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USING NEWTON-RAPHSON AND FAST-DECOUPLED METHODS

4.1 AIM

(i) To understand the following for medium and large scale power systems:

(a) Mathematical formulation of the load flow problem in real variable form

(b) Newton-Raphson method of load flow (NRLF) solution

(c) Fast Decoupled method of load flow (FDLF) solution

(ii) To become proficient in the usage of software for practical problem solving in the areas of

power system planning and operation

(iii) To become proficient in the usage of the software in solving problems using Newton-Raphson

and Fast Decoupled load flow methods.

4.2 OBJECTIVES

i. To investigate the convergence characteristics of load flow solutions using NRLF and FDLF

algorithms for different sized systems and compare the same with that of GSLF algorithm.

ii. To investigate the effect of variation of voltage-control parameters such as generator voltage

magnitude setting, off-nominal tap ratio of transformer and MVAR injections of shunt

capacitor / inductor on the voltage profile and transmission loss of the system.

iii. To assess the effect of single outage contingencies such as a line outages and generator

outages.

iv. To investigate the convergence of load flow solution of a 2-bus system for different load

conditions, understand the existence of maximum loadability condition and to verify the same

both, numerically (using load flow package) and analytically using the 2 bus system equations.

v. To investigate the voltage stability of a small system through generation of P-V curves using

the load flow package and determining voltage stability margin(MW Index) at different

operating states of the system.

vi. To understand the concepts of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) required under deregulated

environment in a power system and to compute ATC in a small system using load flow

package.

vii. To perform sensitivity analysis using the Jacobian elements obtained from the program

modules of AU Powerlab or equivalent

4-1

4.4 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

4.3.1. Load Flow Model In Real Variable Form

j(QGk - QDk)

k Vk

k Vk

Pk + jQk Ik

Pk + jQk Ik

(PIk + jQIk) = Pk + jQk (4.1)

where the complex power injection at the kth bus (PIk + jQIk) is equal to the complex power

flowing into the network through all the lines connected to kth bus (PIk + jQIk). Since the bus

generation and demand are specified, the complex power injection is a specified quantity and is

given by

The complex power (Pk + jQk) can be written as a function of state variables as

N

Pk + jQk = Vk Ik = Vk <

* *

km V*m (4.3)

m=1

Substituting Vk =|Vk| ?/k and Ykm = |Ykm| ?km, equation (4.3) becomes

N

Pk (/9) = |Vk| _< km| |Vm_FRV /k –/m –km) (4.4)

m=1

N

Qk (/9) = |Vk| _< km| |Vm_VLQ /k –/m –km) (4.5)

m=1

Substituting equations (4.2), (4.4) and (4.5) in equation (4.1) we get the following two power

balance equations for kth bus.

Load Flow model in real variable form is compiled by adopting the following rules

4-2

(i) )RUHYHU\EXVZKRVHEXVSKDVHDQJOH /LVXQNQRZQLQFOXGHWKHUHVSHFWLYHUHDOSRZHUEDODQFH

equation (4.6)

(ii) For every bus whose bus voltage magnitude |V| is unknown, include the respective reactive

power balance equation (4.7)

Thus for a system with a slack bus and M P-V buses, the number of real power balance equation,

NP is given by

NP = N-1

and the number reactive power balance equations, NQ is given by

NQ = N-M-1

Assuming that the buses are numbered with P-Q buses first, followed by P-V buses and then by the

slack bus, the Load Flow model for the system with M P-V buses is given by

where expressions Pk(/9) and Qk (/9) are given by equations (4.4) and (4.5). Equations (4.8) and

(4.9) can be written in compact form as

F(X) = 0 (4.10)

T

Let us assume a solution X0 to equation (4.10) and let the correct solution to (4.10) be

X0 +¨X. Expanding equation (4.10) by Taylor series at X0 , and neglecting second and higher

order terms we get

) + (F/ X)|X0- ¨X (4.11)

