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Steam Turbine Generator
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1999 - TG201J5.0_June09, Printed: 3/1/11
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 1
The goal of this chapter is to provide an understanding of the Power Plant Thermodynamics Principles.
At the completion of this section the participant should be able to:
1. List the energy conversions which take place in the power plant cycle.
2. Explain the First Law of Thermodynamics.
3. Explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
4. Describe the difference between an Open System and a Closed System.
5. Explain the phases of water.
1999 - TG201J5.0_June09, Printed: 12/1412010
1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 Energy ......................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.1 Types of Energy ...................................................................................................................... 3
1.2 Units of Energy and Work ........................................................................................................... 7
1.3 Work and Power .......................................................................................................................... 8
1 .3 .1 Work ....................................................................................................................................... 8
1.4 Energy Conversion in a Power Plant.. ......................................................................................... 9
2.0 LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS ...................................................................................................... 10
2.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics ........................................................................................... 11
2.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics ....................................................................................... 14
2.3 T -S Diagrams ............................................................................................................................ 15
3.0 WATER AND STEAM ......................................................................................................................... 16
3.1 Properties of Water ................................................................................................................... 17
3.2 Steam Tables and the Mollier Diagram ..................................................................................... 18
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Thennodynamics is the science that describes and defines the conversion of one fonn of energy into
another. Examples include the conversion of chemical energy into thennal energy, which occurs during the
combustion process, and the transformation of thermal energy into mechanical energy, which takes place in the
turbine. Each step in the conversion of energy is termed a "process" and several processes constitute a
thermodynamic system or cycle. The thennodynamic cycle that is used in conventional power plants is used to
produce work to turn a generator that make the final conversion of energy into electrical energy.
The water and steam used in the conventional power plant is the working fluid of the thennodynamic cycle.
The working fluid conveys energy between different components and is used in each process. The steam undergoes
several changes in the conversion of energy.
This chapter relates energy, work, and heat with the working fluid of a power plant. The concepts presented
in this module will provide a better understanding of power plant operation and efficiency.
Energy is a fundamental aspect of all fonns of matter and all systems. One of the most important aspects of
energy is expressed as a physical law; the Law of Conservation of Energy. This law states that energy can be
changed from one type to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
Energy can be thought of as the ability or capacity to do work. When work is done, energy is frequently
changed from one type to another in accordance with the Law of Conservation of Energy.
1.1.1 Types of Energy
A power plant may be thought of as an "energy conversion factory" that converts one type of energy to
another type. There are many different types of energy. Four types of energy used in the power plant cycle are
chemical energy, mechanical energy, heat energy, and electrical energy.
Chemical Energy
Chemical energy is the energy locked in the molecular bonds of a chemical compound (fuel in the case of a
power plant). The chemical energy is released by a chemical reaction, such as that which occurs when oxygen and
heat are supplied to bum the fuel. The chemical structure of the fuel is changed and the combustion products that
result are at a lower energy level. The difference in the chemical energy level of the fuel and the combustion
products is converted to heat energy.
Mechanical Energy
Mechanical energy is made up of two different components, potential energy and kinetic energy. Potential
energy is the energy an object has as a result of its distance from the center of the earth, or its elevation. The higher
the elevation of an object the more potential energy it has.
Kinetic energy is the energy that a substance has as a result of its velocity. The higher the velocity of a
substance the more kinetic energy it has. In fact, kinetic energy in a substance is proportional to the square of its
velocity. Thus, if one were to double the velocity of an object like a bal1, its kinetic energy would increase by a
factor of four.
An object, such as a bal1, may have both potential and kinetic energy. This is true, for instance for a bal1
that has been thrown into the air and is 20 feet above the ground and has a velocity of 40 feet per second. The sum
of the potential and kinetic energy of the ball is its mechanical energy.
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There are changes in both potential and kinetic energy in the power plant cycle. The role that potential
energy plays in the overall energy conversion, however, is relatively unimportant when compared to the other types
of energy used in the power plant cycle. Accordingly, kinetic energy is usually the only type of energy considered in
mechanical energy.
Heat Energy, Temperature and Enthalpy
Heat energy is the energy in a substance that is caused by temperature and pressure. Heat energy is actually
made up of two different types of energy; internal energy and pressure-volume (P-v) energy.
Internal energy in a substance depends upon its temperature. The motion of molecules of a substance is
internal energy. The molecules of a substance are constantly rotating, vibrating, and moving from place to place at
high velocity. The amount of motion is determined by the temperature of the substance. The higher its temperature,
the greater the molecular motion and thus the greater its internal energy.
Temperature can be expressed in many different scales. In the English system, the Fahrenheit scale is
defmed with the freezing point for water at 32F and the boiling point (at sea level) at 212F. Another scale
important in thermodynamics that is significant with regard to internal energy is called the Rankine scale. The "zero
point" for the Rankine temperature scale is "absolute zero. " Absolute zero is the temperature at which, in theory, all
molecular motion stops (-459 .67F). The internal energy of any substance at absolute zero would be zero since
internal energy is determined by molecular motion. The Rankine temperature scale must be used in some areas of
thermodynamics that are described later in this module. Temperature can be converted from degrees Fahrenheit to
degrees Rankine by adding459.67 to the temperature in Fahrenheit. Thus, for example, 1000F is 1459.67R.
In the English system internal energy is expressed in a unit called the British Thermal Unit (BTU). The
BTU is defmed as the amount of heat required to change the temperature of one pound of water one degree
Fahrenheit. Increasing the temperature of a pound of water by 1F, therefore, increases its internal energy by 1 BTU.
Different substances have different amounts of internal energy at the same temperature. For example, to
increase the temperature of 1 pound of steel at 60F by 1F, it takes 0.118 BTU; 1 pound of petroleum, 0.5 BTU.
Therefore, 1 pound of water has more internal energy than 1 pound of steel or petroleum at the same temperature.
The state of a substance, solid, liquid, or gas, also has considerable influence on its heat energy. For
instance, water at the freezing point has much more heat energy than ice at the freezing point. As heat energy is
added to ice and the ice changes state to water, the molecular structure of the ice becomes more random. One way of
considering this change is to say that the ice molecules must fmd room to move. Similarly, steam at the boiling
temperature has more heat energy than water at the same temperature. The molecules of steam are in motion and
freer to move than those of a liquid.
Because the gas molecules are at a higher energy level and are free to separate and move, gases like air or
steam are compressible. This means that their volume can be greatly reduced if put under pressure. Compression of
a gas increases its internal energy. This P-v energy can be put to work by expanding the gas. Since gases are
compressible and can retain P-v energy, they also have a greater enthalpy (total energy) than a solid or liquid.
P-v energy in a substance depends upon its pressure and specific volume. The higher the pressure of a fluid,
such as steam for instance, the greater its energy. A substance at a given pressure and temperature occupies a fixed
volume that can be determined by the parameter-specific volume. Specific volume is the volume occupied by one
pound mass of a substance. Specific volume in the English system is expressed in terms of cubic feet per pound
mass. Specific volume is also the inverse of density. The product of the pressure and specific volume ofa substance
is a measure of the P-v energy.
Pressure in the English system is measured in pounds per square inch. There are two variations in pressure
units. The most common of these is expressed in pounds per square inch gauge (psig). Atmospheric pressure is
defined as zero psig. Most pressure measurements in everyday situations, including power plants, are made in psig
(the pounds gauge scale).
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The other variation in pressure measurement is pounds per square inch absolute (psia). The difference
between psig and psia is the zero point of the scale. For psia zero is a perfect vacuum. Thus, atmospheric pressure
(which is zero psig) is 14.69 psia. To convelt from psia to psig, atmospheric pressure (14.69 psia) is added to the
reading in psia. The absolute pressure scale is much less common than the pounds gauge scale, however it is
important because it is used for most thermodynamic calculations.
The amount of heat energy in a substance is usually measured as its enthalpy. The enthalpy ofa substance
is the sum of its internal energy and its P-venergy. This is expressed by the equation:
Equation 1-01
where h = enthalpy (BTU/lb)
u = internal energy (BTU/lb)
Pv = the pressure-volume energy (pressure x specific volume)
778 = conversion factor (778 ft-lb/BTU)
The specific volume expression used in calculating the P-v energy above is defined as the volume per unit
mass of a substance. A foot-pound (ft-Ib) is the unit of work. However, because both heat and work are forms of
energy, a conversion factor 778 ft-lb/BTU, can be used to convert the units.
Figure 1-01 illustrates the concept of heat energy. Energy from the burning candle is transferred to the air .
in the sealed container. The candle converts energy from the combustion ofparaffm and air. The air in the container
absorbs this energy in two forms: (I) the internal energy of the air in the container increases as its temperature
increases, and (2) the pressure-volume energy increases because its pressure increases. This example illustrates that
while heat energy is thought of as two different types of energy, these two types of energy are closely related. The
reason that the pressure of the air in the sealed container in the example increases is due to the increase in
Figure 1-01 Heat Energy
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Heat energy is difficult to use to do work. Heat energy is usually converted to mechanical energy because
mechanical energy can be used more easily. Figure 1-02 shows heat energy being converted to mechanical energy
using steam in a piston and cylinder arrangement. The steam is under pressure. Pressure is produced by the steam's
molecules colliding with the cylinder walls and piston. The steam does work by exerting a force on the piston, which
causes the piston to move. As the piston moves out, the volume of the steam increases as the pressure and heat
energy decrease. The temperature of the steam also decreases, also causing a decrease in heat energy. This process is
called expansion. The difference in the heat energy of the steam before and after the expansion is the energy that
was converted to mechanical energy. . .
Figure 1-02 Conversion of Heat Energy to Mechanical Energy
Expansion of steam for energy coiwersion is used in power plant steam turbines. Steam enters the turbine at
high pressure (typically around 2400 psig) and is expanded to a very low pressure, nearly a vacuum. The
temperature of the steam also falls considerably in expansion through the turbine; typically from lOOOF to about
80F to lOOF. In the steam turbine expansion process, the heat energy in the steam is converted to mechanical
energy to do the work of turning the generator rotor.
Electrical Energy
Electrical energy is a result of electrons flowing through a conductor. The amount of electrical energy
flowing through a conductor is determined by the amount of electron flow, or current (measured in amps) and the
"electrical pressure," or voltage, against which the electrons must flow.
There are two types of electricity used in power plants, direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). In
DC electricity, the electrons always flow in the same direction. In AC electricity, the direction of the flow of
electron changes continuously, reversing itself 60 times per second for 60 HZ power.
There is a relationship between the current and voltage in a conductor for DC electricity called Ohm' s Law.
Ohm's law may be written as:
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Equation 1-02
Where: E = voltage in volts
I = Current in amps
R = Resistance in Ohms
The greater the current for a given voltage, the greater the electrical energy flowing through an electrical
conductor. Similarly, the greater the voltage for a given current, the greater the electrical energy. Units of electrical
energy are watts. Electrical power (for direct current circuits) can be detennined from the following circuits using
the following equation
p= E x I
Equation 1-03
Where: P = Power in watts
E = Voltage in volts
I = Current in amps
The two equations above apply only to DC electricity. Similar relationships exist for AC electricity and
these are explained later in this course.
Electrical energy is usually expressed in terms of watt-hours. Watt-hours are the product of power and the
time for which it is generated. This is true for both AC and DC electricity.
Electrical power can be produced using mechanical force through the use of magnetism. When a magnetic
field is moved near a conductor, voltage is induced in the conductor. This voltage results in current to the load. In
most power plant generators the rotor is a large electromagnet. It is rotated inside the stationary armature which has
many conductors. As the torque that is exerted on the generator rotor increases, current increases and thus power
electrical generation is increased. The details of generators and how they work are covered in detail later in this
Units are used to describe the size and magnitude of various properties of matter. In the discussion of
temperature earlier in this Section, for example, it was explained that the unit degree Fahrenheit can be used to
express the temperature of a substance.
Work, energy and properties of substances are expressed in many different units. Many quantities and
properties can be expressed using more than one type of unit. As an example, temperature can be expressed in
degrees Fahrenheit or degrees Rankine. The choice of units often depends on the discipline being considered. When
working with electrical equipment it is convenient to use electrical units such as volts, amps and watts. When
working with mechanical components, it is convenient to work in mechanical units such as pounds, feet, foot-
pounds, and BTUs.
Since the same parameter may be expressed in different units, it is often necessary to "conveli" the units
through the use of conversion factors. An example of a conversion factor is that used to convert temperature from
degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Rankine. The conversion factor 459.67 is added to degrees Fahrenheit to obtain
degrees Rankine. In many cases conversion factors must be used by multiplying or dividing rather than adding or
subtracting. Conversion factors are published in many different places.
Prefixes are also commonly used with units. Common examples of prefixes are "kilo," which means one
thousand, and "mega" which means million. A conversion factor is implied when these prefixes are used. For
example one kilowatt is equal to 1 ,000 watts. The conversion factor in this instance is 1000 watts per kilowatt.
It is also common to use abbreviations with units. Examples of common abbreviations are "OF" for degrees
Fahrenheit, "KW" for kilowatts and "BTU" for British Thermal Units. Conversion tables usually provide these
abbreviations as well as the conversion factors .
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Conversion factors are used in the following example in which the efficiency of a power plant is
determined. A power plant bums coal that has a heating value of 13,000 BTU/lb at a rate of220,000 pounds per
hour and produces 250,000 KW of electricity. It produces 2.86 billion BTU per hour through the conversion of
chemical to heat energy. The power plant also produces 250,000 KW -hours (KWH) of electrical energy per hour.
The efficiency of the plant is defined as the ratio of the energy supplied to the plant to the useful energy produced. It
is necessary to express the energy supplied and the useful energy produced in the same units in order to make this
calculation. Since the energy is expressed in BTUs and the energy produced is expressed in different units, the
conversion factor 3413 BTUIKWH must be used as shown ill the following equation. .
2jO,OOOKWH - :( - J 4 1 ~ IHV I KWH
E.lJldem:v--------------x - I om{' = 29.8%
2.860,000,000- BTU
Eauation 1-04
A full understanding of energy conversion in power plants requires that various concepts related to energy
be understood as well. Among these concepts are work, energy and entropy.
1.3.1 Work
Energy can be defined asthe capacity to do work. Another way to defme work is in terms of mechanical
energy. Work in terms of mechanical energy is the action of a force moving an object over a distance. In fact, work
is often considered as energy in motion since moving an object increases its kinetic energy. Work can also be
thought of as a way to convert one type of energy to another. The turbine, for example does work on the generator
by exerting a force (torque) on the generator as it moves (rotates). The generator then converts the mechanical
energy from this work to electrical energy.
Figure 1-03 illustrates a small steam turbine that being used to lift a weight. The steam turbine converts the
heat energy of the steam into mechanical energy to lift the weight. The weight has more potential energy after it has
been lifted to a higher elevation through the work of the turbine. The turbine has converted heat energy to potential
energy by working.
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Fi::ure 1-03 Wei::ht Lffted by Small Steam Turbine
Another example of work involved in conversion of energy occurs In a pump. A prime mover, such as a
motor or a turbine, transforms energy (electrical or heat) to mechanical energy to rotate the pump. The pump uses
this mechanical energy to do work on the fluid, increasing the energy of the fluid. The result of the increase in the
fluid's energy is generally seen as an increase in the pressure of the fluid. There may be other changes in energy as
well, such as an increase in the velocity of the fluid or an increase in its temperature. The increase in velocity results
in an increase the kinetic energy of the fluid, whereas, the increase in temperature results in an increase in the
internal energy of the fluid. Typically, this temperature increase is very small.
1.3.2 Power
It is useful to know how much energy is necessary to make a process occur. The amount of energy alone is
not enough to describe many processes, however. The rate at which the energy is delivered to or generated from a
process is also important. Power is the rate at which work is done. For example, in Figure 1-03, if the weight is lifted
at a speed that is twice the original speed, then twice as much power is being used. Regardless of the rate, however,
the same amount of work is performed and the same amount of energy is used if the weight is lifted the same
A power plant receives fuel and burns it to convert the chemical energy of the fuel into heat energy. In a
gas turbine, this energy is converted directly to mechanical energy as the hot gases expand to drive the turbine.
Some of the mechanical energy of the turbine is transferred through the shaft to the compressor to increase the
pressure and temperature of the air used in the gas turbine. The rest of the mechanical energy is transmitted through
the shaft to the generator where it is converted to electrical energy.
In a combined cycle plant,hot gases from the gas turbine are exhausted to a heat recovery steam generator
(HRSG) where additional energy conversion takes place. The heat energy of the gases is transfelTed to the water in
the HRSG, steam is formed and then superheated. The heat transfer takes place in the tubes inside the HRSG. The
internal energy of the steam is increased through the absorption of heat. The pressure increases because the volume
of the gaseous steam is limited.
The heat energy in the steam from the HRSG is converted to mechanical energy in the steam turbine. The
turbine uses the mechanical energy from the steam to turn the generator, which then converts the mechanical energy
to electrical energy.
The steam expands and cools in the energy conversion in the steam turbine. A small fraction of the steam
condenses in the steam turbine and appears as small water droplets. The mixture of steam and water exhausts from
the steam turbine to the condenser where the remaining steam is condensed into water, usually refelTed to as
condensate. The heat required to change state between steam and water, called the heat of vaporization, is rejected to
the circulating water through heat transfer in the condenser. The condensate is then pumped back to the HRSG
through heat exchangers designed to capture more heat through heat transfer. The process is then repeated.
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The conversion of heat to work is based on two fundamental principles generally referred to as the First and
Second Laws of Thermodynamics. The First Law is simply a restatement of the Law of Conservation of Energy that
describes the relationship between heat and work. The Second Law describes the availability of heat energy to do
Regardless of the type of work or the type of energy under consideration, the terms heat, work, and energy
have practical significance when viewed in terms of systems, processes, cycles and their surroundings. In the case of
expansion work in a steam turbine, the system is a fluid (water/steam) capable of expansion or contraction as a result
of pressure, temperature or chemical changes. The way in which these changes take place is referred to as the
process. A cycle is a sequence of processes that produces net heat flow or work when placed between an energy
source (fuel) and an energy sink (condenser).
When dealing with energy and the means of converting energy from one form to another, it is convenient to
draw a boundary around the system. Everything within the system boundaries is part of the system, and everything
outside of the boundaries is called the surroundings. Energy can be transferred across the system boundaries
between a system and its surroundings.
There are two types of systems: closed systems and open systems. A closed system, as shown in Figure 1-
04, has no transfer of mass to or from its surroundings. For example, the feedwater/steam piping in a power plant is
the boundary of a closed system. It is used to collect water (mass) and isolate it from the surroundings. Energy is
transferred into the system in the HRSG and out of the system in the turbine and condenser. The mass of the
working fluid in the system (steam/water) stores the energy.
Energy'n Energy Out
Figure 1-04
Closed Svstem
An open system, as shown in Figure 1-05, transfers both mass and energy to or from its surroundings. An
example of an open system is a cogeneration power plant where some steam produces electrical power in a closed
loop process, but some steam is extracted from the turbine and used in some other process (say building heating) and
is not returened.
Mass In
Energy In

Mass Out
Energy Out
Fif.!ure 1-05 Open Svstem
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The conventional power plant steam/water cycle (often called the Rankine cycle) is a closed system used to
convert the heat of combustion into mechanical work. The mass of the system is water, and the system boundary
consists of the boiler tubes, turbine casing, condenser tubes, pump casings, and the interconnecting piping.
From the principle of conservation of energy, whenever there is any net transfer of energy inward across
.the boundary ofa system, the stored energy of the system increases by an amount equal to the net energy
transferred. Conversely, if there is a net transfer of energy out of the system during any process, the stored energy of
the system decreases by an amount equal to the net energy removed. This principle relates to the First Law of
Thermodynamics which states that the sum of all energy entering a system must equal the sum of all energy exiting,
recall that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
In the case of a closed system, the first law of thermodynamics can be applied by using an energy balance,
as shown in Figure 1-06. From this energy balance the following equation can be written:
where Q
I Q - W == E2 - EI I
Equation 1-05
= net heat transferred to the system
= net work done by the system
= stored energy of the system at the stmi of a process
= stored energy of the system at the end of the process
Figure 1-06 Energy Balance
(Closed System)
Q - ~
This equation states that the difference between the net heat energy added to a closed system and the net
work done by the system is seen as a change in the amount of energy stored in the system. This general "energy"
equation is one form of the First Law of Thermodynamics. Application of this equation to a system is called writing
the energy balance for the system.
An energy balance is written by evaluating the three terms of the general energy equation. These include
the heat Q and work Wadded to or removed from the system, as well as change in total energy possessed by the
system. The energy in the system includes potential energy, kinetic energy, internal energy and P-v energy.
The changes in potential and kinetic energy in' most closed systems are very small compared to other
changes and so to sirnplify the equation, they are assumed to be zero. Thus, the change in the total energy equals the
sum of the changes in internal energy and pressure-volume (P-v) energy, which equals the change in enthalpy. This
can be represented by the following equation:
Where: Q
I Q - W = Hr HI = DH
Equation 1-06
= net heat transferred to the system
= net work done by the system
= enthalpy of the system at the start of a process
= enthalpy ofthe system at the end of the process
It is important in using this equation that the energy units used are the same. It is also important to adopt
"sign conventions" for heat and work are used in applying these relationships. Usually the following sign convention
is used. Ifheat is added to the system, a positive value (plus sign) is used for Q; ifheat is removed from the system,
a negative value (minus sign) is used. If work is done by the system, a positive value is used for W; if work is done
on the system, a negative value is used.
The general energy equation also applies to open systems, as shown in Figure 1-07. The type of open
system most frequently encountered in practical systems is called a steady flow system.
Energy - - - 1 = ~ ~ - - - - - - - 1
In -
Q - - ~ :
Figure 1-07 General Energy Equation in Open Systems
In this case, the mass flow into the system equals the mass flow out. Thus, no mass is collected by the
system. In addition, the potential and kinetic energy changes of the working fluid can be eliminated since they are
essentially the same at the inlet and outlet conditions. Thus, the change in the total energy equals the sum of the
changes in internal energy and P-v energy entering and leaving the system. This equals the change in enthalpy of the
working fluid.
The general energy equation can be rewritten as follows:
where Q
Q+Hi = W+Ho
Equation 1-07
= net heat transferred to the system
= net work done by the system
= enthalpy of the working fluid entering the system
= enthalpy of the working fluid leaving the system
This equation can be applied to the entire power plant without examining the details of the process within
the plant. The equation can also be applied to individual components and processes in the power plant such as the
HRSG, steam and gas turbines, boiler feed pumps and so on.
For example, a turbine is designed to extract energy from the working fluid to do work in the form of
turning a shaft. This shaft work is converted to electrical energy by the generator. Figure 1-08 shows a simplified
diagram of a turbine. A simple turbine is a steady flow system in which, ideally, no heat is transferred to or from the
(Q = 0). The general equation for a simple turbine is written as follows:
H; = W + Ho Equation 1-08
Because the turbine in this example is a steady flow system, the energy equation must be written for some
selected time interval. This is accomplished by writing the equation in terms of rates of energy transfer, in BTU per
unit time, as follows : (Note: the above the letter is an engineering designation for a rate. In other words, m=mass,
where M is mass flow.
Equation 1-09
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This form of the general energy equation is particularly impOitant because the rate of work
done by the system w is the power output of the system. The other terms in this form of the equation,
namely the mass flow M rate and the enthalpies, hi and ho, are measured quantities. The lower case "h" is used
rather than the upper case "H" as in the previous equation because the specific enthalpy, BTU per pound, is used
rather than the "gross" enthalpy.
Figure 1-08 Simplified Turbine Diagram
Another example of a heat transfer system is a boiler (or HRSG) of a power plant which is used to take
high pressure, low temperature water and generate high pressure, high temperature steam. Figure 1-09 shows a
simple boiler as open boundaries. Applying the general energy equation to the boiler, the following equation can be
Q is the amount of heat transferred through the boiler tubes and absorbed by the water and steam. Since the
boiler does not do work, the work term W in the equation is zero.
Thus, the equation can be simplified and written for a steady flow system:
where Q is the rate of heat transferred to the working fluid.
L.:=:::::=-_______ .....:::::::::si=" WATER mhj

