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Required Inspections AV1ATE Annual (12 MOS) & Airworthiness Directives current/complied with VOR Check (30 days, IFR only) 100 HR (Aircraft for hire only.) Altimeter/Static (24 MOS the pitot-static system.) Transponder (24 MOS) ELT (12 MOS) ELT Battery (1/2 battery life or 1 hr of continuous use)

For required Documents


ARROW o Airworthiness certificate o Registration o FCC Radiostation license (If flying internationally) o Operating limitations o Weight and balance.

Personal Checklist IM SAFE o Illness o Medication o Stress o Alcohol o Fatigue o Emotion or External factors

Required preflight information


RAWFAT o Runway length o Alternates o Weather o Fuel requirements o ATC delays o Takeoff & Landing distances OR AFATWRK (A fat work) All information regarding the flight Fuel requirements for the flight Alternate airport (if required) Takeoff and landing distances Weather reports at destination Runway lengths at airports of intended landing Known ATC delays

Required Equipment VFR Day TOMATO FFLAAMES o Tachometer o Oil pressure o Manifold pressure gauge for each constant-speed engine o Altimeter o Temperature gauge for each liquid cooled engine o Oil temperature gauge (for each water cooled engine) o Fuel gauge(s) o Flotation gear (if for hire) o Landing gear position indicator o Airspeed indicator o Anti-collision light system o Magnetic direction indicator o ELT o Safety belts Alternate; GOOSE A CAT

Gas gauge, Oil temperature, Oil pressure, Seatbelts, ELT, Altimeter, Compass, Airspeed, and Tachometer. *Required Equipment: VFR Day* (TOMATOFLAMES is too confusing for me, my "unprofessional" acronym is a logical order with similar items grouped together)

Airspeed Indicator Tachometer Altimeter Compass Fuel Gauge Oil Temperature Gauge Oil Pressure Gauge Temperature Gauge (liquid cooled engines) Safety Belts and shoulder harnesses Manifold Pressure Gauge (aircraft with variable pitch prop) ELT Landing Gear Position Indicator (if applicable) Anti-Collision Light

Required Equipment VFR Night VFR Day plus: FFLAPS o Flashlight o Fuses - If aircraft is not equipped with Circuit Breakers set of three each type o Landing light, if for hire o Anti-collision lights o Position lights o Source of electrical energy *Required Equipment: VFR Night* FLAP Alternator/Generator (Why not "FLAPS"? "A" is for Alternator instead of Anti-collision light (which is included in VFR day requirements now. "S" was for "source", but I'm using Alternator instead. Clear as mud?) Before Takeoff Check ABCDEF: Lights, Camera, Action o Autopilot (off) o Boost pump o Cowl flaps o DG (set to compass) o Elevator (trim) o Flaps (set for takeoff)

o o o

Lights: strobe, landing lights, etc. Camera: transponder Action: (mixture, props, throttle)

On Takeoff Roll Three in the green, airspeed increasing o Check green indications for oil pressure, oil temp, RPM Adjust as needed for airplane, e.g. for a fuel- injected engine, use four in the green add a check of the fuel flow. For a high performance complex plane, use three by three in the green manifold pressure, RPM, fuel flow / oil pressure, oil temperature, CHT.

Decision Making DECIDE o Detect (problem) o Estimate (need for action) o Choose (desired outcome) o Identify (actions to create outcome) o Do (the action) o Evaluate (the effect)

Emergency ABCCDEFS o Airspeed o Best landing area o Checklist: Bottom (fuel on both, undercarriage), up (mixtue full rich), sweep across (carb off, throttle set at cruise, flaps up, avionics in, primer in & locked), up (oil gauges and suction in green) o C-GUMPS: Carb heat on, gas/fuel on both, undercarriage (gear down), Mixture rich, Power/Propeller set, Systems (double checklist, warning lights, etc), Security (Seatbelts, stowed away items, etc) o Declare emergency: On current Freq or Emergency @ 121.5. Squak 7700; TIPPPI Type a/c; Identification number; Problem; Position report; # Persons on board (Intent optional) o Exits (unlatch doors) o Fire extinguisher located and prepared o Security/Seatbelts/Sterile cockpit at all times Transponder codes Hi, Jack, I can't hear you. Help! 7500: Hijacking 7600: Lost communications 7700: Any other emergency What to do if you are lost "5 Cs" (I think that the 'communicate' part gets wrapped up in 'confess' in my version) Climb Circle Confess Comply Conserve Spin Recovery PARE o Power o Aileron o Rudder o Elevator