Equation (4.11) can be written as

The voltage correction scheme for Newton-Raphson method can be obtained by expanding

equation (4.12) as

H N ¨/ ¨P

= (4.13)

J L ¨_ V| / |V| ¨Q

4-3

where H = (P/ /) ; N = (P/ _V|) |V|

J = (Q/ /) ; L = (Q/ _V|) |V| (4.14)

= +

V V0 ¨V

Diagonal elements:

1. Assume “flat start” for starting voltage solution

/ k (h) = 0.0 ; for h=0 ; k=1,……… NP( for all buses except slac k bus)

|Vk (h) | = 1.0 ; for h=0 ; k=1,2, ……..NQ (for all P -Q buses)

|Vk(h) | = |Vk|sch for all P-V buses and slack bus.

&RPSXWH û340$; ûPD[

_ û4j| ; j = 1,2,-----NQ

4. Compute Jacobian matrix using equation (4.18), (4.19), (4.20), and (4.21)

4-4

5. Obtain state correction vector by solving equation (4.13) using optimally ordered triangular

factorization.

6. Update state vector using equation (4.17). Go to step 2.

Fast Decoupled Load Flow (FDLF) method is faster, simpler to program, equally reliable and

requires less memory than NRLF method. The model for this method is developed from NRLF

method by employing the P-/4 -V decoupling principle.

The starting point for the derivation of the FDLF model is the voltage correction scheme of the

Newton-Raphson method given in equation. (4.13).

The first step in applying the P-/4 -V decoupling principle is to neglect the coupling

submatrices [N] and [J] in equation (4.13) which results in two separate equations

[H] ¨/ = ¨P (4.22)

[L] ¨_V| / |V| = ¨Q (4.23)

The second step is to make certain physically justifiable simplifications. In practical power

systems, the following assumptions are almost always valid.

FRV/km = 1

GkmVLQ /km << Bkm

Qk << Bkk |Vk|2

Using the above approximations in the expressions for Jacobian elements in equations

(4.18) and (4.20) we get

Hkm = Lkm = -|Vk| |Vm| Bkm

The decoupled equations (4.22) and (4.23) become

[|V|B’|V| ] ¨/ = ¨P (4.24)

At this stage the elements of matrices [B’] and [B”] are strictly elements of [-B], the negative bus

susceptance matrix. For example , for a five bus example system given in Fig 4.2, the details of

matrix equations (4.24) and (4.25) are given in equations (4.26) and (4.27) respectively.

4-5

1 Slack bus 2 P-Q bus 3 P-Q bus

|V2| (-B22)| |V2| |V2| (-B23) |V3| |V2| (-B24) |V4| |V2| (-B25) |V5| 2 2

|V3| (-B23)| |V2| |V3| (-B33) |V3| |V3| (-B34) |V4| |V3| (-B25) |V5| 3 3

=

|V4| (-B43)| |V2| |V4| (-B43) |V3| |V4| (-B44) |V3| |V4| (-B45) |V5| 4 4

|V5| (-B53)| |V2| |V5| (-B54) |V3| |V5| (-B54) |V3| |V5| (-B55) |V5| 5 5

(4.26)

2| / |V2| 2

(4.27)

The decoupling process is completed by the following approximations

(a) Omitting from [B’] the representation of those network elements that predominantly affect

MVAR flows, i.e shunt reactances and off- nominal in-phase transformer taps (tap ratio is

taken as 1 p.u.)

(b) Omitting from [B”] the angle shifting effects of the phase shifters –(phase shifter ratio taken

as 1.p.u

(c) In (4.26) and (4.27), the voltage magnitude terms appearing on the left side of each element

of matrix are transferred to the right hand side of the equation.

4-6

(d) The voltage magnitude term appearing on the right of each element of the matrix in (4.26)

are set as 1.p.u

(e) In equation (4.27), the voltage magnitude terms appearing on the right side of each element

are eliminated by cancelling the voltage magnitude terms appearing in the incremental

vector ¨_9__9_

(f) In equation (4.26), the susceptance elements are calculated neglecting the resistances.