Q = m(h
Figure 1-09 Simple Boiler
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The First Law of Thermodynamics describes the relationship between he(1.t, energy and work. While the
First Law is useful in describing, for example, how much heat is required to produce a given amount of work, it is
not sufficient by itself to describe all aspects of conversion of energy.
For example, consider a rotating flywheel which is brought to rest by friction in its bearing. The
temperature of the bearing rises. The increase in the internal energy is equal to the original energy of the rotating
flywheel. Can the flywheel start rotating as the bearing cools down until the bearing temperature is restored to its
original value and the flywheel once again has its original kinetic energy? There is nothing in the First Law that
helps to answer this question, none the less, the answer is no. It 'is evident that there must be some natural principle,
in addition to the First Law of Thermodynamics, which determines the direction of a process. This is where the
Second Law of Thermodynamics applies.
The First Law is a statement of the equivalence of various forms of energy and says that energy must be
conserved in a process; however, it gives no indication of whether or not difficulties will be encountered in making
the conversion from one energy form to another. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is not restricted to
interchanges of heat and work, but rather is a broad philosophy on the behavior of energy and energy
transformations. The Second Law concentrates on the feasibility of energy conversion processes.
Consider a power plant cycle as shown in Figure 1-10 which consists of the boiler, turbine, condenser, and
feedwater systems. Heat is added to this cycle in the boiler. Energy leaves the system in the form of work done by
the turbine. However, not all ofthe energy is removed from the steam in the turbine, and the steam that enters the
condenser must be condensed. In order to condense the steam in the condenser, the latent heat of vaporization of the
steam must be rejected from the system. If this heat were not rejected, the condenser pressure and temperature
would begin to increase lowering the work output of the turbine. This rejected heat is more than half of the total heat
added to the cycle in the steam generator.
Q added
Q rejected
Figure 1-10 Power Plant Cycle
This cycle appears to be very inefficient. It would seem that the cycle could be made more efficient by
using the heat rejected in the condenser rather than "throwing it away." Unfortunately, the heat rejected from the
condenser is at a relatively low temperature; typically around 100F. Most thermodynamic processes used in power
generation, such as generating steam in the HRSG, require much higher temperatures. In fact, apart from using
warm circulating water from the condenser for heating greenhouses and melting snow from sidewalks, there are very
few ways in which it is practical to use the heat rejected in the condenser. In thermodynamics, the heat rejected from
the condenser is said to have low availability.
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The example of the power plant cycle in Figure 1-10 illustrates a fundamental consequence of the Second
Law of Thermodynamics. It is impossible to convert all ofthe energy supplied to a thermodynamic system to useful
work. Some of the energy is lost or rejected. The more energy that can be converted to useful work, the more
efficient the system. In thermodynamics, the opposite view is often taken; a thermodynamic cycle can be made more
efficient by minimizing the heat rejected.
The example of the power plant cycle in Figure 1-10 also demonstrates that, when dealing with energy
conversion; it is not enough to know the amount of heat transferred to describe a thermodynamic process. The
temperature at which heat is transferred is also impOitant because the availability if heat energy in a substance
depends upon its temperature. The lower the temperature of a substance, the less the availability of its heat energy to
do work. This concept is so important that another property is defined to describe both the amount of heat
transferred and the temperature at which it is transferred.
This property, entropy, represented by S is defined as the ratio of heat transfelTed to the absolute
temperature at which it is transferred. This can be written in the following equation:
where ~ S == change in entropy of a system during some process (BTU/oR)
amount of heat added to the syStem during the process (BTU)
= absolute temperature (OR)
Entropy is a property as is pressure, temperature, volume or enthalpy. Because entropy tells so much about
the usefulness of an amount of heat transferred in performing work, the steam tables include values of specific
entropy as part of the information tabulated.
The definition of the change in entropy can be visualized by considering a process in which heat is added to
a substance. If this process is carried out at a constant temperature, the change in entropy(DS) equals the heat added
(Q) divided by the absolute temperature (Tabs) .
The usefulness of entropy can be illustrated by describing thermodynamic processes on a diagram called a
T-S diagram and using the defmitionof entropy. The following equation can be written by rearranging the equation
that defines entropy:
where ~ S
Q = T x ~ S
= change in entropy of a system during some process (BTU/oR)
= amount of heat added to the system during the process (BTU)
= absolute temperature (OR)
The amount of heat required for a thermodynamic process can be thought of as the area under a curve
plotted on a T-S diagram. That area can be determined through a mathematical process called integration.
1-15-1.1 -
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Figure 1-11 shows a T -S diagram for two different thermodynamic processes in which the temperature T and
the entropy S of a substance both change as heat is added.
Figure 1-11 T-S Diagram
The heat required for the process represented by path A can be found by determiriing the area under the
'curve A between the limits of SI and S2. The second thermodynamic process, represented by path B has the same
endpoints but is different from path A; because all of the points on curve B are lower than those on curve A.
Accordingly, the area under curve B is less than that under curve A and so the heat required for the process
represented by curve B is less than that for the process represented by curve A. Thus, as this example demonstrates,
it is not enough to know the endpoints of a process in order to determine the.amount of heat required for that
process; the path must also be known.
The work done by or on a thermodynamic system and the heat added to or removed from the system can
be easily visualized on the T-S diagram. T-S diagrams are, therefore, frequently used to analyze energy transfer
cycles. In the following Chapter, two cycles that are used in power plants, the Brayton and Rankine Cycles, are
depicted on a T-S diagram to determine efficiency. The Brayton and Rankine Cycles thermodynamically represent
the gas turbine and water/steam cycle of a combined cycle power plant.
Water is the primary substance used to transfer energy in a power plant. The steam is used to drive the
steam turbine-generator which produces electrical power. Water is a key resource because of its wide availability,
nontoxic nature, and favorable properties. The properties discussed in this section are:
States or phases
Heat capacity (specific heat)
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Saturation temperature
Saturation pressure
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Water can exist in any of the three states: solid, liquid, and gas. These three states are also called phases.
The state or phase of water depends on its temperature and pressure. At atmospheric pressure, water below 32F is
solid (ice), water above 32F and below 212F is liquid, and water above 212F is gaseous (steam). Heat must be
transferred to or from water to change both its temperature and state. Figure 1-12 shows the amount of heat at
atmospheric pressure needed to change OaF ice to 212F steam and beyond.
When heat is transferred to ice, its temperature increases until the ice reaches the freezing point of 32F.
The amo.!lot of heat required to change the temperature of ice is determined by a parameter called specific heat. The
specific heat of ice is 0.505 BTU/lboF and so one pound of ice must absorb 0.505 BTU of heat to raise its
temperature by 1F. In Figure 1-12, OaF ice is heated to 32F by adding approximately 16 BTU of energy.
16 -144- 1- 18o- J------970------,--138-
Figure 1-12 Water Phase Diagram
When more heat is added beyond this point, however, the temperature of the ice does not change.
Additional heat energy instead melts the ice. The process of melting ice to water is called a phase transformation or
change of state. The heat required for the change of state from ice to water is called the heat of fusion or latent heat.
The heat of fusion is the difference in internal energy of ice and water. The amount of heat needed to change 1
pound of ice at 32F to water at 32F is 144 BTU.
Once all of the ice changes state to water, as more heat is added, the temperature of the water increases.
The increase in temperature occurs at a rate of about I OF rise for each BTU added, since the specific heat of water is
about 1 BTU/ lb- OF. In fact, the specific heat of water changes slightly as its temperature changes. The specific heat
is exactly 1 BTU/lb-oF when the temperature of the water is at 60F. To increase the temperature of 1 pound of
water from 32 to 212F, 180 BTU of heat are required. This heat addition is called sensible heat, since the heat
addition can be "sensed" as a temperature change. At 212F, another phase transformation begins. If more heat is
added, the water starts to boil. Boiling is the change of state from water to steam. The temperature at which water
boils, for a given pressure, is called the saturation temperature. Water at the saturation temperature is called
saturated liquid, and steam at the saturation temperature is called saturated steam. At saturation temperature, water
as a liquid and a gas exist together. The heat required for the change of state from water to steam is called the heat of
vaporization. The heat of vaporization is the difference in internal energy of water and steam. The amount of heat
needed to change I pound of water at 212F to steam at 212F is 970.3 BTU.
1-17-1.1 -
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The saturation temperature (boiling point) of water depends on its pressure. At atmospheric pressure, the
saturation temperature is 212P. The saturation temperature of water decreases as its pressure decreases and
increases as its pressure increases. Por example, if the pressure is lowered to 1 psi a (compared to atmospheric
pressure of 14.69 psia) the saturation temperature of water is 10 l. 7P. If the pressure is increased to 100 psia, the
saturation temperature of water is 327.8P.
There is a unique relationship between pressure and temperature of water at saturation conditions. That is,
for any given saturation pressure, there is one and only one saturation temperature. Thus; at saturation if the pressure
is known, the temperature is also known and vice versa.
Once all of the water changes state to steam, further addition of heat to the steam increases its temperature
above the saturation temperature. Steam that is above saturation temperatUre is called superheated steam. The
specific heat of steam is 0.490 BTU/lb-oP at saturation at atmospheric pressure and so 0.490 BTU is needed for each
degree of superheat for 1 pound of steam. The specific heat of steam changes as its pressure and temperarure change.
The difference in the temperature of superheated steam and the saturation temperature for its pressure is
called the superheat or degrees of superheat of the steam. P or example, steam at atmospheric pressure that has been
heated to 222P has 10 degrees of superheat.
As water boils and changes to steam, a mixture of steam and water at the same temperature exists. A new
parameter, steam quality (often referred to simply as quality), is necessary to describe the mixture of steam and
water. Steam quality is defmed as the mass percentage of steam present in the steam-water mixture at saturated
conditions. If, for example, 90% of the water in a mixture of steam and water were steam, the quality of this mixture
would be 90%. Quality is only useful in saturation. This is because water that is below the saturation pressure (and
thus has no steam) has zero quality and superheated steam has a quality of 100%.
The properties of water have been studied more than those of any other substance. The properties of water
that are most useful in thermodynamics of power plants are specific volume, enthalpy and entropy. Tables have been
developed listing the changes of each property with changes in pressure and temperature. The two tables most used
in power plant work are the saturated steam tables and superheated steam tables. The saturated steam tables provide
the values of properties of steam and water at saturation conditions while the superheated steam tables provide the
values of properties of steam above saturation temperature. Some steam tables also provide the values of properties
of water below saturation temperature (called subcooled water). All of these tables of properties are, together,
referred to as steam tables. These tables are commonly published as a book.
The saturated steam tables give the values of properties of saturated water and saturated steam for
temperatures from 32P to 705.47P and for the corresponding pressures from 0.08865 to 3208.2 psia. Water below
32P and 0.08865 psia is ice rather than saturated steam or water. Water at 705.47P and 3208.2 psia is at the critical
point. At the critical point there is no difference in the density or other properties of water and steam and thus
saturation no longer has meaning.
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Normally, two sets of saturated steam tables are provided, temperature tables and pressure tables.
Temperature tables list values of properties according to saturation temperature in even increments of temperature.
Pressure tables list values of properties according to saturation pressure in even increments of pressure. Both the
temperature and pressure tables have the same information, however the information is organized differently for
convenience. The temperature tables are easiest to use when the temperature is known, and the pressure tables are
easiest to use when the pressure is known. Table 1-01 shows a portion of a saturated steam temperature table. Table
1-02 shows a portion of a saturated steam pressure table.
Temp. Press. Volume, ft3nbm Enthalpy, Btunbm Entropy, Btunbm x R Temp.
I psia Water I Evap. ISteam Water I Evap. ISteam Water I Evap. ISteam
hr h'g
hg 8,
560.0 1133.38 0.02207 0.36607 0.38714 562.4 625.3 1187.7 0.7625 0.6132 1.3757 560.0
558.0 1115.36 0.02201 0.37230 0.39431 559.8 628.8 1188.4 0.7600 0.6177 1.3777 558.0
556.0 1097.55 0.02194 0.37966 0.40160 557.2 632.0 1189.2 0.7575 0.6222 1.3797 556.0
554.0 1079.96 0.02188 0.38715 0.40903 554.6 635.3 1189.9 0.7550 0.6267 1.3817 554.0
552.0 1062.59 0.02182 0.39479 0.41660 552.0 638.5 1190.6 0.7525 0.6311 1.3837 552.0
550.0 1045.43 0.02176 0.40256 0.42432 549.5 641.8 1191.2 0.7501 0.6356 1.3856 550.0
548.0 1028.49 0.02169 0.41048 0.43217 546.9 645.0 1191.9 0.7476 0.6400 1.3876 548.0
546.0 1011.75 0.02163 0.41855 0.44018 544.4 648.1 1192.5 0.7451 0.6445 1.3896 546.0
544.0 995.22 0.02157 0.42677 0.44834 541.8 651.3 1193.1 0.7427 0.6489 1.3915 544.0
542.0 978.90 0.02151 0.43514 0.45665 539.3 654.4 1193.7 0.7402 0.6533 1.3935 542.0
540.0 962.79 0.02146 0.44367 0.46513 536.8 657.5 1194.3 0.7378 0.6577 1.3954 540.0
538.0 946.88 0.02140 0.45237 0.47377 534.2 660.6 1194.8 0.7353 0.6621 1.3974 538.0
536.0 931.17 0.02134 0.46123 0.48275 531.7 663.6 1195.4 0.7329 0.6665 1.3993 536.0
534.0 915.66 0.02129 0.47026 0.49155 529.2 666.6 1195.9 0.7304 0.6708 1.4012 534.0
532.0 900.34 0.02123 0.47947 0.50070 526.8 669.6 1196.4 0.7280 0.6752 1.4032 532.0
Table 1-01 Saturated Steam Temperature Table
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Press. Temp. Volume, ft3nbm Enthalpy, Btunbm Entropy, Btunbm x R Energy,Btullbm
Iwater IEVap. ISteam Iwater I Evap. ream I Water IEva
. I Steam Iwater Isteam
Vg h,
h'g h9 S, Sfg S9 U, U
1200.0 567.19 0.02232 0.34013 0.36245 571.9 613.0 1184.0 0.n14 0.5969 1.3683 566.9 1104.3
1190.0 566.13 0.02228 0.34371 0.36599 570.5 614.8 1185.3 O.n01 0.5993 1.3694 565.5 1104.7
1180.0 565.06 . 0.02254 0.34734 0.36958 569.0 616.6 1185.7 0.7688 0.6017 1.3705 564.2 1105.0
1170.0 563.99 0.02221 0.35103 0.37324 567.6 618.5 1186.1 0.7674 0.6042 1.3714 562.8 1105.3
1160.0 562.91 0.02217 0.35478 0.37695 566.2 620.3 1186.6 0.7661 0.6066 1.3727 561 .4 1105.6
1150.0 561.82 0.02214 0.35869 0.38073 564.8 622.2 1187.0 0.7647 0.6091 1.3738 560.1 1106.0
1140.0 560.73 0.02210 0.36247 0.38457 563.3 624.1 1187.4 0.7634 0.6115 1.3749 558.7 1106.3
1190.0 559.63 0.02206 0.36641 0.38847 561.9 625.9 1187.8 0.7620 0.6140 1.3760 557.3 1106.6
1120.0 558.52 0.02203 0.37041 0.39244 560.5 627.6 1188.2 0.7606 0.6165 L3nl 555.9 1106.9
1110.0 557.40 0.02199 0.37449 0.39648 559.0 629.6 1188.7 0.7592 0.6190 1.3783 554.5 1107.2
1100.0 556.28 0.02195 0.37863 0.40056 557.5 631 .5 . 1189.1 0.7678 0.8216 1.3794 553.1 1107.6
1090.0 555.14 0.02192 0.38285 0.40476 586.1 633.4 1189.5 0.7564 0.6241 1.3805 551.7 1107.8
1080.0 554.00 0.02188 0.38714 0.40902 554.6 635.3 1189.9 0.7550 0.6266 1.3817 550.2 1108.1
1070.0 552.86 0.02184 0.39150 0.41335 553.1 837.1 1190.3 0.7536 0.6292 1.3828 548.8 1108.4
1060.0 . 551.70 0.02181 0.39694 0.41n5 551 .6 639.0 1190.7 0.75"..2 0.6318 1.3840 547.4 1108.7
1050.0 550.53 0.021n 0.40047 0.42224 550.1 640.9 1191.0 0.7507 0.6344 1.3851 545.9 1109.0
1040.0 549.36 0.02174 0.40507 0.42681 548.6 642.8 1191.4 0.7493 0.6370 1.3663 544.5 1109.3
1030.0 548.18 0.02170 0.40967 0.43146 547.1 644.7 1191.8 0.7478 0.6396 1.3874 543.0 1109.6
1020.0 546.99 0.02166 0.41454 0.43820 545.6 646.6 1192.2 0.7463 0.6423 1.3886 541 .5 1109.9
1010.0 545.79 0.02163 0.41941 0.44103 544.1 646.5 1192.6 0.7449 0.6449 1.3898 540.0 1110.1
1000.0 544.56 0.02159 0.42436 0.44596 542.6 650.4 1192.9 0.7434 0.8476 1.3910 538.6 1110.4
m.o 543.36 0.02155 0.42942 0.45097 541.0 652.3 1193.3 0.7419 0.8503 1.3922 537.1 1110.7
980.0 542.14 0.02152 0.43457 0.45609 539.5 654.2 1193.7 0.7406 0.6530 1.3934 535.6 1111 .0
970.0 540.90 0.02148 0.43982 0.46130 537.9 658.1 1194.0 0.7389 0.6557 1.3946 534.0 1111 .2
960.0 539.65 0.02145 0.44518 0.46882 536.3 658.0 114.4 0.7373 0.6584 1.3958 532.5 1111.5
950.0 538.39 0.02141 0.45054 0.47205 534.7 860.0 1194.7 0.7358 0.8812 1.3970 531.0 1111 .7
940.0 537.13 0.02137 0.45621 0.4n59 533.2 881 .9 1105.1 0.7242 0.8840 1.3982 52S.4 1112.0
930.0 535.85 0.02134 0.46190 0.48324 531 .6 683.8 1195.4 0.7327 0.6688 1.3995 527.9 1112.2
920.0 534.66 0.02130 O.48nO 0.48901 530.0 685.8 1196.7 0.7311 0.8696 1.4007 526.3 1112.5
910.0 533.26 0.02127 0.47363 0.49490 528.3 667.7 1198.1 0.7295 0.6724 1.4019 524.8 1112.7
900.0 531 .95 0.02123 0.47968 0.50091 526.7 669.7 1196.4 0.7279 0.6753 1.4032 523.2 1113.0
890.0 530.63 0.02119 0.48586 0.50706 526.1 671.6 119B.7 0.7263 0.6762 1.4045 521.6 1113.2
880.0 529.30 0.02116 0.49218 0.51333 523.4 673.6 1197.0 0.7247 0.6811 1.4057 520.0 1113.4
870.0 527.96 0.02112 0.49883 0.51975 521.8 675.6 1197.3 0.7230 0.8840 1.4070 518.4 1113.7
860.0 526.60 0.02109 0.50522 0.52631 520.1 6n.6 1197.7 0.7214 0.6869 1.4083 516.7 1113.9
850.0 525.24 0.02105 0.51197 0.53302 518.4679.5 1198.0 0.7197 0.8889 1.4094 515.1 1114.1
840.0 523.86 0.02101 0.51886 0.53988 516.7681.5 1198.2 0.7160 0.6920 1.4109 513.4 1114.3
830.0 522.46 0.02098 0.52592 0.54889 615.0683.5 1198.5 0.7183 0.6959 1.4122 611.8 1114.5
820.0 521.06 0.02094 0.53314 0.55408 513.3685.6 1196.8 0.7146 0.8990 1.4138 610.1 1114.8
810.0 519.64 0.02091 0.54052 0.56143 611 .6687.6 1199.1 0.7129 0.7020 1.4149 508.4 1115.0
800.0 518.21 0.02087 0.54809 0.58896 509.6889.6 1199.4 0.7111 0.7051 1.4183 506.7 1115.2
790.0 516.76 0.02083 0.55894 0.57667 508. 1 691 .5 1199.7 0.7094 0.7082 1.4176 505.0 1115.4
780.0 515.30 0.02080 0.563n 0.58457 506.3693.6 1199.9 0.7076 0.7114 1.4190 503.3 1115.5
no.o 513.34 0.02076 0.57191 0.59267 504.6695.7 1200.2 0.7058 0.7146 1.4204 501.5 1115.7
760.0 512.34 0.02072 0.58025 0.60097 502.7697.7 1200.4 0.7040 0.7178 1.4218 499.8 1116.9
750.0 510.84 0.02069 0.56860 0.60949 500.9699.8 1200.7 0.7022 0.7210 1.4232 498.0 1116.1
740.0 509.32 0.02065 0.59757 0.61822 499.1701 .9 1200.9 0.7003 0.7243 1.4246 496.2 1116.3
730.0 507.78 0.02061 0.60657 0.62719 497.2703.9 1201.2 0.6985 0.7176 1.4260 494.4 1116.4
720.0 506.23 0.02058 0.61581 0.63639 495.4706.0 1201.4 0.6966 0.7309 1.4275 492.6 1116.6
710.0 504.67 0.02054 0.62530 0.64585 493.5706.1 1201 .6 0.6947 0.7343 1.4290 490.8 1116.8
Table 1-02 Saturated Steam Pressure Table
Both variations ofthe saturated steam tables are tabulations of pressure P, temperature T, specific volume
v, specific enthalpy h, and specific entropy s. The term "specific" means that the value of the property is given as
"per pound." Subscripts are used to distinguish between water in different phases. The subscript " f ' (for fluid) is
used for water. The subscript "g" (for gas) is used for steam. The subscript "fg" is used to denote the difference
between the same property for water and steam. Thus hfis the enthalpy of water at a given pressure/temperature, hg
is the enthalpy of steam at the same temperature, and hfg is the difference between hf and hg. It should be evident
that hfg is the heat of vaporization.
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Table 1-03 is a summary of the notation used in steam tables. Both saturated tables list the values of
properties of water as a saturated liquid and a saturated vapor for the specified temperature/pressure condition. They
also list the change in each property between the liquid and vapor states. For example, referring to the saturated
steam temperature table (Table 1-01), the saturation pressure for steam at 540F is 962.79 psia. On the same line, the
specific volume, enthalpy and entropy for water and saturated steam at this temperature can be found.
T - Temperature
P Pressure (psi)
v - Specific volume of saturated liquid (cu ftIlb
- Specific volume of saturated liquid (cu ftIlb
Vg - Specific volume of saturated vapor (cu ftIlb
- Specific volume change of vaporization (cu ftllb
h - Specific enthalpy (BTU/Ibm)
- Specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (BTU/Ibm)
- Specific enthalpy of saturated vapor (BTUllb
- Specific enthalpy of change ofvaporization (BTUllb
S - Specific entropy (BTU/Ibm-OF)
Sf - Specific entropy of saturated liquid (BTUllbm-OR)
Sg - Specific entropy of saturated vapor(BTU/Ibm-OR)
- Specific entropy of change of vaporization (BTU/Ibm-OR)
Sh - Number of degrees of superheat (OF)
Table 1-03 Steam Table Notation
Tables I-Oland 1-02 show values for three properties of steam, enthalpy, entropy and specific volume. The
values for enthalpy are given in units of BTU/Ibm' The values for entropy are given in units of BTU/oR-Ibm'
The specific volume, v, of steam is the inverse of its density p at a given temperature and pressure:
Specific volume v = -
Density is the amount of weight a substance has per unit of volume, usually expressed in Ib/f3. Specific
volume is the volume of a unit mass of a substance or ft3/1b. Understanding that the density and specific volume of
water change with temperature and pressure is impOliant because some steam plant equipment takes advantage of
this characteristic of water. For example, the steam drum, water tube, and downcomer arrangement shown in Figure
1-13 uses density changes in water for natural circulation. Since this portion of the boiler (or HRSG) boils or
evaporates water to form steam, it is often referred to as the evaporator in HRSG's. In a conventional fired boiler,
this portion of the boiler is called the water walls because the boiler tubes make up the walls of the furnace.
1 - 2 1 ~
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In Figure 1-13, saturated water at 548F from the steam drum ( 1 ) flows through the downcomer (2).
Saturation pressure for this temperature is 1028.49 psia. The saturated steam temperature table (only a portion was
shown in Table 1) gives the specific volume for saturated water at 548F as v = 0.02169 x cu ft/lb

~ : = - _ ~ STEAM 548
1028 psia
Figure 1-13 Boiler Water Circuit
The water from the downcomer is distributed to the water wall tubes by the header (3), then flows up the
water wall tubes (4) located in the walls ofthe boiler. The water in the tubes absorbs heat from combustion in the
boiler. However, since the water is already at saturation temperature, the heat added causes some of the water to
boil, making saturated steam. From the saturated steam temperature table, the specific volume for saturated steam at
548F is 0.43217 x cu ft/lb
The ratio of the specific volume of water to steam at this temperature is about 19.9. In
other words, the water is about 19.9 times more dense that the steam. As a result of this difference in density, the
steam bubbles rise in the tubes.
Thus, there is a mixture of steam bubbles and water in the evaporator tubes. There is only water in the
downcomer, however, since the mixture of water and steam in the evaporator tubes is less dense that the water in the
downcomer, there is greater pressure at the bottom of the downcomer than the bottom of the evaporator tubes. The
pressure difference causes water to circulate from the drum to the downcomer, upward through the evaporator tubes
and back to the drum. This phenomenon is called natural circulation.
Mixtures of saturated water and steam like that in the waterwall or evaporator tubes occur often in a power
plant. Another example is the steam leaving a turbine and entering a condenser. This steam is actually a mixture of
water that has condensed in the turbine steam path. steam quality x is the property used to express that amount of
steam present in a steam-water mixture. As an example, if the steam at the turbine exhaust has a quality of 87%,
each pound of the steam-water mixture leaving the turbine contains 0.87 pounds of steam and 0.13 pounds of water.
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Superheated steam tables give values of properties of superheated steam for a given pressure and
temperature. Table 1-04 is a pOition of a superheated steam table.
Abs. Pras. Sat Water Sat Water Tcmperature - DcgRCS Fahrenheit
IbISq in.
(Sat TCql) 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 1000
sb 11.61 61.61 111.61 161.61 211.61 261.61 311.61 361.61 461.61
y .
0.02141 0.4721 0.4883 0.5485 0.5993 0.6449 0.6871 0:7272 0.7656 0.7656 0:8753
(538.39)b 534.74 1194.7 1207.6 1255.J 1294.4 1329.3 1361.5 1392.0 1421.5 1450.3 1507.0
s 0.7358 1.3970 1.4098 1.4557 1.4921 1.5228 1.5500 1.S748 1.S977 1.6193 1.6595
Sh 5.42 55.42 105.42 155.42 205.42 255.42 305.42 455.42 465.42
0.02159 0.4460 0.4535 0.5137 0.5636 0.6080 0.6489 0.6875 0.7245 0.7603 0.8295
(514.58) b 542.66 1192.9 1199.3 1249.3 1290.1 1325.9 1358.7 1389.6 1419.4 1448.5 1505.4
s 0.7434 1.3910 1.3973 1.4457 1.4833 1.5149 1.S426 1.S677 1.S908 1.6530 1.6530
Sb 49.47 99.47 149.27 199.47 249.47 299.47 299.47 449.47
0.02177 0.4222 0.4821 0.5312 0.5745 0.6142 0.6515 0.6872 0.6872 0.7881
(650.53) b 550.15 1191.0 1243.4 1285.7 1322.4 1355.8 1387.2 1417 .. 3 1417.3 1403.9
s 0.7507 1.3851 1.4358 1.4748 \..S072 1.5354 1.S608 1.5842 1.6062 1.6469
Sb 43.72 93.72 143.72 193.72 243.72 293.72 343.72 433.72
0.02195 0.4006 0.4531 0.S017 0.S440 0.5826 0.6188 0.6S33 0.6865 0.7S0S
(SS8.28) b SS7.SS 1189.1 1237.3 1281.2 1318.8 1352.9 1384.7 141S.2 . 1444.7 1502.4
s 0.7S78 1.3794 1.4259 1.4664 1.4996 1.5284 1.S542 1.5779 1.6000 1.6410
Table 1-04 Superheat Steam Table
There are two differences between the saturated and superheated steam tables. First, there is only one
superheated steam table, not two as with the saturated tables. Second, both the pressure and temperature of the steam
are required to determine the values of properties of superheated steam. With saturated steam, either the pressure or
the temperature was sufficient to find the values of properties of water or steam. The superheated steam tables are
organized as a grid with pressure along the vertical axis and temperature on the horizontal axis.
As with the saturated tables, specific volume v, enthalpy h, and entropy s are tabulated in the superheated
steam tables. Also given is the saturation temperature for each incremerit of pressure and number of degrees of
superheat, shown as Sh, for each temperature and pressure. Not all tables give values for Sh. To calculate this value,
the saturation temperature T is subtracted from the temperature of the superheated steam.
I Sh = T - Tsat
where Sh = number of degrees of superheat eF)
T = temperature of superheated steam (OF)
= temperature of saturated steam at the same pressure as the superheated steam.
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Another method of making the values of properties of steam available is the Mollier Diagram (also called
the Mollier chart). Figure 1-14 is a Mollier Diagram. The Mollier Diagram is a graphical presentation of the
properties of saturated and superheated steam. It is a graph of specific enthalpy h versus specific entropy s. On this
h-s diagram, there is a line that curves downward like a hill or a dome. Above this saturation dome, as it is often
called, the steam is superheated. Below the saturation dome, there is a mixture of saturated steam and water. In the
superheated area, there are lines of constant temperature (called isotherms), lines of constant pressure (called
isobars), and lines of constant superheat. In the saturated area of the Mollier diagram, there are lines of constant
pressure and constant quality (moisture) percent. .
1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.B 2.0 2.2
~ 1 2 0 0
ifi 1100
toOO 1000
1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.B 2.0 2.2
ENTROPY (Btu/lb -OF)
Figure 1-14 Mollier Diagram
The values of properties of steam can be determined directly from the Mollier Diagram. In many cases, the
diagram can be easier to use than the steam tables because the values can be read directly from it, rather than
interpolated or calculated. The accuracy of steam properties from a Mollier diagram is not always as good as that
from the steam tables, especially if small versions ofthe Mollier chart are used.
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Chapter 2
To familiarize the student with the theory of Steam Turbine Operation.
At the completion of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Describe the Impulse Principles.
2. Describe the Curtis Stage of a Turbine.
3. Describe the Reaction Principles.
1999 - TG201J5.0_June09, Printed: 12/1412010
1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 Turbine Principles ....................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.1 Nozzles and Their Principles .................................................................................................. 4
1.2 Basic Turbine Types and Their Principles ................................................................................... 4
1.2.1 Impulse Turbine ...................................................................................................................... 5
1.2.2 Reaction Turbines ................................................................................................................... 7
_v . 2-2
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Steam turbines are used to convert the heat energy in the steam into mechanical energy. Ifthe steam turbine
drives a generator, then this mechanical energy will be further converted. and then into electrical energy. The steam
turbine is, by itself, a very simple machine with few moving parts. This is desirable because it allows the steam
turbine-generator to have very good reliability. It is not unusual for a steam turbine to run for more than a year
without shutdown. Current practice in some areas calls for steam turbine to have major maintenance outages about
once every five years. On some equipment, the interval between major overhauls has been extended to more than ten
While very reliable, the large steam turbine-generator is a complex machine with many components and
supporting systems. This chapter covers the following:
Turbine main steam valves
Turning gear
Turbine lube oil system
Turbine EHC fluid system
Turbine gland steam system
Turbine controls
Operation of the steam turbine requires consideration of many aspects including thermal stress,
requirements for generator synchronization, and values ofcritical parameters such as the lube oil header temperature
and gland steam header pressure. The turbine manufacturer provides detailed starting and loading instructions to
provide the operator with guidance on all of these aspects of operation.
This chapter describes the principles used in the steam turbine, the centerline components and supporting
systems of the turbine.
The power plant is often described as an energy conversion factory in which the chemical energy in the fuel
is transformed in a series of steps into electrical energy, with the turbine-generator as one part of the power plant.
The function of the steam turbine is to convert the energy in the high pressure and temperature steam from the boiler
or HRSG into mechanical energy. It is common to refer to the energy conversion that occurs in the turbine as
happening in a single step. The conversion of energy in the turbine actually occurs in two steps.This Section
describes both of these processes.
First, the heat energy in the steam is converted into kinetic energy of a steam jet by nozzles.
Second, the steam jets are used with buckets or blades mounted on a rotor to produce a
mechanical force and torque.
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1.1.1 Nozzles and Their Principles
A steam turbine nozzle is a device that converts heat energy of
steam into kinetic energy (energy of motion) by expanding the steam. A
simplified, convergent nozzle of the type most often used in steam turbines is P1, T1
shown in Figure 2-01
Figure 2-01 Simplified, Convergent Nozzle V
Assume that steam at temperature T1 and pressure P1 enters a convergent nozzle. The higher the pressure
and temperature, the more thermal energy is in the steam. The steam is moving at velocity Vlbefore entering the
nozzle. The steam leaves the nozzle at a lower pressure and temperature, T
and P
but at a higher velocity, V
. This
is because some of the heat energy in the steam has been converted into energy of motion, called kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy is a function of the square of velocity; therefore, as the velocity increases, so does the kinetic energy.
The ratio of the pressure upstream and downstream of the nozzle is critical in the efficient operation of the
nozzle. It is designed to operate with a constant pressure ratio for best efficiency in energy conversion. If turbine
conditions change the pressure ratio, inefficiency results. Also, if changes to the nozzle such as erosion occur, the
design is upset and inefficiency results. Common problems with nozzles which occur in operation are erosion from
debris in the steam and deposits from contamination of the steam
The kinetic energy in a jet of steam is not useful as it is. The nozzle by itself cannot convert the energy in
the steam to useful mechanical energy. There are two basic turbine types: impulse and reaction. Both use nozzles
and rotor buckets (also called blades), but in different ways.
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1.2.1 Impulse Turbine
Figure 2-02 illustrates the operating principles of an impulse turbine. Steam enters an impulse turbine
through a stationary nozzle that expands the steam and creates a steam jet. The steam jet strikes the rotor buckets.
Note that the terms bucket and blade are synonymous, however the term buckets is used most often for impulse
Flowing Steam ___ -I
(Mechanical Energy)
Figure 2-02 Impulse Turbine Operating Principles
H .. t
H ..
In an ideal impulse turbine, the steam expansion occurs through the
stationary nozzle; the buckets change only steam velocity. Ideal impulse
turbines do not exist in practice, however turbines that are nearly ideal
impulse turbines are often used.
Figure 2-03 shows axial and radial views of an ideal impulse
turbine stage. Each set of nozzles and rotor buckets is called a stage. The
graph in Figure 2-03 shows that all the pressure drop in the stage occurs at
the nozzles, and the velocity and volume of the steam increase in the nozzles.
The expanded steam strikes the buckets, forcing them to rotate and
reducing the velocity of the jet of steam. The force of the steam on the
buckets produces the mechanical energy needed to turn the generator. This
mechanical energy comes from the jet of steam which has its velocity
reduced considerably.
Nozzle ;"t::o", I
, :V: : Buckets
Steam Chest"-...
Equal/zing Hoie
,':"-' ; I
, ,
, , ,
" .
Velocity and Pressure
Figure 2-03 Ideal Impulse Stage
In large modern power plants, there is considerable thermal energy in each pound of steam delivered to the
turbine. It is impractical and inefficient to build a single nozzle and rotor large enough to convert all the steams
thermal energy into useful work. Therefore, large modern turbines are usually multi-staged, with each stage
converting part of the steams thermal energy to mechanical energy. In a basic multi-staged steam turbine, steam
enters through the first-stage nozzle, which converts part of the thermal energy in the steam into kinetic energy.
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The steam jet from the first-stage nozzle strikes the first-stage rotor buckets. After leaving the first-stage
rotor buckets, the steam passes through the second-stage nozzle. Some of the remaining thermal energy is then
converted to kinetic energy. The second-stage rotor buckets are forced to rotate by the steam jet leaving the second-
stage nozzles.
Impulse turbines can be multi-staged in two ways. The first
is the Curtis (or velocity compounded) stage shown in Figure 2-04.
A velocity compounded stage has one set of nozzles with two or
more rows of moving buckets. There are stationary buckets between
each row of moving buckets. Each set of nozzles and buckets makes
up one stage. In passing from the nozzle exit through one set of
buckets, the velocity of the steam decreases because of the work it
does on the buckets. The steam then passes through a row of
stationary buckets that change the direction of the steam without
changing its pressure or speed. The new steam direction is
approximately parallel to the original steam direction leaving the
nozzles. The steam then strikes a second row of buckets that are
attached to the same wheel as the first row. This process may be
repeated through as many as four rows of moving buckets in one
stage. Most Curtis stages, however, are limited to two rows of
moving buckets.
Figure 2-04 also shows that in an ideal Curtis stage, the
e.ntire pressure drop occurs through the nozzle, and the pressure
remains constant across the buckets. This is a characteristic of
impulse turbines. The velocity, on the other hand, drops in steps as it
passes through the moving buckets.
Absolute Pressure
Absolute Velocity
Steam Chest
Equalizing Hole
Figure 2-04 Ideal Curtis Stage
In a sense, Curtis staging is not multi-staging. This is because, as pointed out above, no matter how many
rows of moving buckets a Curtis stage has, it is still only one stage. It is possible, however, to have a second Curtis
stage behind the fust.
Absolute Pressure
Absolute Velocity
Steam Chest
Equalizing Hole
'~ ' : ' : I : I I I : :
I I Itt I I I t
I t ,I I I t I I
t I I t i if Ii. [ J
ttl I
~ I : ~ I I : ~ l i : ~ J I : ~
~ I ~ I ~ I ",="", I ~
I I I I I' t t
. ,",=""" I ~ ' I'"'="" '"'="".
Itt I It t I
, "==""i ,"=='"'. ,'O!:;::::lo'j ,'<:;:::10',
t, I t I I t I
Velocity and Pressure
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The second way that impulse turbine stages may be arranged is
the Rateau (or pressure compounded) stage. A Rateau turbine consists of
a series of nozzles and buckets. Each set of nozzles and buckets makes
up a stage. Figure 2-05 shows a four stage, pressure compounded,
impulse turbine. The steam pressure in a series of Rateau stages drops in
steps through each set of nozzles.
Figure 2-05 Arrangement of Typical Rateau Stages
Many old, multistage, impulse turbines consist of
both Rateau (pressure compounded) and Curtis (velocity
compounded) stages. Usually, the fIrst stage (and
sometimes the second stage) is a velocity compounded
stage with two rows of moving buckets on its wheel. The
remaining stages are then pressure compounded stages as
shown in Figure 2-06. Newer turbines seldom use Curtis .
staging, however, otherwise the multi-staging is the same.
It is not unusual to have as many as 20 stages in an impulse
Figure 2-06 Combination of Curtis and Rateau Staging
1.2.2 Reaction Turbines
Absolute """' ,,-- : --,-----'-.
___ ---:.-c-:;-.:--;.._---,-,---,===
Figure 2-07 illustrates the basic operating principles of an ideal reaction turbine. The turbine rotor is forced
to turn by the active force of the steam jet leaving the nozzle. In an ideal reaction turbine, the moving buckets would
be the only nozzles. Therefore, all the steam expansion would occur in the moving buckets. This is impractical in
large turbines because it is diffIcult to admit steam to moving nozzles. Thus, large turbines use fIxed nozzles to
admit steam to moving nozzles. Therefore, practical, large reaction turbines use a combination of impulse and
reaction principles.
'--HOT 1
Figure 2-07 Reaction Turbine Operating Principles

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The typical impulse-reaction turbine has stationary nozzles
and moving nozzles. The moving nozzles are created by varying the
cross section of the openings between adjacent buckets (usually called
blades in such turbines) as shown in Figure 2-08. Reaction turbines
can be classified by the percentage ofthe energy conversion that
occurs in the moving nozzles. Typically, turbines that are called
reaction turbines have about 50% reaction and 50% impulse. Turbines
which use a combination of impulse and reaction principles are often
referred to simply as reaction turbines to distinguish them from the
impulse turbines.
Figure 2-08 Reaction Turbine Blading
FIXED -' """- J """- J """- J """- J """- MOVING
Figure 2-09 shows a series of reaction turbine
stages. Each stage consists of a set of fixed nozzles and a
set of moving nozzles. Thepressure drop occurs over both
the fixed and moving nozzles. Reaction turbines are multi-
staged by alternating sets of fixed and moving nozzles and
are basically pressure compounded turbines with reaction.
Each pair of fixed and moving nozzles makes up one stage.
Many times, reaction turbines have one Curtis impulse
stage as the first stage of the turbine. Figure 2-10 shows a
typical arrangement.
-,"""-J"""-J ,J"""- J,
, ---- _.
F\ l\ f\ ,/0. r\ VELOCITY
i 'v' \'ir : "V: .. -
. __ j , -----"-' PRESSURE
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Figure 2-09 Arrangement of Reaction Turbine Stages
___ 01_""_5 _5T_AG __
Figure 2-10 Combination of Curtis and Reaction Staging
"\ ,--,'
/ /'
11/ '-_--II V
1. The two components that make up a turbine stage are:
2. Describe the function of the components in a steam turbine stage.
3. The three things that happen to steam as it flows through a turbine stage are:
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Chapter 3
To familiarize the student with steam turbine unit description.
At the completion of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Describe the various designs of steam turbines.
2. Describe steam flow through various steam turbines.
3. Describe different ways of prewarming starting and loading steam turbines.
1999 - TG201J5.0_June09, Printed: 12/14/10
1.0 CLASSIFICATION OF STEAM TURBINES ........................................................................................ 3
1.1 Condensing versus Non-condensing ........................................................................................... 3
1.2 Extraction versus Non-extraction ................................................................................................ 4
1.3 Single pressure versus mUltiple pressure .......................... ; .......................................................... 4
1.4 Reheat versus Non-reheat ............................................................................................................ 5
1.5 Single Casing versus Compound ................................................................................................. 5
1.6 Exhaust Flows ............................................................................................................................ 6
2.0 COMPARISON OF TURBINE TYPES AND MANUFACTURERS .................................................... 7
2.1 Aerodynamic Efficiency .............................................................................................................. 7
2.2 Number of Stages ........................................................................................................................ 7
2.3 Stage Design ................................................................................................................................ 7
3.0 UNIT DESCRIPTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 8
4.0 TURBINE OPERATION ...................................................................................................................... 15
4.1 Prewarming ............................................................................................................................... 15
4.2 Starting and Loading ................................................................................................................. 15
4.3 Full Arc Admission ................................................................................................................... 16
4.4 Partial Arc Operation ................................................................................................................. 16
4.5 Turbine Supervisory Instruments (TSI) ..................................................................................... 17
4.6 Overspeed Protection ................................................................................................................. 17
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In the previous section, turbine theory, the two basic turbine types were described. Impulse and reaction
turbines can be further divided into a large variety of types using important characteristics. Each of the six
characteristics discussed below is applicable to both impulse and reaction turbines. These characteristics are:
. Condensing vs. non-condensing
Extraction vs. non-extraction
Single pressure vs. multiple pressure
Reheat vs. non-reheat
Single casing vs. compound
Exhaust flows
One characteristic for classifying steam turbines is whether they are condensing or non-condensing. In a
condensing turbine, the steam is exhausted into a condenser. By condensing the steam, the turbine exhaust pressure
and temperatures can be very low. Low exhaust pressure allows the turbine to make maximum use of the thermal
energy in the steam and makes the power plant more efficient. Nearly all large steam turbines are of this type.
In non-condensing turbines, the exhaust steam is not condensed. The steam may simply be allowed to blow
into the atmosphere or (more often) it may be used for some useful purpose such as heating buildings. If a non-
condensing turbine exhausts to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, it is called a backpressure unit. This
type of turbine is most often seen in process plants such as steel mills, refmeries and paper mills. Sometimes the
non-condensing turbine is referred to as a "topper". It reduces the pressure from a high pressure boiler output to a
lower usable value. In the process, electricity may be produced as a by-product. Figure 3-01 illustrates a
comparison of these two classifications ..