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Maneuvers Checklist CAPER Clearing Turns Altitude, proper for maneuver Proper power & entry to maneuver Execute maneuver Recover from maneuver Aerobatic Maneuvers Checklist HASELL Height - sufficient to recover Airframe - rated for the maneuver, flaps and landing gear as required, trimmed Security - hatches and harnesses secure, no loose items in cockpit, gyros caged Engine - running normally, fuel sufficient for maneuver, no carb icing Location - clear of cloud, controlled airspace, airfields, built-up areas, other aircraft Look Out - inspection turn to make sure area is clear around and below

Pre-Landing Check LC-GUMPSS o Landing light ON Carb heat, Cowl flaps o Gas (proper/fullest tank, boost pump on, mixture rich) o o Undercarriage 3 green on landing gear for retractable o Mixture o Propeller set and/or primer in/locked o Switches (lights, pitot heat, autopilot) o See landing gear & Seatbelts OR variation of:

GUMP, BGUMP, BCGUMP or BCCGUMP -- all variations of the same thing.


B electric boost pump. C carb heat C cowl flaps G gas on the fullest (or correct) tank U undercarriage (gear) M mixture P prop

Short Final checklist Red-Blue-Green Red mixtures should be forward Blue props should be forward Green gear had better be down
After Landing Checklists MFACTS Mixture set Flaps Up Aux Fuel Pumps Off Cowl Flaps Transponder, STBY

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Switches (lights, pumps, pitot heat, strobes if night)

OR MIDGET Master off Ignition off Doors/windows locked Gust lock installed ELT off Tie-down plane Shutdown SLIM o Switches (turn off all switches) o Lean (the mixture) o Ignition (off) o Master (off) Compass Acceleration Error ANDS o Accelerate North o Decelerate South Compass Turning Error UNOS o Undershoot North (North Lags) o Overshoot South (South Leads) Alternatively: ANDS o Anticipate North o Delay South ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------

February 2000 Features MNEMONIC REMINDERS


By: Robert N. Rossier Double-Checking The Checklist The checklist is probably the most important document in any aircraft. If we forget to use it on a routine flight, we could land with the gear up-or worse. Forget a checklist on a checkride, and you'll probably get to take it over on another day. Still, distractions or a slip of the finger can result in a missed checklist item. One way to double-check the checklist is with a mnemonic phrase or memory jogger. Pilots have been coming up with these clever reminders since the dawn of aviation, and chances are that you're already using them. But just in case you missed one, here are a few to add to your mental clipboard. Runup Or Ground Check While most pilots are conscientious about using checklists for the runup, the CIGARRS mnemonic is a good backup. CIGARRS stands for controls check (free & correct), instruments set, gas (fuel on proper tank, pump on), attitude (flaps and trim set), radios (on & correct with squawk code), run-up (magnetos check), and safety (doors latched, seatbelts on). Most runup checklists are more extensive, but the CIGARRS check accomplishes the common items that are critical in most small aircraft. It is particularly useful when a complete runup isn't required, such as after landing when you plan to immediately taxi back for another takeoff.