[B’] ¨/ = ¨P/|V| (4.28)

[B”] ¨_V| = ¨Q/|V| (4.29)

Both B’ and B” are real, sparse matrices and have the structures of [H] and [L] respectively.

Equations (4.28) and (4.29) are solved alternatively, always using the most recent voltage values.

Each iteration cycle comprises one solution for ¨/ to update / and then one solution for ¨_V| to

update |V|. Separate convergence tests are used for (4.28) and (4.29) as

i

¨40$;¨PD[_¨4 j| ; j = 1,2,…….NQ /Q

j

4-7

The algorithm is presented in the form of a flow chart in fig 4.3

Compute [B’ ] and [B”] and factorise

KP = KQ = 1

Compute [ P/|V|]

Is p?

YES KP = 0

NO

UPDATE /

Is KQ YES

= 0?

KQ = 1 NO

COMPUTE [ Q/|V|]

OUTPUT

!#"$&%' (

Is

Q?

YES KQ = 0

NO

UPDATE V

Is YES

KP = 0 ?

NO

KP = 1

4-8

Additional Computation For P-V Bus

For each P-V bus, before computing [¨Q/|V|] Fig 4.3 during each iteration, the reactive

power generation at that bus QGk is computed using equation (4.30) and if it violates either the

upper or lower limit, then the scheduled voltage magnitude is corrected using sensitivity factor to

contain the QGk within operating limits. The sensitivity factors are computed and stored before the

start of the iteration process. The flow chart for the P-V module is given in Fig.4.4.

No

A P-V bus ?

Yes

No Yes

Is QGk (h) > QGk max ?

Is QGk(h) < QGk(min) ?

No

û QGk = QGk(min) - QG(h)k

|Vk|(h) = |Vk|(sch)

4.3.5. Effect of Voltage Control Parameters On System Voltage Profile And Transmission

Loss

In steady state analysis of power systems, the following parameters can be varied to effectively

improve the load bus voltage profile and reduce the transmission loss

2. Tap settings of OLTC transformers.

3. MVAR injection of fixed / switched capacitor / reactor.

4-9

By raising the levels of the voltage magnitude settings, |V|sch of generator buses, one can improve

the voltage magnitude of neighbouring load buses.

For example, considering the 6 bus sample system in Annexure 4.1, by raising the |V|sch of

generator bus 2, we can raise the voltage magnitudes of load buses 3 and 5. However, if the system

loading is very heavy, then the load bus voltage magnitude may continue to be well below the

accepted lower limit of say 0.95 per unit, inspite of raising the voltage magnitude of the only two

generator buses,1and 2, in the system. Under such operating condition, one can reduce the tap

settings of a transformer T1(connected between buses 6 and 5) and T2 (Conneted between buses 4

and 3) below 1.0 per unit to raise the voltage magnitude of buses 5 and 3. If the desired result is

not obtainable even after adjusting|V|(sch) and “a”, one can switch on more capacitor banks

available at buses 6 and 4. The system should be so designed (planned) that under the worst load

conditions expected, the adjustment of available voltage control parameters gives an accepted

voltage profile in the system.

It should be noted that in the above exercise of raising the voltage level of load buses; while

increasing |V|(sch) and the quantum of switched capacitors raise the voltage level of all the buses in

the system, the under tapping (a<1.0) of an OLTC transformer raises the voltage level of the non-

tap side but reduces the voltage level of the tap side.

During the above exercise of improving the voltage level of load buses using voltage – control

parameters one can note that the system transmission loss reduces to the minimum level if the

system voltage profile is made as flat as possible, by lifting the load bus voltage nearer to that of

the generator buses.

Contingency Load Flow analysis or outage study in a power system is concerned with verifying

whether the system will continue to remain in a “normal state” (with all the bus voltages and the

line/transformer flows with in their operational limits) even after the occurrence of a contingency

which may be either outage of a line / transformer or outage of a generator unit. If a base case state

and all its possible post-contingency states are “normal” then that base case state is said to be a

“secure state”. Contingency Load Flow analysis is done both during the planning phase and

operational planning phase of a system in order to design a secure system and to maintain it always

secure.

