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B.E.IIISemester MechanicalEngineering

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UNIT -I 1. Differentiate between microscopic and macroscopic examination of metal. Sr. Microscopic Examination Macroscopic Examination No. 1 Microscopic examination or micrography Macroscopic examination involves the study of involves the study of the structures of the structure of metals and their alloys by the metals and their alloys under a naked eye or by low power magnification up to microscope at magnifications from X20 X15. The observed structure is called the to X2000. The observed structure is macrostructure. called the microstructure. Micro-examination involves much Macro-examination gives a broad picture of 2 smaller areas and brings out information the interior of a metal by studying relatively which can never be revealed by low large sectioned areas. magnification. The aim of micro-examination is: The aim of micro-examination is: 3 1) To determine the size and shape 1) To reveal the size, form and of the crystallites which arrangement of crystallites (dendrites) constitute an alloy. in cast metals. 2) To reveal structures characteristic 2) To reveal fibres in deformed metals. of certain types of mechanical 3) To reveal shrinkage porosity and gas working operations. cavities. 3) To discover microdefects (non4) To reveal cracks appearing during metallic inclusions, microcracks, certain fabrication processes. etc.) 5) To show chemical non homogeneity in 4) To determine the chemical the distribution of certain constituents content of alloys (e.g., annealed appearing in alloys upon their carbon steels), solidification from the liquid state. 5) To indicate quality of heat 6) To indicate non-metallic inclusions treatment, mechanical properties, such as slag, sulphides and oxides. etc. 7) To indicate method of manufacture, e.g., forging, casting, welding and brazing. 8) To find the cause of failure of a component part. Micro-examination requires proper Surface preparation for macro examination 4 surface preparation of the specimen follows similar lines to those for microbefore studying it under the microscope. examination but need not be taken to such a high degrees of surface finish and so the final stages of polishing can be omitted. Micro-examination requires that the Macro-examination is also carried out on an polished specimen surface should be etched surface. 5 etched with suitable reagent.

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2.What are Miller Indices? Explain the procedure to find out Miller Indices for a plane. Ans : By noting intercepts we denote a crystallographic plane. It makes on the three crystallographic axes.

Fig . Crystallographic plane Tthe crystallographic plane making intercepts X, Y and Z on x, y, z axes respectively can be described by noting the intercepts in that order as shown in above figure. When a plane is parallel to an axis, in this case the intercept made by this plane on the axis to which it is parallel, would be infinity, since is indeterminate, it should not be used in the definition of a plane. Miller devised a method to represent crystallographic planes and directions, using a set of three integers, without involving. These integers, a set of three (one for each axis) are known as Millers indices. Consider above plane. The method of finding out Millers Indices of this plane is given below:1) Mark the intercepts made by the plane- XYZ. 2) Convert the intercepts into partial axial intercept with the vector length or axial length of that axis. Suppose a,b,c are the axial lengths of x, y and z axes. X/a Y/b Z/c 3) Find the reciprocals of these partial axial lengths : a/X b/Y c/Z 4) Find the set of three smallest integers- say h, k,l which are in same ration as the reciprocals of partial axial lengths i.e. a/X : b/Y : c/Z :: h : k : l These three integers h k l are the Millers indices of the plane under consideration and the plane is represented by writing down these indices in rounded brackets (h k l). 3. What is substitutional sold solution? What are the factors that governs its for formation. Explain.

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Ans: A substitutional sold solution is homogeneous mixture of atoms of two elements, right down to the atomic scale, the two elements being such that their atoms are nearly identical in their size (diameter) and electro-chemical nature. These two atoms are identical such that we would not be able to distinguish between them in mixture. Due to this similarity between the solute and the solvent atoms, the solute atoms occupy the lattice sites of the solvent atoms. Thus they substitute the solvent atoms on their lattice sites. If two kinds of atoms are arranged in a haphazard fashion on the lattice sites we get random substitutional sold solution. If the solute atoms and solvent atoms are arranged in an orderly fashion we get ordered substitutional sold solution.

Fig. random substitutional sold solution

Fig. ordered substitutional sold solution

Factors governing the formation of Substitutional Sold Solutions: Substitutional sold solutions are formed when the solute atoms and solvent atoms are identical their sizes and electrochemical nature. Hence the factors which govern the formation of substitutional sold solutions are : 1) Size Factor :- For the formation of substitutional sold solution, the size factor should be less than 15%. If the atomic radius radius of the solute is R1 and the atomic radius of solvent atom is R2 , the size factor is defined as R1-R2/R1. If the size factor is more than 15% the formation of substitutional sold solution is less favoured. 2) Electro-chemical nature :- Electrochemical natures of solvent and slolute elements should also be identical. A large difference in electrochemical nature does not allow the formation of substitutional solid solutions. 3) Valency :- An element with lower valecncy dissolves more of the elements with higher valency and vice versa. This is known as relative valency effect. 4. Calculate the total number of atoms per unit cell for (i) Simple cube (ii) BCC (iii) FCC (iv) HCP Ans:

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Fig. (a) A simple cubic unit cell (b) A F.C.C. unit cell (c) A B.C.C. unit cell (d) A H.C.P. unit cell (i) Number of atoms in a simple cubic unit cell: There are eight corners of the cube and at each corner there is an atom. Each corner atom is shared by eight adjoining cubes, therefore the share of the cube =1/8 x 8 = 1. Hence total number of atoms in a simple unit cell = 1. (ii) Number of atoms in a F.C.C. unit cell: A F.C.C. unit cell has an atom at each corner of the cube and in addition, it has one atom at ( the intersection of diagonals of ) each of the six faces of the cube. Since each corner atom is shared by only two cubes, (i.e., one this cube and second adjacent one), the unit cell contains: 8 atoms at the corner x 1/8 = 1 atoms 6 face-centered atoms x = 3 atoms Total = 4 atoms (iii) Number of atoms in a B.C.C. unit cell: A B.C.C. unit cell has an atom at each corner of the cube and in addition, it has one atom in the center of the cube. Since each corner atom is shared by eight adjoining cubes and the one center atom is not shared by any adjoining cube, the B.C.C. unit cell contains:
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8 atoms at the corner x 1/8 = 1 atoms 1 center atom = 1 atoms Total = 2 atoms (iv) Number of atoms (N) in a HCP unit cell: N = Nc/6 + Nf/2 + Ni/1 Where Nc is total number of corner atoms in the unit cell = 6+6 =12 for HCP unit cell Nf is total number of face atoms in the unit cell = 1+1 = 2 for HCP unit cell Ni = Interior or centre atoms in the unit cell = 1+1+1 = 3 for HCP unit cell N (HCP) = 12/6 + 2/2 + 3/1 = 6 atoms 5.What is interstitial sold solution? When is it formed? Ans : When the size of the solute atoms is so small that they can easily be accomadated in the interstitial space, we get an interstitial solid solution. Example is in alloys of iron with carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen are much smaller than compared to iron atom. The formation of interstitial sold solution is favoured if the radius ratio of the solute atom to solvent atom is less than 0.6 i.e. Rsolute / Rsolvent < 0.6 The other factor is electrochemical nature. The electrochemical nature of the solute should not be extremely different from that of the solvent element. For example although the radius ratio is favourable for formation of an interstitial sold solution of oxygen in iron. It is formed because oxygen is highly electropositive in nature. 6.What is Gibbs phase rule? Why and how is it modified? Define all terms involved in it. Ans : The phase rule, known as Gibbs Phase Rule, establishes the relationship between the number of degrees of freedom (F), the number of components (C) and the number of phases (P). It is expressed mathematically as follows : P+F=C+2 A phase is defined to be a microscopically homogeneous and physically distinct portion of a system with well defined boundaries separating that portion from its surrounding. For example water, ice and vapour are three different phases. A phase is characterized by its structure- the atomic arrangement in it. The number of components is the number of elements of which the system is made up of. For example, for binary system -2 components, for ternary system 3 components For binary, C = 2 For ternary, C = 3 Degrees of freedom are the variables which must be specified to completely define the system. Variables as pressure, temperature and composition which can be independently changed without changing other variable. In metallurgical systems where pressure is regarded as remaining fixed at one atmosphere, the pressure variable is often omitted and equation simplifies to: P + F = C + 1 or
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F=C +1P During the solidification of pure metal , solid metal and liquid metal are in equilibrium. Hence the number of phases in equilibrium is 2 i.e., P = 2. Phase rule for alloy system is given as P+F=C+1 2+F=1+1 F=0 Which means that during the solidification of a pure metal, the temperature does not change, it remains constant. Thus the solidification of a pure metal occurs at constant temperature, the melting point or freezing point of the metal. 7.State and derive Lever Rule as applied to equilibrium diagram. Ans : Lever rule is a mathematical principle with which we can calculate the proportions of two phases or two micro-constituents in a two phase region. This rule is known as lever rule because of the mechanical analogy which is used in calculation. In this rule it is assumed that the weights of the two phases under consideration are suspended from the ends of tie-rod. The ends and fulcrum are given by the intersection points of the temperature horizontal line (corresponding to temperature at which the calculation is required ) with phase boundaries of the two phases and the composition vertical respectively.