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Before Takeoff "Lights, Camera, Action" is a convenient pretakeoff crosscheck. Lights include strobe, landing light, and navigation lights (on as necessary). Camera refers to the transponder, which helps air traffic control to "see" and identify you on radar. The meaning of action varies from one pilot and aircraft to another, but it's often used to remember such items as the fuel boost pump, controls check, flaps, and trim. Also, Before takeoff: Boost pump, Lights, Transponder. Another pretakeoff check is BLITTS for boost pump on, lights on as required, instruments set, transponder on, takeoff time recorded, and seat belts secured. Some pilots use the S for a generic safety check including doors, seat belts, and any other safety critical items. The FLARE check is another pretakeoff reminder (Enroute in brackets) that is great for departures from high density altitude airports. This one stands for flaps set (if extended during t/o), lights as required, auxiliary fuel pump on (off if enroute), radar transponder on, and engine. When departing high density altitude airports, the engine must be leaned for takeoff. Climb And Cruise Probably the most widely used aviation mnemonic is GUMPS. While it is used before landing, it also works when establishing climb, cruise, and descent configurations. The letters stand for gas (fuel on the proper tank, pump on or off as required), undercarriage (landing gear up or down as required), mixture set, prop(s) set and/or primer in/locked, and safety items. Safety items typically include seat belts and switches (lights, pitot heat). Some pilots add a Charlie to the front for cowl flaps or carburetor heat, making the mnemonic Charlie GUMPS. Prelanding Checks In addition to the Charlie GUMPS check, some pilots of retractable gear aircraft also do an MPG check on final. This one stands for mixture set, prop full forward and pumps on, and a green light or three green on the landing gear indicator. Go-Around A handy reminder for a go-around or missed approach is CCCC, for cram it, clean it, cool it, and call it. Cram it refers to adding full power. Clean it refers to retracting flaps (in increments) and landing gear. Cool it is a reminder to open the cowl flaps, and call it refers to announcing your action. Note: if your aircraft has carb heat rather than cowl flaps, use that for "cool it." Alternate, CCCCC For go-arounds: Cram (full power), Climb, Clean, Clear (sidestep the runway), & Communicate. After Landing After landing and exiting the active runway, pilots should have plenty of time to consult a checklist. However, a mnemonic reminder can still be a good crosscheck. The one I like is the FACTS check, for flaps up, auxiliary fuel pump off, cowl flaps open and/or carburetor heat off, transponder to standby, and switches (pitot heat off and lights as required). Aka, M-FACTS for After landing Checklist: Mixture set, Flaps up, Aux fuel pumps off, Cowl flaps, Transponder stnby, Switches (lights, pumps, pitot heat strobes if night) The FLARE check can also be used for an after-landing crosscheck. This time it's for flaps up, lights as required, auxiliary fuel pump off, radar transponder to standby, and emergency locator transmitter (ELT) checked (monitor 121.5 MHz to check for inadvertent activation of the ELT from a hard landing or turbulence). When operating at high density altitude, add another E for engine leaned as required. Securing The Aircraft Once the engine is shut down is no time to become forgetful. Failure to properly secure the aircraft can result in serious damage or injury.

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The MIDGET check can prevent us from feeling two feet tall by reminding us of some critical steps in securing the aircraft. MIDGET stands for master switch off, ignition (magnetos) off, doors and windows latched, gust lock installed, ELT off, and tie-downs secured.

Instrument Flying
Numerous mnemonics have been developed to help pilots stay on top of the IFR game. Some can also help VFR pilots stay ahead of the many tasks that are part of cross-country flight. Most instrument pilots are familiar with the five (or six) Ts used when crossing a fix in a hold or on approach. The Ts stand for turn to the proper heading, time the hold or approach (or navigation leg for VFR flying), tune (or twist) the OBS to the appropriate course, transition to the proper configuration and airspeed (some use throttle for a power reduction) or Throttle - Go down, slow down (During DIVERSION set and lean to best endurance/peak), talk to ATC [announce PT IB, entering & established in the hold, etc], and test the directional gyro by comparing it to the compass. Nearing the destination airport can signal a busy time, and WIRE TAP is a handy reminder for IFR pre-Approach tasks. It stands for weather (ATIS, ASOS, AWOS, etc.), instruments set (particularly the altimeter), radios tuned and identified, elevation (altitude for the final approach fix), talk to ATC, timing to the missed approach point, altitudes for decision height or minimum descent altitude, and the procedure for the missed approach. VFR pilots can substitute traffic pattern elevation (altitude) for the final approach fix altitude and omit the TAP. Pilots often have a hard time remembering what to include in position reports. An old standby for remembering the items in sequence is A PTA TEN Remark. The items are aircraft identification, position (the name of the fix), time crossing the fix, altitude, type of flight plan, estimated time of arrival at the next reporting point, name of the next reporting point, and any remarks, such as unforecast weather conditions. Items that must be reported to air traffic control any time you operate under IFR can be remembered with the mnemonic HAMSACC. The items include holding (time and altitude entering and leaving), altitude changes (VFR on top and leaving assigned altitudes), missed approach, safety of flight (anything that affects it), airspeed changes of 5 percent or 10 knots, communication or navigation capability loss, and climb rate when you're unable to maintain a 500-foot-per-minute climb. Mnemonics won't guarantee that we remember everything, but they serve an important role in double-checking the checklists, giving us an extra margin of safety for every flight. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Required Equipment IFR VFR Day, VFR Night, plus: GRAB CARD o Generator or alternator o Radios (for facilities used) o Altimeter (sensitive) o Ball for coordinating turns o Clock (w/second hand or digital) o Attitude indicator o Rate of turn o Directional gyro *IFR Required Equipment* (I made up this acronym too because I don't like GRABCARDD) DATA CARD Directional Gyro Attitude Indicator Turn Coordinator (combines "B" and "R" of GRABCARDD) Altimeter sensitive with Kohlsman window Clock digital or with sweeping second hand Alternator/Generator Radios 2 way DME above FL 240

