters fiont o boat f


Thrust F=hV(l -r) Pump power P = m

(vz-U2) vz =m-(I 2 2

-9)

2r Efficiency q =(1+ r )
q=0.667, for r=0.5. q = 1.0, for r = 1.0.

4.5.3

Water jet boat

This is an example of change i momentum of a fluid n jet. The highest efficiency is obtained when the water enters the boat in the direction of motion. When the water enters the side of the boat, maximum efficiency

Output power (both cases)


P,=mitVlr(I - r )

160

MECHANICAL ENGINEER'S DATA HANDBOOK

4.5.4

Aircraft jet engine

Let : V = jet velocity relative to aircraft U =aircraft velocity m=mass flow rate of air hf=mass flow rate of fuel Thrust T=mU - (m +mf)V Output power P = TU=mU2-(m+mf)UV

Side entry

l.OL---

I/
0

I
0.5
r Front entry

I
1.o

Po mar =m -, at r =0.5.
4

vz

4.6

Flow of gases
pipe and flow through orifices. The velocity ofsound in a gas is defined.

Formulae are given for the compressible flow of a gas. They include isothermal flow with friction in a uniform

Symbols used: p =pressure L =pipe length D =pipe diameter T = temperature C , =discharge coefficient

VI =inlet velocity R =gas constant m =mass flow f = friction coefficient y =ratio of specific heats p =density

FLUID MECHANICS

161

4.6. I

Isothermal flow in pipe

Pressure drop:
A,=,,(

-/=
4

D2 Mass flow m = p , V , n -

where: pr

=(g)

4.6.3

:;c
m
v s

Velocity of sound in a gas

v,= Jyp/p=J r R T
4.6.2 Flow through orifice
29 - pIpln2 1-n
V Mach number M =-

Mass flow m=C,A

nJ-7-7

4.6.4 Drag cafflcients for various bodies


The drag coefficient (non-dimensionaldrag) is equal to the drag force divided by the product of velocity pressure and frontal area. The velocity may be that of the object through the air (or any other gas) or the air velocity past a stationary object. Coefficients are given for a number of geometrical shapes and also for cars, airships and struts.

where: n=p21p1; p 1 =pl/RTl Maximum flow when n = -

[A-

'- =0.528 for air.

Drag coeilkients for various bodies Drag D = C,Ap -; p =fluid density; A =frontal area; V = fluid velocity. 2 Shape
V Z

L d

cd

Re -

104

Arrangement

162 Drag coelficients for various bodies (continued)


Shape
L A

MECHANICAL ENGINEER'S DATA HANDBOOK

d Rectangular flat plate

Cd
1.15

Arrangement

I 2
5

1.16
1.20

60

Ld

10 30

1.22 1.62
1.98

co

Long semicircular convex surface

Long circular cylinder

I .oo 0.35

<20 >20
Ld

Long square section f o lw on edge

FLUID MECHANICS

163

Drag codficieats for various bodies (continued)


Shape
-

L d

Cd

A
100

Arrangement

(a) Cube flow on face

1 .os

d2

\
(b) Cube flow on edge

Sphere

0.45 0.20

<20 >20

nd2 -

Long elliptical section

8 4 2

0.24 0.32 0.46

10

164

MECHANICAL ENGINEERSDATA HANDBOOK

D a coefiients for various bodies (continued) rg


Shape
L d
Cd

Arrangement

Long symmetrical aerofoil

1 6 8 7 5 4

0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009

800

Ellipsoid

5 25 . 1.25

0.06 0.07 0.13

100
4

Streamlined body of circular cross-section

3
4

0.049 0.051

5 6
Solid hemisphere f o on lw convex face

0.060 0.072
0.38

500

01 .

nd2

FLUID MECHANICS

165

Drag coefficients for various bodies (continued)

Shape

L d

Cd

Re -

104

A
lrd
4

Arrangement

Hollow hemisphere flow on convex face

0.80

0.1

Hollow hemisphere flow on concave face

1.42

0.1

lrd2

(a) High-drag car

>0.55

50

(b) Medium-drag car

0.45

50

(b)

d-b

(c) Low-drag car

<0.30

50

4.7
4.7. I

Fluid machines
Centrifugal pump
Fluid enters the impeller axially at its centre of rotation through its eyeand is discharged from its rim in a spiralling motion having received energy from the rotating impeller. This results in an increase in both pressure and velocity. The kinetic energy is mostly converted to pressure energy in the volute and a tapered section of the discharge branch.