Consider an alloy containing C%B. To calculate the proportions of solid solution and liquid at temperature T, draw the temperature-horizontal line SFL. This line cuts the composition vertical at F and cuts the solidus line (the phase boundary at S, and liquidus line at L. Hence the tie rod is the line SFL and fulcrum at F. The weight of solid solution is supposed tobe suspended at S and suspended at L. Under equilibrium , the moments must be balanced. Hence weight of solid x SF = weight of liquid x FL weight of solid / weight of liquid = FL / SF % weight of solid = FL / SF x 100 % weight of liquid = SF/ SL x 100
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Unit-II
1. What is critical temperature? Show critical temperatures on Fe-Fe3C diagram. Explain

in detail. Ans: The temperatures at which a given steel has certain change in structure that is called critical temperature . At this temperature transformation starts. In the Fe-C diagram various critical temperatures like Ae0, Ae1and Ae2. The subscript e denotes that critical temperature refers to equilibrium condition of heating or cooling. The critical temperatures are shown in fig. Ae0 is The curie temperature of cementite. Above this temperature cementite is non-magnetic. It is at 210C. Ae1is Eutectoid temperature at 723C. Above this temperature no pearlite is seen and below this temperature austenite is not found. This is known as lower critical temperature Ae2 is Above this temperature -ferrite becomes non-magnetic i.e. it is the curie temperature of -ferrite. Ae2 is at 768C. Ae3 isThis is known as upper critical temperature. Above this structure the steel is completely austenitic. This is the temperature below which ferrite is found.

The critical temperatures are with respect to equilibrium rate of heating or cooling. But in practice the cooling rate or heating rate is always faster. Hence during heating the magnitude of a suppressed on cooling. For example, eutectoid but higher than 723C while heating. 2.Explain the cooling of the following steels from liquid condition to room temperature. Ans: A] 0.08% C Steel: Steel with 0.08 % C is represented by vertical line A. 1) On cooling this steel from liquid condition following sequences of changes occurs: i. Solidification starts at temperature T1 by the commencement of formation of -ferrite. On cooling below T1, the composition of -ferrite and liquid change along MN and NO respectively. Solidification is completed at temperature T2.
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ii. iii.

iv.

The structu of the steel remains as -ferrite between te ure e emperature T2 and T3. A T3 At change of -ferrite into austenite start. This cha ange is comp pleted at T4 t temperature. . emains as a austenite bet tween tempe erature T4 an T5. At T5 austenite starts nd The steel re changing in -ferrite. The chang gradually takes place first at the grain bound nto ge daries and then within the gra w ains. During this separa g ation of -fe errite the co omposition o the of austenite ch hanges along PQ till it be g ecomes 0.8 % at 723C. At 723C th austenite changes int pearlite. T his to There is no ch hange in stru ucture on co ooling further to ro oom tempera ature. At roo temperatu the struc om ure cture shows ferrite grain and ns a small amo ount of pearl at grain b lite boundaries.

B] 0.12 % C steel: On cooling this steel fr rom liquid c condition the following changes occ in e cur sequence for compos e sition vertica line B. al i. Solidification starts at T1 with forma n ation of -f ferrite. Betw ween T1 and 1495C mo ore fe errite forms Compositions of -ferrite and liquid ch s. d hange along MN and NO g re espectively. At 1495 C (Tp) peritec reaction takes place between -f ctic ferrite and li iquid. Austenite is formed and e A f excess -ferr remains. rite . ii. A T2 the cha At ange of -fer rrite is completed. iii. B Between tem mperature T2 and T3 the structure re emains auste enitic. At T3 austenite starts ch hanging into -ferrite. B o Between T3 a 723C (TU) the com and mposition of -ferrite cha anges al long RP and that of au d ustenite RQ. At 723C (TU) -ferrite contains 0.025 % C and . au ustenite con ntains 0.8% C. This au ustenite dec composes at this tempe t erature follo owing
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eutectoid reaction and forms pearlite. No further change occurs upto room temperature. The structure of steel shows grains of -ferrite with pearlite at the grain boundaries. C] 0.3% C Steel: On cooling the steel from liquid condition following changes take place as follows: i. Solidification start at T1 with formation of -ferrite and continues upto temperature 1495C. During this interval the composition of -ferrite and this interval the composition of -ferrite and liquid change along MN and NO respectively. ii. At 1495C (Tp) containing 0.1% reacts with liquid containing 0.5 % C to give austenite containing 0.15 % C i.e. peritectic reaction occurs. Austenite is the product with excess liquid left over. iii. Solidification of this liquid into austenite is completed at temperature T2. The structure is completely austenite. iv. No change occurs upto T3.At T3 -ferrite starts separating out from austenite. Further changes occur upto room temperature as same as above mentioned in 0.12 % C steel. The structure at room temperature shows grains of -ferrite and regions of pearlite. D] 0.7 % C steel: On cooling this steel from liquid condition the sequence of changes is as follows: i. Solidification starts at TA1 temperatures by the formation of austenite. ii. Solidification is completed at temperature TA2. Below this temperature austenite remains without any change till TA3 temperature is reached when -ferrite starts forming from austenite. Further changes are similar to those seen in 0.3 % C steel. The structure of the steel at room temperature shows regions of pearlite with boundaries of -ferrite. E] 1.2% C Steel: On cooling this steel from liquid condition the changes occur as follows: i. Solidification starts at temperature TC1 austenite forms ii. Solidification ends at TC2 and structure is fully austenite iii. No change occurs between TC2 and TC3 temperature; precipitation of cementite from austenite starts and continues upto 723C (TU) temperature. This happens because the solid solubility of carbon in austenite decreases from 2.0 % at 1130 C to 0.8 % at 723C. The composition of the austenite changes along TC3 TU till it becomes 0.8 % C at 703C. iv. All this austenite undergoes eutectoid transformation and forms pearlite. At room temperature the structure of steel shows regions of pearlite with boundaries of cementite.

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3. Draw iron-iron carbide equilibrium diagram ( Fe-FeC diagram) showing all details. Ans:

4. Calculate the weight percent of various i) microconstituents ii) phases present in each of them at room temperature 0.15%C, 0.3% C, 0.7%C, 1.0%C Ans: To calculate phases at room temperature draw lower portion of iron-iron carbide diagram showing steel portion. Assumptions: Assuming that the solid solubility of carbon in -ferrite is 0 % at 0C. At room temperature this steel contains the microcontituents -ferrite and pearlite. Pearlite contains phases -ferrite and cementite. A composition of ferrite is 0% C, cementite 6.67% , pearlite 0.8% C.

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Applying lever rule% of phase = length of tie-line on opposite side / total length of tie-line 100 a) 0.15 % C steel Microconstituents wt % : Wt % of -ferrite = 0 .8 - 0.15 / 0.8 0 100 Wt % of pearlite = 0 .15 - 0.15 / 0.8 0 100 Phases wt % Wt % of -ferrite = 6 .67- 0.15 / 6.67 0 100 Wt % of cementite = 0 .15 - 0.00 / 6.67 0 100 = 2.25 % b) 0.3% steel: At room temperature this steel contains Microconstituents - -ferrite and pearlite Phases - -ferrite and cementite Applying lever ruleMicroconstituents wt % : Wt % of -ferrite = 0 .8 0.3 / 0.8- 0.00 100 = 62.5 % Wt % of pearliite = 0 .3 0.000 / 0.8- 0.00 100 = 37.5 % Phases wt % : Wt % of -ferrite = 6.67 0.3 / 6.67 0.00 100 = 95.5 % Wt % of cementite = 0 .3 0.000 / 6.67- 0.00 100 = 4.5 % c) 0.7 % steel : At room temperature Microconstituents - -ferrite and pearlite Phases - -ferrite and cementite Microconstituents wt % :
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Wt % of -ferrite = 0 .8 0.7 / 0.8- 0.00 100 = 12.5 % Wt % of pearlite = 0 .7 0.000 / 0.8- 0.00 100 = 87.5 % Phases wt %: Wt % of -ferrite = 6.67 0.7/ 6.67 -0.00 100 = 89.5 % Wt % of cementite = 0 .7 0.000 / 6.67- 0.00 100 = 10.5 % d) 1.0 % C Steel: At room temperature Microconstituents - cementite and pearlite Phases - cementite and ferrite Wt % of cementite = 1.0 0.8 / 6.67- 0.8 100 = 3.4 % Wt % of pearlite = 6 .67 1.0 / 6.67- 0.8 100 = 96.6 % Phases wt %: Wt % of cementite = 1.0 0.00 / 6.67- 0.00 100 = 15 % Wt % of -ferrite = 6.67 1.0/ 6.67- 0.00 100 = 85 % a) For guarantee with regard to elevated temperature properties the letter H shall be used For guarantee with regard to low temperature properties the letter L shall be used 5. What is binary phase diagram? What is utility of it. Ans: A binary phase diagram is a plot of various phases in equilibrium at different temperatures for alloys of different compositions in the entire range from one pure metal to the other. It can be considered as a map showing the various phases present at different composition temperature conditions for an alloy system. The Y- axis represents the temperature and the X-axis represents the composition. The composition can be given either in weight present or in atom %.

