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Gestalt laws of organization describes how we organize informations CLOSURE closd picture PROXIMITY close together and grouped

ped together SIMILARITY grouped together SIMPLICITY perceive in the most basic manner TOP DOWN PROCESSING perception based on experience, expectations and motivations BOTTOM UP PROCESSING processing information from individual components BINOCULAR DISPARITY difference in the image seen by the left and right eye MOTION PARALLAX change in the position of an object caused by movement of body TEXURE GRADIENT- things that are far are less distinct SLEEP AND DREAMS Stage 1 still photos; not yet dreaming (ALPHA) Stage 2 difficult to wake - SLEEP SPINDLES - Regular wave pattern Stage 3 brain waves become slower (DELTA) Stage 4 slower and less responsible to outside stimulation (DELTA) RAPID EYE MOVEMENT increase HR, BP, BR, erections, eye movement and dreams UNCONSCIOUS WISH FULFILMENT THEORY dreams represents dreams LATENT CONTENT OF DREAMS wishes MANIFEST CONTENT OF DREAMS story line of dreams DREAMS FOR SURVIVAL THEORY - dreams are abt experiences and daily lives ACTIVATION SYNTHESIS THEORY access to our memories INSOMNIA difficulty in sleeping SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME infants die while sleeping NIGHT TERRORS- awakening from non REM sleep with fear and terror NARCOLEPSY uncontrollable sleeping while doing an activity CIRCADIAN RHYTHM biological process that occur in a 24 hour cycle

DRUG USE PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS influence a persons behavior STIMULANTS- has an effect in CNS (caffeine, cocaines, amphetamines) DEPRESSANTS slows down nervous system (alcohol) NARCOTICS- increased relaxation HALLUCINOGENS produce hallucination LEARNING change in behavior brought about by experience CLASSICAL CONDITIONING neutral stimulus respond after being paired with another stimulus NEUTRAL STIMULUS does not bring a response UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS bring a response without having been learned UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE response without training CONDITIONED STIMULUS stimulus that brings a response when being paired with unconditioned stimulus CONDITIONED RESPONSE a response that follows a previous response EXTINCTION conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY reemergence of extinguished response after a period of rest STIMULUS GENERALIZATION The more similar the two stimuli are, the more likely generalization to occur; response similar to original stimulus STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION two stimuli are distinct from each other that the can actually differentiate the two. OPERANT CONDITIONING learning is strengthened or weakened depending on its consequences REINFORCEMENT process where in a behavior can be repeated REINFORCER stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again POSITIVE REINFORCER (added) increase preceding response NEGATIVE REINFORCER (removal) removal leads to a response will be repeated PUNISHMENT - decrease the probability that a behavior will not repeat again