Figure 3-01 Condensing versus Non-Condensing
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A second way turbines Can be classified is by extraction or non-extraction. Extraction turbines are
sometimes called ;'bleeder"tui-bines. An extraction turbine is a multi-stage turbine where some of the steam is
exhausted, or bled, from between turbine stages at extraction points. This extraction steam may be used for
regenerative feedwater heating or other purposes. In most power plant applications the extraction steam is
uncontrolled. In industrial applications the extracted steam may be controlled (this difference will be highlighted
later). See Figure 3-02 for the differences.
Figure 3-02 Extraction versus Non-Extraction
Most turbines have a significant variation of steam pressure in the steam path. This pressure variation has a
direct impact upon construction technique. The result is separately defmed sections as illustrated in Figure 3-03.
- High - Pressure Section

--- -- -- - --'\
, __ .. __ ,\ ,', ,'\,". __ 1I
,,', 1
Figure 3-03 Single Pressure versus Multiple Pressure
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To Condenser
, A third way that turbines can be classified is reheat or non-reheat. A reheat turbine is a multistage turbine
in which the steam is directed from some intermediate stage of the turbine back to the boiler. In the boiler; the steam
is reheated and then piped back to the turbine. Some large turbines return the steam to the boiler to be reheated a
second time. This is called a double reheat turbine. There are two advantages to reheating steam. First it makes the
power plant more efficientthermodynamically. Second, it delays the start of steam condensation in the turbine.
Nearly all modem power plant large steam turbines use reheat. See Figure 3-04 for a figure highlighting the
differences. " ' , ' , ' ,
STEAM FROliIlAIN BOItB! ----+--,
Figure 3-04 Reheat versus NOll-Reheat
Another way to classify turbines is as single casing or compound turbines. A single casing turbine has all
the stages of the turbine in one casing as shown schematically in Figure 3-05(a). As turbines become larger, it is not
practical to have all the stages in one casing. Therefore, they are divided into two or more casings. These machines
are known as compound turbines. There are two different types of compound turbines, tandem-compound and cross-
A tandem-compound turbine is shown in Figure 3-05(b). The turbine sections are in line with one another
and the sections are on the same shaft. The tandem compound turbine shown has two different sections. Large ,
modem units may have as many as five separate sections.
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A cross-compound turbine is shown in Figure 3-05 (c). In this
case, the different turbine sections are on different shafts. For power
plants, this means that two separate generators are used. This can be an
advantage for very large turbine generators since it may be easier to
build and ship two half-size generators than one very large generator.
Some large cross-compound units have two or more turbine sections on
each shaft, and thus they are a combination of cross-compound and
tandem"cOInpound . . .
Nearly all large steam turbines are multiple casing units. The
tandem-compound arrangement is most common. Cross-compound
turbines are often designed for large units and in cases where the
advantage in efficiency of a cross-compound unit over a tandem-
compound cim be justified.
STEAM IN - -+-+1+1-+;.<.,.]
Figure 3-05 Comparison of Turbine Arrangements
Condensing turbines can be further classified by the exhaust flow. A single-flow condensing turbine passes
. all of its exhaust steam to the condenser through one exhaust opening. However, the low pressure sections of a large
compound turbine become so large that they must be split up into more than one section because of design
limitations. Turbines with as many as six flows are not uncommon. See Figure 3-06 for an illustration of a four-
flow unit. Notice four (4) parallel paths to the condenser.
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Figure 3-06 Four (4) Exhaust Flows
There are as many different variations in steam turbines as there are manufacturers, and many
manufacturers build different types of turbines as well. This Section describes some of those differences with
reference to the two large steam turbines manufacturers that have historically dominated the market in the United
States, Westinghouse and General Electric. There are some key differences in the design of impulse and reaction
staging that are important in understanding other design features of the turbine.
General Electric (GE) turbines are mostly impulse turbines while Westinghouse turbines are principally
reaction turbines. The reason for this is historical. In the early history of the turbine-generator business in the United
States, GE bought rights to the patent for the impulse turbine from C.G. Curtis and Westinghouse bought rights to
the reaction turbine from Sir Charles Parsons. Those patents have, of course, long since expired. Both Westinghouse
and GE now build turbines that incorporate both reaction and impulse features. It is still true, however, that GE
turbines are principally of the impulse design and most Westinghouse turbines are principally the reaction design. A
comparison of the two designs is useful in understanding how steam turbines work.
The fIrst difference between the two designs is in aerodynamic efficiency. The aerodynamic efficiency of
the impulse stage is less than that of the reaction stage but the reaction stage efficiency falls off sharply when it is
not in operation at its design point. Aerodynamic effIciency becomes more important as a design consideration as
the stage becomes longer (as is the case in the low pressure turbine).
A consequence ofthese differences in effIciency is seen in the fIrst stage of many Westinghouse turbines.
The fIrst stage of the turbine is one in which the conditions under which the turbine conditions change considerable
over the range of operation because the valves used to control the flow of steam to the turbine open just ahead of the
fIrst stage nozzles. The fIrst stage turbine buckets (or blades) are the shortest in the turbine. Accordingly it is
common for Westinghouse turbines, that are principally reaction otherwise, to have a Curtis stage (also sometimes
referred to as the control stage) as the fIrst stage in the turbine.
In GE turbines, on the other hand, the last stage buckets are as long as those in Westinghouse turbines.
Since, for long buckets, a pure impulse design would have a performance penalty due to aerodynamic losses, most
GE turbines have a signifIcant degree of reaction in the long buckets of the LP turbine.
Another difference between the impulse and reaction designs is the amount of energy that can be absorbed
in a single stage. The impulse design can absorb more energy than the reaction stage. The consequence of this fact is
that more stages are required in a reaction turbine as compared to the impulse design. For units that have the same
initial steam conditions more stages are required in a reaction turbine than a comparable impulse turbine. For
example, in a plant with two sister units, one Westinghouse and the other GE, both rated at about 300 MW and both
operating with the same steam conditions, the GE unit has 22 stages while the Westinghouse unit has 37 stages.
As described earlier, all of the pressure drop in the impulse turbine is (ideally) across the stationary nozzles.
In the reaction design, the pressure drop is split between the stationary and moving nozzles. The consequence of this
fact is the nozzles in the GE design are rather massive while the buckets are relatively less massive. In the
Westinghouse design the stationary and rotating blades are of roughly equal strength. This is illustrated in Figure 3-
07. Figure 3-07 (a) shows the reaction stage while Figure 3-07(b) shows the impulse stage. The stationary nozzles of
the impulse design are in fact rather massive. In fact, when one looks down at the horizontal joint of the impulse
turbine, the buckets appear to be running in a compartment formed by adjacent nozzles. The impulse turbine is
sometimes said to be "compartment design" as a result.
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There are two other differences in design illustrated in Figure 3-07. First, note that the labyrinth seals for
the impulse design are concentrated at the inside diameter of the nozzle with relatively little at the tips of the
buckets. This is consistent with the fact that there is little tendency for steam to leak past the tip of the bucket since
there is little pressure drop there. On the other hand there is a large pressure drop across .the nozzle and so seals with
many teeth are required to seal the inside diameter of the nozzle.
The second difference in the two designs illustrated by Figure 3-07 is the balance hole in the wheel of the
impulse turbine. Labyrinth packing does not prevent all leakage; it can only control and reduce leakage. Thus, there
is some leakage of steam into the wheel space. Also, there is some steam which leaks by the root of the bucket. If
there were no balance hole, the steam would build up pressure on the upstream side of the wheel. This would
produce axial force on the wheel (discussed below). The steam would also tend to flow from the wheel space
through the bucket at a right angle compared to the rest of the steam flow, thus disturbing the steam flow and
reducing efficiency. The balance hole prevents this flow from occurring.
There is no balance hole in the reaction
stage, of course, since there is a pressure
difference across the moving blades by design. A
balance hole in the reaction stage would bypass
steam from its normal flow path.
Figure 3-07 Comparison of Reaction
and Impulse Stage Designs
(a) Reaction Stage Design
(b) Impulse Stage Design
As stated earlier in this text, steam turbines are custom designed by the OEM to the meet the oWners'
application. It is not unusual to [md a wide range of turbine designs within one utility or even one plant. Each plant
is constructed to fit a particular need. Recognize, also, that a power plant built in the 1960's may have been
upgraded during the last decade to meet the increased demand.
A utility may decide to upgrade an existing power plant or build a brand new one. The utility makes this
decision based on projected power requirements into the future as well as many permitting and environmental
, issues .. The projected megawatt requirement will dictate what size generator(s) will be installed. The selection of the
steam turbine to drive the generator will be based on:
Boiler Capacity (lbs. per hour)
Steam Conditions (pressure-temperature)
Environmental Conditions
Turbine Efficiency
Size Limitations
It should be noted that size limitations can come about based upon unit length or area (square feet of
foundation) as an example.
What follows in this section are illustrations and descriptions of steam turbine arrangements. The data
given in the description on steam conditions and generator output are only examples .
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Figure 3-08 illustrates a tandem
compound double flow turbine. This is a non-
reheat turbine. This design has some unique
Figure 3-08 Tam/em Compound
Double Flow Turbine
The high pressure and low pressure rotors are coupled together and contained in a single shell arrangement.
The turbine rotors are supported on three journal bearings. The bearing arrangement is unique. The # 1 and
#2 bearings support the HP rotor. The #3 bearing supports the attached generator. The LP turbine section
coupled to the HP turbine and generator does not require bearing Sl,lpport.
Steam inlet valves are mounted top and bottom of the turbine shell.
Steam flows through the HP section, over and into the LP section and exhausts to the condenser.
Typical rated operating steam conditions is 850 psi at 900F.
Typically these turbines would drive generators producing 55 MW.
Figure 3-09 illustrates another
non-reheat tandem compound double flow
unit. Note the differences between this
design and the previous one.
Figure 3-09 Tandem Compound
Double Flow Turbine
High pressure rotor coupled to a
low pressure rotor contained in a
single shell arrangement.
Three bearing locations to support
the turbine shafts. Bearing #1 and
#2 locations are similar to the

Figure 3-08. Bearing #3 supports the aft end of the LP rotor, inboard of the generator coupling.
Steam inlet valves mounted. top and bottom.
Steam flows through the HP section, over and into the LP section and exhausts to the condenser.
Typical rated operating steam conditions are 850 psi at 700F.
Typically this turbine would drive a generator producing 60 MW.
The fabricated internal crossover is a very common and fundamental feature of older units ofthis type .
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Figure 3-10 illustrates another non-
reheat tandem compound double flow unit
similar to the previous two designs but with
the following changes:
Figure 3-10 Tandem Compound
Double Flow Turbine
X Joumal Bearing
rgJ Combined Journal and Thrust Bearing
Scale In Feet
The first few stages of the HP section are enclosed in a separate inner shell.
Higher rated operating steam conditions: 1450 psi at 1050F.
Driving higher output generators: 70 MW to 100 MW.
Figure 3-11 illustrates a tandem compound double flow condensing reheat turbine.
- ; .
Intercept Valve .
_____ _ _ ... IP Rotor
: 't ..
: !
, r

Figure 3-11 Tandem Compound
Double Flow Condensing Reheat Turbine

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Joumal Bearln;
Combined Joumal
and Thrust Bearing
Steam Path
Characteristics of this design are:
Three separate turbine sections: the high pressure, intermediate or reheat section, and the low
pressure section.
Three bearings to supportthe rotors.
Separate steam control and intercept valves.
Inner and outer turbine shell arrangements for the HP turbine.
HP and IP turbine rotors share a common shaft.
Steam flow enters the HP turbine through the control valves. Steam exhausted from the HP section
enters the reheater (located in the boiler) then flows through the intercept valves to the inlet of the .
IP or reheat turbine section. Exhausted from this section, it flows over and into the double flow LP
turbine section and exhausts to the condenser.
Typical operating steam conditions are 1800 psi at 1000F.
Typically driving generators rated at 60 to 125 MW.
Fabricated external crossover.
Figure 3-12 illustrates a tandem compound, triple flow, condensing, reheat design. The scale shows how much
larger this design is as compared to the previous ones. The design characteristics of this unit are:
High Pressure
Section -
'-./\/VV'- - - - - - - --
Jouml!l Bearing
Combined Joumal
and Thrust Bearing
Steam Path
Reheat Low Pressure
Sectlon:....,---- Section - ---+-
S 10 15
Scale In Feet
Figure 3-12 Tandem Compound, Triple Flow, Condensing, Reheat Turbine
There are three separator rotors coupled together.
There are two bearings per rotor making this a six bearing machine.
The high pressure section has an inner and outer shell arrangement. The control valves are shell mounted.
The intermediate pressure (reheat) section is enclosed in a shell separate from the HP section.
The rotor is divided into two sections, an intermediate pressure and a low pressure section.
. J.k
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The low pressure section contains a double flow low pressure rotor.
Steam flow enters the HP section through the control valves and exhausts to the reheater located in the
boiler. Reheated steam enters the IP section through the intercept valves. Some steam from the IP turbine
flows directly into the LP turbine aft of the IP. The remaining steam flows through the crossover into the
double flow turbine section. Steam from all LP sections exhausts into the condenser.
Typical operating steam conditions are 2400 psi at 1000F.
Typically driving generators rated at 150 to 200 MW.
Figure 3-13 illustrates a large complex design known as a tandem compound, four flow, condensing, reheat
turbine. The scale shows how large this machine is. The characteristics of this design are:
. r Pressure -+-
'\ ",""
\:\ ve I
.: : :: .
_ _ _ _ J _ o _.". -- --- ---1
1 '
' ........ ..... ...... . ........ ..

I Section
_ Low Pressure
I Section A
Low Pressure
-... . . __ . __ . . '.,- -_._-_. _-- _. ! . _-- -_._- _._-_._-
: .... .... l1 .. .. ...... j
To Condenser
o 5 10 15 20
! ! ! I I
Scale in Feet
Figure 3-13 Tandem-Compound, Four Flow, Condensing, Reheat Turbine
Four separate rotors coupled together.
There are two bearings per rotor making this an eight bearing machine.
The high pressure section has an inner and outer shell arrangement. The control valves are mounted
separately off the shell.
The intermediate pressure (reheat) section has an inner and outer shell arrangement. The rotor is of the
double flow design.
There are two separate low pressure sections. Each LP section contains a double flow LP rotor.
Steam flow enters the HP through the control valves and exhausts to the reheater located in the boiler.
Reheated steam enters the IP section through the intercept valves.
Steam exhausted from the IP section flows through the crossover into the two LP sections. Steam from the
LP sections exhausts through two separate openings to the condenser.
Typical operating steam conditions are 2400 psi at 1000F.
Typical application would be driving generators rated at 500 to 800 MW.
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Figure 3-14 illustrates a tandem compound, six flow, nuclear turbine design. The scale provided gives a
reference on how large this machine is. Nuclear turbines operate at 1800 rpm driving four pole generators.
Because of the way water is heated to produce steam in a nuclear plant, the steam is of a lower value than
in a fossil fuel plant. The characteristics of this design are:
.. -(" .... f"'- ..
Main Stop
... 0 .... ': ci"':""b- ': a ': Valve .. ... _______ _______ ... _____ ... Intercept Valve
,',',!( 6 i . ! " j'mo",
-..:.-- -' '-- -:. ___ (--- , .... , ..... ,: '
l + + +
T + T + T +
I I ',, ___ __ _ ________ _ .. .. A ___ I .. _____ + __ _ ::.. .. __ ___
.. ____ .... --- -.. ' l A I ...
, I I +
T I : : :
.. j --.... --, : --.... -, ;
Moisture : r Oo .... -... i .... 110--" .. [ ....... - .. "
Separator(s) :

To Condenser
. , ,
.... .. .. ............... ... ...... .... - .. .. .. - . """ ........ .. .... .. .......... ...
OJ THRUST BEARING o 5 10 15 20
I I ! I I
Scale in Feet
Figure 3-14 Tandem Compound, Six Flow, Nuclear Turbine
One high pressure section, three separate low pressure sections. No intermediate (reheat) section.
Four separate rotors coupled together, two bearings per rotor making this an eight-bearing machine.
The high pressure section has a single turbine shell arrangement. The high pressure rotor is a double flow
Each low pressure section contains a double flow LP rotor. Each LP section is equipped with an opening
into the condenser.
Control and intercept valves are not shell mounted. The control valves are mounted on separate steam
chests adjacent to the turbine. The reheat intercept valves are located in the piping from the reheater near
the turbine.
Steam flow enters the HP section through the control valves. Exhaust steam from the HP section enters a
moisture separator(s). From the moisture separator(s) it flows through the intercept valves for each LP
section. Steam exhausted from the LP sections flows into the condenser.
Typical operating steam conditions are 800 psi at525F.
Typical application would be driving a generator rated at 800 to 1000 MW.
3-13-1.1 -
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Figure 3-15 illustrates a cross-compound unit. This arrangement is designed to drive two generators. The
lIP-IP element operates at 3600 rpm and drives a two-pole generator. The LP element operates at 1800 rpm and
drives a four-pole generator. The characteristics of this design are:
LP element
operates at
1800 rpm
and drives a
-t ~ COUPliNG
I H ~ h " " " ~
, __ __ .... __ __ .... _ ~ Vallie .
: y- -,
I Control Valve :
i Inner Shell
I HP Section
I ,
~ - __ .... -"NN#-- _' 1
t Reheaters :
-----.... ----.. ,--"
+ +
To Condenser
operates at
3600 rpm
and drives a
1------- Low Pressure ______ ... 1
Figure 3-15 Tandem Compound, Six Flow, Nuclear Turbine
The lIP-IP rotor is a single rotor. The rotor is supported on two bearings with the forward journal bearing
combined with the thrust bearing.
The lIP & IP sections are contained in separate inner shells. These two sections together create an opposed
flow turbine.
The lIP section is equipped with shell mounted control valves, top and bottom. The IP section is equipped
with separate mounted intercept and reheat stop valves.
The LP section or element is an opposed flow design. Four bearings support this arrangement with the
indicated middle journal bearing combined with a thrust bearing. The LP section is equipped with a single
opening to the condenser.
Steam flow enters the HP section through the control valves and flows axially through the turbine. Exhaust
lIP steam flows through a reheater and enters the IP section through intercept and reheat stop valves. IP
exhaust steam exits through a single crossover which splits and flows the steam to opposite ends of the LP
section. One side of the LP rotor is a mirror image of the other. Steam flows from the ends of the LP
section to the center and exhaust to the condenser.
Typical operating steam conditions are 2000 psi at 1000F.
Typical application would be drivrng generators rated at 200 MW total output.
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The initial start-up and loading of a turbine involves many steps that must be performed in sequence. A
major concern during starting and loading is the level ofthermal stress imparted on the rotor. Thermal stress occurs
when an object is heated or cooled. The greater the rate of heating (or cooling), the greater the thermal stress.
Excessive thermal stress can cause cracks, either on the surface or the bore of the rotor.
Before a steam turbine is started (rolled on steam to a high speed) it is very important that the turbine rotor
temperatures be some minimum value (often 300F). The most important concern is the rotor bore temperature. It
must be at some minimum value before the turbine is brought to rated speed. 300F is typically the transition point
where the turbine rotor metal changes from brittle to ductile. A ductile rotor is more capable of withstanding
temperature change and corresponding thermal stress. Getting the rotor bore temperature up to this value may
require rotor prewarming on turning gear. Another approachis to have a very slow roll up to turbine speed.
Different manufactures approach this need differently.
Prewarming the rotor is accomplished by admitting main boiler steam into the HP section. Main stop (GE)
or throttle (W) bypass valves are throttled to control the flow of warming steam. The main control valves are fully
opened to allow the steam flow into the HP section. On a reheat machine the intercept(or) and the reheat stop valves
would be fully closed to prevent steam flow through the IP section. During prewarming, the rotor is spinning slowly
(3 to 4 rpm) on turning gear. Prewarming continues until the rotor bore temperature has achieved a preset minimum
value. Prewarming can be accomplished by:
I. adjusting throttle steam temperature according to turbine metal temperature;
2. roll time;
3. speed and load holds (soaks) and
4. load changing rates.
With the prewarming of the turbine complete, starting of the turbine can begin. Initially the steam flow is
controlled by the main stop (GE) or throttle (W) valves. As steam flows through the entire turbine, it will roll off
turning gear and begin to accelerate. Throughout this process the turbine will be operated under specific "Starting
and Loading Procedures". The rotor speed will be held at specific values to allow temperature differentials to
normalize. Rotor axial growth and vibration will be monitored. Shell expansion will be monitored. At each speed
hold, the heat transfer process should be complete before allowing the turbine to accelerate to the next speed hold.
Temperature increases are controlled against a time line as dictated by the operating instructions. By following the
"Starting and Loading" procedures, the thermal stresses endured by the rotor are controlled.
With the rotor spinning at 3600 rpm and the heat soak completed, the generator can now be synchronized.
Steam flow through the turbine is still being controlled by the main stop or throttle bypass valves. The main control
valves are still wide open allowing full arc (or single-valve) admission. The stop valve bypass valves are only
allowing a small percentage of the main boiler steam to drive the turbine at full speed - no load. Just after generator
synchronization the steam flow to the turbine should be slightly increased. This will insure a positive load on the
turbine. Steam load increase is accomplished by the bypass valve disk opening a little further. No other valve
settings change.
3-15-1.1 -
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Throughout the prewarming and starting and loading phases of operation, main steam has been admitted
into the turbine through all segments of the nozzle. Known as full arc admission, the benefit to the nozzle and rotor
is that they are evenly heated, thus reducing thermal and vibrating $tresses during this phase of operation. See Figure
3 -16 for an illustration of this full arc admission mode of operation.
Full Arc Admission
Bypass or
Pilot Valves
Wide Open
F I I I I ~ c
' - - - - - ' CONTROL
Figure 3-16 Full Arc Admission
Valve Legend
As the generator approaches one third of its rated output, steam turbine valve settings begin to change. At .
this point the bypass valve has nearly reached the full open position and cannot increase steam flow through the
turbine. At this transition point, the control valves begin to close sequentially. As they close they throttle the steam
flow. The main stop or throttle valve will then be allowed to open. Main steam to the turbine is now controlled by
the control valves;
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Partial Arc Admission
' - - - - ~ I CONTROL
Figure 3-17 Partial Arc Admission
t:><:J Valve Open
~ valve Oosed
~ Valve Partlaly
V""'IIII OpenJCIosed
V,,1ve legend
The control valves are designed to open or close sequentially. A typical arrangement would include four
valves each controlling steam flow to one of four sections of the nozzle. During normal turbine operation steam flow
to all four quadrants of the nozzle is not required. Therefore the valve opening arrangement opens only the valves
required to allow steam flow to meet turbine demand. Flowing steam through part of the nozzle only is called partial
arc admission.
Thermocouples are assembled into the HP turbine shell or cylinder cover. These thermocouples are used to
detect and transmit the inner surface shell or cover temperature to the control room. This is just one of many
locations where thermocouples are installed on the turbine. Thermocouples, expansion and vibration detectors are
part of the turbine supervisory instrumentation (TSI). TSI readouts are found in the control room where the turbine
operator uses the information throughout turbine operation. Adjustments are made to the turbine control system by
the operator as required based on information read through the TSI system. Figure 3-18 illustrates approximately
where these instruments will be found.
Figure 3-18 Typical TSI Instrument Locations
Turbine overspeed protection is provided by the overspeed trip system. The functions of the overspeed and
emergency trip system is to limit and control shaft rpm during conditions of potential overspeed, and to close steam
valves automatically when necessary during emergencies. The turbine-generator will overspeed whenever the
electrical load on the generator disappears suddenly. The tendency to overspeed will be greater when there is more
load on the generator.
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The control system is built to take care of this situation. When it works properly it will limit the overspeed
to a safe value and when conditions have stabilized, leave the unit running with no load and in a condition where it
could be synchronized and re-loaded quickly and easily if desired. This kind of an event is called a "normal
overspeed" .
Ifthe control system does not work properly when the load is lost, the speed will approach a dangerously
high level. Then the overspeed trip will work, closing all the steam valves through the trip system. The system will
need to be reset before normal operation can begin again. This kind of an event is called and "emergency .
overspeed" .
The overspeed trip system is often testable. These tests should be conducted routinely during unit operation
(most units allow this test to be conducted without a unit trip). This test actually exercises components to help make
it more like the device(s) will function properly.
_v .. 3-18
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500 Tallevast Road Suite 101
Sarasota, FL 34243 USA
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Chapter 4
To familiarize the student with identifications and functions of steam turbine major components.
At the completion of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Given the identity ofa steam turbine component, describe the function of that component.
2. Describe the steam flow through the turbine.
3. Identify the four areas where steam is sealed and describe how each area functions.
4. Define the terms "opposed flow" and "double flow" in relation to steam turbine design.
1999 - TG201J5.0_June09, Printed: 6/23/2009
1.0 TURBINE SECTIONS ............................................................................................................................ 3
1.1 Turbine Section Components ...................................................................................................... 3
1.1.1 High Pressure - Intermediate Pressure Sections ..................................................................... 3
1.1.2 Low Pressure Section ............................................................................................................. 5
2.0 TURBINE ROTORS .............................................. , ................................................................... : ............. 7
3.0 BLADE RINGS AND DIAPHRAGMS ................................................................................................ 11
4.0 STEAM EXTRACTIONS ..................................................................................................................... 13
5.0 STEAM SEALS .................................................................................................................................... 14
6.0 BEARINGS ........................................................................................................................................... 16
7.0 TURBINE THERMAL EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION ........................................................... 23
.M - 4-2
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. .
Large steam turbines are divided into pressure sections to take full advantage of the entire range of
operating steam conditions. Each section contains the turbine stages designed to operate under steam conditions
unique to that section. A turbine with three separate pressure sections is shown in Figure 4-01 .
The first section of the turbine is the high pressure (HP) section. This section contains the stages that will
see the highest pressure and temperature steam from the main boiler.
The second section is known as the intermediate pressure (IP) or reheat section. The steam flowing through
this section is of a lower pressure but at a similar temperature to the steam in the high pressure section. This is
accomplished by directing the steam exhausted from the HP section through a reheater in the main boiler. Notice
also that this turbine has an HP & IP section on the same rotor. Steam flow is in opposite directions through each
section giving the name of this design "opposed flow" .
The last section of the turbine is the low pressure (LP) section. The steam flowing 'through this section is
lower in pressure and temperature than it is in the IP section;
Not all turbine designs have a reheat section (e.g., smaller units and nuclear units). Turbines without an IP
section are classified as non-reheat turbines. Turbines are also classified by section arrangement. Figure 4-01
illustrates a "tandem compound" arrangement. All of the turbine rotors are coupled together to drive one generator.
The steam path through the turbine shown in Figure 4-01 would be as follows :
Steam from Main Boil er - - - - ~ - _ _ ,
High Pressure
HP Exhaust (Cold Reheat)
Boil er Reheater
IP Exhaust or
Crossover Steam
Steam Flow to Main Condenser
Figure 4-01 Three Pressure Section Steam Turbine
1.1.1 High Pressure - Intermediate Pressure Sections
Steam from the main boiler enters
and expands through the high pressure HP
Exhausted steam from the HP section
(called "cold reheat" steam) is returned to the
boiler reheater section for additional heating.
Steam from the boiler reheater
(called "hot reheat" steam) enters and expands
through the IP turbine section.
Steam exhausted from the IP turbine
flows to the LP section via a crossover pipe,
cross around pipe or casing. The low pressure
section exhausts the steam down into the
Steam from the main boiler enters the high pressure section through a set of control valves. Typically, the
control valves are mounted on a steam chest. The steam chest may be an integral pm1 of the HP turbine shell or a .
separate forging. Specific steam valve designs, their function and how they mounted on or off the turbine will be
discussed later in this chapter.
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The function of these valves is to control the flow of main boiler steam into the HP turbine. General
Electric and Westinghouse call these valves control valves. The operiing and closing of these valves is a function of
the turbine control system.
The steam chest directs the flow of steam into the HP section nozzle box, which directs the flow of high
pressure steam into the first turbine stage. The nozzle box is a circular assembly made up of an inner and outer ring
with the nozzle vanes supported between them. The nozzle bog is an extremely rigid and durable assembly designed
to withstand the high steam pressures and temperatures.
The nozzle box ring assembly is qivided into four to six segments. Steam flow to each segment is
controlled by one or more control valves and steam chest arrangement.
A typical HP tUrbine section will contain six or seven stages. As steam flows through the HP turbine, it
expands and loses pressure. The steam path through the HP section accommodates this expansion. The stationary
and rotating blades in the first stage of the HP section are smaller than the blading in the last stage.
The high pressure turbine section is enClosed in a shell. The shell is made in two halves, an upper and lower
half and are. held tightly together with bolts assembled through the horizontal bolting flanges . .some HP shell designs
include an inner and outer shell. GE calls these parts shells; Westinghouse calls these parts cylinder covers. Refer to
Figure 4-02.
Figure 4-02 HP-IP Section Components
Figure 4-02 illustrates a typical opposed flow HP-IP turbine. Refer to this figure and note:
Shell mounted control valves. In this figure the steam chest is an integral part of the outer turbine
shell. The valve components which control steam flow into the turbine are located in the steam
The HP and IP sections are designed with inner shells.
The nozzle box and partitions
The shell is fitted with seals located over the rotating blades or buckets. These seals prevent steam
from escaping the steam path over the rotating parts. Wheel space seals are located between the
turbine wheels to prevent steam leaks around the rotor body.
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There are steam seals located around the rotor shaft at each end where it exits the shell. These
seals prevent steam from escaping along the rotor shaft to the turbine room atmosphere.
The rotor journals and bearings are outside the turbine shell. The forward or # 1 bearing is a
combined journal and thrust bearing arrangement.
The forward bearing assembly is located and supported in the front bearing standard. The aft
bearing assembly is located and supported in the mid standard. Standard is a GE term.
Westinghouse refers .to these supports as pedestals.
The lower half of the outer shell is bolted to and suspended by the upper shell.
The upper outer shell is supported at the forward end by the front standard and at the aft end by
the mid standard. The supports are designed to allow the shell assembly to grow along the turbine
axial centerline during thermal expansion.
The outer shell is designed with openings for steam admission into the turhine, HP exhaust steam
out to the reheater, admission of reheated steam into the IP section, IF exhaust steam to the
crossover, and extraction steam ports.
So far the components have been described as a combined H P ~ I P section contained in a single outer shell
arrangement. In some turbine designs the IP or reheat section will be contained in an entirely separate shell
arrangement. The IP section components will be similar to what has been described thus far but are designed
specifically for the steam conditions they must operate under.
The rotor will be supported by two bearings located at each end of the HP-IP turbine shell. The steam path
components become progressively larger from inlet to exhaust to accommodate the expanding steam. The turbine
shell may be a single or an inner and outer arrangement. The shell will be equipped with seals which prevent steam
from escaping along the rotor shaft. Seals are also installed over the turbine buckets or blades and between the wheel
spaces to maintain the steam within the steam path. The lower half shell is bolted to and suspended by the upper half
shell. The upper half shell is supported by two mid standards, one at each end. The shell supports axe designed to
maintain the turbine location and weight and also allow it to grow along the axial centerline during thermal
expansion. In a tandem compound turbine design, the IP turbine section is coupled to the HP section and, the LP
Steam flow from the reheater to the IP section passes through a set of valves prior to entering the turbine.
GE and Westinghouse call these valves reheat and intercept stop valves. The function of these valves is to cut off the
steam flow to the lP section should there be a turbine trip. Actuation of these valves is through the turbine control
1.1.2 Low Pressure Section
Figure 4-03 is a cross sectional view ofa typical double flow low pressure section. Refer to Figure 4-03
and note:
The turbine rotor is supported by two bearings.
Steam enters at the center of the turbine and flows in equal proportions to both sides. One side of the
turbine is a mirror image of the other.
. The steam path components grow progressively larger to accommodate the expanding steam.
Where the first stage HP turbine buckets (or blades) may be 2 or 3 inches in height, the last stage LP
buckets (blades) could be as large as 52 inches from root to tip.
4_S1.i -
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Steam exhausted from the LP section flows directly into the condenser.
The entire LP seCtion is contained in an outer casing called an exhaust hood by GE, cylinder cover by
The steam path stationary components are located and supported by the inner casing (GE) or inner LP
cover (Westinghouse).
The hood, casing or covers are made in upper and lower halves which bolt together at the horizontal joint.
Flow to Condenser Flow to Condenser
F i ~ u r e 4-03LP Section Components
Shown in Figure 4-04,
the upper exhaust hood
or cylinder cover is
equipped with rupture or
atmospheric relief
diaphragms. This device
consists of a flexible
material stretched under
a knife edge around its
circumference. Should
the situation arise where
condenser vacuum is lost
and steam pressure
builds in the LP section,
the flexible material is
pushed up against the
knife edge and ruptures.
The steam is released
into the turbine room.
Figure 4-04 Rupture Diaphragm
The LP section is
supported by pads which
are an integral part of the
lower exhaust hood (OE)
or lower cylinder cover
(Westinghouse). The
pads run the full length
of both sides of the LP
section. They sit on sole
plates which are grouted
into the plant foundation.
Atmosphere Rel ief
or Rupture Diaphragm
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Flow to
Atmosphere Relief
or Rupture Diaphragm
Bearing .
Figure 4-05 Seals & Tuming Gear
Steam seals are installed in the
inner casing or cylinder cover
where the rotor shaft exits.
These seals prevent air from
entering the turbine along the
rotor shaft.
Seals are located over the top of
the rotating blades or buckets to
prevent steam from escaping the
steam path.
In a tandem compound turbine
the LP rotor is coupled to the IP
rotor and to the generator. The
LP rotor-to-generator coupling
is the location for the turning
gear drive mechanism. A large
gear sandwiched between the
coupling face engages with a
gear driven by the turning gear
motor as can be seen in Figure
The rotor is one of the major components inside a steam turbine. It is through the rotor that thermal energy
is conve11ed to mychanical energy. Compared to the other major components within a turbine, the rotor is quite
simple. GE refers to this component as a rotor; Westinghouse calls it a spindle.
Figure 4-06 illustrates an HP section turbine rotor assembly. This rotor was machined from a single
forging. The journal bearing surfaces, steam seal areas and wheel sections were all configured during the machining
'" /
Wheel Sections
Figure 4-06 Steam Turbine Rotor
Bearing-l ___ 1
This rotor has two journal surfaces, one at each end. During the machining process, the journal surfaces are
machined and ground to an extremely smooth surface finish. This is necessary to eliminate as milch friction in the
bearings as possible.
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The area adjacent to the journal surface is of a slightly larger diameter. The bearing oil seals, which are part
of the bearing housing, ride on this surface. Their function is to keep the lube oil in thejoumal bearing area.
Moving in from the journal surfaces is another larger diameter area on the rotor shaft. This area has steps
machined into it. The name for these steps is lands. These lands spin within the stationary steam seals assembled in
the turbine casing or cylinder cover. The steam seal and lands work together to effectively eliminate steam leaks
along the rotor shaft.
Moving alongthe rotor body we come to the wheel sections. The wheels of the rotor shown in Figure 4-06
are an integral part of the rotor body. Some rotor designs will have the wheels machined as separate discs, shrunk on
and keyed to the rotor shaft. Other designs may have a combination of integral and shrunk on wheels.
Figure 4-08 illustrates the circumferential
assembly method. A dovetail profile is machined
around the turbine wheel circumference and a
"notch" is machined into the wheel fit to allow
assembly of the buckets to the wheel. A
corresponding dovetail profile is machined into the
base of the bucket. This bucket assembly method is
found on General Electric HP, IP and the shorter
stages of the LP rotors.
Figure 4-08 GE Circumferential
Entry Bucket Assembly
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Attached to the circumference of the
wheels are the turbine blades or buckets as shown
in Figure 4-07. Turbine manufacturers use a.
variety of methods for attaching buckets or blades
to the rotor or spindle.
Figure 4-07 Turbine Rotor
Figure 4-09 illustrates the
. finger dovetail. The bucket dovetail is
really a row of fingers which fit into
corresponding grooves machined
circumferentially into the turbine wheel.
Pins assembled through the dovetail
area lock the buckets to the turbine
wheel. This fmger dovetail is the
method used for attachment of the last
stages of buckets and GE LP rotors.
Figure.4-09 GEFillger Dovetail
Bucket Assembly
Figure 4-11 illustrates a dovetail
commonly referred to as the "Christmas Tree."
This dovetail is machined axially on the turbine
wheel permitting side entry of the turbine blades
to the wheel. This blade attachment method is
found on Westinghouse HP and IP spindles and
the last stage of the LP spindle.
Figure 4-/1 W Axial Elltly Blade Assembly
Figure 4-10 illustrates finger dovetail turbine buckets
loaded on a turbine wheel
Figure 4-10 GE Dovetail Buckets
Assembled onto Wheel
. 4_9-1.1
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Figure 4-12 illustrates the blade assembly method found on Westinghouse "drum" type rotors. The dovetail
groove is machined circumferentially into the rotor body. A corresponding dovetail patterIi on the turbine blade
(called the blade root) locks the blade to the rotor.
Shroud Strips
L - - ~ I 0
Figure 4-12 W "T-Root" Blade Assembly
Some rows of buckets or blades will have shrouds connecting their tips as shown in Figure 4-13. Turbine
efficiency is maintained by keeping the moving buckets as rigid as possible. High steam velocity and pressure
causes a great amount ofturbulence around the buckets.
This turbulence causes the moving buckets to
vibrate. Bucket vibration is decreased by tying each
row together at their tip 'with shrouds. The shrouding is
a metal band that surrounds the bucket outer
Figure 4-13 Shrouding Over Bucket Tips
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The shrouding is usually fitted over "tenons" (small
raised knobs on the top of the bucket) as shown in Figure 4-
14, and then welded or riveted in place. Thus, both ends of
the buckets are secured. The bottom (root or dovetail) is
secured by the rotor and the tip by the shrouding.
Figure 4-14 Shrouding & Tennons
Not all bucket groups are
shrouded. The last stage in the LP
sections is too large for shrouding to
be effective. As shown in Figure 4-
15, tie wires (used on GE LP
buckets) are fitted between each
bucket to reduce vibration. The
wires are laced through holes
machined into the airfoil section of
the buckets and welded in place.
Another method of making
the large airfoil section of an LP
blade more rigid is a lashing lug.
The lashing lug is T.I.G. welded on
the airfoil section. With the blades
assembled in the rotor, the lashing
lugs contact each other and work to
keep the large airfoil sections rigid.
Lashing lugs are found on
Westinghouse LP last stage blades.
Outer Ring - - ~ - - , ~
Horizontal Joint ---!==:
Figure 4-16 Diaphragms
Figure 4-15 Tie Wires
Shown in Figure 4-16, the
stationary steam path components in a
GE turbine are called diaphragms.
These steam path components are an
assembly of an inner ring and an outer
ring with blades or partitions supported
between theni .
The stationary assemblies are
split at the horizontal centerline. Each
assembly is located and supported by
the turbine shell or cylinder cover. The
outer ring of the assembly is machined
to fit a corresponding groove in the
turbine shell or cylinder cover.
Nozzles or partitions convert
the thennal energy contained in the
steam into kinetic energy in the form of
steam at high velocity.
The diaphragms are constructed of a strong inner and outer ring, with the nozzle partitions in between.
They can either be of cast or welded construction. A "T". slot is machined on the inner ring 10 to accommodate a
. spring-loaded seal ring or"packing." . .
Each diaphragm is mounted in a
groove, and supported by its associated
lower shell. The position can be
individually adjusted to compensate for
misalignment between the rotor and the
diaphragm. The diaphragms are split in
half at the horizontal joint and are either
bolted or keyed together. This is
illustrated in Figure 4-17 .
. Figure 4-17
Diaphragms In Shell
Westinghouse turbines have their nozzles or blades fitted into blade rings. The blade ring assembly
consists of stationary, nozzle shaped blades fitted into grooves machined into the blade ring as shown in Figure 4-
The stationary blades are locked in place in the grooves with "L" shaped caulking strips that are rolled into
place. The tips of the stationary blades will have either integral shrouds or, in some cases, shroud strips similar to
those used on the rotating blades.
Figure 4-18
Westinghouse Blade Rings
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Stationary Blades
As can be seen in Figure 4-
19, there may be several rows of
nozzles in each blade ring. In the
LP turbine, the last couple of rows
of stationary blading may be fixed
in the inner casing instead of a blade
Figure 4-19 Rotor & Blade Rings
Sealing of the nozzles is
accomplished by either "T" shaped
seal rings inserted in the ends of the
stationary blading or seal strips
caulked into shallow grooves in the
rotor. These strips ride in close
proximity to the shrouds on the
. stationary blades. These seal are
illustrated in Figure4-20.
Figure 4-20 Se{il Rings
Retaining Screw
at Horizontal Joi nt
(l- ll )
Rotating Bl ade
In earlier discussions it is implied that all the boiler steam that enters the turbine at the HP inlet will
eventually leave the turbine at the LP turbine exhaust. This is not actually the case. Steam is extracted at various
locations along the turbine steam path. This extracted steam is put to work elsewhere within the plant and does not
do any more work within the turbine.
The extraction steam is
used mainly to heat the
condensate/feedwater going to the
boiler in closed type feedwater
heaters. Although most of the
extraction steam is used for closed
feed water heating, extraction steam
is also used in the plant deaerators.
The steam is extracted from all
three of the turbine sections (HP,
reheat, and LP) described
Figure 4-21 Steam
Extraction Points
The extraction outlets are referred to as "uncontrolled" extraction points. By uncontrolled we mean that
there is no pressure control. The extraction line pressure will be whatever the pressure is at the turbine stage where
the steam was extracted. As the turbine load changes, the extraction pressure changes.
These extractions take away from the mechanical energy being transmitted by the turbine. More
impOltantly, however, these extractions increase the overall efficiency of the power plant. Thus, while turbirie power
is lost, moreBTUs are gained in the overall plant heat rate. This result is more efficient use of fuel.
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Figure 4-23 Wheel Space Seals
As stated earlier, the function of the
stealll seals is to prevent steam from escaping the
steam path. This is necessary for maintaining
turbine efficiency. Figures 4-22and 4-23 illustrate
steam path and wheel space seals. .
The seal strip mounted in the outer
diaphragm ring blocks steam from escaping over
. the top of the buckets. A seal tooth is located on
the forward side of the inner diaphragm ring. It
rides over a seal surface, which is an integral part
of the bucket casting. This seal area prevents
steam from escaping below the steam path.
Figure 4-22 Sieam Path Seals
Seal Teeth
The wheel space seals shown in Figure 4-23 provide an additional barrier against steam escaping the steam
path. The seal teeth on the packing segments work with the lands machined on the rotor to effectively stop any
steam flow through this area.
Shaft seals are located where the rotor exits the turbine shell or cylinder cover. The seals are part of the
turbine steam sealing system. In the HP or IF section of the turbine, the steam sealing system prevents the high
pressure steam from escaping into the atmosphere. In the low pressure section, the sealing system prevents air from
entering the turbine.
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A typical arrangement for HP or IP shaft seals is shown in Figures 4-24 and 4-25. The arrangement for an
LP section is shown in Figure 4-26.
Shaft Seal
Steam from Seals at
Higher Loads ~
Steam Seal Header
The systems works like this; the lands machined on
the HP or IP rotor shaft ride adjacent to the steam packirig seal
teeth. As the steam travels the difficult path between teeth and
lands, it loses pressure. The more teeth and lands, the greater
the pressure drop. With the pressure reduced to 1 psig, the
steam encounters an opening in the packing where a constant
flow of sealing steam is introduced at 3 psig. With the sealing
steam present at a greater pressure, it has blocked the main
steam from leaking. Just beyond the opening where the sealing
steam is introduced is another opening. This second opening,
very close to the end of the packing, has a negative pressure or
vacuum on it. The sealing steam and any air that may have
entered the seal area are drawn off here and vented to
5 N
T 0
@ T
Figure 4-26 LP Steam Seals
Figure 4-24 HP Steam Paths
Fif!ure 4-25 N-J Packinf!
This description of the HP-IP
stearn seal operation is typical of start-up
and low load turbine operation. At full load
operation, the main steam that travels
through the seals is drawn off at the first
opening it encounters and is piped through
the steam seal system to the LP shaft seals.
In the LP section, slanted seal
teeth and a smooth rotor surface, as shown
in Figure 4-26, work with the steam seal
system to prevent air from entering the
turbine, which is under vacuum.
The steam seal description here is
very basic. The steam seal system in fact is
rather complex. It is equipped with valves
and controls for regulating steam seal
header pressure throughout the turbine
operating range. This system will be
discussed in greater detail later in this text.
lIPe T,,',k.1 s ~ ; , ~ ~ ~
Each turbine rotor is supported at its journals by a set of bearings. The journal is a section of the rotor that
is machined to very fme tolerance. This finely machined area rides within the bearings. Journal bearings keep the
rotor from moving excessively up or down (vertical movement) and from side to side (transverse movement).
The journal bearings function to support and
position the rotor in the radial direction. The bearings
are positioned in the standards or pedestal or in a
housing made integral to the turbine casing. The rotor
journal rides in the elliptical bearing on either a thin
oil film or an oil wedge, depending on the speed of the
rotor. A typical journal bearing is illustrated in Figure
Figure 4-27 Typical
Journal Beating Installation
Bear!ng Ring
In Figure 4-28 we see the rotor at slow speed, maybe on
turning gear. The rotor rides on a thin film of oil. The film
thickness is typically about two-thousandths of an inch.
Figure 4-28 Slow Speed Oil Film
07J .. 1I676l701
As the speed of the rotor increases, the rotor will
carry more oil into the converging area between the bearing
surface and the journal. This converging area causes a high-
pressure oil wedge to fonn as shown in Figure 4-29, and
physically lifts the rotor so that it is no longer riding on a thin
(.002) oil film.
The thickness ofthe oil wedge will be determined
by the amount of oil in the bearing, the viscosity of the oil;
and the weight the rotor exerts on the wedge. Under nonnal .
operating conditions, the thickness of the oil wedge will be
no more than .005 thousandths of an inch.
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.005 Thick
Figure 4-29 High Speed/Pressure Oil Wedge
Babbitt lined
Steel Pads
Figure 4-30 Two (2)
Bearing Types
The tilt pad gets its name from the pads
pivoting to create multiple oil wedges, as seen in
Figure 4-31 . This design surrounds and better controls
radial movement of the turbine shaft and are usually
found at the #1 and/or #2 bearing position(s). Tilt pad
bearings consist of from 4 to 6 Babbitt lined steel pads,
depending on the manufacturer and application.
There are two primary types of
journal bearings as illustrated in Figure 4-30.
One is the tilt pad bearing and the other is the
plain or elliptical type.
Bearing Ring
Bearing Support
Ring Upper Half
Dowel Pin j
Bearing Ring
Upper Half
Babbitt Lined
Steel Pads
Figure 4-31 Multiple Pad (4), Tilt Pad Bearing
Bearing Support
Ring Lower Half
The RED shaded areas in Figure 4-32 show the oil
wedges formed at each of the six (6) pad in this example.
Note that while all of the pads have oil wedges, the lowermost
pad still carries the heaviest load as can be seen by the longer
"force" arrows.
Figure 4-32 Multiple Oil Wedges (6)
IIPCT',,'''' s ~ : L ~ " ' k :
Elliptical bearings (Figure4-34) split at
the horizontal joint. The term elliptical applies to
the bearing clearances in the assembled state.
Bearing liner to rotor journal clearance is greater in
the horizontal position (HI & ill) then in the
vertical (VI). Elliptical bearings are used at the
remaining turbine-generator bearing positions.
Figure 4-34 Elliptical Journal Bearing
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Tilt pad bearings are typicallY only used
on rotors that are expected to experience a
. significant elevation change, like those found on
HP and IP turbine rotors. By having a tilt-pad in
this type application, the pads maintain parallelism
with the rotor during transient operation.
A five pad, tilt pad bearing is illustrated
in Figure 4-.33.
Figure 4-33 Tilt Pad Bearing
Adjusting Pad
Elliptical bearings are used in numerous
turbine-generator applications. As a matter of fact,
if a plain or elliptical bearing will do the job, it is
the preferred bearing as it is the simplest by design.
Figure 4-34 Elliptical Bearing Half
All bearings must be continuously lubricated and cooled. This is done by the bearing oil that constantly
. flows through the small space between the bearing and the rotor journal surface. This oil is constantly recycled by
the lube oil system. The oil cannot be allowed to leak out along the rotor surface. Therefore, oil deflectors are
assembled to prevent the escape of oil on the rotor from the bearing housings. Pumps are used to maintain the flow
of oil at a minimum pressure, filters to keep the oil clean, and coolers to maintain the proper temperatme.
Steam turbines require some way of controlling the axial forces that are applied to them by the flow of
steam through the steam path. This is accomplished through the use of a thrust bearing. Figure 4-35 illustrates two
different thrust bearing configurations as well as the axial thrust forces generated by the direction of steam flow
through the turbine. . .
The thrust bearing absorbs
in Ii
ill I i
'- -_. -
axial forces and positions the rotor
axially in relation to the stationary
components of the turbine. The thrust
bearings consist of a rotating collar or
collars on the rotor and stationary pads
positioned in thethrust bearing housing .
in either the front Uournal bearing #1)
....... IIiIII_ Axial Forces ____ _
or mid Uournal bearing #2) standard.
R Bearing R
Figure 4-35 Thrust
u u
Bearing Configurations
n n
e e
-,-,--."..--.,--,;;=---,--=----. - - - - -
R Bearing
J Bearing