1) On cooling an alloy from a higher temperature to room temperature the various changes that occure. 2) The condition of an alloy in terms of the phases present in that at any given temperature 3) We can know various solidification reactions and reactions that occur in solid state 4) One can know temperature at which solidification begins and ends for any given alloy

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6. What is Isomorphous system? Ans: An equilibrium diagram showing complete solid solubility is called as an isomorphous system because the crystal structure of any alloy between the limits of the two pure metals i.e. form 100 % A to 100 % B is same.

Above fig shows equilibrium diagram. The boundary line separating solid region is known as solidus line. The liquidus line indicates the variation of freezing point of the alloy with composition. A given alloy is exhibited by a vertical line indicating its composition. The intersection point of this composition line with the liquidus line indicates the temperature at which on cooling the liquid alloy, its solidification starts. Similarly the intersection point of the composition line with solidus line indicates the temperature at which the solidification of an alloy is completed. For example the solidification of an alloy containing C % B, starts at temperature T1and is completed at temperature T3. TA and TB are the melting points of elements A and B. 7. What is effect of alloying elements on TTT curve. Explain with neat sketches. Ans: The effect of Alloying element on the position and shape of the TTT curve can be summarized below i. Effect on the position of the S Curve: All the alloying element shift the S- curve towards the right. Exception is only cobalt. All the alloying element except cobalt decreases the critical cooling rate of the steel and hence increase the hardenability of the steel. (fig.(a)) Effect on the shape of the S Curves: Austenite stabilizers do not change the shape of the S Curves. It has only one nose. Ferrite stabilizers change the shape of S-curve they give two nose. The upper nose is called pearlite nose and the lower nose is called bainite nose. (fig.(b)) Effect on nose temperature: The austenite stabilizer Ni, Mn, Cu lowers the pearlite nose temperature. All the ferrite stabilizer like Cr, Mo, V, W and Si raise the pearlite nose temperature. Al also raises the nose temperature although it is austenite stabilizer. This effect is schematically shown in fig (c) and fig (d) respectively.

ii.

iii.

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Fig. (a) Effec of alloying element on position of S curves F ct g n f

Fig. (b) Effe of alloyin element o shape of S curves F ect ng on

ffect g re Fig. (c) Eff of alloying element on nose temperatur

Fig. (d Effect of allo d) oying element o nose temperature on

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8. State t effects of alloying e the o elements on the propert of steel. ties . Ans: The General effect of Allo e oying element in steel a given are i. Effect on eutectoid temperat ture : All th austenite s he stabilizers li Ni, CO a Mn lowe the ike and er d re stabilizers like W, V, T Mo, etc ra the eute Ti, aise ectoid eutectoid temperatur while all the ferrite s temperatu This is shown in fig ure. s g.(a) ii. Effect on eutecto composi t oid ition : All t alloying element bo antenite a well as f the oth as ferrite stabilizer change th eutectoid compositio by decre rs he d on easing the c carbon cont tent of eute ectoid mixture. fig. (b)

Fi . (a) Effect of alloying element on eutectoid tem ig t mperature

Fig.(b) Effect of alloying e element on e eutectoid Co omposition ct anical prope erties: All th alloying element increases the y he yield strength and h iii. Effec on mecha tensile st trength of steel. All th alloying element exc s he cept nickel, decreases t ductility and the y toughnes of stee. Nickel is the only elemen which inc ss N nt creases the d ductility as w as tough well hness of the ste eel. iv. Effec on harden ct nability: All the alloyin element e ng except cobalt, increases the hardena ability of the ste Cobalt decreases, the hadenabilit of the stee eel. d e ty el. v. Effect on S Curve All the alloying elem have a p t e: ment profound effe on the sh fect hape and pos sition on the S curve.

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9. Mention the most important effects of following alloying elements:- Manganese, Nickel, Cobalt, Silicon, Chromium, Tungsten, Vanadium, Aluminium, Sulphur, Phosphorous Ans:1) Manganese : i. It is the cheapest alloying element for increase the strength and hardenability of steel ii. It does not decrease the ductility very adversely upto 2.0 % iii. The only austenite stabilizer which form carbides, but only in the absence of other strong carbides former iv. Roughness of the steel is slightly improved 2) Nickel: i. The only alloying element which increases yield strength of the steel along with increasing its ductility ii. Gives low temperature toughness to steel. This is the only element to give temperature toughness to steel iii. Improves corrosion resistance in conjunction with Cr iv. Present the magnetic steel 3) Cobalt: i. This is the only alloying element which decrease the hardenability of the steel ii.Improve the magnetic properties ii. Increases the creep resistance of the steel 4) Silicon: i.This efficiently increases the elastic limit of the steel without affecting its toughness severly. ii. A carbide former and and improves heat resistance of steel. 5) Chromium: i. Very efficient in increasing hardenability and wear resistance of the steel ii.Economical alloying element to increase strength and hardness together iii.Steel containing chromium exhibit reversible temper embrittlement 6) Tungsten i. A strong carbide former are effective in increasing wear resistance and crip resistance ii.Impart secondary hardening tendency and red hardness of steel iii.It is an element used to make high speed steels 7) Vanadium i.A very strong carbide former ii.Increases the wear resistance and creep resistance of the steel iii.Increases the cutting efficiency of high speed steel
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8) Aluminium i. Used as deoxidizing agent to remove oxygen from the steel melt ii.It is strong nitride former and is essentially present in nitriding steel or nitralloys 9) Sulphur i. A nuisance element in steel. It results in hot shortness of the steel that is the tendency of the steel to crack during hot working ii.Used upto 0.15% to increase the machinability. 10) Phosphorous i.Another nuisance element ii.Highly undersiable because it make the steel brittle iii.Decrease the soft magnetic properties of the steel, hence undesirable in soft magnetic steel.

10. Write short note on IS specification of steel. Ans: Indian Standard code for Designation of Plain and Alloy Steels (IS: 1762-1974) Steels have been classified on the basis of i. Mechanical properties ii. Chemical composition *Designation of steel on the basis of mechanical properties such as tensile strength or yield stress: Symbols for: a)Method of deoxidation R rimming steel K killed steel No symbol semi killed steel b) Quality of steel Q1- non ageing quality Q4- inclusions controlled Q2- freeom from flakes Q5- internal homogeneity guaranted Q3- given size controlled c) Sulphur and phosphorus content -When maximum S and P content is same No symbol - 0.055% P and 0.055% S P 25 0.025% P and 0.025% S P 70 0.07 % P and 0.07 % S -When maximum contents of S and P are not same symbol SP shall be used Example: suppose there is Maximum sulphur = 0.045 % (when rounded it becomes 0.04%) Maximum phosphorus = 0.035 % (when rounded it becomes 0.04%) Therefore designation is: SP 44 (i.e. 0.04 % S and 0.04 % P)
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d) Weldability guarantee W fusion weldable steel W1 Steel weldable by resistance welding but not fusion weldable e) Resistance to brittle fracture (Based on V-notch charpy impact test) Specific UTS Range 370 to 520 N/mm2 Energy (J) Temp 0C 28 27 28 0 28 28 -20 -40 500 to 700 N/mm2 Energy(J) Temp 0C 40 27 28 -10 40 0 28 -30 40 -20 28 -50 40 -40

B B0 B2 B4

f) Surface condition S7-ground S6-bright drawn or cold rolled S5-peled S4- shot, grit or sand blusted g) Formability D1 - drawing quality D2 - deep drawing quality D3 - extra deep drawing quality No symbol - steel is of commercial quality h) Surface finish (for sheets only) F1 - general purposefinish F2-full finish F3-exposed F4- unexposed F5-matt finish F6-bright finish F7- plating finish F8- unpolished finish F9- polished finish i) Treatment: No symbol hot rolled T1- shot peened T2- hard drawn T3- normalised T4- controlled rolled
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S3- pickled S2-descaled S1-deseamed or scarfed No symbol- as rolled or as forged

F10- polished and coloured blue F11- polished and coloure yellow F12-mirror finish F13-vitreous enamel finish F14-direct annealed finish

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T5- annealed T6- patented T7- solution treated T8- solution treated and aged T9- controlled cooled T10- bright annealed T11- spherodised T12- stress relieved T13- case hardened T14- hardened and tempered j) For guarantee with regard to elevated temperature properties the letter H shall be used k) For guarantee with regard to low temperature ( cryogenic quality) properties the letter L shall be used Semi-killed steel For example: FeE*300 P 35 Minimum yield strength = 300 N/ mm2 S and P = 0.035% Max *Designationofthesteelonthebasisofchemicalcomposition: 1) Unalloyed steels (IS: 7598-1974) XCYZ X- 100 times the average % of C C- Carbon Y- 10 times the average % of Mn Z-special characteristics Semi-killed steel with 0.25% C For example: 25 C5 B0 means 0.5% Mn Resistance to brittle fracture grade BO 2) Unalloyed tool steel XTY T stands for tool steel X and Y have same meaning as above. Unalloyed tool steel For example: 80 T 11 implies 0.80% C 1.1% Mn 3) Unalloyed free cutting steels X C Y W W1 Z W stands for the element present which makes steel free cutting W1 100 times the % of the element present X, C, Y and Z have the meanings same as above For example: 20 C12 Pb15 T14 implies Free cutting steel with 0.2% C, 1.2% Mn, 0.15% Pb, hardened and tempered (because of T14 symbol)

