1
4. I.I
Hydrostatics
Buoyancy
V
The apparent weight of a submerged body is less than its weight in air or, more strictly, a vacuum. It can be shown that it appears to weigh the same as an identical volume having a density equal to the difference in densities between the body and the liquid in which it is immersed. For a partially immersed body the weight of the displaced liquid is equal to the weight of the body. 4. I .2
Archimedes principle
Submerged body
Let : W = weight of body V = volume of body = W/pB pB= density of body pL=density of liquid Apparent weight W = Wp,V Then: W = V ( p B  p p , )
PL
VB
PL
4. I.3
Pressure of liquids
The pressure in a liquid under gravity increases uniformly with depth and is proportional to the depth and density of the liquid. The pressure in a cylinder is equal to the force on the piston divided by the area of the piston. The larger piston of a hydraulic jack exerts a force greater than that applied to the small cylinder in the ratio of the areas. An additional increase in force is due to the handleflever ratio.
4.1.4
Pressure in liquids
Gravity pressure p =pgh where: p =fluid density, h =depth. Units are: newtons per square metre (Nm) or pascals (Pa); lo5N m2 = lo5 Pa = 1 bar = lo00 millibars (mbar).
F Pressure in cylinder p =A
Floating body
Let :
VB=volume of body Vs= volume submerged
FLUID MECHANICS
147 Symbols used: p =density of liquid A=plate area x =depth of centroid I =second moment of area of plate about a horizontal axis through the centroid 6 =angle of inclined plate to the horizontal

E
Pressure
F
Piston area A
1 1
w
Hydraulic jack
A relatively small force F, on the handle produces a pressure in a smalldiameter cylinder which acts on a largediameter cylinder to lift a large load W:
4F 4W a Pressure p ==, where F = F nd2 nD2 ,b Load raised W=F=F,d2 Force on plate F=pgxA Depth of centre of pressure h=x+h=X+
I Ax
D2
aD2 bd2
4. I .5
The force on a submerged plate is equal to the pressure at the depth of its centroid multiplied by its area. The point at which the force acts is called the centre of pressureand is at a greater depth than the centroid. A formula is also given for an angled plate.
148
4.2
The Bernoulli equation states that for a fluid flowing in a pipe or duct the total energy, relative to a height datum, is constant if there is no loss due to friction. The formula can be given in terms of energy, pressure or head. 4.2. I
Bernoulli equation
Symbols used: p =pressure p =density h =height above datum V=velocity A = area For an incompressible fluid p is constant, also the energy at 1 is the same as at 2, i.e. E , =E , or p I / p + V:/2+gh,=p,p+ V:/2+ghZ+Energy loss (per kilogram) In terms of pressure: p1 + p v:/2 pgh, = p 2 p ~ : / 2 pgh, Pressure losses
Types o flow f
In a circular pipe the flow is laminarbelow Re N 2000 and turbulent above about Re = 2500. Between these values the flow is termed transitional.
FLUID MECHANICS
149
4.2.4
Friction in pipes
The formula is given for the pressure loss in a pipe due to friction on the wall for turbulent flow. The friction factor f depends on both Reynold's number and the surface roughness k, values of which are given for different materials. In the laminarflow region, the friction factor is given by f = 16/Re, which is derived from the formula for laminar flow in a circular pipe. This is independant of the surface roughness. For noncircular pipes and ducts an equivalent diameter (equal to 4 times the area divided by the perimeter) is used. Let : L=length (m) D 5 diameter (m) V5 velocity (m s I ) p=density (kgm3)
Re= P V D
P
and the relative roughness k/D (for values of k, see table). For noncircular pipes, use the equivalent diameter
D = ,
Example
For a water velocity of 0.5 m s ' in a 50 mm bore pipe of roughness k = 0 . 1 mm, find the pressure loss per metre (viscosity=0.001 N  S ~ and p = lo00 kgm3  ~ for water).
Laminar region
~~
region
t i
0 
0 .