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IFR Fuel Requirements [91.167] Enough fuel (considering weather conditions and forecasts) to fly to your destination and fly after that for 45 minutes at normal cruising speed PLUS enough fuel to fly from that airport (including its missed approach procedure) to the alternate airport, if required.

IFR Wx requirements 1-2-3 Rule: An Alternate Airport is Required Unless the destination airport has an IAP AND: 1 hour before to 1 hour after the ETA there will be at least: 2,000 Ceiling AAE 3 SM Visibility

STANDARD (check the plate) Alternate Airport Weather Minimums for *FILING* an Alternate [FAA 91.169(c)] Weather reports and forecasts must indicate that, at the ETA at the alternate, the ceiling and visibility will be at least: Precision Approach: Ceiling 600, Visibility 2 SM Non-precision Approach: Ceiling 800, Visibility 2 SM No IAP at alternate airport: Ceiling and visibility allowing descent from MEA, approach and landing under VFR. ATC Clearances Get clearance from Clearance Delivery (if provided at the airport) or from Ground (if provided) or Tower At uncontrolled airports you must contact the FSS to get clearance If there is no radio reception call 1-800-WX-BRIEF. Expect to be given a clearance void time, example: If not off in 15 minutes (or stated as a Zulu time), contact ATC (or FSS) with intentions. If you do not depart before your clearance void time, your clearance into the IFR system (IMC) is void. If you do not contact ATC with your intentions within 30 minutes of your clearance void time, search and rescue will be contacted. Takeoff Minimums or an Obstacle Departure Procedure: If you are not operating in VFR Day conditions and there is an Obstacle Departure Procedure - USE IT to remain clear of the obstacles you cannot see. Departure and Arrival Procedures SID: Standard Instrument Departure ODP: Obstacle Departure Procedure- When obstacles exist which requires a specific route to avoid them. STAR: Standard Arrival procedure Clearance information to write down CRAFT Clearance limit Route Altitude Frequency for next contact Transponder code Lost Comms [FAA 91.185]: If in VMC, remain VFR and land to get out of the IFR system MEA Altitude Highest of the following: MEA Expected Assigned AVE-FM (AVEnue FM) Route In order of priority:

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Assigned Vectored Expected Filed in FP Minimum Enroute Altitude

Required Reporting to ATC (I made this one up- it combines all the holding items into one item and all the altitude items into one) Missed Approach (also state intentions, ... request clearance to alternate, ... request the ILS approach etc.) Altitude Change: Leaving Assigned altitude or altitude change when VFR on top TAS Change of 10kts from that filed in the flight plan (5% if TAS is +200kts) Holds: Time and Altitude upon reaching a holding fix and when leaving a holding fix. Climb: Unable to climb at 500fpm Loss of Equipment Un-forecast or Hazardous Weather Safety of Flight Compulsory Position Reports [AIM 5-3-2] PTA ETA Next Position Time Altitude ETA and Name of next reporting point Next Succeeding Reporting Point Non-Radar Environment FEW FAF/OM inbound ETA Change >3 minutes Weather that is Hazardous

Acronym for briefing the approach that is used before getting established 6 A's but there may have been 6 or 7 A ATIS (or contact Tower) A - Altimeter Setting A Airplane (Perform approach/descent checklist) A - Airspeed (used to plan the timing) 1st T of the 5 Ts A - Approach Briefing Plate CRRAMTOGS A Avionics 1st R of CRRAMTOGS A - Altitudes (GS Intercept, DH, etc) A in CRRAMTOGS Memorize MDA/DA and missed approach procedure. Activating the approach is not complete until you set the CDI mode to NAV (VLOC) or GPS as required. IFR Nearing Destination WIRETAP Wx (AWOS, ATIS, ASOS, etc) Instruments set Radios tuned Elevation (Check final approach fix altitude) Talk to ATC Altitudes for DH or MDA Procedures for missed approach