The thrust bearing in Figure 4-36 consists of two thrust
runners. This is a typical arrangement when the bearing is
actually a combined journal-thrust bearing as shown in the figure.
Copper Thrust
Figure 4-36 Double Runnel' Thrust
Figure 4-37 shows a typical single runner type
thrust bearing. This type of thrust is usually found on units
where the thrust is housed in the front standard or pedestal.
Figure 4-37 Single Runnel' Thrust
I Beari ng

- .016
Typical axial thrust
clearances might be about 16
thousandths (.016) of an inch.
Also, regardless of the
thrust collar configuration, the
thrust bearing will have an
"active" and "inactive" thrust face
with Babbitted surfaces.
Copper Thrust
Thrust Spacer
Figure 4-38 Thrust Clearances
As with the journal bearings,
there is more than one thrust bearing
design to meet the needs of various
turbine types. These are "tapered
land" and "tilt pad" or "Kingsbury"
type bearings which are illustrated in
Figure 4-39.
Figure 4-39 Thrust Bearing Types

Tilt Pad

A -A
Tapered Land
Ri ng
Stati onary View
Rotating View
Figure 4-40 is and illustration of the "tapered land" thrust bearing. The stationary bearing surface is divided
into an equal number of pads separated by oil feed grooves. Each pad is tapered in a circumferential and radial
direction. The motion of the runner will wipe oil into the contracting wedge shaped area and build up load carrying
oil pressures.
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Tapered Land Thrust
A -A
Figure 4-40 Tapered Land Thrust Bearing
. .
T 5 I
Illustrated in Figure 4-41, the motion of the thrust runner and the shape
of the thrust land, forces the oil into a "wedge" shape that separates the runner
from the lands during normal operating conditions. This type of thrust bearing is
quite common, ifnot exclusive, on GE "fIxed speed" steam turbines. By fIxed
speed we mean turbines that drive generators.
0 T T
Figure 4-41 Tapered Land Oil Wedge Formation
Figure 4-42 is an illustration of the
tilt pad or "Kingsbury" thrust bearing. The
individual pads are mounted on a series of
blocks designed to permit the pads to pivot.
This pivoting action allows the force
transmitted by the runner to be applied
equally to all of the pads. The pivoting
action also allows for some misalignment.
Between the thrust runner and the thrust
bearing assembly.
Figure 4-42 Tilt Pad Thrust
Si ngle Runner
Thrust Collar

Double Runner
Stationary View
Rotating View
hrust Runne
Tilt Pad Thrust
As stated previously, thrust bearings are
arranged to carry the axial load of the rotor in both
directions. One arrangement is to locate the thrust
bearings on each side of the runner. Another
arrangement is to use two thrust runners several
inches apmt with the bearings assembled between
and facing each runner surface. Both types are
illustrated in Figure 4-43. The thrust pads are
carried in a thrust casing, which can be moved
axially. The casing is shimmed initially to position
the rotor within the shell. The goal is to obtain
correct clearances between moving and stationary
parts during normal operation.
Figure 4-43 Tilt Pad
Bearing Types
The thrust bearing is flooded with bearing
oil under pressure at all times with the turbine in
service. In addition; Figure 4-44 illustrates a thrust
bearing wear detector (trip device) that is installed
to trip the turbine automatically if there is
excessive rotor movement in either axial direction.
Figure 4-44 Thrust Wear Detector
Figure 4-46 is one (1) pad of the many pads
used in a tilt pad bearing. The pad itself is constructed
from steel with the Babbitt material brazed to it as the
bearing surface.
Figure 4-46 Tilt Pad Bearing, Pad
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Connections for
Test Gages for
Setting of
Pressure Switches
Follower Piston .
;.. :. Strainer
Rotating Collar on . '.'
Turbine Shaft ___
Figure 4-45 is a tapered land thrust plate. The
plate itself is constructed from copper with a Babbitt
material (silver colored material) brazed to it as the
bearing surface.
Figure 4-45 Tapered Land Thrust Plate (Bearing)
We have all seen examples ofmatetials, especially metals that expand and
contract when they are heated or cooled. This type of expansion explains why the
running of hot water on ajar lid can help you get the jar open. This is illustrated in
Figure 4-47.
Figure 4-47 Expalldillg Jar Lid

A steam turbine is heated to temperatures up to the 1000F range. The temperature is 1 OOOF at the HP
turbine inlet (as well as the reheat turbine inlet). Way down on the other end (at the LP turbine exhaust), the
temperature is a lot lower, aroundJ 00 -120F, as shown in Figure 4-48.
Crossover Pi ing
LP Turbine exhaust temperature
is 100 to 120
Figure 4-48 Temperature Differences
The turbine sees these extreme
temperature differences during normal
operation, and also going through rapid
temperature transitions during start ups, load
swings, and shut downs. This can cause
problems because of the thermal expansion and
contraction of the various turbine components.
The larger turbine assemblies may
expand as much as two inches. If not controlled,
turbine damage can occur from excessive
stresses and contact of the moving and
stationary parts.
Most of the axial growth occurs as
shown by the green arrow on the lower turbine
diagram in Figure 4-49.
Figure 4-49 Thermal Expansion
Crossover Piping
Crossover Piping
. 4-23 _1.1 -.
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Part of the problem is created by the different rate
of thermal expansion between the stationary and moving
components. The stationary components (shells) are for the
most part dense (thick), and take a while to obtain a
uniform metal temperature. On the other hand, the moving
rotor assembly (Figure 50) does not have as much mass and
heats and cools more rapidly.
Figure 4-50 Different Expansion Rates
Thus the two (stationary and moving) components will expand and contract at different rates. When the
rotor is growing at a more rapid rate than the shell we refer to this condition as being rotor long. When the rotor is
contracting at a more rapid rate than the shell we refer to it as going rotor short. A rotor long condition should then
be expected when the unit is being loaded. A rotor short situation might be expected when the unit is being cooled.
See Figure 4-51.
Crossove r Piping
Figure 4-51Rotor Long andlor Short
Expansion and contraction
movement problems are partially avoided
by good turbine design. As for turbine
stationary components design, side to side
(transverse) and up and down (vertical)
movements are maintained within
acceptable limits by the use of bolts,
anchors, keys, and dowels at critical
locations like the ones shown in Figure 4-
52. The turbine LP casings are keyed to
prevent back and forth (axial) movements.
Thus the adjacent HP-IP shell with its
components is free to slide away from the
generator towards the front standard.
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HP/IP Shell Rests at Centerline
on Front and Mid Standards
Front Standard
Sole Plate
Crossover Pi ing
Axial Keys Hold
LP Casings in Place
Figure 4-52 Axial Keys
. .
Notice the term "slide." The HP-IP shell moves axially
from the LP anchor. The shell expands as it is heated and
contracts when cooled. The standards, which are attached to the
shell for support, slide freely on metal plates upon the turbine
foundation as seen in Figure 4-53. This arrangement allows the
turbine to grow or shrink axially without restriction. Heavy grease
is used between a sliding standard and the metal plate that it slides
. on.
Figure 4-53 S(and(lI'(/ Slide
That takes care of the stationary components, but what about the rotating assembly? The journal bearings
maintain side to side and up and down rotor position in bearing housings. The thrust bearing is used to set the
correct axial position of the rotor in the shell using thrust bearing shims. Rotor axial expansion is away from the
thrust bearing. However, the turbine rotor expands and contracts at a different rate than the shellsicasings that
surround it, especially during a unit startup or shutdown.
What must be done is to manage the two rates of axial expansion so that the rotor, while spinning at high
speeds, will not contact stationary parts.
This problem is avoided partly by design and partly by proper operation procedures. The designers, in
consideration of these problems, allow the thrust bearing to locate the rotor at an optimum point, and thereby allow
ample clearances between the rotating and stationary elements during normal conditions. If it were possible to
control expansion and contraction so that all parts of the turbine expanded and contracted at the same rate, the
turbine internal clearances would remain the same during all phases of operation. However, since this type of control
is not always possible, there are established rates at which the turbines can be heated and cooled. These rates ensure
that the internal clearances within the turbines are properly maintained. These rates are both temperature limits (rate
of rise, etc.) and roll times.
Chapter 5
The goal ofthis section is to familiarize the participant with steam valve maintenance procedures and
At the successful completion ofthis section the participant should be able to:
1. Identify the various steam valves on a steam turbine .
. 2. Describe the operation of the various steam valves on a steam turbine.
3. Describe the Auxiliary Valves on a steam turbine.
1999 - TG201J5.0_June09, Printed: 12/14/10
1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 GE TYPE VALVES ................................................................................................................................ 4
3.0 WESTINGHOUSE VALVES ............................................................................................................... 19
4.0 AUXILIARY VALVES ................... ; ....................................................................................... ; ............. 25
.1.1 - 5-2
T HPC Technical Services
Controlling the flow of steam through the tw-bine is a function of the steam valves. All steam turbines will
be equipped with a valve arrangement for controlling steam.flow into the HP section. Turbines with a reheat section
will be equipped with an additional set of valves for controlling the reheat steam flow.
As with other components studied thus far, GE and Westinghouse use different names for valves serving
similar functions.
Figw-e 5-01 is a
simplified schematic diagram of
the valve arrangement for a multi-
section reheat tw-bine.
Main boiler steam enters
the steam chest through the main
stop (GE) or throttle (W) valves.
These valves serve two functions,
control the flow of steam into the
chest and completely shut off the
flow of steam during a turbine
Depending on tw-bine
design, the steam chest may be an
integral part of the HP turbine
shell or separate castings mounted
adjacent to the HP turbine.
Steam from M.ain Boiler ----.... - - ~
IP Exhaust or
Crossover Stea m
High Pressure
HP Exhaust
Boiler Reheater
Steam Flow to Main Condenser
Figure 5-01 Valve LOClltiOils
Mounted on the steam chest are the main control valves. The function of these valves is to control the flow
of steam from the chest into the HP nozzle assembly. These valves are grouped and opened sequentially to admit
steam to certain sections of the nozzle.
Reheat steam enters the IP tw-bine section through combined reheat or separate reheat stop and intercept
valves on a GE unit, separate reheat stop and interceptor valves on a Westinghouse unit. Valve operation is through
the turbine control system. The mechanical hydraulic or electro-hydraulic (MHC or EHC) control systems use
hydraulic cylinders to operate the valves. These control systems, for both GE and Westinghouse, are described later
in this text.
The following pages illustrate and describe steam valves found on steam turbines of General Electric and
Westinghouse manufacture.
NOTE: Through the production history of Westinghouse turbines, the control and intercept valves have
been called governor and interceptor respectively.
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The purpose of the Main Stop
Valve is to shut off steam flow, to the
turbine, in an emergency. To facilitate this
positive closure, the Main Stop Valve is an
unbalanced valve. By being an unbalanced
valve, the steam flow, being shut off by the
main stop valve, will assist in the closure of
the main stop valve.

An exceIJent example of an
unbalanced valve, although not
representative of most modern stop valves, is
a swing-check valve as illustrated in Figure
Cover Spacer
Steam Strainer
Steam Dam
Val ve Seat
Coupling Assembly
Actuator Assembly
Seal Head
Val ve stelJ Stop Valve
Bypass Disk
,.' . Steam Path
Section A-A
Main Valve Di sk
with Bypass
Val ve Open
A bypass valve within the main valve disk opens and
controls steam flow during turbine start-up and loading. The main
disk remains seated at this time. As more steam is required, the
main disk is raised through the internal contact between the main
disk and bypass valve. Refer to internal detail in Figure 5-04.

Swing Check Valve
Figure 5-02 Unbalanced Valve
Figure 5-03 illustrates a GE main stop
valve assembly. The primary function of this
valve is to quickly shut off main steam flow to
the turbine under emergency conditions. Refer
to the figure and note:
Figure 5-03 Main Stop & Bypass Valve
Valve Ste
Stop Valve
Bypass Disk
Section A-A
Figure 5-04 Bypass Valve
Main Valve Disk
with Bypass
Valve Open
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The steam strainer (Figure 5-05) is in place to
remove palticles of boiler slag (114 inch and larger) from
the steam.
Coupling Assembly
Actuator Assembly
Figure 5-05 Steam Strail1er
Steam 'Dam
(Anti-Swi rl Partition)
Seal Head
Valve action is through the actuator assembly
coupled to the valve stem as shown in FigW'e 5-06. Oil
pressW'e from the tW'bine control system works a
hydraulic piston in the actuator against the valve closing
Figure 5-06 Actuator Assembly
07_K_ I0'CeST202 Cap
As shown in FigW'e 5-07, a backseat
located in the pressure seal head prevents steam
from escaping down the valve stem when the valve
is in the full open position.
Figure 5-07 Stem & Seal Head Backseat
Di sk
Closed Position
Cap bolt
Stem Seat Areas
(Back Seat )
Seal Head
Open Position
" , _ ~ I ~ : ~ _ V .
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This is a separately mounted valve. It is welded into the
main boiler steam pipe upstream and adjacent to the main control
Figure 5-08 shows a set of GE Main Stop Valves in place on
a unit and concentrates on the right hand (RH) valve. The large
steam lead in the upper right hand position is the main steam inlet to
the valve.
Figure 5-08 Main Stop Valve Set In-Place
Cover Nut-_ _ _
Steam Strainer
Valve Seat
Coupling Assembly
Steam Dam
(Anti-Swirl Partition)
Seal Head
A steam dam or anti-swirl partition
prevents the steam from circulating within the
valve body as shown in Figure 5-09.
Figure 5-09 Allti-Swirl Dam
Actuato< Assembly
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. .
The purpose of the control valves is to regulate steam flow to the steam turbine. Their position in the steam
path is shown in Figure 5-10.
Steam from Main Boiler
Stop Valve
Control Valve
Boiler Reheater
IP Exhaust or
Crossover Steam
Steam flow to
Main Condenser
Figure 5-10 Steam Path Location ojControl Valve(s)
Valve CloSi ng
Valve Disc
Val ve Seat
Seat Pi n - "m_-I<>'7,,-
Steam Inlet
Push Rod link
Act uator
Control Valves Plan View
Figure 5-11 Separate Moul1ted COlltrol Valves
Steam Inlet
A GE, separate steam chest
mounted control valve is shown in
Figure 5-11. The plan view of a typical
arrangement of separate mounted
control valves illustrates how they are
grouped and assembled to the steam
chest. The valves and their steam chest
are located just below the turbine deck
alongside of the HP turbine. Steam
enters at both ends of the steam chest
after leaving the Main Stop valves.
5_7-1) .
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The function of these valves is to control steam to meet turbine load demands. Valve operation is as
follows: (Refer to Figure 5-12.)
Valve Closing :o. prmg-- - - -f!f.""'TH
Tensi on
Crosshead Guide
Pressur.e Head
Steam Chest
Valve Di sc
Figure 5-12 Control Valve Assembly
Some control valves are designed with an
internal pilot valve as shown in Figure 5-13.
Opening of the pilot valve within the control valve
main disk equalizes the steam pressure on both
sides of the main disk. With the pressure balanced,
less force is required to lift the main disk off the
Push Rod link
Figure 5-13 Piloted (Balanced Pressure) Control Valve
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The operating mechanism utilizes a
spring assembly which acts directly on top of the
valve crosshead assembly to keep the valve
The valve is opened by the hydraulic
cylinder lifting the end of the lower lever. The
other end of the lower lever is linked to the upper
lever. The upper lever is supported on the spring
housing. The opposite end of the upper lever is
held down by tension rods attached to the
hydraulic cylinder. The crosshead connects the
valve stem to the lower lever.
High pressure oil through the control
system acts on the actuator assembly. The actuator
assembly and hydraulic cylinder maintain valve
opening allowing steam flow to meet turbine load
The valve disk is raised and lowered
within the steam flow chamber of the valve chest.
The valve seat is pinned in place in the lower half
of the valve chest. Seals in the pressure head
assembly prevent steam from escapmg up the
valve stem.
Valve Open
A GE combined reheat (CRY) valve is
shown in Figures 5-\4 and 5-\5. As the name
implies, there is two valves in one, the intercept
valve and the reheat stop valve. The primary
function of this valve is to provide emergency
trip protection to the turbine by shutting off the
steam supply from the reheater. These valves
are located in the reheat steam piping leading to
the lower half shell of the IPturbine; one per
each side and very close to the turbine shell.
Steam In
Figure 5-14 CRV, Intercept Valve Portion
Cross head
Steam I n
Reheat Stop Valve Disk
Pressure Seal Head
Intercept Valve
Intercept Valve
Actuator .
Figure 5-15 CRV, Reheat Stop Valve Portion
Reheat Stop Valve
Hydraulic Actuator
The reheat stop valve disk is lifted
from the seat through the action of the
hydraulic actuator coupled to the valve stem.
The reheat stop valve is an
unbalanced valve. Asa result this reheat stop
valve has to be opened before the intercept
valve. The intercept valve keeps the steam
. pressure off the top of the reheat stop valve
Springs in the actuator close the
valve upon loss of hydraulic oil pressure due
to a turbine trip.
Reheat Valve Closed Reheat Valve Open
Figure 5-16 Reheat Stop Valve Positions
5-9 ,V
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During normal operation of the turbine-generator under load, the intercept valve is wide open. The same is
true of the reheat stop portion of the valve. .
The reheat stop valve disk (Figure
5-17) is lifted from the seat through the
action of its hydraulic actuator coupled to
the valve stem. Springs in the actuator close
the valve upon loss of hydraulic oil
pressure due to a turbine trip. As shown in Steam In
Figure 5-17, seals in the lower pressure seal
head prevent steam from escaping along the
reheat stop valve stem.
Figure 5:'17 Open Valves
Upper Pressure Head
Steam In
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Reheat Stop Valve
Hydraulic Actuator
Stem Backseated
CRV Closed Position
Valves Open 0 1 ~ l . . 1 1 9 e5rnl1
Intercept Valve
The intercept valve disk is lifted from
the seat through the action of its hydraulic
actuator connected by push rods with the upper
lever as shown in FIgure 5-18. The upper lever
lifts the disk through the' crosshead and valve
stem assembly. The lower lever working with
the upper lever eliminates high hydraulic
cylinder forces to be transmitted to the valve
casing or upper pressure head bolting.
Figure 5-18 Intercept Valve Actuator
The steam strainer shown in
Figure 5-19 eliminates any particles (114
inch or larger) of reheater tube or steam
pipe slag from entering the turbine.
Depending on the vintage of the
unit, the Intercept valve stem mayor may
not have a stem leakoff line. If it has a
stem leakoff line it directs any leakoff
steam to a closed feedwater heater or the
condenser .. Ifit does not have a stem
leakoffline it will be equipped with seals
that prevent steam from leaking past the
stem and into the turbine room.
Steam I n
Intercept Valve
Pressure Seal Head
Stem Leakoff - - - ~ - ~ ' I : l 1
. .
Figure 5-19 Steam Strai11er & Upper Pressure Head .
Reheat Stop Valve
Hydraul ic Actuator
In either case once the valve is in the fully open position, a backseat on the valve stem and a cOITesponding
seating surface on the upper pressure head, prevent steam from leaking out into the turbine room.
100 105
Turbine Speed (% Rated)
Figure 5-20 Valve Operati0l1{l1 Graph
The intercept valves throttle close in an
overspeed. The setting, however, is such that the
intercept starts closing after the control valves have
started to close (or are closed) as shown in Figure 5-
RHSV These intercept valves are pmt of what is
known as the I st line of defense. Should they fail to
shut off steam flow sufficiently to control the turbine
in an overs peed, then the reheat stop valve will close
as pmt of turbine trip scheme.
In a recovery from an overspeed (where a
trip did not occur), the intercept opens, prior to the
main control valve, to blow down the reheater before
the control valves admit steam from the superheat
section of the boiler.
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The intercept valve is equipped
with a balance chamber as shown in Figure
5-21(see enlarged detail view) that has
sealing rings and balance holes in the disk
such that the pressure above the disk is
always equal to the pressure below the disk
(downstream from the valve seat). This
allows the intercept valve to be positioned
accurately anywhere in its travel, regardless
of the upstream pressure. The intercept
valve is a balanced valve.
The reheat stop valve, being
unbalanced, must be opened before the
intercept valve is opened.
Figure 5-21 Intercept Valve Balance Chamber
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Detail View
Reheat Stop Valve Disk
S ~ e a m
Val ve Disk
Reheat Steam Path Through
Balance Chamber
Reheat Stop Valve
. Hydraulic Actuator
Some of the newer GE units are equipped with .
combined main stop and control valves that are a smaller
version of the CRY valves described here and an example of
these valves is shown in Figure 5-22.
Figure 5-22 New Design Main Stop
& Control Valve Combination
A GE separately mounted reheat stop valve is
shown in Figure 5-23. The function of this valve is to shut
off the steam flow to the IP turbine on a turbine trip. This
valve is located in the reheat steam pipe adjacent to and
upstream of the intercept valve. This valve is fully open
during normal turbine operation. Refer to the figure and
Valve Holder
Pin Flange
Clevis Nut
, Pressure Head
Valve Casing
The view in the figure is looking downstream
through the valve with the disk fully closed.
Coupling Bolt
Steam (Water) Shield
Coupling ,
Under normal operating conditions
the disk is maintained open by the actuator
coupled to the valve stem pushing up and
rotating the disk around the valve holder pin.
Loss of hydraulic oil pressure to the
actuator piston will allow the spring in the
actuator to lower the valve stem and rotate the
disk into the closed position. This is shown in
Figure 5-24
Figure 5-23 Sepal'([te Mounted
Reheat Stop Valve
Valve Holder
Pin Flange
Clevis Nut
Pressu re Head
Figure 5-24 Closed and Opened
Positions ojthe Valve Disk

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Valve Holder
Pin Flange
Clevis Nut

