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Un|t I Set 1heory

Georg Cantor 184S 1918


ueveloped seL Lheory
eL Lheory was noL lnlLlally accepLed because lL was radlcally dlfferenL
eL Lheory Loday ls wldely accepLed and ls used ln many areas of
maLhemaLlcs
ohn Venn 18341923
sLudled and LaughL loglc and probablllLy Lheory
arLlculaLed 8oole's algebra of loglc
devlsed a slmple way Lo dlagram seL operaLlons (venn ulagrams)
George 8oo|e 181S1864
selfLaughL maLhemaLlclan wlLh an lnLeresL ln loglc
developed an algebra of loglc (8oolean Algebra)
feaLured Lhe operaLors
And/or/noL/nor (excluslve or)
gt De Morgan 18061871
developed Lwo laws of negaLlon
lnLeresLed llke oLher maLhemaLlclans ln uslng maLhemaLlcs Lo
demonsLraLe loglc
furLhered 8oole's work of lncorporaLlng loglc and maLhemaLlcs
formally sLaLed Lhe laws of seL Lheory

Set 1heory Notat|on
5ymbol Meooloq
A 8 deslgnaLes eL name
a b deslgnaLes eL LlemenLs
enclose elemenLs ln seL
xZA x ls an elemenL of seL A"
x A x ls noL an elemenL of A"
A8 A ls a subseL of 8" (lncludes equal seLs)
A8 A ls a proper subseL of 8" (8 conLalns all elemenLs of A)
A8 A ls noL a subseL of 8" (8 does noL conLalns all elemenLs of A)
A8 A ls a superseL of 8" (all elemenLs of 8 are also conLalned ln A)
| or such LhaL (lf a condlLlon ls Lrue)
| | Lhe cardlnallLy of a seL
lmplles LhaL
Lhe empLy seL a seL wlLh no elemenLs
A r 8 A lnLersecLlon 8 (ueflnes seL whlch lncludes all Lhe common elemenLs of A 8)
8 A unlon 8 (ueflnes seL whlch lncludes all Lhe elemenLs of A as well as of 8)
' CompllmenL of A (eL all elemenLs whlch are noL ln A)
mloos%setofall elemenLs whlch are ln buL noL ln %
o() Lhe number of elemenLs ln
ls equal Lo " and conLaln Lhe same elemenLs
ls equlvalenL Lo " and conLaln Lhe same number of elemenLs
Set
@he word 'seL' ln maLhemaLlcs was flrsL used by Ceorg CanLor
5etlsooynollentloooflstlontoolstloqolsbobleobjentsotoooos"
@he Lerm 'dlsLlncL' means dlfferenL and Lhus no ob[ecL ls repeaLed
'ulsLlngulshable' means noLlceable or apparenL
@hese dlsLlncL dlsLlngulshable ob[ecLs ln a seL are called elemenLs or members of LhaL seL
or example lf we Lalk abouL sLaLlonary used by any sLudenL Lhen en encll Lraser harpener
aper are Lhe dlsLlncL dlsLlngulshable ob[ecLs collecLlon of Lhese ob[ecL wlll represenL Lhe seL
of sLaLlonary used by any sLudenL lmllarly we can Lhlnk of a seL of sLaLe caplLal
Nototion usually
Je enote et wlLh ercae |etter llke A 8 C@u and
Je enote e|ement wlLh |owercae |etter llke a b ceLc
Je can represenL a seL ln wrlLlng by llsLlng all of lLs elemenLs wlLhln cr|y bracket
f ls an elemenL of Lhe seL Lhen we denoLe lL by xZA
pronounce as x belongs Lo A"
f ls noL an elemenL of Lhe seL Lhen we denoLe lL by x A
pronounce as or x does noL belongs Lo A"
@hus followlng are Lhree example of seLs
Aen encll Lraser harpener aper
8lucknow aLana 8hopal lLanagar hllong
Cabgfkr

8a|c roert|e of Set
eLs are lnherenLly oootete Lhus orderlng of elemenLs make no dlfference!
a b c a c b b a c b c a
All elemenLs are lstlont Lhus mulLlple llsLlngs make no dlfference!
a b c a a b a b c c c c @hls seL conLalns aL mosL 3 elemenLs!
All elemenLs are dlsLlngulshable Lhus we always know each and every elemenL of any seL

2Way of Decr|b|ng Set
oater Iorm]L|t the e|ement Je can denoLe a seL 5 ln wrlLlng by llsLlng all of lLs elemenLs ln
curly brackeLs
a b c ls Lhe seL of 3 ob[ecLs are denoLed by a b c
8Lucknow aLana 8hopal lLanagar hllong
Mathemat|ca| Inc||on |e]Set i/der nototion or any proposlLlon 9() over any unlverse of
dlscourse 9() ls tbesetofollsonbtbot9%%
A1234 ln seL bullder noLaLlon can be denoLed as
A ls an lnLeger where 0 and 3 or (lnLegers x1x3)
8x x ls sLaLecaplLal