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Briefing the Approach before getting established AMICEATM A - AWOS/ATIS : Get the information. M - Marker Beacons/Mag Compass (align). I - Identify EVERYTHING that you may need (including GPS setup). C - Course inbound on the final approach. E - Entry (Straight-in, procedure turn, DME arc, vectors to final, etc). A - Altitudes (as per the profile view). T - Time (if applicable). M - Missed Approach - at least the initial climb and turn(s).

Instrument Approach, Holding T T T T T T - the 6 T's Transition to the proper configuration and Throttle to hold speed (During DIVERSION set and lean to best endurance/peak) Time the hold or approach (or navigation leg for VFR flying) Turn to the proper heading Tune (or twist) the OBS to the appropriate radial/track Talk to ATC [announce PT IB, entering & established in the hold, etc] Test the directional gyro by comparing it to the compass.

*See Holding Procedures pg 18*


Requirements to descend below MDA or DA [FAA 91.175] 1. Runway Environment in sight: Paint/Pavement/Lights. REILS, Runway, Threshold, TDZ, VASI. ALS Only: you may descend only to 100 above TDZ unless the red terminating bars (ALSF-I) or side row bars (ALSF-II) are identifiable. 2. Visibility not less than required by the IAP. 3. Normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers. Checks and Call-outs: Power to 60 % or MPG 18 Before Landing Checklist Final Approach Half bar before GP interception Gear Down; Mixture & Props full; MPG 18; Flaps 10 deg 1000, 500 & 100 above DA If visual plan to land; Flaps to landing Centerline Check

Non-precision: >1 nm before FAF Gear Down Before Landing Checklist

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Throttle + 5Ts [Tx, Turn, Twist CDI/HB, Track (according to winds), Talk] @ FAF Precision: Gear Down Before Landing Checklist just prior to OM/glide slope alive. Throttle + 5Ts [Tx, Turn, Twist CDI/HB, Track (according to winds), Talk] @ FAF All Approaches: 1,000 above DA/MDA 500 to go. Three Green, Stabilized 100 to go Minimums: Going Visual or Missed Approach Centerline Check: Flaps, Gear, Flaps Down for Ldg, Mix. & Prop Full frwd (if not already), Autopilot Off

Descent Rate: 3 degree glide slope = (120 GS X 10) / 2 = 600 fpm descent OR 120 GS X 5 = 600 fpm descent OR Groundspeed divided by 2, add a zero Ex/ If groundspeed is 100kts, the vertical speed required for a 3 glideslope is 500fpm Thousands of feet to lose multiplied by 3 plus distance required to configure for approach. (?)

Operation Below MDA or DH 91.175(c) 1) Aircraft is continuously in a position from which a normal descent to a landing can be made using normal maneuvers. 2) The flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed 3) One of the following is distinctly visible a. The approach light system - now descent to 100 above TDZE Any of the following in sight will allow descent to the ground b. Red Terminating or Red Side Row Bars c. Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL) d. Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) e. Threshold f. Threshold Markings g. Runway h. Runway Lights i. Runway Markings j. Touchdown Zone k. Touchdown Lights l. Touchdown Markings

Missed Approach 5 Cs Cram - Mixture, Props & MPG to FULL Clean - retract landing gear - retract flaps from Ldg to T/O (or from 30 to 20 Cessna; 40 to 20 DA42) Climb - Positive Rate for holding fix NDB XXX; Switch NDB channel from FAF to Holding Clean - retract flaps from Go-Around setting to Climb setting (refer to POH) Cool - Cowl Flaps Call - notify Tower, Departure, Terminal, Unicom Executing missed approach to Holding fix *OR* Power Up Pitch Up

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Flaps One Up (Diamond: T/O, Cessna 20) Gear Up Positive Rate Flaps Fully retracted Climb - for holding fix NDB XXX; Switch NDB channel from FAF to Holding Call Up - Missed Approach (Seminole: Carb Heat Up, Cowl Flaps Down)

