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BIOLOGY SCHEME OF WORK SL and HL - CELLS Cells Topic (Topic 2 IB Biology Guide) 12 Hours Text references Assessment statement

Advanced Biology; Heinemann Baccalaureate; Senior Biology Workbook 1 or 2.

Basic Lesson outline

Conceptual understanding (IB Guide Notes)

IB Learner Profile. Lesson is designed for the students as

2.1 Cell Theory (3 hours) + Prac


In-class Tasks: Student will complete class notes along with a class discussion defining the cell theory and outlining what it involves. Students should be sure to include the 3 key parts of the theory as outlined by the IB Biology Guide in the conceptual understanding column.
Students must include the following: Living organisms are composed of cells Cells are the smallest units of life Cells come from pre-existing cells

2.1.1

Outline the cell theory.

HB pp 17

1 (1 lesson) 2.1.2 3

Discuss the evidence for the cell theory.

HB pp 17

In-class tasks: Students will brainstorm some technologies that they think may have helped provide evidence for the cell theory based on the 3 items discussed in 2.1.1. Students will then complete class notes on the evidence for the cell theory.

Students should identify the microscope as a major contributor to evidence for the cell theory, a mention of Robert Hooke and his contribution should be made along with Mathias Schleiden and his conclusion that plants are made from separate beings and finally include Pasteur and his famous experiment that showed that living things do not spontaneously reappear.

2.1.3

State that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life.

HB pp 17

In-class task: Students will state in class notes that unicellular organisms carry out all of the functions of life including those specified in the IB Biology guide and stated in the conceptual understanding column.

Students should include: metabolism, response, homeostasis, growth, reproduction and nutrition.

Date completed

Sequence /Lesson

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2.1.4

Compare the relevant sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles and cells, using appropriate SI unit.

HB 17-18

In-class tasks: Students will list in their class notes the relevant order and sizes of organelles using the information provided in the IB Biology guide as stated in the conceptual understanding column. Students will also view the relevant sizes of the oragnelles stated on a worksheet provided by their teacher. In-class task: Students will complete a series of calculations calculating the linear magnification of drawing and actual size of specimens in images of magnification. In-class tasks: Students will complete the class notes on surface area to volume ratio. Students will look at a variety of objects to gain a better understanding of surface area to colume ratio. Once a sound understanding is gained, students will complete the SA:V practical. Report should be written (DCP and CE). In-class task: Students should define emergent properties and multicellular organisms, then state that multicellular organisms show emergent properties. In-class tasks: Students should brainstorm the various types of cells in a multicellular organism. Students should then complete class notes explaining that cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out these specific functions by expressing some of their genes and not others.

Student should appreciate the relevant sizes as: molecules (1nm), thickness of membrane (1onm), viruses (100nm), bacteria (1um), organelles (up to 10um). The 3D nature/shape of cells should be emphasized.

2.1.5

Calculate the linear magnification of drawing and the actual size of specimens in images of known magnification.

HB pp 18

Magnification could be stated (e.g. x250) or indicated by a scale bar. Students should be able to use both pieces of information.

2 (1 lesson)

2.1.6

Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ratio as a factor limiting cell size.

HB pp 19

Students should understand the concept that the rate of heat production/waste production/resource consumption of a cell is a function of its volume. Whereas the rate of exchange of materials and energy (heat) is a function of its surface area.

2.1.7

State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties.

Emergent properties arise from the interactions of component parts; the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

3 (1 lesson) Explain that cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions by expressing some of their genes but not others.

2.1.8

HB pp 19-20

Students should understand that all cells contain all the genetic information for the production of the complete organism,. However, each cell becomes a specific type of cell dependent on which DNA segment becomes active.

2.1.9

State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along pathways.

HB pp 20

In-class task: Students should understand what stem cells are, where they are found and then state that they have the capacity to divide and differentiate along different pathways. In-class task: Students are to complete a research activity, researching, collating and submitting an outline of one therapeutic use of stem cells for either humans or another animal. A brief bibliography of relevant scientific sources should be included. Homework Activity: Complete Exercises on page 21 of HB questions 1-4.

2.1.10

Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells.