1ye of Set
N|| Set (or Lmty Set or Vo| Set)Any seL LhaL conLalns no elemenLs ls called Lhe null eL(or
LmpLy eL or vold eL) lL ls denoLed by or
omple8 x x ls a poslLlve number 0
Un|vera| et @he seL of all ob[ecLs perLlnenL Lo a glven dlscusslon ls called as unlversal seL and ls
deslgnaLed by Lhe symbol Dor5or
omple D all sLudenLs aL Lucknow unlverslLy
S|ng|eton Set A seL havlng slngle elemenL ls called a slngleLon seL
omple Axx ls flrsL prlme mlnlsLer of lndla
84
a|r Set Any seL LhaL conLalns exacLly Lwo elemenLs ls called Lhe alr eL
omple8 x xx
2
x ls a an lnLeger01
I|n|te et A seL havlng lnlLe number of elemenL ls called lnlLe seL
omple A 12343
Inf|n|te et A seL havlng lnflnlLe number of elemenL ls called lnflnlLe seL
omple Axx ls naLural number
8eL of polnLs on a llne segmenL

S|m|e Set Lxam|e |n context of a Deck of |ay|ng Car
@he unlversal seL ls a deck of ordlnary playlng cards
each card ls an elemenL ln Lhe unlversal seL
some subseLs are
face cards
numbered cards
sulLs
poker hands


I|n|te Set Car|na||ty
@he number of elemenLs of a flnlLe seL ls a naLural number (nonnegaLlve lnLeger) and ls called
Lhe cardlnallLy of Lhe seL
et uefinition cordino/ity
A x | x ls a lower case leLLer |A| 26
8 2 3 4 3 6 7 |8| 6
C x | x ls an even number 10 |C| 4
u x | x ls an even number A 10 |u| 3
Sec|a| Set
represenLs Lhe seL of lnLegers 2 0 1 1 2 2

+
ls Lhe seL of poslLlve lnLegers 2
+
1 2 3 and

ls Lhe seL of negaLlve lnLegers


n represenLs Lhe seL of oototoloombets
represenLs Lhe seL of teoloombets
; represenLs Lhe seL of totloooloombets a]b | a bZ2 b0
Lqa| Set
Set Lqa||ty @wo seLs are declared Lo be equal lf oo ooly lf Lhey conLaln exacLly Lhe same
elemenLs
noLe LhaL equal seLs conLaln preclsely Lhe same elemenLs
@he order ln whlch Lhe elemenLs are llsLed ls unlmporLanL
LlemenLs may be repeaLed ln seL deflnlLlons wlLhouL lncreaslng Lhe slze of Lhe seLs
or example
@he seL 1 2 3 4 ls an lnLeger where 0 and 3 ls a poslLlve lnLeger whose
square ls 0 and 23
Sbet
Sbet eL A ls called ubseL of Lhe seL 8 lf all Lhe members of A are also members of 8
@he noLaLlon for subseL ls very slmllar Lo Lhe noLaLlon for less Lhan or equal Lo" and means ln
Lerms of Lhe seLs lncluded ln or equal Lo"
lf A ls ubseL of 8 Lhen we represenL lL by

o lf
Lxample
lf A123 812343 Lhen
lf A123 8213 Lhen A ls subseL of 8" as well as 8 ls ubseL of A"
roer Sbet A ls a proper subseL of 8" (represenLed as ) lf
all Lhe members of A are also members of 8
buL ln addlLlon Lhere exlsLs aL leasL one elemenL nsuch LhaL buL
@he noLaLlon for subseL ls very slmllar Lo Lhe noLaLlon for less Lhan" and means ln Lerms of Lhe
seLs lncluded ln buL noL equal Lo"
Lxample
lf A123 812343 Lhen A ls proper subseL of 8
lf A123 8213 Lhen A ls noL a proper subseL of 8" as well as 8 ls noL a proper
ubseL of A"
Notat|on
means ls a subseL of"
means ls a proper subseL of"
means ls noL a subseL of"

Z Z


Comarab|||ty of Set @wo seL A 8 are ald Lo 8e Comparable lf elLher of Lhese happens
A 8
8 A

lmllarly lf nelLher of Lhese above Lhree exlsL le A 8 8 A or A8 Lhen A 8 are sald Lo
lncomparable
Lxample
lf A123 812343 Lhen A 8 are comparable as A 8
lf A1237 812 Lhen A 8 are comparable as 8 A
lf A123 8213 Lhen A 8 are comparable as 8 A
lf A1234 86789 Lhen A 8 are lncomparable as nelLher A 8 nor 8 A or A8

