Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

ME413SystemsDynamics&Control

Chapter10:TimeDomainAnalysisandDesignofControlSystems

Chapter10:
TimeDomainAnalysisofandDesign ofControlSystems

A.Bazoune

10.5 TransientResponseSpecificationsofaSecondOrderSystem
Because systems that stores energy cannot respond instantaneously, they exhibit a transient response when they are subjected to inputs or disturbances. Consequently, the transient response characteristicsconstituteoneofthemostimportantfactorsinsystemdesign. In many practical cases, the desired performance characteristics of control systems can be givenintermsoftransientresponsespecifications.Frequently,suchperformancecharacteristicsare specifiedintermsofthetransientresponsetounitstepinput,sincesuchaninputiseasytogenerate and is sufficiently drastic. (If the response of a linear system to a step input is known, it is mathematicallypossibletocomputethesystemsresponsetoanyinput). The transient response of a system to a unit stepinput depends on initial conditions. For convenienceincomparingthetransientresponses ofvarious systems,itiscommonpracticetouse standard initial conditions: The system is at rest initially, with its output and all time derivatives thereofzero.Thentheresponsecharacteristicscanbeeasilycompared.

TransientResponseSpecifications. The transientresponse of apractical control system often exhibits damped oscillations before reaching a steady state. In specifying the transientresponsecharacteristicsofacontrolsystemtoaunitstepinput,itiscommontonamethe following:
1. Delaytime, Td 2. Risetime, Tr 3. Peaktime, Tp 4. Maximumovershoot, M p 5. Settlingtime, Ts These specifications are definednextandareshownin graphicallyinFigure1021.

1/9

ME413SystemsDynamics&Control

Chapter10:TimeDomainAnalysisandDesignofControlSystems

DelayTime. The delay time Td is the time needed for the response to reach half of its finalvaluetheveryfirsttime. RiseTime. The rise time Tr is the time required for the response to rise from 10% to 90%,5%to95%,or0%to100%ofitsfinalvalue.Forunderdampedsecondordersystems,the0%to 100%risetimeisnormallyused.Foroverdampedsystems,the10%to90%risetimeiscommon. PeakTime. oftheovershoot. Maximum(percentOvershoot). The maximum percent overshoot M p is the maximumpeakvalueoftheresponsecurve[thecurveof c ( t ) versus t ],measuredfrom c ( ) .If Thepeaktime Tp isthetimerequiredfortheresponsetoreachthefirstpeak

c ( ) = 1 ,themaximumpercentovershootis M p 100% .Ifthefinalsteadystatevalue c ( ) of


the response differs from unity, then it is common practice to use the following definition of the maximumpercentovershoot:

Maximum percent overshoot =

C tp C ( ) C ()

( )

100%

SettlingTime. Thesettlingtime Ts isthetimerequiredfortheresponsecurvetoreachand staywithin 2% ofthefinalvalue.Insomecases, 5% insteadof 2% ,isusedasthepercentageofthe finalvalue.Thesettlingtimeisthelargesttimeconstantofthesystem. Comments.Ifwespecifythevaluesof Td , Tr , Tp , Ts and M p ,theshapeoftheresponse curveisvirtuallyfixedasshowninFigure10.22.

Figure1022

Specificationsoftransientresponsecurve.

AFewCommentsonTransientResponseSpecifications.

Inadditionofrequiringadynamicsystemtobestable,i.e.,itsresponsedoesnotincreaseunbounded with time (a condition that is satisfied for a second order system provided that 0 , we also requiretheresponse: tobefast doesnotexcessivelyovershootthedesiredvalue(i.e.,relativelystable)and toreachandremainclosetothedesiredreferencevalueintheminimumtimepossible.
2/9

ME413SystemsDynamics&Control

Chapter10:TimeDomainAnalysisandDesignofControlSystems

Theresponseforaunitstepinputofanunderdampedsecondordersystem ( 0 < < 1) isgivenby

SecondOrderSystemsandTransientResponseSpecifications.
c (t ) = 1

1
n

e
2

n t

sin d t e

n t

cos d t
(1013)

t =1e sin d t + cos d t 2 1


or
2 1 1 c (t ) = 1 sin d t + tan 2 1 n t

(1014)

Afamilyofcurves c ( t ) plottedagainst t withvariousvaluesof isshowninFigure1024.

Step Response 1.6

= 0.2
1.4

1.2

0.5 0.7

u (t )
2 n 2 s2 + 2 ns + n
Amplitude

1
0.8

2
0.6

1
42 1 4 3 In p u t

0.4

0.2

10 Time (sec)

12

14

16

18

20

_______________ 144 2444 4 3


Output

Figure1024 Unitstepresponsecurvesforasecondordersystem.

DelayTime. Wedefinethedelaytimebythefollowingapproximateformula: 1 + 0.7 Td = n

RiseTime.