HB pp 20-21

Students should understand that this is an area of rapid development. A therapeutic use of stems cells in humans or other animals can be chosen.

Assessment statement

Advanced Biology; Heinemann Baccalaureate; Senior Biology Workbook 1 or 2.

Basic Lesson outline

Conceptual understanding

2.2 Prokaryotic Cells (1 Hour)


In-class task: Students should develop an understanding through class notes of what a prokaryotes cell is. Following that students with guidance from their teacher should draw and label a diagram of E.coli ensuring that the features outlined in the IB Biology Guide are included. Note: Rules for Biological Drawings should be followed. In-class task: Students should complete a table with the function of each of the features labeled in 2.2.1. This can then be added to the diagram as the student sees fit. In-class task: Using the knowledge gained from completing 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 students should view and label the relevant features on an electron micrograph of E.coli. In-class task: Students should define binary fission, this could be explained using a diagram. Once this is understood, state that prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission. Homework Activity: Complete Exercises on page 24 of HB questions 5-6.

2.2.1

Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure Escherichia coli (E.coli) as an example of a prokaryote.

HB pp21-22

Students should ensure that this diagram includes: the cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, pili, flagella, ribosomes and nucleiod (region containing naked DNA).

2.2.2 4 (1 lesson)

Annotate the diagram from 2.2.1 with the functions of each named structure.

HB pp 22-23

Students should understand that each of the organelles found in a prokaryote such as E.coli have distinct and unique functions.

2.2.3

Identify structures from 2.2.1 in electron micrographs of E.coli.

HB pp 24

Students should understand from this activity that structures found in prokaryotes have distinct features and can be labeled on an image taken using an electron microscope.

2.2.4

State that prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission.

HB pp 24

Students should understand that prokaryotic organisms (organisms that do not have membrane bound organelles) divide by binary fission whereby 2 genetically identical daughter cells are produced, there are exact replicas of the parent cell.

Date completed

Sequence /Lesson

Text references Obj. A.S.

IB Learner Profile. Lesson is designed for the students as

Assessment statement

Advanced Biology; Heinemann Baccalaureate; Senior Biology Workbook 1 or 2.

Basic Lesson outline

Conceptual understanding

2.3 Eukaryotic Cells (3 Hours)


In-class task: Students should develop an understanding through class notes of what a Eukaryote cell is. Following that students with guidance from their teacher should draw and label a diagram of a liver cell ensuring that the features outlined in the IB Biology Guide are included. Note: Rules for Biological Drawings should be followed. In-class task: Students should complete a table with the function of each of the features labeled in 2.3.1. This can then be added to the diagram as the student sees fit. In-class task: Using the knowledge gained from completing 2.3.1 and 2.3.2 students should view and label the relevant features on an electron micrograph of E.coli. In-class task: Students should complete a summary table of eukaryotic cell organelles and areas using the information gained from 2.2 and 2.3

2.3.1

Draw and label the ultrastructure of the liver cell as an example of an animal cell.

HB pp 25-26

Students should ensure that this diagram show free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), lysosome, Golgi apparatus, mitochondtion, and nucleus.

5 (1 lesson)

2.3.2

Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1 with the functions of each names structure.

HB pp 26-32

Students should understand that each of the organelles found in a eukaryote such as liver cells have distinct and unique functions.

2.3.3

Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron micrographs of liver cells.

HB pp 26-29

Students should understand from this activity that structures found in eukaryotes have distinct features and can be labeled on an image taken using an electron microscope.

Date completed

Sequence /Lesson

Text references Obj. A.S.

IB Learner Profile. Lesson is designed for the students as

2.3.4

Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

HB pp 32

In-class: Students should complete a table comparing the differences and similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Students should ensure they include the differences outlined in the IB Biology Guide, these can be seen in the conceptual understanding column.

6 (1 lesson)

2.3.5

State three differences between plants and animal cells.

HB pp 33

In-class task: Students should complete a table comparing 3 differences between plant and animal cells.