Recr,,
Reynolds number, Re
Smooth pipe
Reynolds number Re =
+pf2+
Relative roughness k / D = = 0.002 Friction factor (from chart)f= 0.0073 The mass flow rate is the same in all pipes, i.e. Pressure loss
1 1000~0.5~ pf = 4 x 0.0073 x x = 7 3 N m2 0.05 2
m=m  m 2etc.  
The total flow is the sum of the flow in each pipe: Total flow m=hl+m2+. . . where: pf1=4flp,v: pf2=4f2p. v: etc. Ll L2 Dl 2 D2 2
Material of pipe (new) Glass, drawn brass, copper, lead, aluminium, etc. Wrought iron, steel Asphalted cast iron Galvanized iron, steel Cast iron Wood stave Concrete Riveted steel
4.2.5
Sudden enlargement
Piperoughness
Pipes in series
The pressure loss is the sum of the individual losses:
FLUID MECHANICS
151
Sudden exit
Pressure loss p L = p  v: ( K =1) , 2
Losses in valves
Globe valve wide open K = 1 0 Gate valve wide open K =0.2 Gate valve threequarters open K = 1.15 Gate valve half open K = 5.6 Gate valve quarter open K =24
I I v,_
Sudden contraction
Rounded entry
K z 0.05
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
10 .
Reentrant pipe
K
0.5 0.45 0.38 0.28 0.14 0
K =0.81.o
r l
I I
Sudden entry
Pressure l s p , = K p   ,v: where K z 0 . 5 os 2
Bends
The factor K depends on RID, the angle of bend 0, and the crosssectional area and the Reynold's number. Data are given for a circular pipe with 90"bend. The loss factor takes into account the loss due to the pipe length.
L " 2
0.33 0.4
152
Cascaded bends
Plate : K = 0 2 .
Aerofoil : K
0.05
4.3
Formulae are given for the flow through orifices, weirs and channels. Orifices are used for the measurement of flow, weirs being for channel flow.
4.3. I
Orifices
Let: C , = coefficient of discharge C, =coefficient of velocity C , =coefficient of contraction H =head A = orifice area Aj =jet area
TIT
FLUID MECHANICS
153
Values o C, f
C d Nearly 1.0
0.610.64
+!I 4
Arrangement
0
c, I

4.3.2
Unsuppressed weir
Flow Q =2.95C,(b0.2H)H1.
Suppressed weir
Flow Q=3.33bH1.
flow Q=2.36C,tanH2.
Vee notch
154
Channels
Symbols used : m =hydraulic mean radius =A/P i=slope of channel C =constant =87/[ 1 + (K/&)] A=flow area P =wetted perimeter Mean velocity V = Flow rate Q = V A
Values of K
Surface Clean smooth wood, brick, stone Dirty wood, brick, stone Natural earth
K
0.16
~Jmr
0.28 1.30
4.3.3
These are used for measuring the flow of liquids and gases. In all three the restriction of flow creates a pressure difference which is measured to give an indication of the flow rate. The flow is always proportional to the square root of the pressure difference so that these two factors are nonlinearly related. The venturi gives the least overall pressure loss (this is often important), but is much more expensive to make than the orifice which has a much greater loss. A good compromise is the pipe nozzle. The pressure difference may be measured by means of a manometer (as shown) or any other differential pressure device. The formula for flow rate is the same for each type.
Let : D =pipe diameter d =throat diameter p =fluid density p, =density of manometer fluid p1=upstream pressure p =throat pressure C, =coefficient of discharge h =manometer reading Flow rate Q = C,E 4
/?
FLUID MECHANICS
155
Inlet
Throat
Values of C,
Cd
4.4
4.4. I
In fluids there is cohesion and interaction between molecules which results in a shear force between adjacent layers moving at different velocities and between a moving fluid and a fixed wall. This results in friction and loss of energy. The following theory applies to socalled laminar or viscous flow associated with low velocity and high viscosity, i.e. where the Reynolds number is low.