Pressure Head
. Leakoff
Figure 5-26 illustrates a GE separate
mounted intercept valve assembly. The function of
this valve is to control the flow of reheat steam to the
IP turbine section in a pre-emergency overspeed
condition. Unlike the open or shut reheat stop valve,
this valve has some throttling capability and is
governor controlled. The valve will also trip closed
on a turbine trip.
This valve is located in the reheat steam
piping between the reheat stop valve and the turbine
shell. Operation ofthis valve is as follows : (Refer to
the figure.)
The valve is designed with a bypass valve
identified as the middle sleeve. During normal
turbine operation the main valve is wide open.
Should an overspeed situation develop, the valve
begins to close. With the main disk seated, an
unequal pressure is created on each side of the valve
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A backseat located in the pressure seal
head and a corresponding one on the valve stem,
prevent steam from escaping down the valve stem
when the valve is in the fully open position.
While the valve is moving from the fully
closed to the fully opened position, a stem leakoff
line directs any leakoff steam to a closed
feedwater heater or the condenser.
As with the reheat stop valve associated
with the CRY, this separate reheat stop valve
cannot open against full reheat steam pressure.
Figure 5-25 Backseat & Stem
Balance Chamber
..... Middle Sleeve
Main Valve Disk
Figure 5-26 Separate Mounted Intercept Valve
Steam Inlet
Balance Chamber
+.fH H---i'S-lftt-t---M 'OOlle Sleeve
- Steam Out
Figure 5-27 Sepal'{lte Intercept Valve
The balance chamber piping shown in
Figure 5-27, allows for smooth operation of the
. valve over the complete range of its travel once
the main disk is off its seat.
Steam Inlet
Valve action is through the
actuator assembly coupled to the valve
stem. Oil pressure from the turbine
control system works a hydraulic
piston in the actuator. Loss of oil
pressure allows the actuator valve
closing spring to overcome the
hydraulic piston and close the valve.
As the actuator pushes up the
valve stem, the middle sleeve pilot
valve unseats first. This allows
immediate pressure equalization on
both sides of the main valve disk.
Continued upward valve stem
movement raises the main valve disk to
the fully opened position
Balance Chamber
~ . ~ ~ I I - - - - t A t _ - - Middle Sleeve
Steam Out
Main Valve 0
Figure 5-28 Balallce Chamber Pipillg
Figure 5-29 illustrates a GE shell
mounted control valve and a valve
arrangement. As shown, the valves are
mounted directly over the steam chest which
is an integral part of the HP turbine shell. One
set of valves is located on the upper shell,
another set on the lower shell.
The function of these valves is to
control the flow of the main boiler steam into
the HP turbine. Refer to the figure as the valve
is described here.
The valve disk is assembled to the
end of the valve stem located within the steam
chest. The opposite end of the valve stem is
connected to a crosshead arrangement, which
is raised by the upward motion of the lifting
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- Steam Out
. A steam strainer eliminates particles of
reheater tube or steam pipe slag V-t" or larger
from entering the turbine
A backseat located in the pressure seal
head and a corresponding one on the valve
stem, prevent steam from escaping down the
valve stem when the valve is in the fully open
position. These items are shown in Figure 5-
Figure 5-29 Strainer & Backseat
Plan View
Multiple Control Valve
Val ve Closing
lift Pin
Lifting Lever
Pivot Pin
Lever Support
Ever Support
C, Bolts
Valve Stem -----rr.;om.
Control Valve
Val ve Seat
Valve Stand
Pressure Head
HP Turbine
Shell and
Steam Chest
Figure 5-30 Shell Mounted Control Valves
Spring Retainer
Valve Stem
Control Valve Disk
Va Ive Seat
Lifting Lever
Pivot Pin
Lever Support
Valve Stand
Pressure Head
Shell and
Steam Chest
Pressure on the lifting lever to keep the
valve closed is provided by the valve closing
springs shown in Figure 30. Rotation of the cam
raises the lifting lever against spring pressure,
opening the valve. Thus the amount of valve
opening is directly related to cam rotation.
Figure 5-3/ Valve Closing Springs,
Li/ting Lever & Cam
As shown in Figure 5-31, a
hydraulic cylinder located in the turbine
front standard through a lever called the
"D" rod rotates the camshaft and cams thus
controlling valve position. Another lever
called the "E" rod operates the valves
located on the lower shell for those units so
Located at the end of both rods is a
rack gear that engages and turns a pinion
gear attached to the outboard end of the
valve camshafts.
Figure 5-32 Control Valve Operating Mechanism
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The plan view in Figure 5-32 shows a three-
valve arrangement on the top of the turbine shell.
Many units also have an equal amount of valves on
the bottom half of the turbine shell as indicated in
Figure 5-25. The number of valves can vary from
. unit to unit with the configuration ofthe valves
dependant on both the size and/or vintage of the unit.
. Each valve opens over a steam path in the
turbine shell that directs the flow of steam to a
specific area of the nozzle. The valves control the
flow of steam to each of their designated areas of the
Figure 5-33 Control Valve Plan View
Plan View
Multiple Control Valve
As shown in Figure 5-33, the valves
pressure head is equipped with high and low
pressure stem leakoff lines that direct steam leaking
past the valve stem to different locations in the
steam system depending on pressure.
The high pressure stem leakoff may go to
the steam seal system while the low pressure stem
leakoff is directed to either the condenser or a
Low Pressure feedwater heater.
2nd Leakoff
High Pressure
1st Leakoff ---+!=
Figure 5-34 Stem Leakoff
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For the initial admission of steam, a typical Westinghouse turbine generator unit is provided with two
throttle valve-steam chest assemblies. Each assembly is located along each side of the HP turbine cylindei. A typical
steam chest has one throttle valve and three to four governor valves. Four governor valves are shown in Figure 5-
The throttle and governor valves provide redundant protection at the high pressure steam inlet of the
Throttle Governor Valves
1--- (Control) ---
Figure 5-35 Combined Throttle Valve & Governor Valve Steam Chest Arl'{lllgemellt
Figure 5-35 illustrates a
Westinghouse throttle valve. The
valve is horizontally mounted at
one end of the steam chest. The
purpose of the throttle valve is to
provide emergency shut down of
the steam turbine in an overspeed
or any threatening condition. The
throttle valve is hydraulically
opened and spring closed.
Figure 5-36 Throttle Valve
Spring Housing
Springs (4)
Steam Chest
Valve Bushing
Valve (Main)


Valve Stem Bushing
Valve Stem

' f'

Stop --;':-::-3
===C:: .
Operating Levers
(In Pairs) Valve Stem
Steam Outlet
Throttle Valve Seat
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Spring Housing
Springs (4) .
Stop BLr
o -

Operating - - S
(In Pairs) Valve tern

. Valve Guide
Steam Chest

Valve Stem Bushing
Val ve Stem
. Valve Bushing
Valve (Main)
Pilot Valve
Seal Ring
Steam Outiet
As shown in Figure 5-36, the
throttle valve main disk is designed
with a sealing ring so that, in the wide-
open position, the seal ring reduces
steam leakage through the stem
leakoff lines to a minimum when it
enters the provided chamber in the
valve bonnet.
Figure 5-37 Seal Rings &
Stem Leakoff
Stem Leak Off Lines
The throttle valve is an
unbalanced steam valve, meaning
the steam flow it is shutting off will
assist in the valve closure as shown
in Figure 5-37.
As shown in Figure 5-38,
the throttle valve has an integral
pilot valve that can open against full
boiler pressure. By doing so, the
pressure is equalized across the
throttle valve disk and the throttle
valve can then be opened.
Pilot Valve Spring
Steam In
Figure 5-38 Unbalanced Main Valve Disk
On some machines, this pilot valve is also used for turbine start up.
Fif:ure 5-39 Pilot Valve
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As can be seen in
Figure 5-39, a permanent
steam strainer prevents
foreign objects 14" or larger
from entering the turbine.
During initial operation or
after boiler re-tubing, an
additional "temporary" fine
mesh strainer is added to
the OD of the permanent
Figure 5-40 Steam Strainer
Spring Housing
Springs (4)
Valve Stem Bushing
Valve Stem
Valve Bushing
Valve (Main)
S t e a m Chest
Pilot Valve
"" Steam
Steam Outlet
Figure 5-40 illustrates one type of a Westinghouse governor valve assembly. In this type of arrangement
the valves are mounted on the steam chest in parallel sequence and are lifted or positioned by a single lift bar and a
single servomotor (actuator) or hydraulic cylinder.
Steam Flow to
Figure 5-41 Single Actuator Valve Arrangement
Figure 5-41 illustrates another type of
governor valve that is lifted or positioned by an
individual servomotor or hydraulic cylinder.
This valve is of the single-seated plug type and
is controlled by the servomotor that responds to
oil pressure signals from the control system.
Figure 5-42 IndividualActuator Valve Arrangement
Spring Housing
Crosshead Pin
Leak Off Lines
Single.:. seated plug
Spring Housing
Cross head Bushing
Crosshead Pin
Leak Off Lines
Steam Chest
Valve Stem Bushing __ -J / . / /..-.
Valve Nut
Disk --7'77>:J
_ [ ctuator1servo Motor
The valve operating lever is connected
through the crosshead and pin to the valve stem. The
lever is fulcrummed so that upward movement of the
servomotor raises the lever opening the valve while
downward movement of the servomotor lowers the
lever closing the valve. This can be seen in Figure 5-
Figure 43 Governor Valve Operation
Heavy springs, shown in Figure 5-43, are provided
to assist in the closing of the valve.
Figure 44 Governor Valve
Closing Springs
Ji: 5-22
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Spring Housing
Another (smaller) spring (Figure 5-44) ensures
the operating lever moves down as the hydraulic cylinder
moves down, and independent of the valve closing
Figure 45 Govel'1lor Valve
Control Level' Spring
Spring Housing
Crosshead Bushing
Leak 'OFf Lines
Steam Chest
Valve Stem Bushing
Valve Nut
Disk -..,..,..,...,..,""
__ -m,ovy Springs
__ 0

The function of the different types of Governor Valves is to precisely regulate the speed and load of the
turbine by controlling the steam flow to the turbine.
Figures 5-45 & 5-46 illustrate a Westinghouse interceptor valve. These valves are located in the steam
piping between the reheat stop valve and the reheat turbine.
The function of the interceptor valve is to limit the flow of steam to the reheat turbine in the event of a
turbine overspeed, where the turbine has not tripped.
Steam Str;'lne!r-++----+l1
Steam In'E''''''''''''-
_---- Actuator
Seal Rings
r-w --lf1I*1---- Stem
Figure 5-46 Interceptor Valve (Closed)
Steam Str;'ine!r-++----+ll
Steam inle,t++-
E:::':l _----Actuator
1 __ --Switch
Seal Rings

Figure 5-47 Interceptor Valve (Opened) Jrk
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Spring Adjust
Steam Inle,t++--
E:::!:I _-----Actuator
,_---- Switch
Seal Rings
Steam leakage up the valve stem is limited
by a closing fitting stem bushing.
This valve is of the single seat plug-type
design. Each valve is operated by a separator
The valve is surrounded by a permanent
steam strainer to keep foreign material from entering
the turbine.
Refer to Figures 5-47 & 5-48 while the valve
operation is described here:
During normal turbine-generator operations
under load,the valve is wide open.
The valve disk is lifted from the seat through
the action of the hydraulic actuator coupled to the
valve stem. . .
The interceptor valve disk is a balanced
design. Pressure equalization holes in the valve disk
ensure the pressure on top of the valve will be equal to
the pressure downstream of the operating valve.
Springs in the housing above the valve bonnet
close the valve upon loss of hydraulic oil pressure due
to a turbine trip
Figure 5-48 Interceptor Valve Operation I
e;:::;J .... =----Actuator
_-- Switch
Seal Rings
Steam Strainer--1H---+I
Steam Tnl,t -l--I--
Figure 5-49 Interceptor Valve Operation IJ
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The following valves discussed here function to protect the turbine from overspeed after a trip or to
reestablish turbine operation after a trip. Not all GE turbines have all of the valves listed here. Though this
description is specific to GE turbines, similar valves are found on the Westinghouse units.
The EqualizerValve, as shown in
Figure 5 ~ 4 9 , is mounted on one combined
reheat stop valve on units equipped with
the trip anticipator. Upon generator load
. rejection, the reheat stop valves will close,
thus stopping the flow of reheat steam into
the reheat turbine section. Reopening the
reheat stop valve against full reheater
pressure would take some effOlt. The
equalizer valve will automatically open and
. direct to the condenser, the reheat steam
that has been trapped between the intercept
valve and reheat stop valve disk. When
reheat steam pressure has been reduced to
approximately 15% of full load, the reheat
stop valves are capable of reopening, at
which point the equalizer valve will close.

Figure 5-51 BloJlldoJIII1 Valve
Intercept Valve
Reheat Stop Valve
Figure 5-50 Equalizer Valve
The Slowdown Valve is shown in
Figure 5-50. The function of this valve is to
release the steam that will be bottled up in the
HP turbine section and reheater should a full
load trip or load rejection occur. In this
situation, the steam will be trapped between
the closed main control valves and intercept
valves. The vacuum existing in the IP and LP
turbine sections will draw the bottled up steam
through the steam seals between the HP-IP
Blowdown Valve sections. If the steam seal packing is worn, this
would allow the trapped HP steam to enter the
reheat section and drive the turbine to
overspeed. The blowdown valve opens the
steam sealleakoff annulus directly to the
condenser so as to divert most of the steam
. S-2S-
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The Ventilator Valve shown in
Figure 5-51 is provided to protect the
HP turbine from overheating. Serious
heating of the HP turbine would result
from windage losses should it be
allowed to spin in high pressure bottled
up steam. This valve connects the main
steam lead direCtly to the condenser
and automatically opens when the main
stop and control valves close in a
turbine trip situation.
When opened the ventilator
valve will draw steam from the reheater
backwards, through the HP turbine and
to the condenser. This reverse flow of
Steam from Main Boller ----__ ------. Intermediate
Ventilator Valve
X lf------I
HP Exhaust (Cold Reheat)
Boi l er Reheater .
. Valve
IP Exhaust or
Crossover Steam
Steam Fl ow to Main Condenser
.. steam keeps the HP turbine cooler and
helps bleed down the reheat pressure.
...... - .... --------...... - - - - - - - I ~ T o Condenser
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Figure 5-52 Ventilator Valve
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500 Tallevast Road Suite 101
Sarasota, FL 34243 USA
(941) 747-7733 FAX (941) 746-5374
Chapter 6
To familiarize the reader with the steam turbine auxiliary systems and their operation.
At the completion of this section the student should be able to:
1. Identify the steam turbine auxiliary systems.
2. Describe the function of the steam turbine auxiliary systems.
1999 - TG201J5.0_June09, Printed: 12/14/2010
1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 LUBE OIL SYSTEMS ............................................................................................................................ 3
2.1 Basic Principles ............. : ...................................................................................... , ....................... 3
2.2 GE MHC Systems ....................................................................................................................... 5
2.3 GE Schenectady EHC Lube Oil System ...................................................................................... 7
2.4 Westinghouse MHC Lube Oil Systems ....................................................................................... 8
2.5 Westinghouse EH Lube Oil System .......................................................................................... 10
3.0 TURBINE SHAFT SEAL SYSTEMS .................................................................................................. 11
3.1 Introduction .......................................................... ; .................................................................... 11
3.2 Basic Principles ......................................................................................................................... 11
3.3 Steam Packing ........................................................................................................................... 12
3.4 Water Seals ................................................................................................................................ 15
3.5 System Descriptions .................................................................................................................. 16
3.5.1 Steam Seal Systems .............................................................................................................. 16
3.5.2 Water Seal System ................................................................................................................ 19
4.0 EH FLUID SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................. 21
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 21
4.2 Hydraulic Fluid .......................................................................................................................... 21
4.3 Westinghouse System ................................................................................................................ 22
4.4 GE System ................................................................................................................................. 24
_1.f - 6-2
~ HPC Technical Services
In this section we will study two "auxiliary systems" that are needed for every steam turbine generator, and
a third that is needed for some units. These are the lubrication or lube oil and the turbine shan't seal systems, and the
electro-hydraulic or "EH" fluid system. We will study each of these in tum.
In each ofthese systems there are some basic principles that apply to all units, and some principles and
construction details that are not the same in GE and Westinghouse units, and even in different units built by the
same manufacturer. As we study each system, we will start with the basic principles that apply to all units and then
explain the main differences between manufacturers and units.
The purpose ofthis system is to supply clean oil at the proper pressure and temperature for:
lubricating and cooling the thrust andjoumal bearings.
lubricating and cooling the turning gears and the exciter reduction and governor drive gears,
if any.
the generator shaft seal system.
cooling couplings on some units.
the turbine control and/or emergency trip system on some units.
Cooling and lubricating the thrust andjoumal bearings takes much more oil than all the other uses
The main parts of the system are a tank or reservoir, pumps, ejectors (Westinghouse), coolers, pressure
regulating devices, connecting piping, and test devices, instruments, etc.
All modem turbine-generator lube oil systems have these main features:
The main oil tank is at or near the lowest level of the power plant, below the high pressure
turbine section. This is usually at least ten feet and often more than twenty feet below the
turbine-generator centerline elevation. The tank is at this location because:-
Oil will drain back to the tank easily.
The tank will be well away from and below hot steam pipes, valves, etc. so leaks are less
likely to be a fire hazard.
The space close under the turbine is usually very crowded with steam pipes and valves,
which must be placed as close to the turbine as possible.
The largest oil pipes connect to the front and mid standards of the turbine, so the tank should
be as close to that area as possible considering the other limits.
6-3 _1.1 -
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The main pump that supplies all the oil during normal operation is a centrifugal pump driven
directly by the main turbine shaft. This is because:
The main shaft is the most efficient and reliable drive there is.
The discharge pressure of a centrifugal pump running at a set speed changes very little even if
the flow changes quite a lot. This is good in a system where the flow can change due to leaks,
control system actions, etc.
A centrifugal pump is simple, easy to maintain and cheap to build.
On the other hand, a centrifugal pump built to run at a set speed puts out very little pressure if
its speed is much below normal. Also, they are not very good at lifting liquid to their suction;
they really need a positive pressure at the suction to work well.
The above means that on all turbine oil systems there must be:
An auxiliary pump to supply oil at speeds below the. operating range of the main shaft
pump - usually about 90% of rated speed.
A way to pump oil up from the tank to the main pump so its suction will be at a positive
There would be very serious damage to the turbine generator if the bearing lube oil supply
should fail when the shaft was turning. In fact, the unit could be destroyed if it should fail at
full speed. Therefore, there must be one or more back up supplies that would start
automatically to guard against this danger.
The main source of heat in the lubricating oil is heat from the shaft and friction. The primary
function ofthe lube oil passing through the bearing is for heat removal and not for lubrication.
The oil pressure must be kept in a set range so the amount flowing to all parts of the system
will be correct.
Older turbine control systems ("MBC" or mechanical hydraulic controls) use lube oil at a
pressure much higher than the pressure needed for lubrication, etc. Modem "ERC" (electro-
hydraulic) controls use a separate high-pressure fluid system. This means there are important
differences in the lube oil system ofMBC units compared to ERe.
With these principles in mind, let us study some actual lube oil systems.
_1J ~ 6-4
T HPC Technical Services
This description is typical of GE MHC systems and uses regular lube oil for its working fluid.
High pressure oil is needed from the lube oil system in order to start the turbine-generator, because the
control system uses it to open the steam valves. This oil comes from the auxiliary oil pump which also supplies the
oil needed by all other parts of the system whenever it is in operation. The auxiliary oil pump is normally driven by
an AC motor of75 to 200 horsepower depending on unit size. Some large units use two AC motor driven pumps in
parallel and some small, old units use a small steam turbine to drive the auxiliary pump. The turbine/pump assembly
is often called the "turbo pump".
Figure 6-01 shows part of the system during a start up. As shown, the pump itself is inside the tank below
the oil level. The driving motor or turbine is on top of the tank.
B .... RINGS
011. PUMP
- - TOP_""_TAM!.. - __ - __
AH.... D"" B .... RING
.. ;/
Figure 6-01 GE Auxiliary Oil and Booster Pumps
The auxiliary pump draws oil from the tank and pumps it at about 200 psi into a "T" connection. The upper
branch of the T goes to the control system hydraulic header. Beyond that, the branch is closed off by a closed check
valve in the main shaft pump discharge.
The lower branch of the T divides. One branch goes through the "bypass baffler" valve, past the bearing
relief valve and to the transfer valve. The transfer valve sends oil to one of the two oil coolers (the other being in
reserve) and on to the bearings. The other branch goes through the "booster baffler" valve into the "submerged oil
driven booster" pump.
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The "booster" is a centrifugal pump driven by an oil-powered turbine. The high pressure oil drives the
turbine and in so doing, loses much of its pressure. The "used" oil goes into the bearing header, joining the other oil
that came through the bypass baffler.
The bypass baffler and the booster baffler are adjusted to drive the oil turbine at the correct speed while
also supplying more than enough oil for the bearings. The bearing relief valve discharges oil as needed to keep the
correct bearing header pressure. There is no way to adjust the oil pressure in the control system. It is set by the pump
The centrifugal pump that is driven by the oil turbine, draws oil out of the tank and pumps it up to the
suction of the main shaft pump in the turbine front standard.
When the shaft pump speed gets high enough (about 90% of normal), it will begin to pump. Its full output
pressure is about 50 psi higher than the auxiliary pumps', so it will force open the check valve in its discharge and
force the check valve in the auxiliary oil pump discharge closed. At this point the main pump has "taken over" and
the system is in the normal on-line running condition.
The auxiliary pump is then shut down but put in standby, ready to start automatically if the high pressure
oil supply should fall below normal.
Figure 6-02 shows more details of the system.
L-... ____ :........ ........
Figure 6-02 GE Oil System
It shows everything that was on Figure 6-01 plus the main shaft pump itself, two more motor-driven
pumps, and the electrical controls for all three motor driven pumps.
One of the "new" pumps is the "AC T.G." or AC turning gear pump. It draws oil directly from the tank and
as shown, pumps it directly into the bearing header upstream of the transfer valve. This pump is used when the unit
is on turning gear and high pressure oil is not needed. The bearings take less oil on turning gear than they do while
running; this, plus the much lower discharge pressure, means that the AC T.G. needs only about one-tenth the power
of the auxiliary pump. When the AC T.G. is not needed, it is put in standby as an automatic back up to the auxiliary
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~ HPC Technical Services
The other "new" pump in Figure 6-02 is the DC pump. It is like the AC T.G. pump except driven by a DC
motor. It backs up all the other pumps in case the AC electric power supply fails .
. Not shown on Figure 6-02 is a "vapor extractor." It is a small motor-drivel;l fan qr blower mounted on top
. of the oil tank. It constantly draws air out of the tank from above the oil surface and discharges it out a vent pipe to
the outdoors. This draws off water vapor and oil fumes. The slight vacuum drawn by the vapor extractor goes up all
the bearing drain pipes and draws in air through all the oil deflectors, where the turbine-generator shafts pass out of
. their housings and into the turbine room. This keeps oil vapor from coming out Qfthese clearance spaces. Refer to
Figure 6-03.
Figure 6-03 Bearing Header
The bearing header itself is simply a long
feed pipe that runs the length of the turbine-generator.
It starts out at the oil tank quite large in size and
narrows as it precedes the length of the unit: A branch
leads off to the header to each bearing or other device
that uses oil. There is an orifice in each of the
individual bearing feed lines that control the rate of
flow to the individual bearing. The orifice is sized
based on the oil requirement of that bearing.
On the drain side of the bearing there is an oil
drain line that feeds back into the bearing drain
system. The bearing drain system is an even larger
pipe thatfully encloses the oil feed line inside it. This
is protection against fire should the feed line break or
leak. Also, located on the bearing drain side are a
thermometer and a telltale. The thermometer shows
the oil drain temperature. The telltale draws off part of
the drain oil as visible evidence that there is flow to
the bearing. All of the drained oil returns hack to the
Tube oil tank. At the bearing itself, there is often a
thermocouple, which monitors bearing metal
The lube oil system supplies oil for other purposes, depending on the unit. These may include the governor
drive and exciter reduction gears, the turning gear, coupling cooling sprays, generator shaft seal system, etc.
The lube oil system for GE units with an EHC control system is the same as it is for MHC units except for
one substitution of pumps, as follows:
There is no auxiliary oil pump, since high pressure oil is not needed to start the unit.
There is a "new" pump, the "motor suction pump." It is driven by an AC motor and is physically
much like the AC turning gear pump but about 50% larger.
The motor suction pump draws oil directly from the tank and pumps it into the pipe that connects
the booster pump and the main shaft pump suction.
The motor suction pump is turned on when the unit is being started up. When the turbine-generator speed is
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low, the motor suction pump pressure closes the check valve on the booster pump discharge and supplies oil to the
main shaft pump suction.
As the main shaft pump comes up to speed and begins to pump, the booster pump will be driven by its oil
turbine and begin to build up discharge pressure. At about 90% speed, the booster pump discharge pressure
overcomes that of the motor suction pump. The booster pump discharge check valve opens, the motor suction pump
discharge check valve is forced closed, and the unit is in normal operation. The motor suction pump is then shut
down and put in automatic standby. .
Figure 6-04 shows the system. It is the same as Figure 6-02, except that:
The auxiliary oil pump is now titled "motor suction pump."
MHC system piping that does not exist in EHC units is shown like this
EHC system piping that is NOT in MHC systems is shown as a heavy RED line.
Figure 6-04 GE Oil Systems





'!" t t ... . . . ..
Figure 6-05 shows a simplified Westinghouse system. Note, the "eductor" and the three motor driven oil
pumps are in the main oil tank and draw oil from it.
There is no oil driven booster pump as in the GE system. Instead, one or more "eductors" are used.
These work on the same principle as a steam jet air ejector. That is, ajet of high pressure oil passes
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through a carefully shaped passage (called a 'Venturi section") which creates a vacuum. The vacuum
draws in oil from the tank which mixes with the high pressure jet oil. The combined flow then passes
on down a pipe at a pressure much below the original jet pressure but still high enough to do the job.
The eductor has no moving parts. The eductor uses a small quantity ofHP oil to move a large quantity
of LP oil required for the shaft pump suction and LO header.
As the figure shows, the oil from the eductor supplies both lubricating oil and main shaft pump
The AC auxiliary oil pump has exactly the same purposes as in the GE system; to supply lube oil and
high pressure oil during start up. In both systems, the high pressure oil is needed for the control
system. Also, the high pressure oil drives the booster pump in the GE system and the eductor in the
Westinghouse system.
The Westinghouse auxiliary oil pump is really two pumps on one shaft driven by the same motor, as
the figure shows.
Bearing header pressure is adjusted with the relief valve in the Westinghouse system. You will recall,
coordinated adjustments are needed in the GE system. Neither system has any adjustment for the high
oil pressure.
Figure 6-05 Westinghouse Oil System
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Westinghouse units with the EH turbine control system, like the GE EHC units, have a separate high
pressure fluid system for working the steam valves. They do not need high pressure oil from the lube oil system for
start up so there is no auxiliary oil pump. However, during start up, oil at about 100 psi is needed for the emergency
trip system and as back up for the generator shaft seal system. This oil comes from the "seal oil back up pump." The
flow needed is not very large; the seal oil back up pump is a positive displacement pump much smaller than the .
other motor driven pumps. However, it is in the same place, on the oil tank top.
The rest ofthe system is very much like the Westinghouse system for MH units already explained. Figure
6-06 is a schematic diagram.
HP t
L.. ___________________________________ .....
Figure 6-06 Westinghouse Oil System - EH Units
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As we will explain, there are two main types of turbine shaft seal systems, but both have the same purpose
and most of the basic principles are the same. One type uses only steam for sealing. It is used on all Westinghouse
turbines and the newer GE turbines. It is called the "steam gland sealing" system on the W units and the "steam seal"
system on GE units.
Older GE units use a system called the "water seal" system. It is actually a combination of a steam seal
system and a "water seal", which works on an entirely different principle. Older Westinghouse units also used
combination steam and water seal systems.
The purpose of the system is to seal the clearance space between the turbine shaft and casings where the
shaft passes through the outer walls of the casing. Also, the clearance space between the stem and the body of some
of the main steam valves must be sealed. The system must keep steam from leaking out when the pressure inside the
casing is above atmospheric, and it must keep air from leaking in when the internal pressure is below atmospheric.
These clearance spaces must be sealed because:
Steam escaping out into the room is unpleasant ifnot dangerous. Also, it might get into nearby bearing
housings thus getting water into the lube oil system.
Escaping steam is a waste of energy and demineralized water.
Escaping steam can cut or erode the shaft or valve stem and other parts.
Air entering the turbine will increase the exhaust pressure (lower the vacuum) thus hurting
Air entering the turbine could cause harmful cooling of hot turbine ports.
The principles of operation and the main features of the system will be explained in the following pages.
The following principles are basic to all turbine shaft sealing systems:
There is no practical way to make a "steam" seal that will completely stop the flow of steam or air
through the clearance space between the turbine shaft and casing outer walls. The best that can be
done is to make a seal that will greatly restrict or reduce the flow, and then to capture and control
this flow in a way that will suit our purposes.
"Water" seals can completely stop the flow of air or steam, but they are not practical in all
The inside of the turbine low pressure sections is always under vacuum when the unit is running;
air is always trying to leak ill.
The pressure inside the HP and IP turbine sections and the main steam valves changes with
operating conditions. When the unit is being prepared for start up and running below rated speed,
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the pressure inside is below atmospheric and air tries to leak in. As power output (load) increases,
the steam pressure inside each seal rises, fIrst becoming equal to atmospheric and then going
above it so steam will try to leak out. Also, the load where each seal "goes through zero" pressure
and the highest internal pressure that is reached, may be different for each point. However, the
internal pressures always rise as load increases.
There is always a waste of energy whenever steam leaks or flows from a higher to a lower
pressure without doing useful work. Therefore, whenever this happens in the steam sealing
system, we should try to keep the waste as low as possible by reducing the amount of flow and/or
the pressure drop. . .
Steam "packings" are used to reduce or restrict the flow of steam through the clearance spaces of the
turbine. This is true in those places where the shaft passes through the outer casing walls and also, many other places
inside the turbine where the shaft passes through a dividing wall that has a pressure difference from one side to the
other (such as diaphragms). However, only those packings in the outer casing walls are part of the seal system.
Figure 6 ~ 0 7 shows a typical packing, simplifIed. Note how the steam must zigzag around the teeth to work
its way downstream.
- - - - - t ~ STEAM FLOW
Figure 6-07 Steam Packing
Across each tooth there is a pressure drop. In order to explain why this is true we will look at a different
type of a restriction to flow, an "orifIce." This is simply a hole through which a fluid (liquid or gas) will flow if there
is a pressure difference across the hole.
Figure 6-08 shows a pipe with an orifIce in it. If fluid flows in the pipe, the orifIce will cause the pressure
to decrease as the fluid flows through the orifIce. In this fIgure the pressure at P2 is less than the pressure at Pl. The
pressure drop from PI to P2 depends on three things: (1) the rate of fluid flow, (2) the size of the orifIce and (3) the
shape of the orifIce. For the time being we will assume all three to be fIxed.
Figure 6-0.8 An Orifice
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------------------' :-I FLOW
r - - - - - ~ I
Just suppose, for example, each orifice causes a pressure drop of 50%. In other words, if P 1 was measured
to be 800-psig then P2 will be 400-psig. The pressure at P2 is 50% of the pressure measured at PI.
Now consider a series of orifices, one right after the other as shown in Figure 6-09. There are eight orifices
in a row. Also, we will continue to assume a 50% pressure drop across each orifice. Our pressure begins after the
previously assumed 800-psig. Let us see what the fmal pressure will be (note the rounding to simplifY the numbers).
Orifice Number Pressure Before Pressure After
1 400 psig 200 psig
2 200 psig 100 psig
3 100 psig 50 psig
3 50 psig 25 psig
5 25 psig 12 psig
6 12 psig 6 psig
7 6 psig 3 psig
8 3 psig 1 psig
Table 6-01
Figure 6-09 Multiple Orifices
The pressure of the fluid was decreased from 400 psig to 1 prig by passing through eight orifices in series.
That is a great pressure drop! The fmal pressure is only 0.25% of the original pressure.
However, there was still some pressure at the end of the last orifice. We could add many more orifices and
there would still be a positive pressure at the end. In other words, there will still be flow through the pipe, though it
will be much less because of the orifices.
We have just explained the principle of steam packing. It can greatly reduce the flow through the space
where a shaft passes through a stationary part, but it cannot stop it completely. Of course, there is a practical limit to
the number of "orifices" (or packing teeth) we can put into real machines.
We noted earlier, the flow through an orifice (or a set of packings) depends on three things (1) the pressure
drop across the packing (2) "the size ofthe orifice" (the clearance) and (3) "the shape of the orifice."
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Figure 6-10 shows how the flow through an
orifice depends on its shape. The figure shows water flow
but the principle is the same for steam or any liquid or
Figure 6-10 Nozzle and Orifice

In (A) the orifice has a well-rounded opening so the fluid flows smoothly and the water jet has the same
diameter as the orifice or hole.
In (B) the orifice has sharp edges. This causes the flow to "neck down" as shown so the water jet is smaller
than the hole and flow will be less than in (A). In fact, an orifice like (B) will pass less than 2/3 as much flow
(theoretically, 61 % as much) as one like (A).
Orifices can have edges rounded by any amount so the flow can vary from 61 % to 100% of the amount
that would go through a well rounded, full flow orifice like (A).
You can see why it is important for turbine efficiency to keep all the packing clearances as small as
possible and to keep the teeth sharp. During maintenance outages all the teeth should be sharpened, even jfthe
clearances are not reduced and may even be increased very slightly.
Figure 6-11 shows a typical shaft packing assembly and the nearby parts.
The shaft usually has grooves in it as shown in the detail, with matching high and low teeth on the packing
rings. This forms a more zigzag path for the steam flow, increasing the restriction. This construction is called
"labyrinth" ("lab-ee-rinth") which means "an intricate structure of passages through which it is difficult to fmd one's
The packing rings are usually
made of a rather soft bronze alloy that
will wear away without damaging the
shaft in case there is rubbing. They are
made in segments; two, three or more
in both the upper and lower half of the
packing casing.
The springs shown in the
figure are flat leaf-type springs that
press the segments radially inward, but
they will "give" in case the rotor
should rub the packing.
. .
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Figure 6-11 Shaft Packing

