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HYDROLOGY OF QUARTERNARY VOLCANOCLASTIC ROCKS IN LEMBANG, ELABORATION OF RESISTIVITY STUDY AND CORE ANALYSIS

Yoal Dianto Faculty of Geology, Universitas Padjadjaran yoal.dianto@yahoo.co.uk


Abstract Lembang is situated in Northern Bandung, West Java. This hidrological study was conducted in 3 sites of geoelectric (BMC-1, BMC-2, and BMC-3). Hidrology of this region is strongly associated with volcanoclastic deposits mainly of tuff lapilli, coarse tuff, breccias with middle to high in productivity, the impermeable emerged as compacted fine tuff or coarse tuff, the pattern of fractures influenced the existence of aquifer. This exploration integrated the study of morphology and topography, study of local outcrops, core descriptions, and geophysics study using geoelectric method in Schlumberger configuration. Geophysics study was conducted using variations within resistivity values to detect properties, depth, thickness, and extent of rocks layer, in addition subsurface structural geology. BMC-1 vertical sections interpreted as 8 layers in rocks assemblage, BMC-2 vertical sections with 7 layers, and BMC-3 vertical sections with 7 layers. There are two packages of pyroclastic rocks layers. Late Quarternary layer on the upper part consisted of Coarse grained tuff (66 Ohm meter), fine grained tuff (32 48 Ohm meter), coarse grained lapilli tuff (108 Ohm meter) thinned out westward. Early Quarternary layer on the lower part consisted coarse grained tuff (86 Ohm meter), fine grained (30-51 Ohm meter) compacted in downward, fine compacted tuff (10 Ohm meter) in western part and breccias (302 Ohm meter) in northern part thinned out southward. The boundary or contact between Early Quartenary layer and Late Quartenary layer is interpreted as a normal fault with SW-NE in strike direction, and dip to the NW. Volcanoclastic rocks of Early to Late Quartenary in age, has a good potency as aquifer. Major structural geology as fault may allow minor structures as joints and fractures to be developed in rocks layer, primarily within Late Quarternary rocks. Water flowing direction is NW-SE perpendicular with fault trend. Keywords: aquifer, geoelectric, Lembang, resistivity, hydrology, volcanoclastic. Introduction Lembang is situated in Northern Bandung, West Java. Within this study, the elaboration of geological and geophysics study were carried out in term of underground water exploration. Surface data of geomorphology, structural, and outcrops lithology mixed with subsurface data. Subsurface data were acquired through core analysis, and geoelectric study using resistivity method in Schlumberger configuration, which conducted in 3 sites (BMC-1, BMC-2, and BMC-3). Investigation using resistivity method in Schlumberger configuration is meant to estimate the existence, depth, thickness, and distributions of rocks layer based on difference in specific resistivity values. The output of this study is a general spatial images of water bearing formation distribution. Calculation of specific resistivity value were to be done in order to construct the subsurface architecture of water bearing rocks layers. These information are essential to determine where the drilling sites will be, in exploitation stage. Stratigraphy Stratigraphic sequences and hidrological aspects of Nothern Bandung are strongly related with volcanoclastic rocks, where the oldest unit that exposed is Cikapundung Formation (Oud Kwartaire Vulkanische afzettingen) composed by conglomerates and volcanic breccias, tuff, and interbedded of andesitic lava, it had a good permeability to act as aquifer. This unit has erosional surface contact, upon which the Cibeureum Formation (Jong Vulkanische afzettingen) overlied. Cibeureum Formation is a cyclic deposits, which consisted of breccias-fragments of tuff, scoria-andesitebasalt and pumice (with maximum thickness of 100m). This formation is a major aquiver with permeability value of 4x10-6 to 2x10-5 meter/second. Its average trasmisivity is 400 m/day, the aeration zone extended from Dago Hill toward Cipaganti River (Hartono,1980). Cibeureum Formation has an interfingering relationship with Kosambi Formation that consisted of tuffaceous claystone and pumice of lake deposits. Upon this formation there is Cikidang Formation (Basalt Stromen van den Tangkuban Prahu) resulted by erupsion within period B and C. This unit consisted by basaltic lava, volcanic conglomerates, coarse tuff with parallel bedding and volcanic breccias. As the youngest deposits approximated is fluvial deposits of Cikapundung River as unconsolidate. The age of this deposits is approximated range from Pleistocene to Holocene (Recent). Formation boundaries recognizable through lithological analysis, well data, radioactivity curves, and electrical curves. Boundary between Cikapundung Formation and Cibeureum