At
Dejnition of viscosity
In laminar flow the shear stress between adjacent layers parallel to the direction of flow is proportional to the velocity gradient. Let : V=velocity y =distance normal to flow p =dynamic viscosity dV Shear stress 7=constant=pd Y dV d Y
V
Y
Iy
Flua.mkKitypmfile
156
Kinematic viscosity
Kinematic viscosity = Dynamic viscosity Density
P
or v = 
Dimensions o viscosity f
Dynamic viscosity: ML TKinematic viscosity: L2 T '
'
SI unit: Nsm2
=47.9 N s m' llbfs ft ' 1 lbfhft2= 17.24 N s m2 1 poundals ft  = 1.49 N s m2 llbft' s  ' = 1.49 kg ms 1 slugft's'= 47.9 kgms'
' '
'
Velocity distribution
'
'
Viscosity o water f
Approximate values at room temperature: p=103Nsmz y = 106mZsl Temperature ("C)
0.01 20 40 60 80 100
4.4.3
Flow Q = (PI  p 2 W 12pL Mean velocity V = (PiPz)t2 12pL Maximum velocity V,=$ V
0.462
0.350
0.278
4.4.2
The f o is directly proportional to the pressure drop lw for any shape of pipe or duct. The velocity distribution
FLUID MECHANICS
157
4.4.4
Mean velocity V=
Q
z ( R 2 r 2 )
U e formula for flat plates but with B =zD,, where D, s is the mean diameter.
(R2 r 2 ) R In 
1
is proportional to the mass flow rate. Examples are of jets striking both fixed and moving plates.
4.5
Fluid jets
If the velocity or direction of a jet of fluid is changed, there is a force on the device causing the change which
For flow in one direction, the force on a plate, etc., causing a velocity change is
F = h ( VI  V 2 )
It1
I' i
Jet on u p a t plate
In this case V2 =0, and if VI = V
l
II I
F=mV=
158
V
Moving flat plate
't'
Example
Angled plate.
e= 180'
If r = 0.4,
4.5.2
t?= 170, V = 10 ms I , A = 4 cm2 ( = 4 x V 104m3)and p=lOOOkgm'. Then P=lOOox 4x x lo3 x 0.4(10.4)(1 COS 170)=
190.5 watts
Jet on a p a t plate
F=pAV(V U ) where: U =plate velocity. Power P=FU=pAVU(VU)
= p A V3r( 1 r )
U where: r = 
V'
U
V'
FLUID MECHANICS
159
occurs when the boat speed is half the jet speed and maximum power is attained. When the water enters the front of the boat, maximum efficiency occurs when the boat speed equals the jet speed, that is, when the power is zero. A compromise must therefore be made between power and efficiency. Let: V=jet velocity relative to boat U =boat velocity
VZ
F,=mV
1 ?i:)sina
sina cos8, sin 8, sina cos8, sin 8, where: V=jet velocity, a=jet angle, 8, =vane inlet angle, O2 =vane outlet angle.
(vzU2) vz =m(I 2 2
9)
2r Efficiency q =(1+ r )
q=0.667, for r=0.5. q = 1.0, for r = 1.0.
4.5.3
This is an example of change i momentum of a fluid n jet. The highest efficiency is obtained when the water enters the boat in the direction of motion. When the water enters the side of the boat, maximum efficiency
160
4.5.4
Let : V = jet velocity relative to aircraft U =aircraft velocity m=mass flow rate of air hf=mass flow rate of fuel Thrust T=mU  (m +mf)V Output power P = TU=mU2(m+mf)UV
Side entry
l.OL
I/
0
I
0.5
r Front entry
I
1.o
Po mar =m , at r =0.5.
4
vz
4.6
Flow of gases
pipe and flow through orifices. The velocity ofsound in a gas is defined.
