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INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT

At one time, the composed of than groups of the World War II, the start gaining strength management is development. world of work was largely individuals working alone, rather people working together. After importance of management has year after year. Today treated as first step of economic

One of the most important human activities is managing. Ever since people began forming groups to accomplish aims they could not achieve as individuals, management has been essential to ensure the co-ordination of individual effort.

WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?
There are many definitions of management. Some of the important definition of management by management experts is following:

Henri Fayol defines management as The concept, techniques and process that enable goals to

be achieved efficiently and effectively.


Peter Drucker believes that The work of management is to make people productive. To regain

our competitive edge in the international arena society must have managerial competence.

Fredrick Taylor says Knowing exactly what you want (people) to do, and then

seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.


Griffin defines management in these words. Management is a set of activities (including

planning and decision making, organizing, leading and controlling) directed at an organizations resources with the aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner.
When we go through these definitions we clearly say What Is Management.

MANAGEMENT Objective of any business activity are to be achieved through organized and co-operative environment. For this group of people jobs are assigned according to their knowledge and skills. Their activities are to be planned, directed and co-operative that objectives of the organization may be achieved. This effort of planning, directing, and unifying the effort to achieve a common goal is called Management.

FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
The management process, properly executed, includes a wide variety of activities including planning, organizing, leading, controlling and assurance. The top executives in the management are usually entrusted with the basic function in that order and the low ranking executives are given the responsibilities of executing the subsidiary functions of management. These activities or functions of management are elaborated below. 1.PLANNING Planning is the function which helps an organization define and meets its objectives. Plans are developed for entire organizations, for specific work unit, and for individuals. These plan may cover long period or a short time period. In each case managers are responsible for gathering and analysing the information on which plans are based, setting the goals to be achieved and deciding what needs to be done. A plan for any organization has five points. Take financial control Build motivation in management team Use innovative marketing Upgrade operations and training procedures Restructure the system and close down failing operations.

2.ORGANIZING Organization is a tool for achieving objectives in a planned manner. After establishing objectives and drawing up plans to achieve them. Organization means turning plans in to action with the help of leadership and motivation. To achieve a common purpose organization calls for: The preparation of task force The allocation of work to individuals The integration of efforts of the task force recruited and assigned the work The co-ordination of work of individuals and their departments. Thus, it involves the division and sub-division of the whole enterprise in to departments, sections, jobs, positions, and assignment of work according to the knowledge, skill and interest of individuals to achieve organizations goals.

3.LEADING The great leadership include creating a co-operative work environment, maintaining constant communications, giving people some freedom to express their ideas, being honest at all times, assigning people tasks that allow them to learn and grow, and publicly praising and rewarding people who do their jobs well. A good planning and a best organization may fail to deliver the goods if the leadership is faulty and not up to the mark. Good leadership helps in: Seeking co-operation from all Active participation of workers in seeing through all aspects of the activities of the organization Inspiring and motivating the individuals to do their best Providing job satisfaction and above all Creating team spirit. 4.CONTROLLING Comprehensive plans, solid organization and outstanding leaders do not guarantee success. Qualitative and quantitative performances are to be ensured. Plans of the enterprise are meant for completion to the entire satisfaction so that objectives are set for achieving. Specific controlling activities are to set performance standards that indicates progress toward goals, to monitor performance of people and units by controlling performance data, to provide people with feedback or information about their progress, to identify performance problems by comparing performance data against standards and to take actions to correct problems. Like nervous system in human body, control is only one of the vital functions in effective management. A good controlling system ensures the following steps: Completion of plans according to pre-determined schedule The evaluation of performances of individuals, groups and departments The timely actions if schedule is not being kept The adoption of speedy and timely remedial measures if lapses are detected and The plugging of loopholes if any

5.ASSURANCE The last function of management and last component of POLCA. Assurance is a result which we can predict by seeing the above four functions of management. If there is a lack of any function of management nobody assure success or achievement of organizational goals. But if everybody from manager to employee get their jobs done properly we can assure success and achievement of goals of management. When the four functions of management is strong we can predict and assure good results and better future of organization.