Holding Procedures
When an aircrafts progress needs to be slowed or stopped to provide traffic separation ATC issues instructions to fly a holding pattern. Flying a hold keeps aircraft in a confined area, which is also useful for descending into or climbing out of confined areas, as is done when flying an Obstruction DP. A holding pattern can be based upon a VOR, Intersection, GPS waypoint, DME Fix, Cross Radial or NDB. ATC will assign: DADE + T(non-Stnd) Direction Altitude Vectors/Route/Direct to Fix/VOR/NDB EFC (Expect Further Clearance) Time Turns (if omitted, standard right turns) Holding pattern map view Oral exam drawing aid: Flow direction tilts direct entry sector division line 20 outbound. Standard: Parallel (110 deg); Offset (70deg); Direct (180 deg) Non-standard: Offset; Parallel; Direct

The term "radial" always refers to an outbound radial (radiating out from a VOR). You can go outbound or inbound on a radial, but be aware that your INBOUND course is the reciprocal of the radial given in your holding instructions. When you do the 5Ts over the fix set your HSI CDI *tail* to the holding radial. Then the CDI pointer will always be pointing inbound to the fix, defining your inbound leg. Use the HSI as a map. Visualizing holding patterns: On an HSI the CDI is depicting your inbound leg to the fix, with the pointer pointing inbound to the fix. No HSI? On a DG/HI put your fingertip on the number of the holding radial and "draw" in to the center of the DG, you have just "drawn" your inbound leg. After you get over the fix (visualize as being the center of the CDI), visualize a right turn to the outbound leg (if standard turns) and then visualize another right turn coming off of the outbound leg and attaching to the tail of the CDI. Refer to Hold Entry Guide Diagram Direct: If the radial you are to hold on is behind you from CDI center (HSI: the tail of the CDI is behind you), OR when CD points to same direction. As you pass over the fix you have just come to the end of _an_ inbound leg to that fix. Over the fix you need to make a Standard Rate turn (in the direction of turns assigned) to the outbound leg heading. Teardrop & Parallel: If the holding radial is ahead of you. As you pass over the fix you are going backwards (outbound on the inbound leg)- you need to reverse course. Two options... The Teardrop entry or the Parallel entry. Use the entry that allows the smallest turn over the fix. Parallel Entry: upon crossing the fix outbound turn to parallel the inbound course (you'll be going outbound). After timing 1 minute past the fix, turn toward the holding side (the opposite direction of the holds direction of turns) until you are on a heading that will intercept the inbound course with a 30 to 40 intercept angle.

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Teardrop Entry: upon crossing the fix turn 30 into the holding side (the opposite direction of the holds direction of turns) and time for 1 minute. Then make a standard rate turn (in the direction of the holds turns) to intercept the inbound course. ~ You must remain on the protected holding side (to avoid obstacles). Of course there are allowances for straying into the non-holding side during approved entries. HSI trick for selecting entry: Refer to Hold Entry Guide Diagram. Set Hdg bug to the radial you are to hold (inbound) on. Now visualize the hold entry guide on the HSI: the bug lies in the sector of the applicable entry type. Once you twist the tail of the NAV CDI to the Hdg bug, the CDI arrowhead will point inbound to the holding fix. With the CDI showing the inbound leg on your HSI, visualize a tail attaching to the tail of the CDI in the direction of turns. That is the easiest way to visualize a holding pattern on the HSI. With the CDI set (and mentally drawing the holds inbound leg), the Hdg bug is now available. With simulator practice, it should not be difficult to quickly figure out the required heading for your entry since the HSI draws it so well. Use whatever method works best for you. ~ To ensure situational awareness, do not skip visualizing the holding pattern when using the HSI trick. ~ Drawing the holding pattern on your chart is useful buying a holding pattern computer is not! ~ 1 minute inbound leg is the goal. ~ Apply 3 times the wind correction required for the inbound leg to the outbound leg to remain on the holding side. (When you note the required wind correction angle on the inbound leg, remember the correction angle direction in reference to N, S, W, NW etc. - NOT as 3 degrees left, to avoid confusion). ~ If necessary, make use of all the time you have leading up to the fix to visualize the pattern and entry.