1he ower Set ()
@he ower eL () @he power seL ls Lhe seL of all subseLs LhaL can be creaLed from a glven seL A ower
seL of a seL A ls denoLed by (A)
MaLhemaLlcally (A)(x x A)
lL ls noLed LhaL 4 A belongs Lo (A)
@he notloollty of Lhe power seL ls 2 Lo Lhe power of Lhe glven seL's cardlnallLy le lf|A|o Lhen
|(A)| 2
o

omple
A a b c where |A| 3
(A)abacbcabcA and | (A)| 2
3
8
ur|versa| 3el
3els A & 8
Venn D|agram
venn dlagrams are
dlagrammaLlc represenLaLlon of
seLs showlng relaLlonshlps
beLween seLs and Lhelr
elemenLs
unlversal seL (u) ls represenLed by
8ecLangle
All oLher seLs are shown wlLhln
unlversal seL (u)

Lxam|e 1 Lxam|e 2
Axx1
+
and x A 8 Axx1
+
and x A 9
8xx1
+
x ls even A 10 8xx1
+
x ls even A 8
Clearly A 8 8 A Clearly A 8 8 A A 8

Lxam|e 3 Lxam|e 4
x x12
+
x | even A 10 D 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8
8x x12
+
x | o x A 10 1 2 6 7
C|ear|y 8 8 8 2 3 4 7
C 4 S 6 7









&
1
B
9
A
3
5

2
8
6

Set 1heoret|c Cerat|on
eL LheoreLlc operaLlons allow us Lo bulld new seLs ouL of old [usL as Lhe loglcal connecLlves
allowed us Lo creaLe compound proposlLlons from slmpler proposlLlons Clven seLs and Lhe
seL LheoreLlc operaLors are
unlon ()
lnLersecLlon (Y)
ulfference ()
ComplemenL (")
ymmeLrlc ulfference (W)
@hese operaLlons glve us new seLs A Y W and,

Un|on of Set
Un|on of Set @he unlon of Lwo seLs A 8 ls Lhe seL of all Lhose elemenLs whlch are elLher ln A
or ln 8 or ln boLh @hls seL ls denoLed by U 8
ymbollcally A u 8 Z A or Z 8
roert|e of the n|on oerat|on
ldenLlLy law A u X A
uomlnaLlon law A u D D
ldempoLenL law A u A A
CommuLaLlve law A u 8 8 u A
AssoclaLlve law A u (8 u C) (A u 8) u C
Lxam|e
1 2 U X 1 2
1 2 3 U 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3
new ?ork new uelhl U 3 4 new ?ork new uelhl 3 4

Interect|on of Set
Interect|on of Set @he lnLersecLlon of eL A and 8 wrlLLen as A z 8 ls Lhe seL of all elemenLs
common Lo boLh A and 8
ymbollcally A z 8 Z A and Z 8
roert|e of the |nterect|on oerat|on
ldenLlLy law A r D A
uomlnaLlon law A r X X
ldempoLenL law A r A A
CommuLaLlve law A r 8 8 r A
AssoclaLlve law A r (8 r C) (A r 8) r C
Lxam|e
1 2 3 z 3 4 3 3
new ?ork new uelhl z 3 4 X
1 2 z X X
A123 82136 Lhen A z 8 12




D|fference of Set
D|fference of Set @he ulfference of Lwo eL A and 8 wrlLLen as A 8 ls Lhe seL of all elemenLs
of A whlch are noL ln 8
ymbollcally A 8 Z A and [ 8
roert|e of the D|fference oerat|on
8 z 8
'
lmporLanL!
X
X X
X X
Lxamples
1 2 3 3 4 3 12
new ?ork new uelhl 3 4 new ?ork new uelhl
1 2 X 1 2
A123 82136 Lhen A 8 3
Com|ement of a Set
Com|ement of a Set ComplemenL of a seL A wrlLLen
as A
c
or A' ls seL of all Lhose member of unlversal eL
whlch are noL ln A
ymbollcally A' x Z u [ A
A' D A where D ls Lhe unlversal seL
Lxamples (assumlng D )
A1 2 3 Lhe A' A 2 1 0 4 3 6

Symmetr|c D|fference
@he symmeLrlc dlfference of Lwo seLs A 8 ls Lhe seL of all Lhose elemenL whlch are ln A buL noL
ln 8 whlch are n 8 buL noL ln A
ymbollcally W Z W Z
ClearlyW%%D%%
Lxamples
1 2 3 W 3 4 3 1243
new ?ork new uelhl W 3 4 new ?ork new uelhl34
1 2 W X 1 2
A123 82136 Lhen A W 8 336














W
Set Ient|t|e
Ient|ty |aw
Dom|nat|on |aw
Iemotent |aw
Dob|e com|ementat|on
Commtat|v|ty
oc|at|v|ty
D|tr|b|t|v|ty
DeMorgan
ueMorqons l ueMorqons ll

LLMMA (AssoclaLlvlLy of unlons)
() ()
9toof () |Z or Z (by def)
|(Z ot Z ) or Z (by def)
|Z or (Z or Z ) (loglcal assoc)
|Z or (Z ) (by def)
() (by def)
z
CLher ldenLlLles are derlved slmllarly


Set Ient|t|e v|a Venn
lL's ofLen slmpler Lo undersLand an ldenLlLy by drawlng a venn ulagram
or example ueMorgan's flrsL law can be vlsuallzed as follows

Y
Y
Y