Formation has a prominent characteristic remarked by high kick of gamma ray curves, due to black clayey soil of an ancient soil, which overlied right between the two of the formations. Sedimentological studies toward Cibeureum Formation had revealed that this formation is a gradational cyclic of breccias conglomerates fining toward tuffaceous in upward direction. At least it can be subdivided into 7 cyclics, which also apparent through electrical curves analysis, and radioactivity curves. Subsequent grain size analysis provides a tool to classify this deposits as density flows or lahar that was flowing as fan density current filling into Bandung ancient lake. Structure Lembang Fault is a significant product of tectonic deformation, that extends from the southern part of Lembang toward Western part in Cisarua, and also elongates toward Eastern part trough Maribaya continue to Manglayang Mountain. This is a normal fault that separated of hangingwall Tangkuban Parahu Mountain and footwall of Northern Bandung Hill, the throw of the fault is increasingly easternward. The geometry of aquifer and water-bearing formation in several sites are controlled by structural deformation styles, as major styles represented by tensional styles of Lembang Fault.

fluid content, density, minerals composition, porosity, and permeability. If a direct electrical current to be applied directly to the earth surface through a pair of current electrode C1 and C2, continued by measurement of electrical potential difference at P1 and P2 electrode, then specific resistivity will be obtained. Schlumber Configuration which is applied in this geoelectrical investigation, is where a pair of potential electrode P1 and P2 located in between the midst of a pair current electrode C1 and C2. In every measurement, the pair of current electrode C1 and C2 will be removed in certain distance that had been established before, meanwhile the electrical potential electrode P1 and P2 will be removed in certain distance with requirements that the distance of P1P2/2 equal with 1/5 times the distance of C1C2/2. Parameter data that will be obtained from measurement in form of electrical current value (mA) and electrical potential value (mV), in refer to Ohm Law than the specific resistivity will be obtained by multiplied it with distance factor (K) as before. General equations to find the value of specific resistivity, using Schlumberger configuration method, as follow :

s = K. V/I K = /D[ (L/2)2 (l/2)2 ] where : s = Specific Resistivity (.meter) V = Potential Difference (Volt) K = Distance Factor I = Electrical current (Ampere) L = Length of C1C2 current electrode (meter) D = Length of P1P2 potential electrode (meter) = Constant (3,14...)

Figure 1. Outcrop of a volcanoclastic rocks. Coarse grained of grayish tuff, grayish black on the weathered surfaces, well interbedded sequence in an inclined geometry. Data and Method Geoelectrical investigation was conducted based on physical properties of rocks, where each different rocks has a distinctive specific resistivity. This property depends on several factors which are rocks age, electrolysis content, Figure 2. Geoelectric method using specific resistivity. Schlumberger configuration.

Result and Discussion


Well: BMC L oca tion: Lemba ng - Ba ndung
D epth (m )

Core Description I
Description

Sca le 1 : 50

Litologi

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

- Soil, completely weathered, ber warna co kelat, besar butirclay-fine sand ,low plasticity, moist

arn u an - Soil, extremely weathered, berw a cokelat-ab kehitam , besar butir silt-medium sand, saturated
- B r e k s i, moderately w eathered, b e rw a rn a c o k e la t k e m e r a h a n , matriks , , supported ( 8 0 % ) b e ru k u ra n silt-medium sand saturated K o m p o n e n b a tu a n b e k u b e ru k u ra n granule-pebble, medium-poorly sorted, k e m a s te r b u k a , b e n tu k b u tir angular-subangular
- B r e k s i , m od era tel y wea th ered , b e r w a r n a c o k e l a t k e a b u - a b u a n , ma tri ks s up po rt ed ( 8 0 % ) b e r u k u r a n fi ne s an d-co arse sa nd , sat ur at ed , K o m p o n e n b a tu a n b e k u b e r u k u r a n g ra nu le- cob bl e , mediu m-p oo r ly s or ted , k e m a s t e r b u k a , b e n t u k b u t i r a ng ul ar-s ub an gu l ar

- Breksi, moderately weathered berwarna cokelat, matriks supported ( 80%) berukuran , , fine sand-coarse sand, saturated, Komponen batuan beku berukuran granule - pebble medium-poorly sorted, kemas terbuka, bentuk butir angular-subangular
- B r e k s i , slightly weathe red, b e r w a r n a c o k e l a t , ma trik s su pporte d ( 8 0 % ) b e r u k u r a n fine sand-coarse sand saturated, K o m p o n e n b a t u a n b e k u b e r u k u ra n granule-pebble , , medium poorly sorted, k e m a s t e r b u k a , b e n t u k b u t i r ang ular-subangular
- B r e k s i , s lightly we athere d, b e r w a r n a a b u k e c o k e l a t a n , m at rik s supported ( 7 0 % ) be rukuran c lay-coarse sand, moist , k o m p o n e n b a t u a n b e k u b e r u k u r a n granule -c obble , m edium- poorly sorted, k e m a s t e r b u k a , b e n t u k b u t i r angular- subangular - B r e k s i , sl ightl y w e athe red , b e r w a r n a a b u k e c o k e l a t a n , ma tri ks support ed ( 7 0 % ) b e r u k u r a n si lt-fi ne s and, satu rate d, k o m p o n e n b a t u a n b e k u b e r u k u r a n , coa rse sand- co bble poorl y s orte d, k e m a s t e r b u k a , b e n t u k b u t i r angular- suba ngular