Formulae are given for the compressible flow of a gas. They include isothermal flow with friction in a uniform
Symbols used: p =pressure L =pipe length D =pipe diameter T = temperature C , =discharge coefficient
VI =inlet velocity R =gas constant m =mass flow f = friction coefficient y =ratio of specific heats p =density
FLUID MECHANICS
161
4.6. I
Pressure drop:
A,=,,(
/=
4
D2 Mass flow m = p , V , n 
where: pr
=(g)
4.6.3
:;c
m
v s
v,= Jyp/p=J r R T
4.6.2 Flow through orifice
29  pIpln2 1n
V Mach number M =
nJ77
[A
Drag coeilkients for various bodies Drag D = C,Ap ; p =fluid density; A =frontal area; V = fluid velocity. 2 Shape
V Z
L d
cd
Re 
104
Arrangement
Cd
1.15
Arrangement
I 2
5
1.16
1.20
60
Ld
10 30
1.22 1.62
1.98
co
I .oo 0.35
<20 >20
Ld
FLUID MECHANICS
163
L d
Cd
A
100
Arrangement
1 .os
d2
\
(b) Cube flow on edge
Sphere
0.45 0.20
<20 >20
nd2 
8 4 2
10
164
Arrangement
1 6 8 7 5 4
800
Ellipsoid
5 25 . 1.25
100
4
3
4
0.049 0.051
5 6
Solid hemisphere f o on lw convex face
0.060 0.072
0.38
500
01 .
nd2
FLUID MECHANICS
165
Shape
L d
Cd
Re 
104
A
lrd
4
Arrangement
0.80
0.1
1.42
0.1
lrd2
>0.55
50
0.45
50
(b)
db
<0.30
50
4.7
4.7. I
Fluid machines
Centrifugal pump
Fluid enters the impeller axially at its centre of rotation through its eyeand is discharged from its rim in a spiralling motion having received energy from the rotating impeller. This results in an increase in both pressure and velocity. The kinetic energy is mostly converted to pressure energy in the volute and a tapered section of the discharge branch.
A centrifugal pump consists of an impeller with vanes rotating in a suitably shaped casing which has an inlet at the centre and usually a spiral volute terminating in an outlet branch of circular crosssection to suit a vipe.
166
Some pumps have a ring of fixed (diffuser) vanes into which the impeller discharges. These reduce the velocity and convert a proportion of the kinetic energy into pressure energy. Symbols used: D , =mean inlet diameter of impeller D, =outlet diameter of impeller b , =mean inlet width of impeller b , =outlet width of impeller t =vane thickness at outlet b1=vane inlet angle bz=vane outlet angle N =impeller rotational speed K =whirl coefficient Q =flow H=hMd Z=number of vanes p =fluid density 1 refers to impeller inlet 2 refers to impeller outlet 3 refers to diffuser outlet P =power Vt = tangential velocity Vw= whirl velocity V, =flow velocity V, = velocity relative to vane V = absolute velocity of fluid qh= hydraulic efficiency q, =volumetric efficiency q,, mechanical efficiency = qo= overall efficiency a =diffuser inlet angle d,=diffuser inlet width d , =diffuser outlet width b =diffuser breadth (constant) a, =diffuser inlet area =bd, a, =diffuser outlet area =bd, V, =diffuser outlet velocity p =pressure rise in pump
Head
Refemng to velocity triangles
It is usually assumed that V,, is zero, Le. there is no 'whirl' at inlet. The outlet whirl velocity V, is reduced ,, by a whirl factor K to KVw,(K < I). Then: Actual head H =
vwZ VtZqh
where tfh= hydraulic efficiency. Or: Pressure rise p =pK Vw,VtZqh Flow Q = V,,A,= Vf,A,
="D,b,Vf,tl"
Velocity relationships
FLUID MECHANICS
167
A
Inlet angles
Diffuser (fixed vanes): Inlet angle a = tan  a2 Outlet velocity V3= V2a3
Vf2 VW2
Vane :
Vfl Inlet angle fl, =tan  (assuming no whirl)
VI1
.lbCII I
%
Total pressum=Pp,=pgHt
4.1.2
Pump characteristics
Pump volute
Velocity in volute V,=A4
Pump characteristics are plotted to a base of flow rate for a fixed pump speed. H a (or pressure), power and ed efficiency are plotted for dl&rent speeds to give a family of curves. For a given speed the point at which maximum efficiency is attained is called the best etficiency point (B.E.P.). the curves are plotted If nondimensionally a single curve is obtained which is also the same for all geometrically similar pumps.
v :
v, 5
168
Head (H), power ( P ) and efficiency ( q ) are plotted against flow at various speeds (N) and the B.E.P. can be determined from these.