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4) Alloy steels (IS: 7598-1974) a) Low and medium alloy steels 1st symbol-100 times the average % of C 2nd, 4th, 6th symbols etc.-Elements 3rd, 5th, 7th, symbols etc-% of elements, multiplied by factors as follows: Element Multiplying factor Cr, Co, Ni, Mn, Si and W 4 Al, Be, V, Pb, Cu, Nb, Ti, Ta, Zr and Mo 10 P, S, N 100 Last element special characteristics N.B. i) Figures after multiplying shall be rounded off to the nearest integer ii) Symbol Mn for manganese shall be included in case Mn content is 1% iii) The chemical symbols of each elements present and their figures shall be listed in order of decreasing content. For example: 40 Ni 8 Cr 8 V 2 implies hot rolled steel with 0.4% C 2% Cr, 2% Ni and 0.2 % V 25 Cr 4 Mo 2 G implies steel with guaranteed (G) hardenability and 0.25 % C, 1% Cr, and 0.25% Mo b) High alloy steels (total alloying elements > 10%) For example: X 10 Cr18 Ni9 S3 X - high alloy steel 10 - 0.10% C Cr 18 - 18% Cr Ni 9 - 9% Ni S 3 - Pickled condition c) Alloy tool steels For example: XT 98 W6 Mo5 Cr4 V1 XT - high alloy tool steel 98 - 0.98% C W 6 - 6% tungsten Mo5 - 5% molybdenum Cr4 - 4% chromium V1 - 1% vanadium d) Free cutting alloy steels For example: X 15 Cr25 Ni15 S40 X - high alloy steel 15 - 0.15% C Cr25 - 2 5% chromium Ni15 - 15% nickel S40 - 0.4% sulphur (S introduces free cutting qualities)

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Unit-III
1. Write short notes on: 1) Ball race steel or ball bearing steels Ans: This is a typical low alloy steel designated as En 31 in British Industrial specifications containing chromium. Its typical composition is carbon 1.0 %, Mn 0.5%, Cr 1.31.5%. Because of the presence of chromium it has excellent hardenability and canbe quenched iln to harden. It is mainly used for the manufacture of steel balls and rollers for ball and roller bearings. Hence the name ball race steel or ball bearing steel. Heat treatment involves heating upto 810C and after that quenching. Tempering is done at 150 180C Tempering at The low temperature of tempering ensures that the hardness does not decrease but all the internal strains due to martensite be relieved. The hardness after proper heat treatment is about 65 Rc. Because of the presence of chromium carbide in the structure the heat treated steel has excellent wear resistance. 2) HCHC steel: High carbon high chromium steel is a tool steel which gives the optimum wear resistance at room temperature at minimum cost. It means that it is the most economical too steel having maximum room temperature wear resistance. The steel contains about 1-13 % Cr with about 1-1.3 % C maintaining the Cr/C ratio as 10/1. The steel is heated upto 950C (Austenitization temperature) and quenched in oil. Then tempering is done at 180C or 400C depending upon the hardness required. This steel is used for making cold drawing dies and thread rolling dies. In this case the tempering temperature is 180C. It is also used to make cold punching dies, cold fanning tools, etc., which are tempere at about 400C because relatively higher toughness is desirable. Presently grinding media balls for balls are also being made of this steel. 2. What are High speed steels? What are their types? Explain the steps involved in the heat treatment of HSS tools. Ans: High speed steels is a type tool steels. This steels are used for high speed cutting at such high speeds that the tool tip becomes red hot. Hence they are based on the tungsten or molybdenum addition to steel in substantial amounts because both these elements give red hardness to steel- the capability of maintaining high hardness and a keen cutting edge even up to the red hot temperature of 600C. The first high speed steels that were developed were of tungsten type. Later on molybdenum high speed steels were developed. Presently we have high speed steels of both types and those in which both the elements are present. High speed steels are relatively less ductile and their thermal conductivity is not very good. Hence special care is needed in the heat treatment of high speed steel tools, particularly during austenitization. Heat treatment of high speed steel tools involves the following steps: 1) Heating for austenitization: Special care is taken in heating machined high speed steel tools to their austenitization temperature. A slow heating rate is desirable to avoid cracks during heating which may generated due to uneven heating. This is known as clinking. To avoid this HSS tools are heated to their austenitization temperature in three steps: a) Preheating stage 1: upto 500-650C. This relieves most of the machining stresses. b) Preheating stage 2: upto 850C. Both these steps are done at very slow rates in salt bath furnaces.
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c) Final heating for austenitization: After the second stage of preheating the tools are quickly transferred to another salt bath furnace kept at 1175 to 1290C .The tools are kept only for 1 to 5 minutes at this temperature depending on the size of their cross section. d) Quenching: From this austenitization temperature HSS tools are quenched to room temperature in one of the following ways: i) Directly quenched in an oil bath kept at room temperature till the tool pool fully. ii) Directly quenched in an oil bath kept at room temperature till the temperature of the tool is decreased to about 450C, then taken out and cooled in air. iii) Quenched into a salt kept at 600-650C, homogenize the temperature and then taken out to cool in air upto room temperature. e) Tempering: After quenching the tools are tempered in a circulating air furnace at about 550 to 600C to develop maximum hardness. The tempering treatment is repeated twice or thrice and is known as double or triple tempering. The final hardness after tempering is about 67 Rc. 3. How will you classify tool steels? What is Heat-Treatment of Tool Seels? Ans: Tool and die steels may be defined as special steels which have been developed to form, cut or otherwise change the shape of a material into a finished or semifinished product. The Joint Industry Conference ( JIC), USA has classified tool steels as follows: Symbol Meaning T W-high speed steel M Mo-high speed steel D high C, high Cr steel A air hardening steel O oil hardening steel W water hardening steel H hot work steel S shock resistant steel As an example W8 means water hardening steel with 0.8 % C Composition of tool steels (%) 1) W-high speed steels (T) Cr 4, T1 C 0.7, T4 C 0.75, Cr 4, T6 C 0.8, Cr 4.5, 2) Mo-High speed steels (M) M1C 0.8, Cr 4, M6C 0.8, Cr 4, 3) High C, high Cr steels (D) D2C 1.5, Cr 12, Mo 1 D5C 1.5, Cr 12, Mo 1, D7C 2.35, Cr 12, V 4,
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V 1, V 1, V 1.5, V 1, V 1.5,

W18 W18, W2, W1.5, W4,

Co 5 Co 12 Mo 8 Mo 5,

Co 12

Co 3 Mo 1

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4) Air hardening steels (A) A2C1, Cr 5, Mo 1 A7C 2.25, Cr 5.25, V 4.75, Cr 5, Ni 1.5, A9C 05, 5) Oil hardening steels (O) O1C 0.9, Mn 1 Cr 0.5 W 0.5 O6C 1.45, Si 1 Mo 0.25 6) Water hardening steels (W) W2C 0.6/1.4 V 0.25 W5C 1.1 Cr 0. 5 7) Hot working steel (H) H10C 0.4 Cr 3.25 V 0.4 V 0.4 H12C 0.35 Cr 5 8) Shock resisting steel (S) S1C 0.5 Cr 1.5 W 2.5 S2C 0.5 Si 1 S5C 0.55 Mn 0.8 Si 2 S7C 0.5 Cr 3.25