Many GE turbines built before the early 1960s had water seals as part of their shaft sealing system, in
addition to the steam seal packings we have studied so far.
Water seals, like the one shown in Figure 6-12, work on an entirely different principle than steam seals.
This type is called a "non-circulating" water seal and is used in the turbine exhaust hood, usually the #3 and #4 seals.
The "impeller" is simply a ring on the shaft, made
of bronze: It turns inside the casing much like a centrifugal
pump impeller turns inside a pump casing and it works
something like a pump with the discharge shut off.
Condensate is piped into the casing, filling the
space around the impeller. When the shaft is stopped or
turning slowly, the water leaks through the clearances
between the teeth and the shaft, in both directions. The water
that leaks in simply joins the rest of the condensate inside
the exhaust hood. The water that leaks out goes into a drain
and is lost from the system.
As the unit speeds up the impeller begins to work
better, throwing the water outward against the impeller
casing and building up a pressure - just like a centrifugal
pump. Finally, the pressure is great enough to "seal." That
is, water will no longer leak outward to drain. Also, the flow
into the exhaust hood is greatly reduced because the "pump"
pressure is high enough to overcome the pressure difference
between the outside air and the condenser vacuum.
/ CONOENSA110111
, - - - ~ ~ - - , ~
~ - - - - ~ ~ ~ ' M ~ ~ ~ ~ - - - - - - ~
~ - - - - ~ ~ , E r . ~ ~ ~ - - - - - - ~
Figure 6-12 Water Seal
Water seals work very well when they are "sealed." Also, they are very simple, inexpensive, and do not
take up much space (keeping the turbine shaft short). Temperature differences are not a problem in the low-pressure
parts ofthe turbine.
However, water seals do not seal well until the shaft is up to about half speed, making it harder to pull
vacuum on start up. Also, the outward flow of water at low speeds may erode the shaft; this is expensive to repair.
The non-circulating water seal just explained will not work where the surrounding temperatures are too
high, because the water will boil and spoil the sealing action. A somewhat different style, called the "circulating"
water seal is used instead. ' , ,
The circulating seal has a discharge pipe coming out of the casing, with a hand-operated valve in it. The
inlet and discharge valves are regulated to keep water flowing through the seal fast enough so it will not boil. The
flow must also be regulated to keep the pressure inside the casing high enough for the pumping action to work, and
also keep the flow low enough to keep the assembly from running too cool. There is a sight glass and a thermometer
in the discharge pipe and a casing pressure gauge, which the operator uses to regulate the inlet and discharge valves.
Also, the drain on circulating seals has a sight glass in it, unlike the non-circulating seals.
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Now that we have studied the purpose of the turbine shaft sealing systems, the basic principles, and the
three main types of seals (steam; non circulating water and circulating water), we will study how they are used in the
two types of systems named in the Introduction- "steam seal" and "water seal" systems.
3.5.1 SteaJIl Seal Systems
The steam seal system description that follows is typical of both GE and Westinghouse units. The main
differences are in the terminology and in some mechanical parts. In this section we will use GE terminology and a
typical GE system for a model. We will point out important terminology and hardware differences as we come to
Recall how a set of steam packings breaks down the pressure and reduces the amount of the steam flowing
through the clearance space between the shaft and the turbine casings.
Refer to Figure 6-13. Suppose there
were enough packing teeth on the left so that at
a certain pressure inside the casing, the pressure
was reduced to 4 psig at the point shown. If we
then pipe steam from the steam seal supply into
the space "X" at 4 psig, there will be no steam
flowing out of the turbine. This would take care
of one main task of the system - stopping steam
from leaking out of the turbine.
Figure 6-13 Sealing Steam Supply
Of course, the problem is not really solved. We still have steam leaking from the turbine. Only, now it is
coming from the steam seal supply instead of the turbine. This does not yet eliminate any of those problems that we
were discussing earlier.
Figure 6-14 Steam Supply & Exhaust
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~ HPC Technical Services
Refer to Figure 6"14. We have added an
exhaust outlet between the steam seal header and
the atmosphere. The pressure in this outlet will be
slightly less than atmospheric. In other words, we
are going to draw a slight vacuum on this
particular annulus. Steam from the steam seal
header now escapes via the exhaust. It can no
longer enter the atmosphere. Air is also being
pulled in to the exhaust. Air flow inward
guarantees against any possible steam flow
outward. A mixture of steam from the left and air
from the right is being drawn out of the exhaust.
Enough on the orifices. Look at what we really have in a typical turbine. Figure 6-15 shows the shaft
packings that were mentioned in earlier paragraphs. On this drawing you should also locate the steam seal header
and the exhaust.
The steam seal header pressure is controlled
at 4 psig. Those packing teeth between the inside of
the turbine and the inlet of the sealing steam are
designed such that the header pressure of 4 psig can,
indeed, seal the turbine against leakage.
The steam seal header pressure, however,
should not be allowed to exceed 4 psig by much. The
pressure must not over-pressure the exhaust header.
Since the steam pressure inside the turbine varies
with turbine load we must be able to adjust the
system accordingly. At higher loads this high
pressure steam is great enough to cause the pressure
at the steam seal header to increase above the 4 psig.
So we need a device that will actually remove steam
from the header.
The above statement about the excess steam
holds true only on the high pressure and I.P. turbine
sections. On the low pressure turbine we will have to
add steam at the header at all times. These other
devices that we are about to begin studying will not
only remove steam from that high pressure element
but they will also redirect some of it to the low
pressure elements. In effect, they will make the
turbine self -sealing at the higher loads.
F ~
.. _. ~ . , .... , , , .. , ~ .. ~ ... " .. . ....... " .... 'f .... : " ~ " ....... ,.", ........ ,
Figure 6-16 SSH Low Load Operation
Figure 6-15 Gland Seals
Figure 6-16 illustrates some of these
devices we just referred to. These are the
devices that control the steam seal header
pressure. They not only control the pressure
but they also direct the steam as the pressure
varies. Steam enters the header from two
different sources.
One source is used during low load
operation and is external to the turbine. The
other source is used at high load operation and
is coming directly from the high pressure
turbine. Figure 6-16 illustrates the system at
low load operation only.
During low load operation steam is
directed into the steam seal header from the
main boiler, through the steam seal regulator
live steam valve. On more modem units this
valve is simply called the steam seal feed
valve. In order for the boiler to be used it must
have enough pressure to supply the required
steam, about 114 of rated. During low load
operation the live steam valve regulates steam
flow into the header.
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Steam flow is from the source through S3 and Sl to the live steam valve. The live steam valve regulates
pressure (flow to the header). S2 on the diagram is the manual bypass valve. It is used if
1. the live steam valve should fail closed, or
2. if additional flow were required to maintain steam seal header pressure (i.e., due to low boiler
Some turbines can get steam from an auxiliary boiler and/or from the HP turbine exhaust (cold reheat) as
well as from the main steam supply.
At high loads there is an excess
amount of steam in the high pressure and IP
sections. This steam finds its way into the
steam seal header. There is so much steam
flowing into the header that the steam seal
header pressure will begin to raise. In
Figure 6-17 the live steam valve closes to
try to control pressure but it cannot. It
winds up being full closed and the header
pressure is still rising. The unloader valve
will begin to open as a result of the rising
pressure. This valve will dump the excess
steam from the header, thereby reducing the
pressure back to 4 psig. On newer units,
this valve is known as the steam packing
unloading valve.
Figure 6-17 SSH at High Load
This unloader valve directs the steam to a, low pressure feedwater heater and to the condenser. By doing
this the steam will continue to do useful work as far as the plant heat rate is concerned. Valve B is a manual bypass
valve used to increase flow from the header to the LP extraction, if necessary.
Before going further, let us point out two main differences between the typical GE system we have been
explaining and a typical Westinghouse system.
1. The normal Westinghouse steam seal header pressure is about 18 psig rather than 4 psig.
2. Most Westinghouse units have a "desuperheater" in the gland steam feed to the LP turbine glands.
This is simply a temperature-controlled valve that sprays cool condensate into the gland sealing steam if its
temperature goes above a set limit. This is needed because the steam temperature at the glands can go higher than in
the GE system because of (a) the higher header pressure and (b) the GE sealing steam is cooled by running the
uninsulated steam piping inside the cool exhaust hood for some distance before it connects to the seal.
The exhaust header vacuum we were discussing earlier is created by a steam packing or gland exhauster. The gland
exhauster is a blower fan and condenser arrangement as shown in Figure 6-17. This fan, as mentioned previously,
pulls a mixture of air and steam from the steam packings. - 6-18
~ HPC Technical Services
The steam is condensed across the condenser tubes. Air is vented. The amount of vacuum can be adjusted
by the repositioning of the butterfly valves found before and around the fans.
These are all of the primary components that make up the steam seal system. For the most part, the
operation is automatic once placed into service.
3.5.2 Water Seal System
As already noted, the GE units use a combination of steam seals, circulating water seals and non circulating
water seals to make up their turbine shaft seal system.
Non-circulating seals are used in the turbine exhaust hood, where the pressure inside the seal varies
between atmospheric and full condenser vacuum. These are the #4 and #5 packings.
Whenever the steam pressure inside the seal goes above atmospheric during operation, the seal assembly
consists of a steam seal on the inside and a circulating water seal on the outside. The steam seal breaks down the
pressure of the steam trying to leak out (to about 1 or 2 psig) and this leakage steam is then piped away.
The circulating water seal keeps the 1 or 2 psig steam from coming out of the seal.
The pressure inside the combined steam and circulating water seal assembly goes below atmospheric
during start up and low load operation, so air tries to leak in. In this condition, steam is piped into the space between
the steam and the water seal, and the water seal works (more or less) nor
These combination seals are used at each end of the HP turbine casing. That is, one seals the place where
the shaft comes out of the front of the casing and goes into the front standard. The other combined seal is between
the crossover and the #2 turbine bearing, inside the exhaust hood structure.
These two combined assemblies are numbered #1 and #2.
Figure 6-18 shows these locations. Note, the #2 bearing is vented to the outside and sealed off from the
turbine steam path even though it is inside the exhaust hood structure. This means the pressure across the #2 seal
assembly is always atmospheric on the bearing side, and varies during operation from full condenser vacuum up to
full crossover steam pressure.
,- - - - - - _.r=t"
I\':::-- - -.- --,
I r
: MAIN STOP -' r.- '

0"...---->-- ..
Figure 6-18 GE Steam Turbine Design Code D2
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HPC Technical Services T.
The pressure across the #3 seal (non-circulating) is always atmospheric on the side towards #2 bearing, and
varies from atmospheric to full condenser vacuum on the other side. Thus, the #3 seal sees the same conditions as
the #4 in the turning gear end of the exhaust hood.
Figure 6-19 is a schematic ofthe"steam seal" part of the combined system.
Figure 6-19 Steam Seal System
I ? = = < I : : : I ~ = = - T019lt1STAGE
As we have explained, the steam packing teeth break down the pressure and greatly reduce the flow of the
steam leaking through. The # 1 steam packing has an "HP leakoff" which takes the steam that has passed through
the highest-pressure sets of teeth, to an extraction. This improves efficiency by putting this steam to use rather than
making it "leak through" all the way.
The steam that passes through the lower-pressure teeth of the #1 steam packing, and all the steam that
passes through the #2 steam packing, is piped outside the turbine. The two leakoffs are joined in a manifold.
The figure shows two other connections to the manifold. One comes from the main steam supply just ahead
of the main stop valve. A manual valve in this line is opened to pressurize the manifold during start up and low load
The other manifold connection goes to two unloading valves in parallel. These unloading valves are simply
spring loaded valves something like a relief valve, that open as much as they have to in order to maintain a set
upstream pressure.
One unloading valve is set to hold 1 to 2 psig upstream pressure. It discharges into a low pressure heater.
Some useful energy is recovered from this steam.
The other unloading valve is set to hold 2 to 3 psig upstream pressure. It discharges directly into the
exhaust space at condenser pressure. Since it is set higher, it only opens after the first unloading valve is wide open
and still not able to keep the pressure below 2 psig.
Not shown in the figure are connections to the manifold from the valve steam leakoffs of the main stop and
control valves .
. \it . 6-20
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The purpose of the EH Fluid System is to supply high pressure fluid directly to the turbine main steam
valves. This high pressure hydraulic fluid is used to position the steam valves. In addition to the positioning of these
valves, the hydraulic fluid relays trip signals to the valves from the devices in the turbine trip and overspeed
protection system.
As already noted, the modem GE and W turbines have an "EHe" (electro-hydraulic control) system. These
systems do not use lube oil as the working fluid as the older units do. Rather, they use a special hydraulic fluid that
comes from a separate auxiliary system.
The system has a reservoir or tank, pumps, filters, pressure regulating devices, oil coolers and heaters,
servo and dump valves, and piping connecting all parts of the system. Most of the main parts are on or in the tank
which is usually one or two levels below the HP turbine section. The normal fluid working pressure is about 1800
All the systems are basically the same. The main differences are in some of the hardware. All the systems
must have the features listed below in order to maximize the system reliability:
Temperature and cleanliness is continuously controlled.
The fluid chemical properties are maintained by active filters.
Two independent pumping systems allow the turbine to operate while maintenance work is being
performed on the system.
Various alarms and pressure switches are built into the system which will auto-start the standby
pumping system, trip the turbine should a major loss of pressure occur, or simply provide you the
necessary feedback on the system's safe operation.
The system allows for both steady-state and transient flow requirements.
The pages that follow will cover the EH fluid itself, a typical Westinghouse system, and a very brieflook at
the GE system compared to the Westinghouse system.
The fluid is synthetic; you will not find it in a natural state like you would a normal oil. Its chemical name
is phosphate ester. This synthetic fluid has good lubricating properties and good stability.
The normal operating pressure of the system varies between 1600 and 1900 psig. This fluid has to be routed
to all of the turbine steam valves in order to operate those valves. This brings some very high-pressure fluid very
close to some very hot turbine components. A ruptured pipe near the turbine could be very hazardous. This synthetic
fluid has the advantage of having a very high flash point. The flash point is so high that one could say that the fluid
is fire resistant.
There are a few facts that you should understand before working on these systems:
1. This fluid is harmful if swallowed. Smoking or eating should not be allowed in work areas where
this fluid is in use.
6-21 _M -
HPC Technical Services ~
2. Contact with the eye is dangerous. Eye protection should be worn as a means of preventing eye
injuries. Any contact should be flushed with water.
3. Skin.irritation may occur as a result of contact with this fluid. Any contact area should be washed
with water.
4. Fumes, produced when fluid is in contact with hot surfaces, are irritating and mildly toxic.
Combustion products from a fITe can cause lung damage after prolonged exposure.
5. Finally, this fluid seems to take a great dislike to rubber. The fluid will attack and soften ordinary
rubber material. Workers should be aware that this fluid may destroy their rubber soled shoes.
The bottom line is that the hydraulic fluid, like any fluid that you may work with, deserves its own special
consideration. Be aware of the fluid that you are dealing with and respect it.
Refer to Figure 6-20 as you read the following thumbnail sketch. We will be discussing the normal
operation of the EH Fluid System
Res R
.-- --------i><l---t1!R

, a _________________ _
Figure 6-20 Westinghouse EH System
The EH reservoir contains all the hydraulic fluid. The fluid pumps take their suction from this reservoir.
The fluid is fITst strained and then pumped to its high operating pressure. The hydraulic fluid then passes through a
10 micron filter, to an unloading valve, a check valve and on to the main header. The hydraulic header at this point
branches off in two directions, one to the turbine valves hydraulic cylinders and the other to a polishing filter. This
polishing filter provides for the proper cleanliness of the fluid.
We must keep the hydraulic fluid at the proper temperature. This is done by two heat exchangers that are
located on the drain return. The temperature in the tank is held between 110 and 130 degrees. A manually operated
control valve regulates the cooling water flow through the coolers in order to meet this temperature requirement.
The fluid is pumped from the reservoir through one of two AC motor driven constant displacement pumps.
Each pump is capable of meeting 100% of the system requirements.
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~ HPC Technical Services
One pump is in service at a time. The pump that is not in service is in standby. It should be ready to operate
if the running pump fails to maintain pressure. The discharge pressure of each pump is monitored by a pressure
gage. There is also a pressure switch that monitors the header pressure and will start the standby pump if the
pressure falls below 1350 psig. Once started, the pump will stay in service until you turn it off. These pumps should
be alternated on a once per week schedule.
Variations in system demand are handled by the unloading valve which directs pump discharge back to the
ERC reservoir when system pressure rises to about 1950 psi and directs pump discharge to the HP ERC header
when pressure falls to about 1600 psi.
Another component of the EH Fluid System is the accumulators. The pressure side accumulators are
connected to the RP fluid header. They provide an immediate available reserve of fluid if there should be a sudden
flow requirement. Drain side accumulators maintain a positive drain pressure to push the drain return fluid through
the coolers and back to the reservoir.
The high pressure accumulators are the piston type, having a free piston in a closed cylinder. The cylinder
is connected to the high pressure fluid pipe on one side of the piston; the other side is full of nitrogen gas under a
pressure near the fluid pressure. As fluid pressure rises, it forces the piston to the nitrogen side, compressing the gas.
As fluid pressure falls, the nitrogen pushes the piston back, forcing fluid back out into the pipe. In this way, the
accumulator dampens pressure surges and also acts as a reserve supply of fluid.
The low pressure accumulators have the same purpose as the high pressure ones, but they work in the fluid
drain piping at a pressure of about 30 psi. Instead of a piston, there is a "bladder" - a flexible diaphragm in the
The fmal output of the parts we have explained so far, is a supply of high pressure hydraulic fluid to the
valve actuators and trip or dump valve. Each of the steam valves has on it, an actuator that controls its position -
basically a hydraulic cylinder and pilot valve assembly. The dump valves are "on-off" type valves and are in the
turbine control system. When "on" (closed) they allow fluid pressure to build up in the system. When off, they
"dump" fluid from the system. No pressure can build up and the steam valves cannot open .
.................. """""c ___ ,, ___ 8 8
I: - C<lt*tCT PORT' 10 PORT 2:
l - CCHHECT PORT , 10 POftT 1
- COtMCT PORT , 10 PORt "

r-- ::;::===::
."' ...
Figure 6-21 GE EHe System
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HPC Technical Services
The GE system is very much like the Westinghouse system just explained. The main differences are:
The GE system operates at 1600 psi.
The pumps are a variable displacement type that have an internal pressure compensator. There is
no unloading valve.
There are no low pressure accumulators.
The system has a small reservoir (tank), AC motor driven pumps, filters, pressure regulating devices,
coolers and piping.
Normal fluid working pressure is in the order of 1600-psig (110 mpa). Some units regulate this pressure
constantly while others make use ofunloader valves which allows this pressure to cycle. Temperature and
cleanliness is continuously controlled and monitored. Fluid chemical properties are maintained by active filters.
See Figure 6-21 as we proceed (or examine your own system drawing). Typically, there are two
independent pumping systems providing redundancy. Each pump is driven by an AC motor with auto start pressure
switches starting the standby pump with a loss of pressure. On the suction side of the pump there is a strainer to
protect the pump. On the discharge side of the pump there is another high pressure (usually non-collapsible) strainer
that protects the system from pump failure. Often times there is differential pressure switch across this discharge
strainer to alarm should it plug.
On some type units the pressure is regulated by a pressure compensator internal to the variable
displacement pump. On other units an unloading valve in the pump discharge regulates downstream pressure. In
either case the pump typically cannot meet short term transient demands generated by large valve movements. An
accumulator is required for thIS purpose (the number and size of accumulators is a function of the hydraulic system
demand). These accumulators may be of the piston or bladder type and are pre-charged with nitrogen to a pressure
approximately 60% hydraulic pressure.
Return flow from the turbine valves is through a cooler to the reservoir. There is a relief valve in the line to
the cooler to relieve excess pressure should there be resistance to the flow to drain.
1. The turbine-generator main lube oil pump is driven by __________ _
A. an electric motor
B. the generator shaft
C. the turbine shaft
D. an air motor
2. In some power station arrangements, the turbine lube oil system will also serve the:
A. generator bearings
B. gland seal system
C. boiler feed pump turbine
D. generator hydrogen seals
E. MIlC system
_1.1 - 6-24
~ IIPC Technical Services
3. The function of the shaft steam seals on the HP or IP turbine is to_______ the turbine.
A. prevent air from entering
B. maintain vacuum in
C. prevent steam from escaping
4. The combination of rotor lands and seal packing teeth work together effectively in
_______ of the escaping steam.
A. lowering the temperature
B. reducing the pressure
C. completely stopping the flow
D. reversing the direction
5. The flow of escaping turbine steam is completely stopped in the seals by the introduction of
A. sealing steam
B. sealing air
C. a vacuum seal
6. The primary function of the ERC system is to ________ _
A. trip the turbine
B. synchronize the generator
C. back up the MRC system
D. position the steam control valves
The normal operating fluid pressure in the EHC system is maintained at ______ psig.
A. 1000
B. 1600
Unlike the MHC system, the ERC system uses ______ as the hydraulic system fluid.
A. a synthetic fluid
B. water
C. turbine lube oil
D. condensate
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HPC Technical Services T
Chapter 7
Upon completion ofthis chapter, the student will be able to discuss the principles and fundamentals
associated with the generation of AC power.
At the completion of this section, the reader should be able to:
1. State the purpose of a generator.
2. Describe inputs/outputs of an operating generator.
3. List three (3) variables that determine the voltage in a conductor as it passes through a magnetic field.
4. Of those three (3) variables listed in objective #3 above, state which is controllable by an operator.
5. Describe how an alternating current is derived as a 2-pole magnetic field rotates.
6. Describe how a 3-phase generator is typically wound.
7. State the difference between induced voltage and generator terminal voltage.
8. Given the # of poles ofa generator, state the speed this generator operates at to generate a 6O-Hertz
9. Describe how armature reaction is derived.
10. Describe how the magnetic fields interact in the air gap, given a change in load.
11. Define the term power factor and describe its components.
1999 - TG201J5.0_June09, Printed: 12/14/10
1.0 FUNDAMENTALS OF GENERATOR DESIGN ..................................... : ... " ........................................ 3
1.1 Purpose of the Generator ... ..... ... ..... ...... ..... ......... .. ......... ..... .......... .... ........ ........ .. ...... .. ................. 3
1.2 Air Gap .......................... : ... ......... .... ...... .... ,' ....................................... ...... .... ........ .... : ...................... 4 .
1.3 Magnetic Field .......... ............................ .... ....... ........ .. ....................... ........................................... 5
1.4 Rotor Electromagnet ....... ... .... ...... ..... ; ...... ........... .. ........ .... ... ..... ... ............................................ ; ... 6
1.5 'Speed - Frequency Relationship ................................................................................................. 7
1.6 Stator Winding ...................................................................................................................... ...... 8
1. 7 Three-Phase Generator ...... ........................... ..... ......... ................................................ ........ ... .. .... .... 9
1.8 . Induced Generator Voltage .. .......... .. .......... ........ ........ .. ........................................... .. .................. 11
1.9 Armature Reaction ......... ....................................................... ..................................................... 12
2.0 SYNCHRONISM (OR, WHAT IS HAPPENING IN THE AIR GAP) ................................................ 13
2.1 Air Gap Magnetic Fields ..................................................................................... : ........ .. ...... .. ... 13
2.2 Active Power (Watts) ......... ... ....... ............. .. ... ........... .. ................ .. ........ .... .. .............................. 15
2.3 Reactive Power (VARs) ...................................................................... : ............ .. ....................... 16
2.3.1 . Inductive Loads .... ........................................................ ....... ... ........ ........ ......... ...................... 16
2.3.2 Capaciti ve Loads ... .... ......... ........ ....... .. ............. .. ..... ... ........ .. .... ..... .... : .... ...... ....... ...... ...... ..... 17
2.3.3 Mechanical Analogy ....... ............ ....................................... ..... ................. ... ........... ... ..... ....... 18
2.3.4 Active / Reactive Power Flow .................................................. .. .. : ....................................... 19
3.0 POWER FACTOR ......... .... ..... ..................................................... ... .............. ............ ...................... ... ... 21
_1.1 - 7-2 .
~ HPC Technical Services
The purpose of your generator set is to take
mechanical energy input from the prime mover and
produce electrical energy for consumers' use. The
generator transforms mechanical energy to electrical
energy. Inputs to the generator, from the prime mover, are:
Mechanical energy is the product of speed times torque as
illustrated in Figure 7-01. Outputs from the generator are:
Electrical energy is the product of volts times amperes.
Figure 7-02 Generator Nameplate
Figure 7-01 Generator Power Conversion
Look at the nameplate of your
generator. You will see, as in Figure 7-02, the
output of the generator is rated in volt-amperes
(kVA or MVA on larger units). In this
particular situation the unit is rated at 204,500-
kV A. 204,500-kV A is the design output ofthe
7-3 _M -
HPC Technical Services ~
The author has often asked: "Where does your power plant connect to the grid?" Almost 1 00% of the
time, the answer is in the switchyard orat the generator breaker. We'd like to take exception to that answer, even
though it is most certainly understandable.
Consider this answer to the question asked: "Your power plant connects to the grid in the air-gap of the
generator." Think about the argumept that follows. The generator stator, or armature, is hardwired and/or
magnetically connected to the load. When one thinks of the grid, one thinks about your generator "connected" to
and being part of that grid. The generator rotor, on the other hand, is coupled to the prime mover that is driven by
the fuel, water, or steam thatis an integral part of the power plant. This argument is illustrated in Figure 7-03. In
order to accomplish this energy transforrilation we are going to need a medium, something in between that "ties" the
speed/torque of the turbine (or prime mover) to the Voltage/current of the generator. That something is magnetic
energy. This "tie" is magnetism. We need a magnetic field so we can transform speed/torque from the prime mover
to voltage/current on the generator. This magnetism is located between the generator rotor driven by the turbine (or .
prime mover) and the generator stator. So the argument is that the power plant connects to the grid at the generator
r-+-t--..... .....,.....,
_1.1 - 7-4
HPe Technical Services
..... Magnetism:
Rotor '- Transforms
Cooling Water
L--.!::::;----;;:1 Cond,nuta
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..... Q ... :......... ::
Coal : :
: ::: Station '00" - \ \ \ \ 011 Station
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:::: o Hydro Station
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Southern 11e
__ 500-kV
Figure 7-03 Generator Air Gap
Figure 7-04 provides us a more pictorial view of this transformation of energy. This is a picture of a large
turbine driven generator. Notice the stationary windings (stator), the rotor windings (in the partially removed rotor),
and the air gap. It is in this air gap where the magnetic fields interact and energy is transformed. We will be
discussing all these components in detaila$ we proceed through the materials.
Figure 7-04 Generator Major Components
We are all well acquainted with what we can do with the horseshoe magnet. The atoms that make up all
matter can be considered tiny magnets. In some materials, such as iron, these tiny magnets can easily be made to
align themselves all in the same direction. When this is done, the magnetic strengths are added to one another, and
the bar is considered to be "magnetized." The region
within the influence of the magnet is called a magnetic
It will be noted that magnetism appears to
leave at one end and enter at the other end. These ends
are called poles, north and south poles. See Figure 7-
0S .
Now, if we were to move a conductor through
the magnetic field we would induce a voltage in that
conductor. The magnitude of the induced voltage
within that conductor will be a function of these

Strength of the magnetic field,

Direction of
Fixed Conductor
Figure 7-05 Generation of Electricity

Speed of the magnetic field over the conductor (or conductor through the magnetic field), and the
Length ofthe fixed conductor.
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HPC Technical Services T.
Earlier it was mentioned that we
needed magnetism to "tie" the turbine
speed/torque input to the generator
voltage/current output. To do this, we need to
create a magnetic field. (Only very small
generators make. use of a permanent magnet).
We will use an electromagnet. First, we need
(l rotor that can support copper windings (see
the top drawing of Figure 7-06). Notice how
these slots are machined into the rotor surface
longitudinally. The copper windings are laid
into these slots and connected in series so that
we have one continuous winding that wraps
around the generator rotor. This continuous
winding is represented in the lower drawing,
except in this drawing we see only one
winding (coil) per slot. This was to simplify
the drawing for educational purposes.
Figure 7-06 Rotor Electromagnet
Current is passed through these
copper windings (in the slots). The result of
this current is that the rotor becomes an
electromagnet. The strength of this
electromagnet is a function of two things:
1. Number of turns within the windings (in other words, how many times the copper is wrapped around
the forging), and
2. The amount of current within these windings.
The resultant magnetic field is measured as ampere-turns. The strength of the magnetic field is described as
the amount of current, times the number of turns of copper windings wrapped around the generator rotor.
Figure 7-07 Path of Magnetic Field
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T HPC Technical Services
This rotor magnetic field flows from the
North-pole to the South-pole as seen in Figure 7-
CORE 07. In the path of the magnetic field we place a
conductor (the conductor is the darker rectangle
above the North-Pole). That conductor is
contained inside the core. The core provides an
efficient ~ e t u r n path for the magnetic, field flow
from the North-Pole to the South-Pole.
In a 6O-Hertz system, it is required that
this electromagnetic field be rotating at some
speed such that the North and South Poles pass
the same point every 1/60th of a second. This
single point on our drawing is represented by the
dark dot (conductor) above the N-Pole. To meet
this requirement, rotor speed is dependent upon
the number of poles within the rotor. For a two- .
pole rotor, this speed will be 3600 RPM;
whereas, for a four-pole rotor, the speed will be
1800 RPM.
The essential feature that makes a generator different from other electrical machines is the synchronous link
that exists between the stator and rotor magnetic fieldS. Because of this synchronous link, there is a fixed .
relationship between rotor speed and the frequency of induced electromotive force (voltage) in the stator. They can
be related by this equation (as we seen before):
N = (120* IX ...................... .. ......................................... ... .............. .. .. .. ................ Equation 1.01
N = speed of the rotor in rpm;
f = frequency of induced emf in the stator in Hz; and
P = number of poles
4-, S-, and 24-pole machines are illustrated in Figure I-OS.
1800.rpm 60Hertz
1500'rpm 50Hertz
Figure 7-08 Multiple Pole Units
gOOrpm 60Hertz
750rpm 50Hertz
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HPC Technical Services T.
Now, for the sake of our education, we will assume
a single phase of out generator stator armature winding
has 24 conductors brazed together to form a coil, as seen
in Figure 7-09. Every loop in the shown coil represents
one pass of an armature bar. We will also assume that as
the rotating electromagnetic field passes through one of
these conductors we induce l-kV. Since these conductors
are all in series with one another, we have induced 24-kV
in our generator windings. This is our generator voltage,

Figure 7-09 Sum of Induced Voltages
Compare this to a set of DC batteries (Figure 7-10). If you take two 12VDC batteries and connect the (-)
terminal of one to the (+) terminal of the other, you will have 24VDC across the remaining two terminals.
Figure 7-10 also illustrates why you cannot measure the induced voltage. If you were to put an instrument
at the end ofconductor-lO, you would see (maybe) lO-kV. We have 24-kV, however, at the terminals.
1 kV per conductor
Figure 7-10 Voltages in Series
_1.1 - 7-8
T. HPC Technical Services
In the actual generator the voltage generated
is built up to a practical amount by connecting a
number of conductors in series. The conductors are so
joined together to make up what is called a phase
winding. In the modem generator, there are usually
three such groups of conductors spaced symmetrically
in the slots of the stationary core, from which the
generator gets its name, "three-phase" generator. It has
been found most economical to generate and distribute
large blocks of electric power with three phase circuits.
Figure 7-11 illustrates a simple 3-phase generator

Figure 7-12 Three-Phase Generator Voltage Wave Forms
Figure 7-11 Three-Phase Winding
As the rotor revolves through 360, a
voltage is induced in each of the three-stator
windings. Because the windings are 120 apart,
the three waveforms also are 120 apart. (See
Figure 7-12). The poWer output of each
winding consists of two pulses of power each
cycle as the current and voltage reach their two
maximums and minimums. The combined
three-phase power output consists of six pulses
and is much smoother and more efficient than a
single-phase generator. Note that the voltage
maximums in the three waveforms are 120
apart, and all three voltages are equal.
HPC Technical Services
Figure 7-13 shows the three stator (armature) windings and the six leads from the armature. The windings
are labeled A-AI, B-Bb and C- C
and are 120 apart. AI, Bb and C
are connected together to form the "neutral".
The generator is "Wye" connected (the windings are shaped like the letter "Y"). This results in higher voltage (less
current) for a given kVA rating . ..
Figure 7-13 Three-Phase Generator wlLoads
The voltages in a three-phase generator are 120 apart. The three-phase waveforms show that Phase Band C
voltages exactly balance Phase A voltage (Figure 7-14a and Figure 7- 14b). The net effect is a large voltage between
A, Band C coil ends, but no voltage between AI, B I and C
coil ends. The sum of all the voltages (or currents) is
zero in a balanced three-phase circuit.
+ A
o ~ l ~
... I
" I ,,"
... ..J;. ;
(a) (b)
Figure 7-14 Balanced Three-Phase Generator Voltages
A three-phase system requires much less wire than a single-phase system. Three phase systems permit large
amounts of power to be transmitted at lower cost than single-phase systems. When single-phase power is required, it
is available from a three-phase system. Large three-phase motors and inductive devices, such as transformers, are
more efficient and less costly than single-phase equipment with the same power ratings. All large power systems are
designed as three-phase systems with customer loads balanced across the phase systems as closely as possible. No
current exists in the neutral unless something happens to disturb the balance. It is customary to connect the neutral to
a "ground" such as the earth.
_1.1 - 7-10
T. HPC Technical Services
In Figure 7-15 we combine our
rotating 2-pole electromagnetic field with
our 3-phase generator windings. It is still
simplified but far more representative of
what these two devices actually look like.
In the figure shown, we see the north pole
directly underneath phase-A, meaning we
are inducing the maximum voltage in that
phase. The rotor is turning clockwise,
therefore the voltage will be on the rise in
phase-B, and be decreasing in phase-C.
Voltage is a function of the speed
that the rotor magnetic field cuts through the
stationary armature windings (we discussed
this earlier).
Fi/.lure 7-15 Rotatill/.l Maj(lletic Field thru 3-Plwse WilUlb'j(S
We will refer to the voltage we induced within the generator windings as the Generator Voltage and will
label the generator voltage as E
We will refer to the voltage measured at the generator terminals as the "Terminal
Voltage" and will label this terminal voltage as E
See Figure 7-16.
Examine this figure and it would appear that the induced and terminal voltages are equal, but we will
demonstrate that the induced and terminal voltages are NOT the same as we continue through the materials.
It is also worth noting that we cannot measure the generator voltage E
. Any physical measurements we
take are what we see at the terminals, E
Control room instrumentation does not indicate E
, they indicate the
terminal voltage only, E
Not Measurable
Figure 7-16 Induced versus Terminal Voltage
Monitored in
Control Room
. ~
HPC Technical Services ~
The next step in our study is to connect the 3-phase generator winding to a load. With a load being applied
there will be current. Often it is said that "cUrrent comes from the generator". This is true, but is very important to
recognize that this load current, in fact, goes through the generator. The generator stator windings are part of the
If there is load current going through the windings there will be a voltage drop (will be .looked in
more detail in later paragraphs).
Current in any conductor will produce a magnetomotive force (MMF) about that conductor. The current in
each phase coil will, therefore, produce a time varying magnetomotive force (MMF) within that coil. The
magnetomotive force is a property that gives rise to magnetic fields. The standard unit of mea"surement is the
ampere-turn (AT) .. This stator magnetic field (magnetomotive force) is referred to as the "Armature Reaction" as
the magnetic field is in reaction to the armature current in the windings. The strength of this Armature Reaction is a
function of the number of turns within the coil and the amount of current through the coil.
Armature Re action = NxI .... .... .... .... ....... .... .... ....... .... ..... .. ........ .... ... ..... .... .... . Equation 1.02
N = number of turns, and
I = current
The load current will be 3-phase as is the generator voltage. 3-phase, alternating current is shown in Figure 7
-17, the current in each of the three phases, peaks 120
apart from each of the other phases.
_1.1 - 7-12
HPC Technical Services
;--- .... , .......... .
? , ....... \ .
Ib ' .... Ie JJ
.. ,
... ,
... ,