- Breksi, slightly weathered, berwarna abu kehitaman, matriks supported 80%) ( berukuran silt-fine sand, saturated, komponen batuan beku berukuran coarse sand - granule , , medium sorted, kemas terbuka, bentuk butir angular-subangular agak sukar diremas

- Brek si, berwarna ab u kehitaman, matriks (80%) berukuran medium sand - coarse sand, komponen batuan beku berukuran berukuran granule - pebble poorly sorted , , saturated kemas terbuka, bentuk butir men yudut menydut tan ggung, mudah diremas,

Sandstones (single thin layer), dark gray, medium-coarse sand grained size, medium well sorted, grain supported, angular-subangular in roundness, loose, saturated Breccias (bottommost section), dark grey, matrix (70%) silt medium sand, components consisted of igneous rock gravel-pebble size, medium-poorly sorted, matrix supported, angular-subangular in roundness, compacted moist. The West-East lateral section of BMC-1 and BMC-2, can be subdivided into two Late Quartenary pyroclastic rocks assemblages which emplaced the upper part of the section, varied in grain size from fine grained to coarse grained. In BMC-1 these rocks assemblage lied within the depth of 077 meter (specific resistivity 41 Ohm meter), meanwhile in BMC-2 these rocks assemblage lied within the depth of 041 meter (specific resistivity 29 Ohm meter). Consequently, it can be inferred that these rocks assemblage inclined to the West, and coarse grained lapilli tuff emerged in the Eastern part, then thinning out to the West. The Early Quarternary assemblage, consisted of coarse to fine grained pyroclastic rocks, lied within the depth of 77167 meter with specific resistivity of 51 Ohm meter in BMC-1, and lied within depth of 41- 167 meter with specific resistivity of 86 Ohm meter in BMC-2. With the layer of coarse grained tuff thicken to the Eastern part.

Figure 3. Core description Soil (topmost section), completely weathered, brownish, clay-fine sand, low plasticity, moist. Breccia, moderately weathered, reddish brown, Matrix supported ( 80%) siltmedium sand grained size, saturated, components consisted of igneous rock gravel-pebble size, medium-poorly sorted, matrix supported, angular-subangular in roundness. Breccias (midsection) dark grey, matrix (80%) medium sand coarse sand grained size, components consisted of igneous rock gravel-pebble size, poorly sorted, matrix supported, angular-subangular in roundness, friable, saturated.

Figure 4. Vertical section of specific resistivity value from BMC-2 site of measurement.

From the South-North lateral section of BMC-2 and BMC3, it had a general features similar with West-East lateral section, but the coarse grained lapilli tuff layer and fine grained tuff layer that lied on the upper part of the section are thicken in the Northern part, and steeply inclined to the North. In addition, in Northern Part within the depth of 140,53 meter existed volcanic breccias layer of Early Quarternary age, meanwhile the same layer could not be encountered in Western and Eastern part (BMC-1 and BMC-2). From 3 Dimensional model and analysis of all sites of vertical specific resistivity sections (BMC-1, BMC-2, BMC-3), it can be inferred that The Early Quarternary and Late Quarternary volcanic deposits are separated by a normal fault that has strike direction of SW-NE and dip to the NW (coarse grained tuff with specific resistivity value of 86 Ohm meter thicken in BMC-3 site). Figure 6. Cross section model of lateral North-South, EastWest and vertical depth, suggested the extension and thinning out of rocks layer. Model with Rockplot 3D. b). Early Quarternary layer on the lower part consisted of coarse grained tuff (86 Ohm meter), fine grained (30-51 Ohm meter) compacted in downward, fine compacted tuff (10 Ohm meter) in western part and breccias (302 Ohm meter) in northern part thinned out southward. 2. The boundary or contact between Early Quartenary layer and Late Quartenary layer is interpreted as a normal fault with SW-NE in strike direction, and dip to the NW. Volcanoclastic rocks of Early to Late Quartenary in age, has good potency as aquifer. Major structural geology as fault may allow minor structures as joints and fractures to be developed in rocks layer, primarily within Late Quarternary rocks. 3. Water flowing direction is NW-SE perpendicular with fault trend. References Hartono, D., 1980, Thesis, ITB. Koesoemadinata, R. P., and Hartono D., 1981, Proceedings PIT-X IAGI, 318-336. Silitonga, P.H., Sistematical Geological Map of Java, Bandung Sheet, GRDC. Telford, 1992, Geophysical Prospecting, Mc.Graw Hill. Acknowledgements Special thanks are due Yudih Saamena and M. Rizwan. I acknowledge generous assistance and discussions that have been conducted.

Figure 5. Lateral section traverse of specific resistivity measurements BMC-1, BMC-2, and BMC-3. Interpretation of processed specific resistivity to determine rocks dimensions both thickness and depth. Conclusions 1.There are two packages of pyroclastic rocks layers: a). Late Quarternary layer on the upper part consisted of Coarse grained tuff (66 Ohm meter), fine grained tuff (32 48 Ohm meter), coarse grained lapilli tuff (108 Ohm meter) thinned out westward.