W 1, V 1,

Mo 1 Mo 1.4

Mo 2.5 W 2.5 Mo 0.5 Mo 0.4 Mo 1.4

Mo 2.5

Heat treatment of tool steels: Tool steels should be heated slowly to the desired heat treatment temperature. Tool steel should be kept at proper temperature for sufficient time so that the whole of the tool section gets heated uniformly. Overheating of tool steel should be avoided. Protective furnace atmosphere or any other method should be employed to avoid scaling or decarburization of tool steel during heating. Carbon and low alloy steels may be quenched in water or brine and high alloy tool steels in oil, air or molten salts. Tool steel may be quenched in a liquid bath of salt of lead held between 480 and 650C and then cooled in air to about 65C. It should be tempered immediately after quenching and before they cool to room temperature. This reduces cracking. 4.What is Inverse Segregation in babits? How can it be prevented? OR What is the function of copper addition to babbits? Ans: During the solidification of a white metal casting the first phase to solidify is the compound SbSn. Hence a large number of cuboids of Sb-Sn compound to form in the remaining molten liquid. These cuboids have a much lower density than the liquid melt in which they form. Hence instead of being uniformly suspended in the melt these cuboids float to the top of the casting. Hence after the solidification is completed we find that all the cuboids of Sb-Sn compound are segregated in the top region of the casting. This type of segregation found in babbits is known as inverse segregation. This non uniform distribution of cuboids is harmful for the mechanical properties of the bearing. About 2 to 3 % copper is added to prevent this segregation. When copper is present in the molten white metal during its solidification, needle shaped particles of a compound Cu6Sn5 are the first to form throughout the liquid and they create a web like network in the liquid. A little later at a still lower temperature the cuboids of SbSn compound form and solidify throughout the
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volume of the liquid. Since the web like network of Cu6Sn5 compound is present in the volume of the molten metal, the cuboids formed at different places in the molten liquid are not allowed to float to the top. Hence they remain in the region in which they formed. Thus the web like network of Cu6Sn5 effectively prevents the inverse segregation and gives a uniform distribution of cuboids in the cast bearings of white metals. This compound Cu6Sn5 is seen as bright starry streaks in the micro structure. 5. Explain sensitization of Austenitic stainless steel? Ans: When austenitic stainless steel is heated to temperature between 425 to 825C during processing or found that its corrosion resistance is greatly preferentially occurs along the grain boundaries. Hence which gets heated to the above temperature range and is air cooled prone to intergranular corrosion and hence called to be sensitized. When the astenitic stainless steel gets heated to 425 to 825C and is slowly cooled, chromium carbide gets precipitated along the grain boundaries. This chromium carbide gets precipitated along the grain boundaries. This chromium carbide precipitation requires a large amount of chromium in a short time. Hence all the chromium for this precipitation is drawn from a localized region near the grain boundary. Hence in regions all along the falls below 12 %. For corrosion resistance minimum 12 % Cr is essential. Hence corrosion resistance of this grain boundary region is decreased. This results in a preferential corrosion all along the grain boundaries causing intergranular corrosion. This phenomenon can be avoided by 1) Decreasing % C to very low level so that less Cr will required for Cr3C formation and Cr% should not drop below 12 % and sensitization should avoided. 2) By addition of Cb and Ti which are strong carbide former restrict the formation of Cr3C and sensitization is avoided. 3) By again hating steel to 1000-1050C and holding it there for 1 hour and then rapidly cooled through this temperature range avoids the sensitization. 6. What is weld decay? Ans: During welding of Austenitic stainless steel at some distance away from weld, the portion get heated to 425 to 825C during cooling sensitization is occur and because of intergranular corrosion material almost get decayed called as weld dacay. It can be prevented by using low C grade by using stabilized grades or by given heat treatment.


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UNITIV
1. Define heat treatment. Explain the significance and steps in heat treatment practice. What are principles of heat treatment? Ans: Heat treatment is a stage in the fabrication of structures and is often forgotten: but it has perhaps more wide-reaching and important ramifications than many of the other stages in the fabrication of structures or components. Heat treatment may be defined as an operation or combination of operations involving heating and cooling of a metal/alloy in solid state to obtain desirable conditions and properties which include better machinability, improved ductility, homogeneous structure, etc. Purpose of heat treatment : One or the other heat treatment process is carried out in order to (i) Cause relief of internal stresses developed during cold working, welding, casting, forging etc. (ii) Harden and strengthen metals. (iii)Improve machinability. (iv) Change grain size (v) Soften metals for further (cold) working as in wire drawing or cold rolling (vi) Improve ductility and toughness (vii) Increase heat , wear and corrosion resistance of materials (viii) Homogenise the structure; to remove coring or segregation (ix) Improve electrical and magnetic properties. (x) Spherodize tiny particles, such as those of Fe3C in steel by diffusion. Stages of Heat Treatment Process : (i) Heating a metal/alloy to definite temperature. (ii) Holding (or soaking) at that temperature for a sufficient period to allow necessary changes (e.g.,austenitizing) to occur. (iii) Cooling at a rate necessary to obtain desired properties associated with changes in the nature, form, size and distribution of micro-constituents (such as ferrite, pearlite, martensite, etc.). Principles (fundamentals) of Heat Treatment : Steel heat treatments are made possible by the eutectoid reaction in the iron-carbon system. All basic heat-treating processes for steel involve the transformation or decomposition of austenite. The nature and appearance of thus obtained transformation products develop a variety of useful and mechanical properties in steels. Cooling rate plays an important role in the transformation of austenite to pearlite or martensite, etc. Heat treatment is effective only with certain alloys (e.g., Fe-C, Aluminium bronze, etc.) because it depends upon, one element being soluble in another in the solid state on different amounts under different circumstances. The theory of heat treatment is based on the principle that an alloy experiences change in structure when heated above a certain temperature and it undergoes again a change in structure when cooled to room temperature. Cooling rate is an important factor in developing different (soft or hard) structures. Slow cooling from above the critical range in steel will produce (soft) structure whereas rapid cooling (depending upon steel composition) will give rise to a martensitic (hard) structure.
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2. Differentiate clearly between i) Annealing and Normalizing ii) Carburizing and Nitriding iii) Patenting and Austempering Ans: i) Annealing and Normalizing Sr Annealing No. 1 In annealing hypoeutectoid steel is heated to Ac3+500C and hypereutectoid is heated to Ac1+500C. Steel is soaked and allowed to cool slowly to room temperature in furnace itself by putting off. 2 Rate of cooling is slower. 3 Coarse lamellar pearlite i.e. grain size is larger as compare to normalizing 4 Hardness/strength decreases, ductility and machinability improves. 5 Its a intermediate process, normally used to siften the steel.

Normalizing In normalizing hypoeutectoid steel is heated to Ac3+500C and hypereutectoid is heated to Acm+500C. Steel is soaked and taken out of furnace and then cooled in air. Rate of cooling is slower. Finer pearlite i.e. grain size is finer. Hardness and strength is higher as compare to annealed state. This gives final product.

ii) ) Carburizing and Nitriding Sr Carburizing Nitriding No. 1 Carbon diffuse into steel surface. Nitrogen diffuse into steel surface. 2 Process results in less hardness, less wear Process results in higher surface hardness resistance compare to nitriding. (65-70 Rc), obtains more better wear resistance . 3 Inferior surface finish as compare to Very good surface finished. nitriding. 4 Hardening and tempering is needed. No needs of hardening and tempering. 5 Process is very simple and inexpensive. Process is complex and expensive. 6 Thick (5 mm) carburized layer can be Very thin nitrides layer is obtain, so very obtained, so more grinding allowance is limited grinding allowance is available. available. 7 Grain refinement is not necessary. Grain refinement is necessary. 8 Range is wide Selective steels only nitrides.

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ii) Austempering and Patenting Sr Patenting No. 1 In patenting the supercooled austenite is isothermally transformed at a temperature corresponding to the nose of s-curve of the steel. 2 The product of patenting is fine pearlite which is globular. 3 Patented steel is austempered steel. less harder

Austempering

In austempering the supercooled austenite is isothermally transformed at a temperature below the nose of s-curve but above the Ms temperature. The product of austempering is either upper bainite or lower bainite depending upon the temperature used. than Austempered steel is harder than patented steel.

3. What is retained Austenite and how is it eliminated? Ans: Ms and Mf temperature of a plain carbon steel are very much dependent on its carbon content. In plain carbon steels containing more than 0.6% C , the Mf temperature is below 00C. It is known that austenite austenite to martensite transformation takes place when steel from the austenite condition is continuously cooled at a rate faster than critical cooling rate below Ms temperature. The martensite forms while cooling is continued from Ms temperature. At Mf temperature the martensite formation is nearly complete and liitle austenite remains untransformed. Steel is hardened normally by quenching it from austenitization temperature, into a water bath or oil kept at room temperature. Normally the room temperature is above 00C. Hence if a plain carbon styeel containing more than 0.6%C is hardened by quenching into a bath at room temperature, all the austenite is not transformed into martensite because Mf temperature of this steel is below 00C. This austenite which remains untransformed is known as retained austenite. Thus in high carbon steels, retained austenite is always present after hardening. The alloy sttels have still lower Mf temperature. Hence in alloy steels the proportion of retained austenite is more than in case of plain carbon steels. Elimination of Retained Austenite: Retained austenite is very softh and hence its presence in hardened steel is not desirable because it gives lower hardness and non-homogeneous hardness values. Hence it is necessary that the retained austenite be changed into martensite. This can be done by (i) Tempering (ii) Sub-zero treatment (i) Tempering:- When the hardened steel is tempered above 3000C, while cooling from the tempering temperature, the retained austenite is converted into martensite. However this method is useful only when the amount of retained austenite is relatrively small. Further more some retained austenite remains untransformed even after tempering. (ii) Sub-zero treatment:- In case of hardened steel in which the amount of retained austenite is large, it is better to convert it into martensite using sub-zero treatment. In this the hardened steel must be cooled immediately after hardening to a temperature lower than its Mf temperature. Since the Mf temperature is below 00C, this heat treatment is known as sub-zero treatment. For this various types of freezing mixtures are used depending upon the temperature to which the steel is tobe cooled. Liquid nitrogen is also used.
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4. Descri the proc ibe cedure for the construc ction of TTT diagram f a given s T for steel. OR How S S-curve or TTT curve i determine for a give steel. T is ed en Ans :- Th method of determinin S-curves for a given s he o ng steel is as fol llows :-