'. ,
... ,
, t
, '.
, ....
.-..._--,' ............. .
Figure 7- 17 Three-Phase Generator Sine Waves
In Figure 7-18 we see the 2-Pole rotor
with the rotor magnetic field extending from the
North-Pole. Superimposed on this image is the
magnetic force (Armature Reaction) that exists in
the air gap as aresult of the load current. Look
closely in the air-gap and there is an Armature
Reaction operating at some angle. This Armature
Reaction is broken into its components (making a
right triangle). One component is tangent to the
rotor surface and at a right angle to the rotor
magnetic field. The other component is vertical
(downward) in the direction opposite that ofthe
rotor magnetic field coming out of the North-Pole.
The rotor is driven by the prime-mover,
this rotating torque is the output of the power plant.
The Armature Reaction is a reaction to current
being pulled off of the generator stator due to the
load applied. When these two forces are equal
(they are always opposite) the generator speed will
be constant.
Your understanding of the interaction of
these magnetic fields and prime mover torque is
critical to understanding how a generator functions.
Figure 7-181nteraction of Mflgnetic Fieltls
III tfle Air Gap
We now have two rotating fields in our air gap. The first is generated by us, operators of our power plant.
We provide current through the rotor windings to generate a magnetic field. Then we drive that rotor by what we
refer to as a prime mover. Figure 7-19 illustrates this rotor magnetic field being driven by a small steam turbine.
Figure 7-19 Turbine Driven Magnetic Heltl
We have seen that this magnetic field induces a voltage on the stationary windings. When we close the
circuit breaker we have current to the load. This current results in a rotating magnetic field, in the air gap (this has
been the subject of discussion for the last few pages). The strength and orientation of this rotating stator magnetic
field (Armature Reaction) is a result of the type of load applied (we will study this a little later). Let's freeze the
rotation of our two magnetic fields. Now we can examine a little better exactly what is happening.
7-13 _M -
HPC Technical Services T.
The horizontal component of the
Armature Reaction (that opposes rotation of
the rotor) distorts the magnetic field
. emanating from the rotor windings. See
Figure 7-20. This distorted rotor magnetic
field is forced to run "out-of' its preferred
. magnetic center. The distorted magnetic
field will, therefore, exert a force on the
conductor (the rotor forging) to try to back
the rotor up (this force is much like the force
exerted on a conductor by a horseshoe
magnet that is in the path ofthe magnetic
field). This tangential force trying to back-
up the rotor is opposed by the torque
delivered by the prime mover. If these two
forces are equal, Armature Reaction and
torque, then the speed.ofthe rotor is
Recognize that, in this figure, we have
shown the Armature Reaction (AR) as if it is from a
single stator bar. The AR is actually the some of the .
forces Armature Reactions from each of the three
phases. We show the AR at the air gap as this is
where it is forcing the rotor magnetic field out of its
desired magnetic center. This "Armature Reaction" is
rotating at the same speed as the rotor. So, in Figure
7-20, we are looking at a snapshot in time, a stopped
A mechanical analogy of these air gap forces
is illustrated in Figure 7-21. In this figure the
Armature Reaction analogy is a spring that is exerting
a synchronizing torque, trying to get the rotor to
backup, to return to a load angle of zero. Torque
applied on the rotor via the prime mover, opposes this
synchronizing force. So, again, when the forces in
the air gap are equal, the speed of the rotating rotor is
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Figure 7-20 Air Gap Forces on Rotor
Figure 7-21 Mechanical Analogy of Synchronous
Forces in Air Gap
Active power is that generator output that does
work. This is energy that is transformed into light, heat, or
motion. Active power is the result of current through the
resistive component of the load applied (copper in the
motor copper windings). We have seen that the current to
the load results in an Armature Reaction (AR) within the
generator windings. This armature current is in-phase with
the generator terminal voltage, as seen in Figure 7-22.
This in-phase current results in the Armature
Reaction being at a right angle to the magnetic field
emanating from the rotor North-Pole. Torque from the
prime mover is driving the rotor. These forces are all
illustrated in Figure 7-23.
Looking at the figure one should recognize that if
the prime mover torque and the generator armature reaction
were to be equal, then the speed of the prime mover and
generator will be constant.
If the load were to be increased (someone,
somewhere, turned on a light), then the armature reaction
would increase. The generator speed would slow. It is up
to the governor of the prime mover to adjust mass flow
through the prime mover to halt the speed decay.
Figure 7-22 Resistive Load Characteristics
~ 1 I I l - - - A R
Figure 7-23 Armature Reaction Jill Active Load
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There are two types of reactive power that need to be studied. One is due to the application of inductive
loads (motors and transformers) and the other is due to the application of capaCitive loads (transmission lines).
2.3.1 Inductive Loads
when a pure inductive load is connected to the armature windings; the load causes the phase current to lag
behind the voltage by 90. The reader should recognize that there is no pure inductive load. All coils found in
motor windings, for example, are made of copper. Copper has resistance. This copper results in a resistive load,
discussed in the previous paragraphs on active loads. Here, we are examining, only the inductance aspects of this
load, so for these purposes it can be considered to be pure.
Because of the effect of the inductive load,
the phase voltages is 90 ahead, or, stated differently,
the current lags the voltage by 90. This means that
the current is 90 out of phase from where it was
when a resistive load was applied! See Figure 7-24
for the orientation ofthe load current and terminal
If the current phase changes by 90, then the
angle of the armature reaction, AR, must also shift
by 90, AR is the result of current. We can represent
this effect in a model by merely rotating the AR 90
back from the position shown for an active load.
Figure 7-25 shows the relative positions ofthe rotor
MMF and armature reaction for the case of the
generator loaded with pure inductance.
Notice that the Armature Reaction (AR)
directly opposes the rotor MMF. As a result the
"Net Air Gap" magnetic field strength will decrease,
the induced generator voltage will decrease, meaning
the terminal voltage will decrease as well. It will be
the role of the voltage regulator to detect and
compensate for this voltage decrease.
V ~ L - ~ ___ . _1_ ---'1 X.
Figure 7-24
Phase CurreIU wi Pure Inductive Load ""-'-"
Figure 7- 25
AR wi Pure Inductive Load
This current is 90 out of phase with the terminal voltage because of the inductive element of the load
windings. A magnetic field is created within these windings and it takes current out-of-phase with the voltage to
create this magnetic field.
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The term "VAR" (seen in a meter shown in
Figure 7-26) is used to describe the "reactive power"
flow to create this magnetic field in the winding. A
V AR is a unit of myasure of "reactive power", a
. V AR is the current, that is 90 out of phase with the
terminal voltage, times the voltage. This current is
90 out of phase with the voltage as it must "create
and sustain" this magnetic field within the inductive
device (motor or transformer) so that device can do
work . .
The function of REACTIVE
POWER is to establish mid
sustain a magnetic field in
(lit inductive device, or an
electric fieldin a
capacitive device, such
that the stated device can
perform useful work! .
By convention, inductive V ARs are assigned a
positive (+) sign. These are VARs that must be
supplied by the generators to meet the system
demand. Positive V ARs are referred to as flowing
"Out" of the generator to the system. These inductive,
or lagging, V ARs are used to excite the magnetic
fields of transformers, motors and transmission lines.
Sometimes we referred to this as over-excitation.
Without these Lagging/ Inductive/Positive V ARs,
these magnetic devices would not function as
designed; they would not work. Inductive elements in
a power system are usually referred to as "sinks" of
Figure 7-26 VARs
V ARs, in other words, V ARs flow to them. See Figure 7-27.
VAR's "Out"
Lagging Power Factor
Figure 7-27 Inductive V ARs
2.3.2 Capacitive Loads
When a pure capacitive load is
connected to the stator windings, the phase
current is made to lead the phase voltage.
With a pure capacitive load, the current leads
the voltage by 90. This is illustrated in V)\ - I 1
Figure 7-28. '-(''- _______ --1T Xc
Figure 7-28 Capacitive Circuits
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Because of the effect of the capacitive load, the phase voltages is
90 behind, or, stated differently, the current leads the voltage by 90.
This means that the current is 90 out of phase from where it was when a
resistive load was applied, only in the other direction from the inductive
loading. As we have seen, the angle of the armature reaction, AR, must
also shift by 90 as AR is the result of current. Figure 7-29 shows the
relative positions ofthe rotor MMF and armature MMF for the case of the
generator loaded with pure capacitance. .
Notice that the Armature Reaction (AR) "adds-to" the rotor MMF.
eG20'_004 .
As a result the "Net Air Gap" magnetic field strength will increase, the
induced generator voltage will increase, meaning the terminal voltage will
increase as well. It will be the role of the voltage regulator to detect and
compensate for this voltage increase.
Figure 1-29 Capacitive Loading
By convention, capacitive V ARs are assigned a negative (-) sign. Negative V ARs are referred to as flowing
"In" toward the generator. Capacitive loads, such as capacitive banks and lightly loaded transmission lines, are
referred to as sources of V ARs. This may also be referred to as under-excitation. See Figure 7-30 for an illustration.
VAR ..... .-11- . _-
VAR's "IN"
Leading Power Factor
Figure 7-30 Capacitive V ARs
2.3.3 Mechanical Analogy
The mechanical analogy to a V AR would be a
"wheel barrel". See Figure 7-31. The purpose of a
wheel barrel is to do work more efficiently. In
comparison, the purpose of a motor is to do work more
efficiently. To do work with a wheel barrel one first
puts a load into a wheel barrel, then lifts up on the
handles to acquire a comfortable leverage. Lifting up on
the wheel barrel puts "potential energy" into the wheel
barrel, but in the casual defmition of wanting to do
work, no work was done, the load was not moved
toward its destination. As the operator of the wheel
barrel, however, one can feel the energy in one's arms
and shoulders. Again, there was energy exerted, but no
work was done by our defmition of wanting to move a
load across the room.
Now that a comfortable leverage has been
achieved, the operator can move the load to its
destination. Workhas been accomplished.
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Transmission Lines
Figure 7-31 Wheel Barrel
We would argue that the lifting ofthe wheel barrel to a comfortable leverage is analogous to a VAR
flowing to a motor winding. Reactive current to the motor winding results in the creation of a magnetic field within
the motor .air gap. This magnetic fielq is necessary for the motor to function, the magnetic field requires current to
be created, that current to create a magnetic field is 90 out-of-phase with the voltage supply. No work has been
Now that a magnetic field exists within the motor, active current (current that is in-phase with the voltage --
watts) can exist to cause the rotor to rotate. Once the rotor turns, work is being performed.
2.3.4 Active / Reactive Power Flow
When both inductance and capacitance exist in a
circuit, and they usually do, some or all the V ARs required by
the inductive elements will be supplied by the capacitive
elements. In other words, the capacitive V ARs compensate for
the inductive VAR loading. If there were exactly the same
amount of inductive and capacitive loads, then the capacitive
load would meet the inductive load requirement, and the
inductive load would meet the capacitive load requirement. The
generator reactive power flow would be zero. Zero reactive
power flow is illustrated in Figure 7-32.
(+) M W ~
Figure 7-33 Motor Load
Figure 7-32 Zero Reactive Power
Active power now to
motor results In
torque ouiput of
motor rotor.
We will now consider a situation
where there is, in fact, a combination of
active and reactive loads. A simple
example would be a motor. We require
reactive power to the motor to create and
sustain the magnetic field in the motor air
gap. Then we require active power to the
motor to do the work. This is illustrated in
Figure 7-33.
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Figure 7-34 represents the MFR and AR in this active/reactive loading demonstration. Notice that, the AR is
no longer on the horizontal axis. It is configured to be slightly higher on the right hand side of the drawing. This
configuration of the armature reaction (or AR) means there is a horizontal and a vertical component. The horizontal
component is pushing from right to left. The vertical component is pushing from top down.
The horizontal component of armature reaction (AR) opposes the motion of the rotor - meaning prime
mover torque is required to maintain stability. Again, when the horizontal component ofthe armature reaction is
exactly equal to the torque applied, the rotor frequency will be constant .
The vertical component or amiature reaction (AR) opposes the rotor field strength (MFR). This will result
in a lesser voltage being induced in the generator A lesser voltage will be realized at the generator terminals as a
(decreasing net
/ air gap magnetic
field strength)
of ROTOR (Torque)
Figure 7-34 Active/Reactive Induction Loading
Ifwe were to examine a case where there is a capacitive load (see Figure 7-35), the difference would be that
the vertical component of armature reaction would add to the rotor magnetic field strength, causing a rise in
generator terminal voltage.
of ROTOR ~ " ' U ' I
Figure 7-35 Active/Reactive Capacitive Loading
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(increasing net
air gap magnetic
field strength)
... Figure 7-36 illustrates all the components of the
power triangle for your inspection. Take note of the
following items as you proceed.
. The hypotenuse is the "Apparent Power"
and its measurement is in Kilo-Volt-
The horizontal is the "Real Power" and its
units are Kilo Watts.
Finally, there is the vertical, labeled
"Reactive Power" with units in Kilo V ARs.
Now lets proceed at understanding this
power triangle.
Kilo Watts
Figure 7-36 Power Trifmg/e
We have seen that inside the generator we have a rotating magnet that is created by current passing through
the field windings. This rotating magnet "cuts" through the stationary armature bars and "induces" a voltage in
these armature bars (Figure 7-37). Now, when a load is applied across the armature bars, there will be current
passing through that load. .
Figure 7-37 Gellerator Load
We have stated it before, and will state it again: "Voltage" and "Current" is what is the output of the
generator. "Voltage" is induced by the rotating magnet, and "Current" is passes through the applied load.
We have seen that the load could be resistive, like the copper in the wire. The load could be inductive; motor
and transformer windings are an example. The load could be capacitive; transmission lines capacitance to Earth is
an example. The current through that load may be with the voltage, how much out-of-phase and in
which direction, depends upon the load applied.
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Let's just say that the load applied is some large motor
through some transformers. This means the current will "lag" the
voltage as illustrated in Figure 7-38.
The vector relationship of the voltage applied across the
motor windings and the current through the motor windings is
illustrated in this figure on the screen. Notice the current and
voltage are not in-phase.
o I
~ I
A .
V 10&3014
Figure 7-38 Voltage and Current Load Vectors
We want to study this current in more detail. Let's take our
"Current" vector and move it over so we can analyze it a bit. See
Figure 7-39. Notice we did not change direction or magnitude, no laws
of vectors were violated. The current is now standing alone for our
Figure 7-39 Current Vector . ~ , __
In Figure 7-40 we see the "Current" vector
reduced to its components. Notice the "horizontal
vector" plus the "vertical vector" equal the "original
current vector". Since this is true we can relate this
. statement algebraically. The "current vector - I" is equal
to the sum of the "horizontal current vector - IH" plus
the "vertical current vector - Iv". Study this triangle to
satisfy yourself that this is true.
Now that we've broke this down into an algebraic
statement let's apply another law of algebra. Now this
other algebraic law is that you can multiply one side of
the equation by anything, "providing" you mUltiply the
other side of the equation by the same thing. For
example we could multiply both sides by two, or
eighteen, if we desire. In our case, we're going to
mUltiply both sides of the equation by "V". "V" for
voltage, assumirig the voltage output of our ' generator
is fixed (a valid assumption for our purposes). The
fmal expression is shown on Figure 7-41.
The expression reads: "Current" times the
voltage is equal to "Horizontal Component of Current
times the voltage" plus the "Vertical Component of
Current times the voltage".
Notice, that the "horizontal component of the
current, times the voltage" is parallel to the original
voltage vector outputting our generator. ' Also, the
"vertical component of the current vector, times the
voltage" is perpendicular to the voltage vector
outputting our generator.
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Figure 7-40 Current Vector Components
Figure 7-41 Current times Voltage Vectors
This is pretty meaningful. If you' 11 recall from your study of alternating current circuits, in a purely
inductive circuit, the current lags the voltage by 90 degrees. In a purely resistive circuit, the current is exactly in
phase with the voltage.
Why is this important? Think about it. There is no
device in the control room that directly controls generator
kVA output. Instead, we control the vectorial components
that make up the generator output. We have one controller
that "controls the horizontal component of the current, times
the voltage", this is the prime-mover "Governor". We have
another controller that controls the "vertical component of
the current, times the voltage", this is the Automatic
Voltage Regulator (A VR). So lets give the horizontal and
vertical components a name. See Figure 7-42.
The horizontal component we will call "real
power" and its units is kiloWatts. One kiloWatt (kW) is of
course 1,000 watts. A Watt, is the "voltage" TIMES the
"current that is in-phase with the voltage". This output is
controlled by the governor. This "real power" component
represents that portion of the generat<.>r output that is doing
"real work". The output is being transformed into heat,
light, or motion. Output is adjusted in response to
frequency deviation.
( Governor)
Regul ator
Figure 7-42 Power Triangle
The vertical component we will call "reactive power" and its units is kiloV ARs (kV ARs). A V AR is an
acronym for Volts-Ampere-Reactive, and is the "Voltage" TIMES the "Current that is 90 degrees out-of-phase with
the voltage". This output is controlled by the voltage regulator. This "reactive power" component represents that
portion of the generator output that is required to magnetize inductive circuits or to generate an electric field in
capacitive circuits. By controlling the components of the generator output, we, in-effect, control the generator
Before we conclude, lets do a little housekeeping regarding our explanation of the power triangle. We use
the term "power factor" quite regularly. Let's define it in our schematic on the screen.
PF -
Kilo Watts
Figure 7-43 Power Factor
"Power Factor." What does this term mean? Well, in the
electric power industry, what we are often most concerned
about, is the generation of "real power", kiloWatts. Yet the
generator output is "apparent power", or Kilo-Volt-Amperes. It
might be useful to know what is the relationship between this
"real power" and "apparent power". It might be useful, and it is!
We call this relationship the "Power Factor".
The "Power Factor" describes the ratio between Kilo
Watts and KilO-Volt-Amperes. See Figure 7-43.
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Kilo Watts
A more mathematical term used for "Power Factor" is that
it is the cosine of the angle between the "adjacent side" and the
"hypotenuse" ofthe "Power Triangle". For those with
trigonometric backgrounds you will recall that the cosine of an
angle is the "adjacent side" divided by the "hypotenuse". It is
. the "Power Factor". See Figure 7-44. .
cos (angle) =KVA = Power Factor
As we have seen in our studies, the "Power Factor" may
be lagging or it may be leading, usually it lags. A lagging power
factor means that the current lags the voltage in order tomeet the
requirement of inductive loading. A leading "Power Factor"
means the current leads the voltage in order to meet the demand
of a capacitive circuit. A unity "Power Factor" means the
current is in-phase with the voltage, reactive power output is
Figure 7-44 PF Derivation
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500 Tallevast Road Suite 101
Sarasota, FL 34243 USA
(941) 747-7733 FAX (941) 746-5374
Chapter 8
To better acquaint the participant wIth how a generator is constructed so that we develop a better
understanding of how components are placed at risk during normal/abnormal operations.
At the completion of this section, the student should be able to:
l. Given a cross sectional drawing of the generator, be able to identity the major components.
2. Describe the primary function of each major component of the stator assembly.
3. Describe the primary function of each major rotor assembly component.
4. Provide a basic description of the material that is used for the construction of each major component.
5. Describe how heat is removed from the generator components.
6. Describe how the type of excitation used impacts generator construction.
1999 - TG201J5.0_June09, Printed: 12/14/2010
. 1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 STATOR ASSEMBLY ........................................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Stator Frame ................................................................................................................................ 6
2.2 Stator Core .................................................................................................................................. 10
2.3 Stator Windings ......................................................................................................................... 14
2.4 End Shield! Bearing Bracket ..................................................................................................... 23
2.5 Hydrogen Seals .......................................................................................................................... 24
2.6 Bearings ..................................................................................................................................... 26
2.7 Grounding Brush ....................................................................................................................... 28
3.0 ROTOR ASSEMBLY ........................................................................................................................... 28
3.1 Rotor Body ................................................................................................................................ 29
3.2 Field Windings .......................... : ............................................................................................... 30
3.3 Retaining Rings ......................................................................................................................... 33
4.0 COOLING ............................................................................................................................................. 34
5.0 GENERATOR COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE EXCITER ........................................... 35
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This section of the text covers the basic construction of the typical utility AC generator. Different
manufacturers may have different names for the same component, and we will deal with these as they occur. All
units have similar construction for the major sub-assemblies and the components, which they contain.
The major sub-assemblies of the generator are the stator and rotor. The stator contains all the stationary
parts while the rotor carries the field windings, which make the electro-magnetic field. Each of the assemblies has
their own components whiCh we will look at in this section. .
The stator is the stationary portion of the generator and. contains the stator windings, stator core and the end
shields. Figure 8-01 shows a cross section view of the generator rotor and stator components. Each of the
sections will be discussed separately. Major stator components include:

Armature Windings
End Shield
Stator Core
____ -High Voltage Bushings
Figure 8-01 Generator Components (GE Hydrogen Cooled Generator)
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Figure 8-02 represents a cross-sectional drawing of a Westinghouse manufactured generator. The reader
should locate those major components identified in the previous schematic.
Figure 8-02 Cross-Sectional Drawing of a Westinghouse Manufactured Generator
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Figure 8-03 represents a large ABB manufactured generator. As we proceed through the materials it will
be useful for the reader to draw comparisons of the different units. Again, the reader should carefully note that all
the generator stators have the same components: frame, stator core, armature windings, end-windings, cooler, and
some form of an end shield. All the rotors are manufactured from a forging (although you may find some where. the
rotor is bolted and welded disks) with the field windings wrapped around the forging to create a North and South-
Figure 8-03 Large ABB Manufactured Generator
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Figure 8-04 is a cross-section, for educational purposes of an air-cooled Siemens 4-pole generator. You
should immediately notice that all the same components are found within this generator. The component design
may be different, but the functions are the same. It is the function of these components that we will be studying.
Stator core
C __
Graphic compliments Siemens Power Generation
Figure 8-04 Siemens 4-Pole, Air Cooled Generator
The stator frame (wrapper or casing) functions to carry the weight of the stator core, windings, and the
rotor. In some larger units, this may be a total weight of several hundred tons. It must also be able to withstand the
mechanical shocks caused by electrical faults in the power system and withstand the force of an internal hydrogen
explosion. In order to meet these functions, the stator frame is cylindrically shaped and fabricated of steel plates,
which are welded together. On the inner periphery of the stator frame (Figure 8-05), key bars are located which
serve to position the stator core. On some 2-pole units the key bars are attached at the midpoint of the spring bar
(see Figure 8-06). The spring bars are attached to the section plates within the frame. This design (typically used
only on 2-pole generators) isolates any core vibration from the frame and therefore, the foundation.
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Figure 8-05 Frame for 2-Pole Generators
SpQng Bar
Photograph compliments of Generator Consulting Services, Inc.
Figure 8-06 Core Assembly on Key Bar
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The stator frame rests on feet, as shown in Figure 8-07. These feet are bolted at the horizontal centerline of
the stator. For those of you interested in mechanical alignment, shims are typically placed under these feet to
achieve the desired vertical elevation. The vertical bolting circle seen, is for the attachment of a "trunnion" to use a
hydraulic jack or crane for positioning the frame.
circle for
Figure 8-07 Generator Feet
Located just inside the stator frame are baffle (section) plates and piping which form the gas passages. The
hydrogen (or air) coolers are located in the gas passage. The coolers can either be oriented vertically or horizontally.
The gas is circulated around the finned tubes in the coolers and the heat is carried away by the cooling water system.
Seals are incorporated where the water connections are made to keep hydrogen from leaking out of the frame. See
Figure 8-08 for gas passages.
Figure 8-08 Generator Stator Cooling Passages
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Many machines are hydrogen cooled. These coolers are either assembled in the four corners or in the dome
over the top of the frame. In Figure 8-09 we see a vertical cooler being assembled into the corner of one such
generator stator frame.
Figure 8-09 Hydrogen Coolers
Some hydrogen coolers are mounted in the dome, that is the cooler is horizontiilly positioned at the top of
the generator frame. Another hydrogen cooler, referred to as an "omega" cooler is in the shape of the greek letter
'omega', Q. The water connection is on one side of the omega (see Figure 8-10), with the exit at the other end.
Graphic compliments of Siemens Power Generation
Figure 8-10 Q SIUlpedCooler
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The power produced in the stator is carried out through the high voltage bushings. These are located on the
bottom ofthe stator frame and are connected to the bus ducts, which carry the power to the system. (See Figure
2-11). The high voltage bushings are large porcelain insulators. The insulation is required to prevent the high
voltage from jumping to the stator frame . . The high voltage bushings are cooled, usually by both hydrogen and
Figure 8-11 High Voltage Bushings
Connection to
bus ductwork
N::5I!;"'-- Current Transformers
The stator core is mounted along the inner diameter of the generator frame. The core is constructed to
provide a low resistance path for the magnetic field and to carry the weight of the stator windings. See Figure 8-01
to locate the stator core inside the frame. The iron used to make the core is a silicon steel with about 90% of the
grains lined up along the preferred path for the magnetic field. This makes the resistance of the steel very low and
minimizes the losses (and heat generation) in the core metal.
The core is made from thin laminations (about 0.015-inch thick) of the special steel. (See Figure 8-12).
Each lamination is insulated with an enamel coatingofvamish. On typical units, the laminations are fitted over the
key bars one layer at a time. The layers ate staggered so the butt joints of the punchings do not line up from one
layer to the next. The layers are periodically compressed (or shook on a shaker table) to squeeze any air pockets out
from between the laminations. (See Figure 8-l3). Spacers are also placed in between some layers to form gas
passages in the core that help cool the stator windings and rotor.
Figure 8-12 Typical Stator Core Punching
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Stator Frame
Figure 8-13 Core Assembly
Figure 8-14 illustrates some core laminations with these inside spacers that will, when assembled, create
this gap for coolant passage.
Figure 8-14 Laminations w/Spacers
Figure 8-15 shows a small stator core removed from the stator frame. In this view you can see the section
plates that support the core, within the frame, at the core outer diameter.
Section Plate
Photograph compliments of Aistom Power, Richmond VA
Figure 8-15 Stator Core OD.
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A picture of the core on a small unit (being repaired in a service shop) is seen in Figure 8-16. On the left
you see a core assembled. The inner diameter of the core is viewed on the right. The inside spacer block creates a
gap between the layered core assembly. This gap allows cooling gases to flow from/to the air gap through the core.
Photograph oompliments of Aision Powe<. Rittlmond. VA Photograph oompliments of Alsion Power.Richmond. VA
Figure 8-16 Small Stator Core
A regular core lamination is seen in Figure 8-17. Each one of the laminations, once punched, is coated in a
varnish such that each lamination is electrically insulated from each adjacent lamination. This is to prevent the
existence of eddy currents due to passing rotor magnetic field.
Photograph compliments of Aistom Power. Richmond VA
Figure 8-17 Laminations
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Figure 8-18 illustrates a generator positioned vertically in the factory to facilitate the stacking of the core.
Notice the punchings, the key slots on the outer diameter of the punchings, and the key bars along the inside
diameter of the frame. Figure 8-19 illustrates the use of outside spacer blocks. These outside spacer blocks help to
. keep the core compressed along the fIngers ofthe slots.
Figure 8-18 Core Being Stacked . Figure 8-19 Outside Spacer Blocks
Westinghouse generator cores are mounted on a 'building bolt' then tightened together using "through bolts".
Figure 8-20 below illustrates a single Westinghouse core punching. Notice the "J" hook at the outer diameter where
the punching assembles onto the 'building bolt'. The hole through the center is where the "through bolts" tighten the
core axially.
Photograph compliments of AGTServices. Amsterdam. NY
Figure 8-20 W Through Bolt Core Punching
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Once the core stacking is completed, a clamping ring is bolted on the ends ofthe key bars. This ring helps
keep the core compressed. A photograph of the clamping ring and key bar nut is seen in Figure 8-21 below.
Figure 8-21 Clamping Ring
The stator winding (Figure 8-22) is where the AC power is produced in the generator by moving the
magnetic field through the conductors, which make up the windings. Recall from the previous section that there are
three sets of stator windings, one for each of the three phases. In this figure you also see the liquid connections
carrying stator cooling water to/from these windings.
Figure 8-22 Stator Windings
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Each phase of the stator winding is made up of a set number of stator bars, which are connected in series.
See Figure 8-23 for a drawing of the stator-winding diagram. The inner section of this drawing diagrams the
collector end of the machine, including connection rings (in the very middle) to the High Voltage Bushings.
The outer section of this drawing diagrams the turbine end of the generator stator windings. At the center
is the stator bar located within its slot along the length of the core. Notice there is an upper and a lower bar.
The colors in the figure highlight each of the three phases to aid your reading this schematic. Examine this
figure closely and locate T-2 at the end of the red phase. Follow these connections:
1. On the collector end (CE) this red phase becomes the bottom bar of slot 1.
2. On the turbine end (TE) of slot 1, the red phase is brazed to the top bar of slot 16.
3. On the CE this bar is brazed to the bottom bar of slot 2.
4. On the TE this bar (from slot 2) is brazed to the top bar of slot 17 ...... and so on.
Figure 8-23 (GE) Stator Winding Diagram
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Figure 8-24 shows the collector end of a stator core removed from the frame. Notice the end windings,
especially where the connection rings (in this case - upward) route current from the windings toward the
connections to external bus duct work.
Figure 8.;.24 CE Connection Rings
Photog!Olph oompllmenb of Aislom Power. Richmond VA
Here (Figure 8-25) we see the stator windings contained with the slot of the core. Notice there are two bars
per slot (as we seen in the stator winding diagram). The top bar is identified as that bar closest to the air gap. We' ll
look at some of the detail later. For now, notice there are multiple strands of copper that make up the bar; i.e., the
stator bar is not solid.
Figure 8-25 Slot Assembly
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The conductors within the bar are not straight, but twisted as shown in Figure 8-26. This "Roebel
Transposition" has each conductor occupying all available positions for an equal distance along the bar. With this
twisting, every bar is cut by an equal amount of magnetic flux, generates the same current (and, therefore heat) and
no single bar is hotte.r than any of the others. The bars are insulated after the twisting occurs and then baked to
harden the insulation.
Simple Roebel Bar Showing Transposition of Strands
Photogltlph oompllments of Natlonat Electric Coit, Columbus OH
Figure 8-26 Stator Conductors
Figure 8-27 below is a mock-up of these conductors changing positions within the stator bar as the
conductors (strands) extend the length of the bar.
Figure 8-27 Roebel
Transposition Mock-Up
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The conductors may be hollow, or cooling tubes may be incorporated into the bar between solid
conductors. These features are used for internal cooling of the bars. Heat generated within the bar must be removed
before it damages the insulation. On larger units the insulation prevents this from being effective from outside the
bar. Some GE units use hollow conductors and pump water through the inside of the conductor. Westfughouse will
use cooling tubes and direct hydrogen through the tubes.
Figure 8-28 illustrates three different stator armature bars. On the left we see a solid strand bar that might
be found on an older or smaller unit. In the middle we have a hydrogen cooled bar, a type used often by .
Westinghouse. On the right, you will notice the hollow strands that permit water (at 0.2 flMho/cm) to cool the bar.
The internal voltage of any of these bars could be 20-kV or higher. Some bars are constructed where every strand is
Photograph compliments of Natlonat Electric Coli . Columbus OH
Figure 8-28 Water Cooled Stator Bar
Once the bars are formed, they are. placed in the slots formed by the fingers of the core laminations, as
shown in Figure 8-29. A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is often placed in the slot, usually between the
upper and lower bars. Not all slots will have a RTD.
Figure 8-29 Slot
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Side to side movement of the bars in the slot is often prevented by driving a "S" shaped spring into the slot
between the bars and the side wall. This "S" shaped spring is a molded glass type conductive material (carbon is
imbedded in this material) as seen in Figure 8-30 below.
Figure 8-30 "S" Spring
Insulation is also laid on top of the bar. The bars are pressed into the slot and the use of another "S" spring
and wedges keep the bars tight within that slot. The wedges extend full length of the slot: The stator bars extend
beyond the end ofthe slot and become end-windings. Examples of these stator wedges are shown in Figure 8-31
and 2-32. A 2 tapered wedge was chosen as an example for no particular reason. The taper, however, helps
achieve the desired downward forces acting on the bars within the slot.
Photograph compliments of AGT Services, Amsterdam, NY
Figure 8-31 2 Tapered Stator Wedge
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Figure 8-32 illustrates a top ripple spring and wedge with gage holes. The gage holes allows the
compression of the spring to be measured.
Photograph compliments of AGT Services, Amsterdam, NY
Figure 8-32 Ripple Spring & Wedge w/Gage Holes
In Figure 8-33 one can see the top bars in position, tied together with the glass roving tie. Some of the bars
have been brazed and taped (in the center) and others have brazing in progress.
Figure 8-33 Winding Assembly
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The overhanging bars (the end-windings) are connected together to join our 2-phases. The end windings
are brazed together and then wrapped with insulation. Figure 8-34 illustrates an end clip for a GE water cooled
stator bar. On the left you see the copper strands within the end clip. On the right you see an end clip (without the
bar assembled yet) being bolted to the laminate piece that will be brazed to the end of the series bar.
Photographs provided by AGT Services, Amsterdam NY
Figure 8-34 Emf Clip for GE Water Cooled Stator Bar
Figure 8-35 shows a generator stator in the process of being rewound. Notice how the laminations are laid
in place and are brazed to the in-series bar.
Figure 8-35 Brazed Emf Windings
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The end windings are supported by fastening them to the clamping ring as shown in Figure 8-36. Due to the
large mechanical forces applied to this area by the rotating magnetic field, the assembly in this area of the generator
is critical. The end windings must be able to withstand the vibration caused by the magnetic field during operation
and the mechanical forces involved when a fault occurs during operation. This area is .also subjected to the
differential expansion between the core metal and the copper conductors. As before, the end winding support system
will vary with different manufacturers, and from unit to unit.
____ ...... BAR ASSY.
Figure 8-36 End Winding Support
Figure 8-37 illustrates an ASB stator bar assembled in the core slot. Notice the spacer, packing and wedge.
The intention of these components is to keep the bar tightly positioned in the core slot. Alstomnow constructs a
stator bar, such as the one shown here, only the hollow conductors are made of stainless steel.
'W.-..---- PACKING
Figure 8-37 ABB Stator Bar
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The end of the stator frame is closed by the end shields (GE term) or the bearing bracket (W term). They
are similar in construction. This end shield is seen in Figure 8-38. Notice the vertical and horizontal bolting
surfaces. The horizontal joint is where the upper half will assemble to the lower half. The vertical joint is where
both halves will assemble to the end of the generator frame. This end shield contains the journal bearing to support
the generator rotor. On a hydrogen cooled generator, the end shield must also contain the hydrogen seals, whose
purpose is to keep the hydrogen gas inside the generator frame. Notice the heavy ribbing that appears on the outside
of this generator end shield. These stiffening ribs are welded in place and will support the rotor and is capable of
withstanding the force of an internal hydrogen explosion.
Journal Bearing -' __ .-:0