A centrifugal pump consists of an impeller with vanes rotating in a suitably shaped casing which has an inlet at the centre and usually a spiral volute terminating in an outlet branch of circular cross-section to suit a vipe.

166

MECHANICAL ENGINEER'S DATA HANDBOOK

Some pumps have a ring of fixed (diffuser) vanes into which the impeller discharges. These reduce the velocity and convert a proportion of the kinetic energy into pressure energy. Symbols used: D , =mean inlet diameter of impeller D, =outlet diameter of impeller b , =mean inlet width of impeller b , =outlet width of impeller t =vane thickness at outlet b1=vane inlet angle bz=vane outlet angle N =impeller rotational speed K =whirl coefficient Q =flow H=hMd Z=number of vanes p =fluid density 1 refers to impeller inlet 2 refers to impeller outlet 3 refers to diffuser outlet P =power Vt = tangential velocity Vw= whirl velocity V, =flow velocity V, = velocity relative to vane V = absolute velocity of fluid qh= hydraulic efficiency q, =volumetric efficiency q,, mechanical efficiency = qo= overall efficiency a =diffuser inlet angle d,=diffuser inlet width d , =diffuser outlet width b =diffuser breadth (constant) a, =diffuser inlet area =bd, a, =diffuser outlet area =bd, V, =diffuser outlet velocity p =pressure rise in pump

Head
Refemng to velocity triangles

t Theoretical head Hth= ( v w 2 Vt 2 - v w I v I )


9

It is usually assumed that V,, is zero, Le. there is no 'whirl' at inlet. The outlet whirl velocity V, is reduced ,, by a whirl factor K to KVw,(K < I). Then: Actual head H =
vwZ VtZqh

where tfh= hydraulic efficiency. Or: Pressure rise p =pK Vw,VtZqh Flow Q = V,,A,= Vf,A,
="D,b,Vf,tl"

where qv =volumetric efficiency

Velocity relationships

FLUID MECHANICS

167
A

Power and eficiency


Overall efficiency rt. =flmrtvrth
gHQ Input power P =p IO

Inlet angles
Diffuser (fixed vanes): Inlet angle a = tan - a2 Outlet velocity V3= V2a3

Vf2 VW2

Vane :
Vfl Inlet angle fl, =tan- - (assuming no whirl)

VI1

Static and total eficiencies


Static head =H , Static pressure=po=pgHo Total head HI= no+v :

-.lbCII I

%
Total pressum=Pp,=pgHt

Static efficiency=, P Q I =o Total efficiency =q1=P ~ Q -

4.1.2

Pump characteristics

Pump volute
Velocity in volute V,=A4

Pump characteristics are plotted to a base of flow rate for a fixed pump speed. H a (or pressure), power and ed efficiency are plotted for dl&rent speeds to give a family of curves. For a given speed the point at which maximum efficiency is attained is called the best etficiency point (B.E.P.). the curves are plotted If nondimensionally a single curve is obtained which is also the same for all geometrically similar pumps.

where: A4=maximum area. Then:

A4 Pump outlet velocity V, = V, A0

where: A,=outlet area. Pressure head at outlet Ho= H --- K


28

v :

v, 5

where: K,=dHuser and volute discharge coefficient.

168

MECHANICAL ENGINEERSDATA HANDBOOK

Head (H), power ( P ) and efficiency ( q ) are plotted against flow at various speeds (N) and the B.E.P. can be determined from these.

vapour pressure at the operating temperature and also on the specific speed. Symbols used: p=fluid density pa=atmospheric pressure p , =vapour pressure of liquid at working temperature V, =suction pipe velocity h, =friction head loss in suction pipe plus any other losses Ha=pump head u =cavitation constant which depends on vane , design and specific speed Minimum safe suction head Hmin=Pa/Pg-(ocHa+ C/2g+hr+Pv/Pg)

Non-dimensional characteristics
To give single curves for any speed the following non-dimensional quantities, (parameters) are plotted (see figure): Head parameter X,=gH/N2DZ Flow parameter X, = Q/ND3 Power parameter X,= PIpN3DS

Range of 6,: Safe region u >0.0005Nf.37, , where N,=specific speed. Dangerous region u <O.OOO~~N:.~ , A doubtful zone exists between the two values.