1) Thin s samples of sm size are chosen. mall e 2) About five or six samples are heated to th austeniti t heir ization temperature i.e. A 3+500C in case Ac n of hypoeutectoid and Ac1+500C in case of h d hypereutecto steels. oid 3) The sp pecimens are taken out o the furnac and imme e of ce ediately quen nched into a molten salt bath t or molten metal bath kept at a co n h onstant tempe erature below Ar1 tempe w erature (T1 te emperature). 4) Differ rent specime are allow to transf ens wed form for diff ferent times at this cons stant tempera ature. After the predetermi e ined times, a given specimen is tak out and quenched i water to room ken d in temperatu ure. In this step, aus stenite trans sforms to p pearlite upto the time for which the e h transform mation is all lowed and th on quen hen nching, the untransform austenite transforms into med e s martensit Pearlite and martensi can be dis te. a ite stinguished f from each ot ther. 5) With t help of the study of amount of p the t pearlite form at differ med rent times, th times req he quired for the transformation to start and to finish ar determine Let these be ts1 and tff1. n d re ed. xperiment is repeated at different tem s mperature T2, T3, T4 etc and ts1 and tf1 correspon nding 6) The ex to these t temperatures are determi s ined. 7) A plot is made be t etween temp perature and time and ts and tf valu for differ ues rent tempera atures are plotte on it. When all the points indic ed W cating start of the trans sformation a finish o the and of transform mation are jo oined togethe as shown in fig, we ge tow S-shap curves. er et ped ng? 5. What is temperin Explain stages of Tempering. Ans: Tem mpering is th heat treatm process given to ha he ment ardened stee In this pro el. ocess the har rdned steel is h heated to a te emperature l less than 7230C, kept th here for abou hour to 1 hour and then ut o d cooled to room temperature in air. o Stages of Tempering: f Martensite is a supersatu M urated solid s solution of c carbon in iro Hence it is metastab in on. t ble structure and changes into a more stable structure on tem e mpering.
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The T structura changes th occur on tempering m be cons al har n may sidered to ta place in three ake stages. Stage I:-This stage refers to th first temp he perature rang upto 2000C. Carbon is rejected from ge 0 martensit and forms carbide wh te s hich is precipitated in a fine coheren form. Thi composition of nt is crbide is Fe2.4C. Bec cause of this precipitatio carbon c s on, content of m martensite de ecreases and low d carbon m martensite is formed.

Above fi shows va ig. ariation in th hardness o high carb steel on tempering. It is obvious that he of bon s little cha ange in hardn ness occurs in the first s stage of tem mpering. The structure produced is b e black etching m martensite. Stage II: The secon stage of te :nd empering re to the tem efer mpering tem mperature of 2000C to 30 0C. f 00 This foll lows first st tage changes In second stage of te s. d empering, tw reaction simultaneo wo ns ously occur. Fu urther reduc ction in the carbon con ntent of mar rtensite and conversion of any reta n ained austenite to martens while c e site cooling from the tempe m ering temper rature to ro oom tempera ature. Hardness continues to fall and is around 55 Rc. s t Stage III The third stage of te I:d empering re eferes to the temperature range of 3 0C - 4000C in e 300 which th depletion of carbon fr he from martens is comp site plete. The ca arbide is full converted into ly d Fe3C-cem mentite. Hen the stru nce ucture conta ains -ferrite and cemen e ntite. This i also calle as is ed secondar troostite. The structu is very fi and cann be resolv under optical microscope. ry . ure ine not ved The hard dness is abou 45-47 Rc. ut Stage IV This refe to tempe V:fers erature rang above 40 0C to 6500C. Temperi in this r ge 00 ing range causes co oalescence of cementite particles. Th size of ce o he ementite part ticle increase This resu in es. ults a decrea in their number an hence th ase nd heir dispersio onbecomes coarser and coarser as the d temperin temperatu is increased. This results in f ng ure fall in hardn ness. The h hardness of steel tempered at 4500C is about 40 Rc and it dr d rops to 20 Rc when tem mpered at 6500C. This fe 0 erritecementite aggregates is called secondary sor e s rbite. In general, th structure produced o tempering hardened s n he on g steel is term as temp med pered martensi ite.

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6. What is hardena ability? Exp plain the pr rocedure for measurem r ment of har rdenability with the help of Jominy end quench test . OR y h Draw se et-up for Jominy-End-Q Quench test t. Ans: Hardena ability : It is measure of hardness. It is defined a the ease w which th sample can be s f t as with he hardened Hardenabi d. ility of steel is defined a the ability of steel to get hardene completely by as y ed forming martensite throughout i cross sec t its ction even at low quenc t ching rate. L Lesser the cr ritical cooling r rate, higher is the hard denability. H Hardenability is a funct y tion of criti ical cooling rate. Hardenab bility is inve ersely propor rtional to CC CR. Thus, factors governing CCR affects the hardena T s ability. 1. Chemi composi ical ition of steel addition of alloys (exc cobalt) d l: cept decreases th CCR. Hen it he nce, increases hardenabili of steel. s ity 2. Grain size of Aus stenite (): W When we hav small gra ve ains of , we have large grain boun e er ndary area whi acts as a site of n ich nucleation fo to pea for arlite transfo ormation. H Hence it has low s hardenab bility. Finer the grains or lesser is hardenability. Coarse the grain size, less grain s er boundary area higher is the harde y r enability. Use of H Hardenabilit : ty Hardenab bility is used to select a steel to me a minimu hardness at a given l d eet um location in a part quenched under give conditions. We have to perform t d en tests to pred the harde dict enability of steel. The most widely used method of determining hardenabil is the End quench h t f g lity hardenability test y or the Jo ominy end qu uench test.

Fig. Set u for Jomin end quenc test up ny ch Jominy e quench test : end h This test of great practical use in determi t p e ining the ha ardenability of steel.Th test has been his standardi ized by the ASTM, SAE and AISI. T specime is steel ro machined with collar, with A E The en od , dimensio as shown in above fig The diam ons n g. meter is 25.4 m The fix mm. xture used is as shown in fig. n The test specimen is austenitiz at the te s zed emperature r recommende for the g ed given steel a is and transferred to the test fi t fixture. Imm mediately the water jet is started. Th water-jet pipe e he t quickly t should ha an intern diameter of 12.7 mm the distan between the specime end the en of ave nal r m; nce en nd jet-pipe i kept 12.7 mm. The w is 7 water pressu of jet is so adjusted that the fre jet achiev a ure d ee ves
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height of 64 mm from the end of the pipe. The temperature of water is kept between 210C and 270C. In the test, the specimen is being quenched from one end. Hence at different distances from this end, the cooling rate would be different. The test is continued till the temperature of the specimen reaches room temperature. After the test, two flat parallel surfaces are ground on the specimen opposite to each other along the entire length of the specimen. The hardness along one of these faces is measured at intervals of 1.6 mm from the quenched end. Near this end, the interval may be reduced to 0.8 mm to make the measurement precise. A plot between the hardness and distance from the quenched end is made. We get a plot similar to one shown fig. The hardness changes most rapidly at 50% martensite region with a representative hardness 54 Rc .The distance at which this critical hardness is achieved is called Jominy distance. 7.Why gray cast iron is brittle? Ans: Gray cast iron consists of graphite flakes in the metallic matrix. These graphite flakes are non-metallic in nature. Hence there is no significant bond across these flakes and the metallic matrix. Hence graphite flakes are discontinuous and they are just like crack and stress raiser. Further because of flake in shape they have very large surface area. Hence due to presence of these graphite flakes continuity of metal matrix is severely disrupted. Hence they fail without any plastic deformation. 8.Describe TTT diagram for 0.8% carbon steel. Ans: S curves are the isothermal transformation curves. These indicate the product of transformation at any given temperature. The two curves show Austenite Pearlite start and Austenitepearlite finish times. At any given temperature the time required for the austenite to pearlite transformation to start is known as incubation period. The incubation period is minimum when the transformation occurs at a temperature corresponding to the nose temperature.

The transformation products obtained at different temperatures are indicated in fig. All the products coarse pearlite, upper bainite and lower bainite are mixtures of -ferrite and cementite but the fineness of dispersion increases as the transformation temperature decreases. Thus fine pearlite is a finer dispersion of cementite in -ferrite than coarse pearlite is. Banite are so fine in structure that the dispersion can be seen only at higher magnification. Since a finer dispersion gives greater hardness and strength, bainite is harder than pearlite.
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Line 1 shows critical cooling rate. It can be seen that if the steel sample is cooled from the austenitic condition at a rate faster than the critical cooling rate, austenite to pearlite transformation will not even start. Line 2 exhibits a cooling rate faster than the critical cooling rate.It can be seen that this line doesnot intersect the Austenite to Peartlte start line in the Scurve. Hence if the steel is cooled from the austenitic condition at this rate, the austenite-pearlite transformation is completely avoided and the steel is completely transformed into martensite because this line cuts both Ms and Mf lines. Hence the critical cooling rate of a steel is that cooling rate which must be exceeded to produce 100% martensite on cooling a steel from the austenitic condition.