Students should ensure that differences include: naked DNA vs DNA associated with proteins. DNA is a cytoplasm vs DNA enclosed in a nuclear envelope No mitochondira vs mitochondria 70S vs 80S ribosomes eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions. Students should ensure that they include 3 differences between plant and animal cells. Some that could be included: plant cells have chloroplasts plant cells have a cell wall plant cells have large vacuoles where animal cells usually do not have them or they are very small. Plant cells show carbohydrates as starch where animal cells show carbohydrates as glycogen.

2.3.6

Outline two roles of extracellular components.

HB pp 33-34

In-class task: Students should outline what an extracellular component it. Once this is understood, they should be comparing 2 roles of them. These roles should include the 2 outlines in the IB Biology guide, these are outlines in the conceptual understanding column. Homework Activity: Complete Exercises on page 34 of HB questions 7-9.

Students should include the following: The plants cell wall maintains cell shape, prevents excessive water uptake, and holds the whole plant up against the force of gravity. Animal cells secrete glycoproteins that form the extracellular matrix. This functions in support, adhesion and movement.

Assessment statement

Advanced Biology; Heinemann Baccalaureate; Senior Biology Workbook 1 or 2.

Basic Lesson outline

Conceptual understanding

2.4 Membranes (3 Hours)


In-class task: Students should follow the direction of their teacher to draw and label the structure of a membrane with all relevant features included. These are the features outlined by the IB Biology Guide and can be seen in the conceptual understanding column. Homework Activity: Practice drawing the structure of a membrane 3 times, feedback from the teacher will follow. In-class task: Students should complete the class notes defining the terms hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Following on from the definitions students should explain how these properties of phospholipds help to maintain the structure of cell membranes. Homework Activity: Students should complete the past examination question given to them. It will be handed in and marked the following lesson. In-class task: Students should, in their class notes, list the functions of membrane proteins as listed in the IB Biology guide and listed in the conceptual understanding column.

2.4.1

Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of membranes.

HB pp 35-36

Students should ensure that their diagram shows: the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, glycoproteins and integral proteins and peripheral proteins. Use the term plasma membrane for the membrane surrounding the cytoplasm.

7 (1 lesson)

2.4.2

Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes.

HB pp 36-37

Students should understand that the phospholipid bilayer is the backbone of the membrane. This phospholipid bilayer is made up of hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads. Students should also note that in an examination situation a diagram is an acceptable inclusion in their answer.

2.4.3

List the functions of membrane proteins.

HB pp 37-38

Students should ensure they include the following: hormone binding sites, immobilized enzymes, cell adhesion, cell-to-cell communication, channels for passive transport, and pumps for active transport.

Date completed

Sequence /Lesson

Text references Obj. A.S.

IB Learner Profile. Lesson is designed for the students as

8 (1 lesson)

2.4.4

Define diffusion and osmosis.

HB pp 38-39 and 44

In-class task: Students should define Diffusion and Osmosis as per the IB Biology guide, these are listed in the conceptual understanding column. In-class task: Diffusion and Osmosis practical tasks.

2.4.5

Explain passive transport across membranes by simple diffusion and fascilitated diffusion.

HB pp 38-39 and 44

In-class task: Students should complete the class notes defining diffusion and facilitated diffusion and explain how these are passive transport and the differences that exist between them.

2.4.6 9 (1 lesson)

Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across membranes.

HB pp 41

In-class task: Students complete their class notes explaining how protein pumps move substances across the membrane requiring ATP in the process to enable this movement. In-class task: Students should complete class notes, using a diagram to explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell through the organelles mentioned. In-class task: Students should define the terms endocytosis and exocytosis, then complete their class notes describing how the fluidity of the membrane allows it to change shape, break and re-form during endocyotsis and exocytosis. Homework Activity: Complete Exercises on page 44 of HB questions 10-13.

2.4.7

Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane.

HB 43

2.4.8

Describe how the fluidity of the membrane allows it to change shape, break and re-form during endocytosis and exocytosis.