vapour pressure at the operating temperature and also on the specific speed. Symbols used: p=fluid density pa=atmospheric pressure p , =vapour pressure of liquid at working temperature V, =suction pipe velocity h, =friction head loss in suction pipe plus any other losses Ha=pump head u =cavitation constant which depends on vane , design and specific speed Minimum safe suction head Hmin=Pa/Pg(ocHa+ C/2g+hr+Pv/Pg)
Nondimensional characteristics
To give single curves for any speed the following nondimensional quantities, (parameters) are plotted (see figure): Head parameter X,=gH/N2DZ Flow parameter X, = Q/ND3 Power parameter X,= PIpN3DS
Range of 6,: Safe region u >0.0005Nf.37, , where N,=specific speed. Dangerous region u <O.OOO~~N:.~ , A doubtful zone exists between the two values.
4.7.4
Centrifugal fans
4.7.3
Cavitation
If the suction pressure of a pump falls to a very low value, the fluid may boil at a low pressure region (e.g. at the vane inlet). A formula is given for the minimum suction head, which depends on the fluid density and
The theory for centrifugal fans is basically the same as that for centrifugal pumps but there are differences in construction since fans are used for gases and pumps for liquids. They are usually constructed from sheet metal and efficiency is sacrificed for simplicity. The three types are: the radial blade fan (paddle wheel fan); the backwardcurved vane fan, which is similar in design to the centrifugal pump; and the forwardcurved vane fan which has a wide impeller and a large number of vanes. Typical proportions for impellers, maximum efficiencies and static pressures are given together with the outletvelocity diagram for the impeller.
~~
Max. efficiency Type and application Arrangement Radial vanes: (paddle wheel), mill exhaust
blD
(%I
6070
No. of vanes
68
Static pressure
(cmH,O)
Velocity triangle
0.350.45
w6
h
Veve*
v,
v,
3
0.250.45
7590
812
1215
0.500.60 5560
1620
710
170
4.7.5
This is a water turbine in which the pressure energy of the water is converted wholly to kinetic energy in one or more jets which impinge on buckets disposed around the periphery of a wheel. The jet is almost completely reversed in direction by the buckets and a high efficiency is attained. Formulae are given for the optimum pipe size to give maximum power, and for the jet size for maximum power (one jet). Symbols used: 8=bucket angle H =available head H,,, =total head H, = friction head D =mean diameter of bucket wheel D, =pipe diameter d =jet diameter p =water density f= pipe friction factor L=length of pipe N = wheel speed C , =jet velocity coefficient V=jet velocity V, =pipe velocity qo=overall efficiency
Available head H = (HIoI H,) Shaft power P =p g H q , Jet velocity V = C , m Mean bucket speed U = nDN
(1 k cos 8) 2
4ftv2
(approximately)
() z
TlH
V
4.7.6
The head of water is partially converted to kinetic energy in stationary guide vanes and the rest is converted into mechanical energy in the runner. The water first enters a spiral casing or volute and then into the guide vanes and a set of adjustable vanes which are used to control the flow and hence the power. The water then enters the runner and finally leaves via the draft tube at low velocity. The draft tube tapers to reduce the final velocity to a minimum.
FLUID MECHANICS
171
Velocity triangles
Radial velocities: V,, =Q/nb,D, (inlet) V,, = Q/nbzD, (outlet) Tangential velocities: VI, = x D , N (inlet) VI, = nD,N (outlet) Whirl velocities: V,, =gHqh/Vl, (inlet, usually) Vw2 (outlet, usually) =O Guide vane velocity: V, =
vanes
0
Vane and blade angles
Guide vanes: a=tan'V,,/V,, Blade inlet: B1=tan Vrl/( Vll  V,,) Blade outlet: & =tan V,,/V,, Overall efficiency q,, =qmqh Shaft power =pgHQq, Available head H =HI,, H ,  Vf/2g where: V,=draft tube outlet velocity.
It is useful to compare design parameters and characteristics of fluid machines for different sizes. This is done by introducing the concept of 'specific speed', which is a constant for geometrically similar machines.
Hi
Specific speed of turbine N
N J 7= s ; H2
~
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