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UNITV U
1.What i Maurers diagram? W is s What is its u utility Ans : M Maurers diag gram is a pl between carbon cont lot tent and silicon content of a cast ir to ron show as t what wou be its mo of solidif to uld ode fication for a given cool ling rate. The cooling rat for te which th Maurers diagram is d he drawn is the normal coo oling rate encountered in sand moulds. If n cooling r changed , the diagram would als change. rate d so

Fig. Ma aurers daiag gram d an uded that for a normal giv cooling rate :ven From above diagram it ca be conclu h ntent and hig silicon content invaria gh ably produce ferritic gra cast iron. es ay 1) A high carbon con 2) A low silicon co w ontent and lo carbon c ow content alwa result in the formati of white cast ays n ion e iron. Thus the cast iron obtain will tota depend u T t ned ally upon C and Si content u under the no ormal condition of cooling ns g. 2. Explai Bulls eye OR Ferri in ito-Pearlitic Malleable Cast Iron . c Ans : For the produc ction of pea arlitic mallea able iron, sec condary grap phitization m be avoi must ided , so that no eutectoid cementite is decompose into ferrit and tempe carbon. B if cooling rate s ed te er But g n lled it may happen that some eute t ectoid or silicon content of cast iron is not properly control cementite is decomp e posed. In suc cases the eutectoid ce ch ementite in the immedia vicinity of an ate existing temper carb rosettr, is the one m bon most likely to decompo ose. Because of presence of temper c carbon rosett no fresh nucleation i required. T te, is Thus the cem mentite cont tained in pe earlite surround ding the temp carbon r per rosette prefe erentially de ecomposes. T temper carbon prod The duced joins the already pre esent rosette of temper c carbon and f ferrite devel is left. T lop This bright f ferrite envelope with dark rosette of te e r emper carbon in the mid n ddle resembl the Bulls eye ,the t les target used in shooting. Hence such Ferritopear H rlitic mallea able cast iro is know as bulls eye on wn s e malleable cast iron.

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Fig. Bulls e OR Ferr F eye rito-Pearlitic Malleable C Iron c Cast 3. How d you conv white ca iron into malleable cast iron? E do vert ast o Explain? or Expla the step involved in the produc ain n ction of malleable cast i iron.or Expla how whi cast iron is converte into malleable cast ir ain ite n ed ron. Ans : The heat treatment pr t rocess whic is given to the whi ch ite cast iron is know as wn Malleabl lizing. The production of malleable c iron con p f cast ntains the fol llowing steps: 1) Produ uction of wh cast iro castings : For the pr hite on :roduction of malleable c iron cast f cast tings, it is nece essary that th castings b first produ he be uced as whit cast iron c te castings with hout even tra of ace graphite flakes. This is because if graphit flakes are present th further d te e he decompositio of on cementite does not produce temp carbon a rosettes in e p per as nstead the alr ready presen graphite f nt flakes grow in s size. Hence cast iron con c ntaining grap phite flakes c cannot be m malleablized. 2) Malle eablizing Tr reatment :- The white cast iron ca astings are t then packed in sand ke in d ept boxes, a given the malleablizing heat treatm m g ment. The box are kept in the furna and heat to xes t ace ted 0 achieve a temperatur of 1050 C At this temperature the casting are kept for about 72 t 96 re C. r to hours. This stage is known as primary gra s aphitization. In this ste all the pr . ep rimary ceme entite decompo to give austenite and temper car oses a d rbon.

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If further cooling to room temperature. i) Cooling directly from this temperature to room temperature. By cooling the boxes in air, pearlite formed and we get pearlitic malleable cast iron. ii) Cool slowly from 1050 0C to 7600C, then decreasing the cooling rate still further for cooling upto 680 0C and then cooling slowly to room temperature. In this all the eutectoid cementite decomposes to ferrite and temper carbon. Fe3C Ferrite + Temper Carbon This is known as seconadary graphitization. As such the final product is ferritic malleable cast iron. 4. Write production route, composition, micro-structure and application of grey cast iron. Ans: Solidification of Gray Cast Iron :When carbon and silicon content is high and cooling rate is slow, a cast iron melt solidifies as gray cast iron. It contains 2.5-3.8 % C, 1.1-2.8 % Si, 0.4-1 % Mn, 0.15 % P and 0.10 % S. Gray cast iron is marked by presence of graphite flakes in matrix of ferrite or pearlite.

In a melt containing less than 4.3% C at temperature T1(liquidus temperature). The solidification start with formation of dendrites of austenite at temperature T2. At eutectic temperature austenite contains 1.7% C and liquid contains 4.3% C. This liquid undergoes eutectic reaction giving a mixture of austenite and graphite. Liquid (4.3% C) Austenite (1.7% C) + Graphite
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A hypere eutectic liquid (C2) start solidificati at tempe ts ion erature T1 w the form with mation of gra aphite known a Kisch gra as aphite which floats to th top skimm away. The eutectic reaction occurs h he med c 0 similar to that in hy o ypoeutectic a alloy. The s structure bel low 1135 C is austenite of 1.7% C and e 0 graphite. Further coo oling to 723 C results in rejection of carbon b austenite and this ca 3 n by e arbon 0 esent graphit which is in form of flakes. At 7 te 723 C the e eutectoid rea action joins the already pre occurs an just after the eutectoid reaction th structure c nd d he contains pea arlite and gra aphite flakes. pending upon the conditi we will g different kinds of gra cast iron. n ion get ay Now dep

(i) Ferrit Gray cas iron :- If cooling rate is very slow and Silico content ar high, wha tic st e w on re atever cementite which is associated w pearlite get graphi e with e itizes and gr raphite will join the alr ready formed g graphite. Stru ucture now will contain graphite flake embedd in ferrite matrix and cast n ded e d iron is ca alled as ferrit gray cast i te iron. Mechanical Prpoertie es: Tensile s strength 20 0000 PSI Hardness 110-140 BHN sB Good ma achinability rlitic Gray cast iron :- If cooling ra is fast an Silicon co c ate nd ontent are le there will not ess, (ii) Pear be any g graphitizatio and same structure o pearlite a graphite will be re on e of and e etained calle as ed peralitic gray cast iro on. ical ies: Mechani Prpoerti Tensile s strength 40 0000 PSI Hardness 160-200 BHN sB Less mac chinability (iii) Ferr rito-pearliti Gray cast iron :- If c ic t cooling rate and Silicon content are moderate, some n e cementite associated with pearlit which com in contac with grap e te mes ct phite flake ge decompos to et sed

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iron and graphite. Graphite will join the already formed graphite leaving behind the empty ferrite pocket and will get ferrite-pearlitic gray cast iron. Application of Gray cast iron : 1) Cylinder blocks and heads for IC engine 2) Tunnel segment 3) Frames for electric motoring 4) Sanitary waves 5)Piston rings 6)Manhole covers 7) Machine tool structure 8)Gas or water pipes 5. What is dezincification of brass? How is it avoided. Ans : This is occued in condenser tubes or boiler tubes made of cartridge brass.This is corrosion by pitting. At some places the condenser tubes might get covered with the scale formed due to the csales in water. The metal beneath these spots is preferentially corroded by cavitation. Both copper and zinc atoms are dissolved but copper gets reprecipitated at the same place.The net result is the selective removal of zinc leaving copper in porus, spongy condition. This selective removal of zinc is known as dezincification. Dezincification of brass can be decreased by adding Sn or Al to improve the corrosion resistance and by adding a little arsenic (0.05%) to the brass. Addition of arsenic minimizes the tendency towards dezincification. 6. Differentiate between any two of the following:i) Season cracking and Orange peel effect of Brasses ii) Modified and unmodified Aluminium-Silicon alloy. iii) Cartridge Brass and Muntz metal iv)White cast iron and Gray cast iron

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Ans: (i) Sr Season cracking No. 1 It occurs in and + brasses due to cold working. 2 It occurs due to presence of corrosive environment like ammonia, mercurous nitrate, sea water etc. 3 Brass articles in season cracking shows cracks during their life. 4 Brass article shows inter crytsalline cracks. 5 6

Orange peel effect It occurs in cartridge brass (-brass) It mainly occurs due to annealing 7007500C for a longer time. The grains of grows to larger size.

Article shows a rough surface like skin of orange. It also occurs when there are internal It also occurs when starting material stresses in brass article. contains larger grain size. To avoid season cracking the cold worked It can be avoided by proper control of grain brass must be fully stress relieved at 3000C size in production and annealing before they are put to use. temperature not exceeding 6000C.

(ii) Sr Modified Aluminium-Silicon alloy No. 1 It has eutectic composition of 12.7% Si and eutectic temperature of 5680C 2 The silicon is present in fine globular or spheroidal form in dendrites of -Al 3 Fine globular silicon less severely disrupt continuity of soft metallic matrix of aluminium solution. 4 Alloy containing modified Al-Si has high tensile strength, ductility and high impact strength. 5 Spheroids appears as black field and seen at higher magnification of 400X 6 Sodium is added about 0.01% with the help of phosphoriser to modify properties.

Unmodified Aluminium-Silicon alloy It has eutectic composition of 11.7% Si and eutectic temperature of 5770C The niddle like silicon is present in the matrix of -solid solution. Needle like silicon very severely disrupts continuity of soft metallic matrix of aluminium solution. Alloy containing unmodified eutectic is weaker and less ductile. Needle can be easily seen at lowe magnification of 50X to 100X. It doesnot contain sodium in its composition.