HB 43-44

Students should define these terms according to the IBO definintions, which are: Diffusion: is the passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. Osmosis: is the passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration. Students should understand that passive transport requires no energy and that diffusion and facilitated diffusion are an examples of this. They should also understand that simple diffusion is non-specific where particles move across the membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Students should understand that facilitated diffusion depends on the carrier proteins available to aid the movement of substances across the membrane. Students should be understand that protein pumps are a type of active transport and therefore require the expenditure of energy, in this case ATP. They should also understand that protein pumps are specific for a type of substance and therefore have a specific shaped binding site. Students should understand that vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rER, Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane by becoming part of the organelles membrane and releasing the materials inside it. Students should understand that the cell membrane is fluid in that it is constantly in motion. The movement of the phospholipids changes the membrane's shape, and allows for temporary holes in the membrane that let materials flow in and out of the cell. If the membrane were not fluid in nature, it would not be able to fuse with vesicles in endocytosis and exocytosis.

Assessment statement

Advanced Biology; Heinemann Baccalaureate; Senior Biology Workbook 1 or 2.

Basic Lesson outline

Conceptual understanding

2.5 Cell Division (2 hours)


In-class task: Look at the diagram of the cell cycles, complete class notes to support the explanation of the stages of the cell cycle according to the diagram shown. In-class task: Class discussion and recall of prior knowledge relating to tumours, cell growth and cancer. Use the information learnt in 2.5.1 to understand and complete class notes outlining how tumours form. In-class task: Recall information from 2.5.1 regarding Interphase. Use this information to make the statement required. Brainstorm some of the metabaolic reactions that might be included here, explain protein synthesis (briefly) and explain that mitochondria are an organelle in animal cells and chloroplasts are organelles in plant cells that carry out protein synthesis.
Students should understand that the cell cycle involves 2 main stages, interphase which is predominately the growth phase, and mitosis and cytokinesis which are the division phase. Students should understand that tumours are the result of uncontrolled cell growth (recalling the cell cycle) and that the can occur in any tissue, evidence for this exists as cancers have been found in most cells/tissues of the body.

2.5.1

Outline the stages in the cell cycle, including interphase (G1, S, G2), mitosis and cytokinesis.

HB pp 45

2.5.2

State that tumours (cancers) are the result of uncontrolled cell division and that these can occur in any organ or tissue.

10 (1 lesson) 2.5.3 1

State that interpahse is an active period in the life of a cell when many metabolic reactions occur, including protein synthesis, DNA replication and an increase in the number of mitochondrio and/or chloroplasts.

Students should understand that Interphase is a very active time in a cells life. It involves metabolic reactions, DNA replication and an increase in the number of organelles mentioned. Because interphase involves growth, it is essential that protein synthesis occurs at a rapid rate during this phase.

2.5.4

Describe the events that occur in the four phases of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase).

HB pp 45-48

In-class task: Complete the cut and paste activity ordering the phases of mitosis. As a class annotate the diagrams according to the class notes.

Students should be sure to include: the supercoiling of chromosomes, attachments of spindle microtubules to centromeres, splitting of centromere, movement of sister chromosomes to opposite poles, and breakage and re-formation of nuclear membranes.

Date completed

Sequence /Lesson

Text references Obj. A.S.

IB Learner Profile. Lesson is designed for the students as

2.5.5

Explain how mitosis produces two genetically identical nuclei.

HB pp 48

In-class task: Students should look at the past examination question and markscheme provided, then using this information and the knowledge gained from 2.5.4 generate an understanding of how mitosis produces genetically identical nuclei. In-class task: Ask the general question- How do you generate new skin when you scrape your knee? How do you grow? How do babies grow into a foetus after fertlisation? The answer to these questions is Mitosis view the images on the Powerpoint that accompanies to emphasis understanding.

Students should understand that the production of 2 genetically identical nuclei is directly related to the events that take place in the phases of mitosis prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. They should include a flow of information explaining the production using the stages as a guide.

11 (1 lesson) State that growth, embryonic development, tissue repair and asexual reproduction involve mitosis.

2.5.6

HB pp 49 Homework Activity: Complete Exercises on page 49 of HB questions 14-19. Revision Activity: Complete the Practice Questions on page 49-51 of HB.

Student should understand that growth, embryonic development, tissue repair and asexual reproduction all involve mitosis.

12 (1 lesson)

In-Class Task: Students complete a Cells Topic Test to gain feedback on knowledge so far.

Students should be able to recall information learnt throughout the topic. Feedback should be given by the teacher on areas on weakness and areas for improvement.