Upon receipt of holding instructions Suspend GPS Auto-sequencing Slow to holding airspeed: Slow to 100kts T Figure out 5 Ts: Turn, Time, Twist, Throttle, Talk. Prepare timer.

Required Reporting for Holds: Time and Altitude upon reaching a holding fix. Leaving a holding fix. When landing at an uncontrolled airport you must contact ATC or the FSS to close your flight plan! If landing is assured it is easiest to close your IFR flight plan with ATC just after they clear you for the approach and tell you, Frequency change to advisory frequency approved especially if radio communication to the FSS is impossible due to location/mountains. In that event, call the FSS by phone to close your flight plan. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Your basic no-brainer NDB approach


So, let's look at flying the NDB approach to our favorite airport, Sumspot, which has an NDB located 4 miles west of the threshold of runway 09.

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You're cleared for the Sumspot NDB 09 approach, so you could simply "home" to the NDB, which is your IAF (Initial Approach Fix). "Homing" with an ADF simply consists of keeping the needle on the _nose_ of the aircraft, or on the zero at the top of the ADF indicator. With a crosswind, our path to the NDB may not be pretty, but we'll get there. Spend any excess brainpower (and in a single pilot IFR cockpit without an autopilot, there may not be much!) studying the approach plate. Lots of stuff on the plate, but make sure that you get the important items. I use the acronym "AMORTS":

Approach - have you got the right plate out? (don't laugh!) Minimums - MSA, PT, FAF, MDA Overshoot - quickly review the missed approach so you're prepared Radios - ADF tuned and identified, comm and nav as reqired Routing - Passing the NDB outbound, fly some kind of procedure turn Times - get a time to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) Speeds - based on the groundspeed you expect with the wind
Visualize what the wind is doing to you on each straight leg of the procedure turn, and make a correction for it. A crosswind, crab into it. A headwind, increase your time significantly. A tailwind, decrease your time slightly. Do your cockpit checks now. Check your Heading Indicator against the compass. You cannot fly an accurate NDB approach without an accurate heading reference. OK, the procedure turn is complete; we're now intercepting the Final Approach Track. Turn initially to a heading of 090 and get a descent started if your altitude over the NDB inboundthe FAF (Final Approach Fix)is lower than your procedure turn altitude. Be sure to keep a solid 500 fpm descent rate going, use 600 or 700 fpm if you have a tailwind. Now, if there's no wind, a heading of 090 will take us right back to the NDB. You should be so lucky! Rather than using some complicated tracking and correction technique after you're established on the final approach track, an idea is to simply home to the NDB. Needle on the nose again, back to the NDB.

If we home to the NDB, we are assured of a good station passage. Passing the NDB (the FAF) inbound, turn back to 090 and get a descent going again if necessary, down to your MDA (Minimum Descent Altitude). If you want to keep it really simple, after station passage just fly a heading of 090 until you see the runway, or your timer runs out at the MAP. Without much wind, this generally works out pretty well. At a a groundspeed of 90 knots, it will take 2 minutes to travel 3 nautical miles to a 1 mile final for runway 09, at which time you should be visual with the runway, and start your descent from the MDA. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Commercial Pilot Licence Aeroplane (CPAER)

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Aerodromes and Airports Pre-threshold Areas Markings and use Air Law General Operating and Flight Rules Commercial Pilot licence - Privileges Engines & Airframes Turbine engines Turbine and stator blades Turboprops Beta Range principles Purpose of the EGT Gauge Flight Instruments Altimeter Procedures during abnormally high-pressure conditions Slaved gyro magnetic compass principles of operation Attitude Indicator Principles of operation (spinning-mass gyroscope) Theory of Flight Balance of forces in flight level cruise, climbing, descending and in turn Purpose of the tailplane Static and dynamic balancing of flight controls Effects of Sweepback Characteristics of laminar flow airfoils vs High Lift Airfoils Navigation General and Flight Planning Dead reckoning air position, DR position, fix Sunrise, sunset, twilight charts True altitude computations Radio Navigation DME principles of operation Transponders Altitude Encoding Information Meteorology Theory Moisture content, Relative humidity, Dewpoint Effect of Airmass Stability on clouds and Weather Flight Operations Ground Marshalling Signals Effect of CG position on Maximum Range Effect of Slipstream Deicing Procedures on the Ground