4.7.4

Centrifugal fans

4.7.3

Cavitation

If the suction pressure of a pump falls to a very low value, the fluid may boil at a low pressure region (e.g. at the vane inlet). A formula is given for the minimum suction head, which depends on the fluid density and

The theory for centrifugal fans is basically the same as that for centrifugal pumps but there are differences in construction since fans are used for gases and pumps for liquids. They are usually constructed from sheet metal and efficiency is sacrificed for simplicity. The three types are: the radial blade fan (paddle wheel fan); the backward-curved vane fan, which is similar in design to the centrifugal pump; and the forwardcurved vane fan which has a wide impeller and a large number of vanes. Typical proportions for impellers, maximum efficiencies and static pressures are given together with the outlet-velocity diagram for the impeller.

~~

Max. efficiency Type and application Arrangement Radial vanes: (paddle wheel), mill exhaust
blD

(%I
60-70

No. of vanes
6-8

Static pressure

(cmH,O)

Velocity triangle

0.35-0.45

w6

h
Veve*

v,

v,

Backward-curved vanes: air conditioning

Forwardcurved vanes: ventilation

3-

0.25-0.45

75-90

8-12

12-15

0.50-0.60 55-60

16-20

7-10

170

MECHANICAL ENGINEERS DATA HANDBOOK

4.7.5

Impulse (Pelton) water turbine

This is a water turbine in which the pressure energy of the water is converted wholly to kinetic energy in one or more jets which impinge on buckets disposed around the periphery of a wheel. The jet is almost completely reversed in direction by the buckets and a high efficiency is attained. Formulae are given for the optimum pipe size to give maximum power, and for the jet size for maximum power (one jet). Symbols used: 8=bucket angle H =available head H,,, =total head H, = friction head D =mean diameter of bucket wheel D, =pipe diameter d =jet diameter p =water density f= pipe friction factor L=length of pipe N = wheel speed C , =jet velocity coefficient V=jet velocity V, =pipe velocity qo=overall efficiency

Available head H = (HIoI H,) Shaft power P =p g H q , Jet velocity V = C , m Mean bucket speed U = nDN

nd2 V Flow through jet Q=- 4


Hydraulic efficiency qh = 2r( 1- I ) ( 1 k cos 0) U where: r =-, 0 =bucket angle (4-7), V k =friction coefficient (about 0.9). Maximum efficiency (at r =0.5): qh(max)= Overall efficiency qo=qhqm Maximum power when H r = - = L . Hence: 3 29Dp Optimum size of supply pipe D,=
HtOI

(1 k cos 8) 2

4ftv2

(approximately)

Jet size for maximum power d = -

() z

T------lH
V

4.7.6

Reaction (Francis) water turbine

The head of water is partially converted to kinetic energy in stationary guide vanes and the rest is converted into mechanical energy in the runner. The water first enters a spiral casing or volute and then into the guide vanes and a set of adjustable vanes which are used to control the flow and hence the power. The water then enters the runner and finally leaves via the draft tube at low velocity. The draft tube tapers to reduce the final velocity to a minimum.

FLUID MECHANICS

171

Velocity triangles
Radial velocities: V,, =Q/nb,D, (inlet) V,, = Q/nbzD, (outlet) Tangential velocities: VI, = x D , N (inlet) VI, = nD,N (outlet) Whirl velocities: V,, =gHqh/Vl, (inlet, usually) Vw2 (outlet, usually) =O Guide vane velocity: V, =
vanes

Specific speed of pumps and turbines

0
Vane and blade angles
Guide vanes: a=tan-'V,,/V,, Blade inlet: B1=tan- Vrl/( Vll - V,,) Blade outlet: & =tan- V,,/V,, Overall efficiency q,, =qmqh Shaft power =pgHQq, Available head H =HI,, -H , - Vf/2g where: V,=draft tube outlet velocity.

It is useful to compare design parameters and characteristics of fluid machines for different sizes. This is done by introducing the concept of 'specific speed', which is a constant for geometrically similar machines.

4.7.7 Specific speed of pumps and turbines


Symbols used: N =speed of rotation Q = flow H = head P = power

N A Specific speed of pump N , =-

Hi
Specific speed of turbine N
N J 7= s ; H2
~