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(iii) Sr Cartridge Brass No. 1 Cartridge brass is single phase -brass. 2 Its composition is : 30% Zn and 70% Cu. 3 Brass has maximum ductility (55% elongation) 4 It has good tensile strength of 35-38 kg/mm2 5 6

Muntz metal

Muntz metal is two phase + brasse. Its composition is : 40% Zn and 60% Cu. It has sufficient ductility (15-20 % elongation) It has maximum tensile strength of 48 kg/mm2 The cast structure of cartridge brass contains The cast structure of Muntz metal consists cored dendrites of -solid solution. of feathers of in the matrix of . Cartridge brass is used for making sheets, Muntz metal is used to manufacture rods, tubes, deep drawn articles, boiler tubes castings of bushes, rods for electrical and condenser tubes. engineering parts.

(iv) Sr Gray cast iron White cast iron No. 1 All carbon in combined form in the form of Carbon is in free form in the form of cementite. flakes. 2 It may show -ferrite and graphite or It contains pearlite and cementite. pearlite or mixture of two. 3 It is very hard and brittle. It cannot It is soft and brittle. They can easily machined. machined. 4 It shows bright metallic surface after fracture It shows gray surface after fracture hence hence the name white cast iron. the name white cast iron. 5 Poor damping capacity. Excellent damping capacity.


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UNITVI
1. What is meant by Tensile test? Explain the procedure to determine the tensile properties of steel sample Ans : It is one of the most widely used mechanical test. A tensile test helps determining tensile properties such as tensile strength, yield point or yield strength, % reduction in area and modulus of elasticity. Fig.(a) shows a specimen for tensile test. Since mechanical properties to some extent are influenced by the size and shape of the test specimen, it is customary to use the stanadard specimen.

Fig. Tensile test specimen The essential features of a round (cylindrical) test specimen are the diameter Do, parallel length PL, gauge length Lo and end fillet radius r. These dimensions may be set as per ASTM or BS:18:1962 specifications, e.g.

Fig. Universal Testing Machine


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Tensile test is carried out by gripping the ends E, E of the specimen in a tensile testing machine as shown in fig and applying and increasing pull (fig (b)) on to the specimen till it fractured. During the test, the tensile load as well as the elongation of a previously marked gauge length in the specimen is measured with the help of load dial of the machine and extensometer respectively. These readings help plotting stress-strain curve as shown in below fig.

Fig. Stress-strain curve After fracture, the two pieces of the broken specimen are placed as if fixed together (fig (c)) and distance Lf between two gauge marks and the diameter Df at the place of fracture are measured. The various tensile properties are calculated as follows: 1. Yield strength = Load at Yield point / Ao Ao =/4 Do2 2. Ultimate tensile strength = Ultimate load, Pmax / Ao 3. % Elongation = (Lf Lo/ Lo) x 100 4. % Reduction in area = (Ao Af / A)ox 100 5. Youngs modulus of Elasticity, E = Stress at any pont within the elastic limit, i.e. OA / Strain at that point Or E = P Lo / Ao L Where P is load at any point up to the Elastic limit (Point A in fig) Lo is the gauge length, Ao is original area, and L is the elongation or change in Lo at any load P, while ther specimen is within the elastic zone.

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2. Explai Brinell Hardness Te with procedure in detail. in H est Ans : It consists of pressing a hardened st t f teel ball into a test specimen. Acco ording to A ASTM specifica ations, a 10 mm diamet ball is u ter used for the purpose. L e Lower loads are applied for s measurin hardness of soft mater ng o rials and vice versa. Load (kg g) Material Ra ange of Brin Hardness nell 500 Soft 16 to 100 6 1500 Intermediat hardness te 48 to 300 8 3000 Hard 96 to 600 6

Fig. Brinell Har . rdness Testin machine. ng Procedure of Hardn Testing : ness g 1) Specimen is placed on th anvil; the hand wheel is rotated so that the specimen a he e d e along with w the anvil moves up a l and contacts with the ba s all. 2) D Desired load is applied m mechanically (by a gear driven screw or by hyd y w) draulically (b oil by pr ressure ) and the ball pre d esses into the specimen. 3) T diameter of the inden The r ntation made in the spec e cimen by the pressed ball is measure by e ed th use of a micrometer microscope having a transport en he e, ngraved scal in the fie of le eld view. 4) T indentati diameter is measure at two places at righ angles to each other and The ion r ed ht o r, av verage of the two readin is taken. e ngs 5) T Brinell hardness num The h mber (BHN) which is t pressure per unit su the urface area o the of in ndentation in Kg per squ metre, is calculated as follows: n uare s 2) d BHN = W/[( D/2 (D-(D2-d2)] e on Where W is load o indentor, kg D is diame of steel b mm eter ball, d is averag measured diameter of indentation mm ge d f n,
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Brinell h hardness test is best for m measuring hardness of g gray iron cas stings consis sting of soft flake graphite, iron and har iron carbi rd ide. 3. Differ rentiate bet tween Brine Hardness Test and Rockwell h ell s hardness tes and discu in st uss brief abo Rockwe hardness test out ell Ans: Dif fference betw ween Brinell Hardness T and Roc l Test ckwell hardn test is as follows: ness 1) Rockw hardnes testing di well ss iffers from B Brinell testin in that the indenters a the load are ng and ds smaller a therefore the resultin indetation on the spec and e ng n cimen is sma aller and shallower. 2) Rockw testing is suitable fo materials h well i or having hardn beyond the scope of Brinell test ness d ting. 3) Rockw testing is faster as c well i compared to Brinell testi because diameter of indentation need ing f not be measured: the Rockwell m machine give arbitrary d es direct reading. 4) Rockw test needs no surfac preparatio (polishibg etc) of the specimen w well ce on g, e whose hardne is ess to be mea asured which is required in Brinell t h d testing.

Procedure for Meas suring Hard dness using Rockwell te ester : d machine. The machine di is showin any readin e ial ng ng. a)Test piece is placed upon the m b) Hand wheel is tur rned, therby raising the testb piece up against t steel ball indenter till the y the n ads is inor load. needle on the dial rea zero. Thi applies mi c) Major load is appl by press lied sing the crank provided o the right-h on hand side of the machine. f d) Crank is turned in the reverse direction t k n thereby with hdrawing major load b leaving m but minor load appl lied. e) Hand w wheel is rota and the test piece is lowered. ated f) At this stage , the hardness of t test piece material ca be directly read from the dial scal s h the e an le. There are two scales on a Rockwell t T o testing mach hine, i.e., B scale and scale. B scale C is uses a steel ball indenter wh hereas a dia amond cone penetrator is employe for measuring e ed hardness on C scale. B scale is fo testing ma or aterials of m medium hardn such as low and me ness edium carbon st teels in the annealed con a ndition. The working ran of this sc is from 0 to 100. C scale nge cale is used fo testing ma or aterials harder than B 10 C scale is commonly used for tes 00. s sting the hard dness of alloy cast irons. In Rockwell hardness te esting, the m minor load fo all cases i 10 kg wh or is hereas ads es re 100 ectively (incl luding mino load). or major loa for scale C and B ar 150 and 1 kg respe
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4. A 13 mm diameter tensil specimen has a 50 mm gauge length. The load corresponding to the

0.2% offset is 6800 kg and the maximum load is 8400 kg. Fracture occurs at 7300 kg. The diameter after fracture is 8 mm and gauge length at fracture is 65 mm. Calculate: i) Ultimate tensile strength in Mpa ii) 0.2% offset yield strength in Mpa iii) Breaking stress in Mpa iv) Elongation in % v) Reduction of area in % Ans : Given: Do =13 mm; Df =8 mm; Lo = 50 mm; Lf = 65 mm =/4 ( 13)2 =132.7 mm2 =132.7 x 10-6 m2 Ao =/4 Do2 Af =/4 Df2 =/4 ( 8)2 =50.3 mm2 =50.3 x 10-6 m2 i) Ultimate tensile strength = Ultimate load, Pmax / Ao = 8400 x 9.8 / 132.7 x 10-6 = 620 Mpa 0.2 % offset Yield strength = Py/ Ay = 7300 x 9.8 / 132.7 x 10-6 = 502 Mpa Breaking stress Sf = Pf/ Ao = 7300 x 9.8 / 132.7 x 10-6 =539 Mpa % Elongation = (Lf Lo/ Lo) x 100 = ( 65-60)/50 = 30 % % Reduction in area = (Ao Af / A)ox 100 = 132.7 50.3 / 132.7 = 62 %

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

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Acknowledgements: We are thankful to the authors of Text Books of Subject: Engineering Metallurgy that are cited during the compilation of this Course Material to provide to the students. Questions, answers and related information are collectively compiled and presented in single form based on the material cited from various contributions from the authors and online sources. References:
1. 2. 3.

Introduction to Engineering Materials - B.K. Agrawal, Material Science and Metallurgy -O.P.Khanna Engineering Metallurgy- A.V.Ramarao & R.L. Vyas

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