Wefindtherisetime Tr byletting c ( Tr ) = 1 inEquation(1013),or

c (T r ) = 1 = 1 e
Since e
n t

nT r

sin dT r + cos dT r 2 1

(1015)

0 ,Equation(1015)yields
3/9

ME413SystemsDynamics&Control

Chapter10:TimeDomainAnalysisandDesignofControlSystems

1
or
2

sin dT r + cos dT r = 0

tan dT r =
Thus,therise Tr is

1 2 T r = tan d 1
1

= d

(1016)

where isdefinedinFigure1025.Clearlytoobtainalargevalueof Tr wemusthavealargevalue of .

j
j d
n 1
= cos1 ( )
or = sin1

1 2

1 2 or = tan1

n
Definitionofangle

Figure1025

PeakTime. Weobtainthepeaktime Tp bydifferentiating c ( t ) inEquation(1013),with


respecttotimeandlettingthisderivativeequalzero.Thatis,
n

dc (t ) n t = e sin d t = 0 2 dt 1

Itfollowsthat or

sin d t = 0

d t = 0, , 2 , 3 ,... = n , n = 0,1,2.....
=
.Then

Sincethepeaktime Tp correspondstothefirstpeakovershoot ( n = 1) ,wehave dT p

Tp =

= d n 1 2
4/9

(1017)

ME413SystemsDynamics&Control

Chapter10:TimeDomainAnalysisandDesignofControlSystems

Thepeaktime Tp correspondstoonehalfcycleofthefrequencydampedoscillations.

MaximumOvershoot M p The maximum overshoot M p occurs at the peak

T p = d

.Thus,fromEquation(1013),

n ( d ) M p = c Tp 1 = e sin + cos { 2 1 14 4 244 = 1 3 =0

( )

or

M p = e

1 2

(1018)

Since c ( ) = 1 ,themaximumpercentovershootis

M p% = e

1 2

100%

The relationship between the damping ratio and the maximum percent overshoot is shown in Figure1026.Noticethatnoovershootfor 1 andovershootbecomesnegligiblefor > 0.7 .

Figure1026

Relationshipbetweenthemaximumpercentovershoot M p % anddampingratio .

SettlingTime Ts

Basedon 2% criterionthesettlingtime Ts isdefinedas:

enTs = 0.02
nTs = ln ( 0.02 ) Ts = ln ( 0.02 ) n 4

5/9

ME413SystemsDynamics&Control

Chapter10:TimeDomainAnalysisandDesignofControlSystems

Ts =

Similarlyfor 5% wecanget

( 2% Criterion )

(1019)

Ts =

( 5% Criterion )

(1020)

REVIEWANDSUMMARY
TRANSIENTRESPONSESPECIFICATIONSOFASECONDORDERSYSTEM TABLE1. UsefulFormulasandStepResponseSpecificationsfortheLinear & SecondOrderModel m && + c x + k x = f (t ) wherem,c,kconstants x
c c 2 4mk s1, 2 = 2m = c / 2 mk

1. Roots

2. Dampingratioor

3. Undampednaturalfrequency n = 4. Dampednaturalfrequency 5. Timeconstant

k m

d = n 1 2 = 2m / c = 1 / n

if 1

6. StabilityProperty Stableif,andonlyif,bothrootshavenegativerealparts,thisoccursif andonlyif,m,c,andkhavethesamesign. 7. MaximumPercentOvershoot: Themaximum%overshoot M p isthemaximumpeakvalueofthe responsecurve. 8. Peaktime:Timeneededfortheresponsetoreachthefirstpeakoftheovershoot

M p = 100e /

1 2

Tp = /n 1
2

9. Delaytime:Timeneededfortheresponsetoreach50%ofitsfinalvaluethefirsttime 10. Settling time: Time needed for the response curve to reach and stay within 2% of the final value

Td

1 + 0.7

Ts =

11. Risetime:Timeneededfortheresponsetorisefrom(10%to90%)or(0%to100%)or(5%to95%)of itsfinalvalue


6/9

Tr =

(SeeFigure1025) d

ME413SystemsDynamics&Control

Chapter10:TimeDomainAnalysisandDesignofControlSystems

SOLVEDPROBLEMS

Example1

Figure420

(forExample1)


7/9

ME413SystemsDynamics&Control

Chapter10:TimeDomainAnalysisandDesignofControlSystems

Example2

Figure421 (forExample2)

Solution
FirstThetransferfunctionofthesystemis


8/9

ME413SystemsDynamics&Control

Chapter10:TimeDomainAnalysisandDesignofControlSystems

Example3(Example102intheTextbookPage520521)
Determinethevaluesof Td , Tr , Tp , Ts whenthecontrolsystemshowninFigure1028is subjecttoaunitstepinput

R ( s)

1 s ( s + 1)

C (s)

Figure1028

ControlSystem

Solution
Theclosedlooptransferfunctionofthesystemis

1 C (s) s ( s + 1) 1 = = 2 1 R (s) 1+ s + s +1 s ( s + 1)
Noticethat n = 1 rad/sand = 0.5 forthissystem.So d = n 1 2 = 1 0.52 = 0.866 RiseTime. where or

Tr =

= sin 1 (d n ) = sin 1 ( 0.866 1) = 1.05 rad

n 1 2

j
j d

= cos 1 (n n ) = cos 1 ( ) = cos1 ( 0.5 )


= 1.05 rad

Therfore,

Tr =

1.05
0.866

= 2.41s
= = 3.63 s d 0.866
= 1 + 0 .7 ( 0 .5 ) = 1.35 s 1

PeakTime. DelayTime.

Tp =
1 + 0.7

Td =

MaximumOvershoot: Settlingtime: Ts =

Mp = e
4 =

1 2

=e

0.5 10.52

=e

1.81

= 0.163 = 16.3%

4 = 8 s 0.5 1

9/9