End Shield
(or Bearing Bracket)
Figure 8-38 Eml Shield
Here (in Figure 839) we see an upper half end shield sitting on the floor. Notice the ribbing, vertical and
horizontal bolting surfaces.
Figure 8-39 GE Upper
Half End Shiehl
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The horizontal joint of the lower half of a GE end shield is illustrated in Figure 8-40. Notice the location of
the journal bearings, hydrogen seals, and the oil deflectors. The bearing supports the generator rotor. Hydrogen
seals, shown here, are gapped to the rotor. Oil is routed between the two seals such that it flows along the rotor
surface toward the inside and outside seal areas. This oil flow inhibits any oil leakage. The inner oil deflector is .
intended to prevent the oil from getting into the generator casing. Look carefully at this figure and you should see
grooving along both the horizontal and vertical joint surfaces. This grooving is also to prevent hydrogen leakage.
Photograph compliments of Turbine Services, Inc. , Monaca PA
Figure 8-40 GE End Shields
A closer view of the GE Hydrogen sealrings is illustrated in Figure 8-41 , below. Seal oil passes between
the rings to seal against H2 leakage along the rotor surface.
Photograph compliments of Turbine Services. Inc., Monaca PA
Figure 8-41 GE Hydrogen Seal Ring
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A cross section of a GE hydrogen seal ring is seen in Figure 8-42. Oil enters from the top middle, flows
down between the air side and gas side seal rings. This oil then flows in both directions along the surface of the
rotor, affecting a seal against hydrogen leakage.
Figure 8-42 GE Hydroge/1 Seal Rillg
A cross section ofa Westinghouse hydrogen seal ring is seen in Figure 8c43.Westinghouse utilizes a
hydrogen side and an air-side oil. . The hydrogen-side oil (shown blue) flows out to the right along the shaft surface.
The air-side oil (shown reddish) flows out to the left along the shaft surfaces. If these two oil pressures are the same
(and they are supposed to be), then there is no oil mixing that occurs. This ring is contained inside the end bearing
Figure 8-43 W Hydrogen Seal Rillgs
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A generator bearing is shown in Figure 8-44. These generator bearings are typically either elliptical or
cylindrical, depending upon the OEM. These type bearings are very stable under high load conditions. For those of
you familiar with turbine bearings, the major difference is that the generator bearings may be insulated. This
insulation is used to prevent any high voltages on the generator shaft from seeking ground potential through the
bearings. This action would result in arcing and pitting as the potential arcs across an oil film. By insulating the
bearing it is neutral (not grounded), therefore there is no attraction of the rotor high voltage.
Figure 8-44 W Generator Bearing
Often, only one of the generator bearings is insulated, usually the collector end. This creates some
difficulties in checking the integrity of the insulation. If the rotor in place, the rotor provides a ground path, meaning
the rotor needs to be isolated from the bearing when meggering the insulation. This can be a big task.
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On the modern GE units they make use of a double insulated bearing ring on the collector end only. This
double insulation is illustrated in Figure 8-45 below. This design allows for meggaring of the insulation without
having to account for ground paths through the rotor. Notice the center ring in insulated from both the rotor surface
and the ground potential of the generator frame . .
Figure 8-45 Double Bearing
Figure 8-46 shows an exploded view of one of these bearings. Notice the bearing feed near the horizontal
joint, in this case the supply pressure is 25-psig through a strainer and an orifice. The orifice meters the oil flow so
the volume of oil carefully matches the bearing requirements (on some other designs the pipe size from the header
supply to the bearing is determined based upon the oil flow requirements). Drain passage is out the right side of the
figure through a sight box. This particular bearing utilizes a lift pump arrangement - notice the life pump supply
holes at the bottom centerline of the lower half bearing ring. This is a high pressure oil supply intended to float the
rotor during turning gear operation.
011 Feed
... Orlftce
Coll ector End
Outer Ring
Collector End
Inner Ring
Generator Bearing

Sight Box
From LO

1501 VLV
LI Pump
Figure 8-46 Exploded View ojGEGenerator Bearing
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On these double insulated units a ground strap
rides the turbines end of the generator rotor. See Figure 8-
47 for an illustration of one such ground strap. It is a
braided copper strap riding the rotor surface and bolted to
the bearing cap.
Figure 8-47 Braided Copper Ground Strap
. Photograph compliments of Alstom Power, Richmond VA
The rotQr serves as a rotating electro-magnetic field whose strength can be varied to control the output of
the generator stator windings. In Figure 8-48, you see conductor bars bringing excitation current along the bore of
the rotor to the inside of the machine. Connections are then made to the rotor windings. As with the stator, we will
discuss the major components that make up the rotor assembly.
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Figure 8-48 Rotor Assembly
The rotor body is machined from a solid steel forging, similar to that of the turbine rotors. The couplings,
bearing journals, hydrogen seal areas; collector rings and fan mounting area all machined into the surface of the
rotor. The center bore of the rotor will also be machined, as with the turbine rotor. Some foreign manufacturers will
use built up rotor bodies made from individual forgings which are then welded together. The couplings and
collector rings can be shrunk fit on the rotor but an area must still be machined to accept them.
The rotor body will be machined with
longitudinal slots which will carry the field
windings. The machining of the slots is carefully
controlled to minimize the possibility of
mechanical unbalance' in the rotor due to the
machining. Slots are machined on opposing sides
of the rotor at the same time and, when the slots
are completed, the rotor is tun led 180 degrees and
the next set of slots are machined. This process
evens out the differences between the slots caused
by the tool bits. A picture of a rotor body is seen
in Figure 8-49.
Figure 8-49 Machi11ed Rotor Forging
The center bore of the rotor is machined to accept the electrical connection between the exciter and the
, field windings. (See Figure 8-50). The field windings are connected to the collector rings through terminal studs
and copper conductors, which run through the bore (bore copper). The copper conductors are then connected to the
field windings with more terminal studs. The terminal studs are sealed where they penetrate the rotor to prevent
hydrogen from leaking from the generator out to the collector.
The collector rings are shown in the picture to the right. Notice there are two rings; one to bring current in
and the other to direct it outward to the excitation system. The rings are labeled as ' +' and' -', you should be aware
that the orientation is a function of how the circuits are wired. On some plants the polarity is reversed regularly as it
is understood the rate of ware on the collector rings is a function of the direction of the current. To the left of the
left ring you should notice the terminal stud that connects from the collector ring to the bore copper.
Figure 8-50 Collector
End Connectiol1s
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In Figure 8-51, we can see the bore copper inside the bore of the rotor. Notice the plus/minus connections,
the two pieces of bore copper are insulated from each other and from the forging itself.
Figure 8-51 Bore Copper
The conductors are connected in loops, which are called turns. Each turn is made of flat copper bars which
are around 14" thick and, after being laid in the slot, brazed to the others. In the photograph (Figure 8-52) we see
pre-manufactured flat copper bars (turns) suspended above the forging. These turns of copper will be laid into the
forging slot.
Photograph compliments of National Electric Coil, Columbus OH
Figure 8-52 Rotor Windings being Installed into Forging
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In Figure 8-53 we see a rotor being wound. We start by insulating the slot with "slot armor (insulation)".
This prevents the turns of copper from going to ground with the forging. Next we lay in the first turn of copper.
The collector end of this turn is brazed to the terminal stud, connecting back to the excitation supply. Now we lay in
a "turn separator", a piece of insulation that prevents the copper turns from shorting out with each other. A new turn
of copper can now be positioned on top of the turn separator. The beginning of this new turn of copper will be
brazed to the end of the turn previously installed. We continue until the slot is filled.
Once this slot is filled, we start on the next slot out from the pole. The beginning ofthis 2hd slot is brazed
to the end of the 1 st slot.
Figure 8-53 Coil Stacks
Photogl1lph compliments of AGTServloes. Amsterdam NY
In this Figure 8-54 we see a rotor completely wound. Notice, that the radial lead makes connection to the
terminal stud along the rotor surface. The lead travels along the surface of the rotor, and will be brazed to the
bottom turn of the I st slot. The turns of copper then make their way to the top of the slot, and in the picture you can
see where the top turn of the first slot is brazed to the top turn of the 2nd slot. At the end of the pole, the bottom tum
of the last slot is brazed to the bottom turn of the last slot of the opposite pole.
Figure 8-54 End Windings
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The coil to coil connection seen here (Figure 8-55 is what is used to braze the two coils together. The pole
to pole connection is made out of sight, under the end windings, buy you should be able to visualize the connection.
The loops allow for relative movement due to mechanical forces and expansion.
Figure 8-55 Pole to Pole and Coil to Coil Connections
The next issue of concern is the containment ofthe rotor end windings. In service, the centrifugal forces .
acting on these windings is significant. Notice in the photo (Figure 8-56, how exposed these windings are to
centrifugal forces (you may also notice that a couple slots remain to be filled). These windings must be held in
position, but in such a manner that expansion is permitted. A wedge is inserted along the rotor slot. An insulator is
laid between the wedge and the copper turn. The wedge may be made of steel, but is often aluminum.
Figure8-56 Field Windings Set into the Forging
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Figure 8-57 illustrates a wedge which will be installed in the slots of the rotor forging to hold the generator
windings (turns) within their slots.
Photograph compliments of Aistom Power, Richmond VA
Figure 8-57 Rotor Wilulillg Wedge
The retaining rings prevent the field winding end turns from flying out during rotation due to centrifugal
force. Blocking pieces (also known as spacers) placed between the end turns and the retaining ring hold the turns in
place. The retaining ring is made of non-magnetic steel and is shrunk fit onto the rotor body or a special collar
machined onto the rotor. Since the retaining rings experiences force from the inside, it is usually the most highly
stressed component in the unit. The two separate designs are shown in Figure 8-58.

Figure 8-58 Retaillillg Rillgs
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Sometimes we' re asked, "Why is the generator hydrogen cooled?" The answer is illustrated in Table 2-01.
L Hydrogen has the least speCific gravity, i.e., it is the least dense, therefore requires less energy to
circulate within the machine. This means circulating hydrogen inside the machine requires less loss.
2. Hydrogen has the best specific heat, meaning it is more capable to carry heat away with it, 17 times
more capable than air, and 3 times better than helium.
3. Finally, hydrogen hasthe best thermal conductivity, meaning it is more capallie to pick up heat off of
an object.
Air Hvdroe:en Helium
Speci./k Gravity 1.0 0.07 0.14
Spec!ficHeat 0.24 3.42 1.25
Thermal Conductivil:J' 0.014 0.097 0.082
Table 2-01 Advantages of Hydrogen
The single disadvantage, of course, is the explosiveness of hydrogen.
Mixtures of hydrogen in air between 4.1 % and 74.2% are explosive. One
point worthwhile making at this point is that anyone working around a
hydrogen cooled generator should always (always!) respect the environment
in which you are working.
The rrianner in which the rotor windings are cooled varies by OEM,
size, and age. Here (Figure 8-59) we see a radial cooled coil slot. It is found
on smaller 2-pole and many of the 4-pole units. The hydrogen is blown under
the retaining rings from both sides and flows toward the middle in the sub slot
shown in the drawing. Hydrogen flows from the sub slot, radially upward
toward the air gap, through the rotor turns and wedge. This design has the
advantage that it brings the windings in direct contact with the hydrogen. It
has a disadvantage in that the machine will be warmer toward the middle.
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Figure 8-59 Radial Cooled Coil Slot
. In this drawing (Figure 8-60) we see an Indirect
Cooling system, often referred to as "conventional", and is
found on smaller units. There is no flow through the rotor
windings, there is flow, however, through a ventilating duct
located adjacent to the rotor winding slot. This method cools
the surrounding area, cannot cool the rotor windings as well,
and also results in a warmer center.
. Figure 8-60 Indirect Cooling System
The diagonal cooling system, shown in Figure 8-61, is the most efficient. In this design the wedge
"scoops" hydrogen out of the air gap. The cooling gas then flows radially downward in the slot and, at the same
time, flows axially downstream. After it gets to the bottom of the slot it comes back out to the air gap in the outlet
section. At the outlet section,tbe wedge has a raised leading edge so a negative back pressure (relatively speaking)
is developed, pulling the hydrogen back into the air gap.
Figure 8-61 Diagonal FlolV Cooling System
On many units the excitation current is from a stationary source. This means we need to transfer the
excitation CUlTent from a stationary source to the rotating windings. Collector rings are used for this purpose. The
collector rings seen in Figure 8-62 are fit onto the forging and are wired to the bore copper through terminal studs,
shown. Notice the collector ring grooves are machined in a helical fashion. Also a fan ring pulls air across the
surface of the rings when the unit is rotating. The combination of these rings and the moving air, keeps the rings
clean. You would also notice a slight discoloration on the rings, where the brushes ride. This is an oxide film and is
good, in the sense that it improves electrical conductivity between the ring surface and the carbon brushes.
Figure 8-62 Collector Rings
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Photograph compliments of Aistom Power, Richmond VA
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The brushes are made of carbon and are contained in magazines like that shown in Figure 8-63. A number
of these magazines fit into the brush holder rigging that surrounds the collector rings. This magazine uses a coil
type spring to hold the brushes in contact with the collector rings. These springs are a significant improvement over
the more conventional helical springs which are used in older GE and Westinghouse brush holder designs like that
shown in Figure 8-64. This is because the coil type spring produces a constant pressure on the brushes regardless of
brush wear.
Figure 8-63 Brush Magazine
Figure 8-64 Collector Brush Holder Rigging (GE)
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CARBON S ~ U S f - ! E S
In Figure 8-65 we see the complete circuit.
1. Current enters from the + excitation source via the outboard brush rigging onto the collector ring
surfa,ce. . ' . ' . .
2. .This current then goes onto the axial lead (or bore copper) and passes inside the machine to an internal
terminal stud.
3. The current now goes through the rotor windings.
4. Current exits on the other side through a rotor lead, terminal stud, axial lead (bore copper), terminal
stud, to the other collector ring.
5. ' The excitation culJ'ent then returns via the other set of carbon brushes to the - excitation source.
Figure 8-65 Collector Rings ami Brushes
The force developed by the helical spring is dependent upon the spring compression which in turn depends
upon the length of the individual brushes. Thus, as the brush wears and becomes shorter and the force developed by
the spring is reduced. The helical spring tension must be adjusted to restore the proper spring tension as the brush
wears. If the spring tension is allowed to deteriorate below the minimum acceptable, the brushes begin to loose
contact with the collector and arcing between the brushes and collector results. This roughens the surface of the
collector and results in more loss of contact, more arcing and further deterioration.
Another means of getting DC power to the rotor windings is from an rotating exciter as shown in Figure 8-
66. Notice the exciter rotor, it is a rotating armature winding. It rotates inside the path of a stationary field, created
by the exciter stator. The AC output is directed to the rotating rectifier wheel shown to the outboard. Once
rectified, the DC power is transferred along the rotor bore to the generator, where it connects to the main generator
rotor windings.
Figure 8-66 Rotating
The rotating rectifier wheel (on the brushless exciter) is shown in Figure 8-67 below.
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Figure 8-67 Rotating Rectifier Wheel used on a Brushless Exciter
HPC Technical Services
500 Tallevast Road Suite 101
Sarasota, FL 34243 USA
(941) 747-7733 FAX (941) 746-5374
Chapter 9
To familiarize the reader with generator auxiliary systems, their components and functions.
At the completion of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Given the identity of a generator auxiliary system, describe the system function.
2. Identify the three functions of the gas control system.
3. Identify the reasons why hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large AC generators.
4. Identify how stator cooling water is treated to maintain good insulating properties.
1999 - TG201J5.0_June09, Printed: l2/14/2010
1.0 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 SYSTEMS ............................................................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Gas Control System ..................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Generator Shaft Seal System ....................................................................................................... 6
2.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 6
2.2.2 Basic Principles ...................................................................................................................... 6
2.2.3 GE System .............................................................................................................................. 7
2.2.4 Westinghouse System ............................................................................................................. 8
2.3 Stator Water Cooling System .................................................................................................... 10
2.4 Stator Oil Cooling System ......................................................................................................... 11
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In this section we will study four "auxiliary systems" needed for main generator operation. They are the gas
control, generator shaft seal, stator oil cooling and stator water cooling systems. Two other systems are also needed;
they will be mentioned but not studied here.
One system not studied here is the lube oil system. It also supplies the turbine and is studied in that part of
the book.
The lube oil system supplies the generator and exciter bearings and the exciter reduction gear ifthere is
one. It also supplies oil to the generator shaft seal system.
The other system we will not study is the cooling water system. This system is not usually considered part
of the turbine-generator unit for maintenance purposes. The cooling water system supplies the hydrogen coolers, the
Alterrex generator air coolers (if any) and heat exchangers used to cool generator shaft seal oil and stator water
cooling system water.
As we have already learned, large modem generators are sealed up and filled with hydrogen gas, which is
circulated by fans to cool the insides of the machine. The warm hydrogen is cooled by water-filled heat exchangers
built inside the generator frame.
The purposes of the gas control system are to keep the hydrogen in the generator at the proper pressure, to
keep it pure, and to permit removing the hydrogen and replacing it when needed. Hydrogen will bum and is very
explosive when mixed with air, so the gas control system must be built to keep hydrogen and air from mixing
together at any time.
There are three main reasons for using hydrogen for generator cooling:
1. It has better cooling properties than air or any other gas.
2. Windage losses are greatly reduced, compared to air cooling.
3. Maintenance costs are reduced.
To point # 1. Hydrogen picks up and carries away heat much better than air or any other gas. A pound of
hydrogen will carry fourteen times as much heat as a pound of air for the same temperature change. It also picks up
heat from a solid surface 50 percent better than air. The ability of hydrogen to remove heat is also proportional to its
density, therefore, the higher the pressure - the more the heat can be removed.
To point #2. The density of hydrogen is 1I14th that of air at a given pressure and temperature. Thus, the
windage losses ofthe generator rotor are greatly reduced with the use of hydrogen. Also, the power needed to drive
the fans on the rotor is greatly reduced.
To point #3. Maintenance costs are reduced because the inside of a hydrogen cooled generator stays clean
and dry compared to an air cooled unit.
The drawback of course is that hydrogen is explosive when mixed with air in the range of 4.1 % through
74.2% hydrogen in air, by volume. Approximately 30% hydrogen in air is the most explosive mixture.
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The generator casing is built strong enough to limit (not eliminate) the destructive effects of an explosion in
the generator enclosure. However, with the proper precautions, hydrogen explosions will not occur. The obvious
safeguards to the prevention of a hydrogen explosion are:
l. - Never permit an explosive mixture to exist, and
2. any possible source of ignition.
Item 2, the elimination of sources of ignition, should always be stressed and all corresponding rules should -
be followed at all times.
The part about never permitting an explosive mixture to exist leads us directly to the subject of the Gas
Control System.
When a new generator comes from the factory or wheri an older one is reassembled after an outage, it is of
course filled with air. In order to operate, the air must be replaced with hydrogen. Since air and hydrogen cannot be
mixed without danger, we will have to first remove the air and replace it with a gas that is not combustible with air
or hydrogen, and do it in such a way that we do not mix the gases as we are replacing them.
The gas used is carbon dioxide (C0
). The process is relatively simple. We'll just replace all the air with the
and then we'll replace all the CO
with hydrogen. To remove the hydrogen the order will be reversed: replace
all the hydrogen with CO
and then replace all the CO
with air. Of course, there are some important procedures that
must be followed and limits that must not be exceeded.
Figure 9-01 shows the basic idea of
changing from Air to CO
. As you can see,
there are two distribution pipes located inside
the generator casing: one on the bottom and one
on the top. Since CO
is about II times heavier
than air, we'll admit CO
very slowly in the
bottom distribution pipe while the top pipe is
connected to a vent to the atmosphere. We do
this slowly to reduce the mixing of gases. We
want a rising layer of CO
to force out the layer
of air. We will continue this until there is no
more air in the casing. Once all the air is gone,
and this has been confirmed without doubt, we
can begin to input hydrogen.
Changing From CO
to H
- - - - - - - - - - I ~
CO2 "-
To ~ ....
Vent --7 --
...... -H
Figure 9-02 Changing From CO
to Hydrogen (H)
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Changing From Air to CO
- - ,--
'. :. : .. ~ : t .. 1 .: .. : .. 1 I ..
J ~
.. L-
Figure 9-01 Changing From Air to CO
Hydrogen is much lighter than CO
, (only
about one twenty second as heavy) so to apply the
same principles we will admit hydrogen from the top
and allow the CO
to escape from the bottom. This, of
course, will require some valve adjustments. Figure
9-02 shows the basic idea of changing from CO
Hydrogen (H). With the necessary valving done, we
can begin to input hydrogen, again at a very slow
rate, allowing the upper layer of hydrogen to force
out the lower layer of CO
. Once we have practically
pure hydrogen in the generator we can close the vent
line and pressurize the generator casing. Hydrogen
pressure is always kept above atmospheric pressure
so air cannot leak in. The highest rated pressure
depends on the unit design but is usually at least 15
psig and may be as high as 75 psig.
When the generator is full of hydrogen and we want to remove it, the process is reversed. The hydrogen is
released from the upper distribution pipe through the vent to the outside. When the pressure is down to near
atmospheric, CO
is put in through the lower pipe until all the hydrogen is forced out.
": ' ": ' ,,:_ ,,: . ,': ' ,' : ' ,': _ ,' :_ ,' :, ,0: -
: .. : .. : .. : : .: .. : .. : .. : .. : .. : .
Figure 9-02 shows the piping
and valve arrangement. Valve81B is a
plug valve that can have only two
positions; the one shown, or connecting
81 A and 82. With a little study you can
figure out how the valves would have to
be "lined up" for each step of the
People cannot breathe CO
; they
will suffocate. This means that CO
be removed from the generator and
replaced with air before anyone can work
inside. This is done by connecting a dlY
air supply to the CO
supply piping.
There is usually a connection already
there, used for leak testing. The gas
control system valves are set exactly as
they are for replacing air with CO
air is blown through the generator for
SUPPLY several hours with the vent valve (74)
wide open.
Figure 9-03 Valves ami Piping Arrangemel1t
The manhole covers in the generator end shields may then be taken off (taking care that there is no pressure
in the generator). Temporary fans are then set up to blow air in one end of the generator and out the other. The
atmosphere inside the generator should be tested before anyone enters, especially in the lower parts such as the high
voltage bushing enclosure (sometimes called the "bathtub"). CO
weighs about 50% more than air so it tends to
settle in the low spots.
You might ask - why not put the temporary air supply into the hydrogen distribution tube at the top of the
generator and vent the CO
out of the bottom, as is done when fillingwith hydrogen? To avoid the possibility of an
explosion, air is never allowed to enter the generator through the hydrogen distribution tube.
The gas analyzer, more appropriat.ely called the thermal conductivity gas analyzer, is an i.nstrument which measures .
the amount of air in CO
or hydrogen in CO
It is used to tell the operator what is happening while the gasses are
being changed. The scale reads in percent, 0-100% air in CO
, and 0-100% H2 in CO
. It works on the basis that
different gases have different thermal cbnductivities. The thermal conductivity of the mixture bftwo gases varies
from the conductivity of one gas to the conductivity of the other gas. The conductivity of the mixture at any moment
in time is dependent upon relative quantities of the two gases. Electrical current is simply introduced to a filament
that is exposed to the sampled gas. The temperature rise of the filament will be a function of the thermal
conductivity of the gas concentration. This sample, of course, is drawn off the vent pipe near the generator as shown
in Figure 9-02.
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The Hydrogen Control Panel is usually located one or two floor levels below the generator. It looks much
like any electrical control panel, about three feet square and seven feet high. Tubing or small diameter pipe runs
from it to various parts ofthe gas control system.
The hydrogen control panel contains gauges and alarms as listed below.
Machine Gas Pressure Gauges
Machine Gas - Pressure (High & Low) AlarmPressure Switches
Differential Fan Pressure
Gauge Gas Analyzer
Gas Analyzer Flowmeter
Gas Analyzer Filter Dryer
The hydrogen control cabinet also contains signal lamps and alarm horns which are used to indicate
trouble. Access to the gauges and the alarm system is through doors in the back of the control cabinet.
Pipes lead to and from a gas dryer outside the generator. Hydrogen continuously passes through a drying
agent which absorbs any water vapor that may be present.
Pipes lead from all the low points in the generator casing to a liquid detector on the floor level below.
Because of the sensing line location any liquid in the generator frame will flow to and collect in this detector. A
sight glass allows the operator to see anything in the detector. A float switch monitors the level of liquid within the
detector and will cause an alarm should liquid collect.
2.2.1 Introduction
The purpose of the generator shaft seal system is to seal the clearance space where the generator rotor
passes out through the end shields, so that hydrogen cannot leak out. The system is sometimes called the "seal oil
There are some basic principles that are used on all systems. We will explain these first. Then we will study
the GE system and the Westinghouse systems in tum, pointing out how the basic principles are used but with
different construction details.
2.2.2 Basic Principles
The seal itself is a film of oil that fills the clearance space between the moving rotor shaft and the
surrounding stationary part. If the clearance space is full of oil with a pressure greater than the
hydrogen pressure, the hydrogen cannot leak out.
The clearance is actually between the rotor and stationary "seal rings" which fit accurately around the
shaft with an even clearance of several mils (thousandths of an inch) all around. The rings are of
various designs but all have a soft metal surface facing the shaft.
The seals are a few inches inboard (toward the middle of the generator) from the generator rotor
bearings. The bearings are outside the hydrogen space.
Since hydrogen pressure can change, the oil pressure must also change, being automatically regulated
at a set pressure above hydrogen pressure.
Oil flowing to the seals must be very clean because ofthe close clearances.
The oil temperature must be kept within limits so that the viscosity is correct.
Most of the oil pumped into the clearance flows outward, toward the bearings. This oil has not been in
contact with hydrogen and is at atmospheric pressure, so it can mix with the bearing drain oil and drain
away with it.
The rest of the seal oil flows inward, into the inside of the generator. It is exposed to hydrogen and is
under hydrogen pressure. Hydrogen easily dissolves in oil. This means that the "hydrogen side drain
oil" must pass out through a drain arrangement that will not allow hydrogen to come out with the oil,
and it must be treated somehow to get most (ifnot all) of the dissolved hydrogen out of it.
Air is also easily dissolved in oil, as is hydrogen, and it can also be entrained in oil as foam or bubbles.
Oil may also contain water droplets. Any air or water that flows to the gas-side of the seal will get into
the hydrogen inside the generator, so that over a long period of time the hydrogen will become
contaminated. All systems must have some way to overcome this problem.
There must be backup equipment that will work automatically, because a failure of the seal system
would allow hydrogen to blowout through the clearance space. This might create a serious danger of
Are or explosion. Also, there must be instruments, alarms and controls so the operators will be warned
of trouble and can take care of various routine and emergency operating situations.
2.2.3 GE System
The GE system has a single oil supply; all the oil that goes to both sides (hydrogen and air) of both seals
(each end of the generator) comes from the same place.
On all but the smallest units the
seal oil is "vacuum treated" so air or water
will not be carried into the generator with
the gas-side oil flow. With this background,
we can trace through a simplified diagram
of the GE system, Figure 9-04.
Begin at the vacuum tank. The tank
is under vacuum drawn by the seal oil
vacuum pump. It is evacuated so there will
be no air or water vapor contained in the oil.
Oil enters the tank through spray nozzles so
the air and water can escape easily. Oil for
the sealing system is taken from the vacuum
Now, following the primary oil
path only, oil is pumped from' the vacuum
tank by the main seal oil pump. The oil
flows into a "differential pressure regulating
valve" where the oil pressure is regulated
automatically, and then through a cooler and
a filter. The oil pressure will be maintained
about 5 psig above the machine gas pressure
and will vary with the generator gas
pressure. Continuing on, the oil flows to the
011. DRAIN

,..--'-----, HYDROGEN
1----,----' SECTION
Figure 9-04 GE System Schematic
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The shaft seals are stationary with a close clearance to the rotating shaft. The oil flows into the clearance
space between the seal rings and the shaft. Since the oil pressure is greater than the machine gas pressure it can flow
.through the clearance space toward the inside of the generator casing. As long as there is oil flowing in, the gas
cannot flow out. We, therefore, have a seal.
The oil flows in two directions along the shaft, toward the gas side and also toward the air side.
The gas side oil, after flowing through the seals, leaves the generator and is collected in the hydrogen
detraining section. This oil, remember, is under machine gas pressure. The oil then flows to the float trap which
allows oil to flow through, but not hydrogen.
The air side oil flows into an air detraining section along with the lube oil draining from the bearing which
is just outside the seal. This oil is under atmospheric pressiIre. Most of the oil from the air detraining section flows
back to the main lube oil tank, but there is also a connection to the float trap tank. Oil from the air detraining tank
combines with oil from the hydrogen detraining tank in the float trap tank. Together the two oils return to the
vacuum tank.
Now, going back to the seal oil pumps, you will see an emergency seal oil pump that will back up the main
seal oil pump. The emergency seal oil pump is driven by a DC motor. We can now ensure a seal even with a loss of
AC power. The emergency seal oil pump takes suction from the makeup to the vacuum tank.
As a further backup, if we should lose both pumps, bearing header oil would pass through check valves
permitting a hydrogen seal at low pressures. The operator would need to reduce hydrogen pressure to approximately
8 psig before a seal would be accomplished. .
2.2.4 Westinghouse System
The Westinghouse system has two separate
oil supplies, one for each "side" of the seal rings, as
shown in Figure 9-05. The hydrogen side oil is
recirculated so there is practically no "new" air or
water vapor to get inside the generator with the gas
side oil flow. For this reason, it is not necessary to
"vacuum-treat" any of the oil.
Begin with the air side supply at the air-side
seal oil pump. It takes its suction from the generator
bearing oil drain loop seal. The discharge flows
through a cooler and a filter, and then continues to the
air-side seal. Air-side drain oil flows from the seal ring
and into the drain line loop seal we have just
Now, following the hydrogen-side oil path
only, oil is pumped by the hydrogen-side seal .oil pump
through a cooler, a filter, and on to the hydrogen-seal
seal. Hydrogen-side oil drainage collects in the
hydrogen-side drain regulator. It is from this tank that
the hydrogenside seal oil pump takes its suction. The
hydrogen-side oil pressure will be maintained 12 psi
above the hydrogen pressure. .
The air-side oil pressure is held at 12 psig
above the hydrogen pressure by an automatic
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~ - - ~ ~ - - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Figure 9-05 Westinghouse System Schematic
regulating valve. Then "equalizing valves" (not shown) at each end of the generator automatically adjust the
hydrogen-side oil pressure to equal the air-side oil pressure, within a small fraction of one psi. In this way, there is
practically no mixing of the two oil supplies. The air-side system is the primary pressure seal. The hydrogen-side
system merely separates the air-side. oil from the hydrogen gas. The hydrogen-side oil is constantly recirculated so it
does not carry air into the seal.
As noted, air-side drain oil mixes with the bearing drain oil, but the hydrogen-side oil needs "special
It flows first into a "defoaming tank" just below each bearing, where hydrogen bubbles rise out of the oil
and the gas rises back up into the generator. Then the oil drains into a "drain regulator." Here there are two float
valves. One opens on rising oil level and lets oil flow to the air-side oil pump suction. The other float valve opens on
falling oil level and lets "new" oil in from the air-side pump discharge. In this way the oil level stays constant and
seals the drain from the drain regulator, so hydrogen cannot escape. The drain supplies the hydrogen-side oil pump
There is no backup for the hydrogen-side oil pump. If it should stop, oil from the air-side would flow to
both sides of the seal. In time, this would cause air and possibly water vapor to get into the generator, but this would
take quite a long time; it is not a serious emergency.
There is a DC backup for the air-side seal oil pump. It will start automatically if the regular pump stops.
Finally, there is a backup from the main oil tank of the lube oil system. The pressure available depends on
the lube oil system pump arrangement and operation. One some units it may be necessary at times to reduce
hydrogen pressure if operating on the lube oil system backup supply.
The seal rings (called "gland seals") are shown in Figure 9-06.
Figure 9-06 Westinghouse Gland Seal Assembly
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As we have already learned, some large modem GE generators have water-cooled stator windings. That is,
water is pumped through the hollow stator-winding conductors to cool them. On some units the same water supply
cools the silicon diode rectifiers in the Alterrex exciter system. The purpose of the stator cooling water system is to
supply this water at the correct temperature, pressure, flow, etc. It is a self-contained system located in the basement
. below the generator.
The conductors may be carrying up to 20,000 volts, so something must be done to stop the water from
causing a short circuit. Most people are surprised to learn that water is a good insulator if it is very pure. In daily life
we seldom find water so pure, so we think of it as likely to cause electrical short circuits. The answer then, is to use
very pure water in the statOr water cooling system, and to carry it to and from the windings in hoses made of plastic
that is also a good insulator.
The water is cleaned and kept clean by a "deionizer" that is built into the system. There is a filter and also,
all piping, tanks, etc. outside the generator are made of stainless steel.
Besides keeping the water clean, the system must cool it to carry away the waste heat, and it must pump the
water through the system-at the correct flow and pressure. Also, backup equipment, alarms, instruments and controls
are needed.
Figure 9-07 is a schematic
diagram of the system.
Figure 9-07 Water Cooling System
One pump is normally running and the other is a backup that will start automatically if needed. The pump
draws water from the storage tank and sends it to a pressure control valve (we control flow by controlling inlet
pressure). Some water then flows into the coolers and some bypasses the coolers. The cooled water is then mixed
with the uncooled water to the correct inlet water temperature. A filter and a strainer clean the water before entering
the generator inlet header. Water enters the stator bars on the collector end, and exits via an outlet header also on the
collector end. The water then returns to the storage tank.
Not shown is a very small connection between the inlet and outlet headers of the generator. It prevents
siphoning action, and it equalizes the pressure between the headers when the pumps are off. The vent line, also very
small, helps the generator to self-vent. The storage tank vent line allows trapped gases to escape. Its loop seal
collects any condensation.
Beyond the cooler there is a loop allowing for continuous cleaning of the water. The water flows through a
check valve, through a filter, into a deionizer tank, and back to the storage tank. Make-up water may also be added
There is a control cabinet near the pumping unit that has instruments, alarms and controls to show the
operators what is happening, to warn of trouble, and to allow them to control various normal and emergency
operations. Some problems cause the turbine governor to "run back" automatically, reducing generator load to a safe
As noted, there is a backup pump that starts automatically if water flow is too low. If it should also fail the
generator load would be automatically cut back and if conditions did not soon return to normal, the turbine-
generator would be shut down.
Some older GE generators use oil instead of water for direct cooling of the hollow stator windings. The oil
used is the same as is often used in transformers and other electrical equipment. It is a good electrical insulator.
These systems are very much like the stator water cooling system just studied. The main differences are:
Water and foreign material must be kept out of the oil, but extreme high purity is not needed as in the stator
system. For this reason, there is no de ionizer and stainless steel piping is not needed. However, there are high-
quality filters.
If oil leaked into the generator it would be very hard to clean up. For this reason, the oil pressure is
automatically regulated to stay below the hydrogen pressure.
Ifthere is a leak, hydrogen will go into the oil storage tank. A pump, much like the one used in the
generator shaft seal system, draws a vacuum on the storage tank and exhausts any hydrogen to the outdoors. The
vacuum will also draw off water vapor.
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