Line outage can be simulated using any Load Flow package by simply removing the line from the

network and running the package for the base case loading and generator schedule.

Generator outage can also be simulated using any Load Flow package provided the information on

how the lost generation is distributed between the available generators is known. The Load Flow

package should be run on base case network configuration and loadings but with the generation

schedule adjusted for the lost generation and rescheduled generation.

For each post – contingency state, a statement showing the line / transformer loading violations

and bus voltage violation should be prepared.

4-10

4.3.7. Maximum Loadability With Reference To Voltage Stability Limit

In recent years, power systems all over the world have been found to experience a new kind of

disturbance known as voltage instability. Voltage instability is a dynamic phenomena pertaining to

load which usually occurs when the system is heavily loaded and because of the limitation of

generation – transmission system in supplying the increasing reactive power requirement of the

load bus. When a bus load exceeds a specific limit termed as the loadability limit , the bus voltage

gradually reduces to zero. The steady-state aspect of voltage stability and the existence of a

loadability limit can be demonstrated through the two bus system (single load infinite bus system)

given in Fig.4.5.

jX

P+jQ

I (Constant

Slack P-Q power factor:

bus bus FRV-

P+jQ = VI* = V{(E-V) / jX}* (4.30)

3M4 ^_9__(_FRV MVLQ -|V|2} (j/X)

= -_9__(_;VLQ – j{(|V|2 X) – (|V| |E| /;FRV `

P = -_9__(_;VLQ

Q = -(|V|2;_9__(_;FRV (4.32)

Equation (4.31) and (4.32) on manipulation yield

X2P2 = |V|2 |E|2 sin2

[XQ + |V|2]2 = |V|2 |E|2 cos2

Pn ¨3( 2

/X) ; Qn ¨4( 2/X) ; |Vn| = |V| / |E| (4.37)

4-11

Using these normalized variables equation (4.36) becomes

(4.38)

1RWLQJWKHIDFWWKDWWKHSRZHUIDFWRUUHPDLQVFRQVWDQWDWFRV -GXULQJWKHYDULDWLRQRI

Load (P+jQ)

Equation (4.38) reduces to

For a given bus loading,P1 (and hence Pn1) two values of voltage magnitude solution are obtained

from equation(4.39);|VUn1|, the upper voltage solution and |VLn1|, the lower voltage solution (refer

Fig 4.6). While the upper voltage solution is practically acceptable, the lower voltage solution is

not. By varying the value of Pn from zero upwards one can obtain a pair of voltage solution for

each Pn and hence plot the P-V curve in Fig 4.6. It is clear from the curve that there exists a

maximum deliverable power through the given transmission line, Pn max for which only one voltage

solution exists. The condition for the maximum transferable power is obtained from equation

(4.39) by setting the expression within the inner square root to zero as

|Vn|max p = (0.5-Pn maxWDQ -1/2 (4.42)

1.0

|V u

n1| . .

|Vn| max p . .

|VL n1| . .

Pn = P / (E2 / X) p.u.

Pn1 Pn max

p.u. MW

MARGIN

4-12

From the Fig 4.6, the voltage stability margin (in p.u. MW) available at the operating state Pn1 is

the distance between Pn max and Pn1.

The P-V curve in a multi – node power system can be drawn for the voltage magnitude of a weak

P-Q bus by increasing either the load of that bus alone, or the total load of a group of P-Q buses

belonging to a weak area or the total load of the system. The abscissa can be either the MW load, P

or the load factor k which is the ratio of the actual load to the nominal load of the bus / area /

system.

All over the world, power systems are being deregulated, restructured and privatized with an

objective to introduce competition and to improve the efficiency and economy of operation. Single

utility is divided into different independent organizations such as Gencos, Transcos and Discos.

Gencos and Discos are given open access to transmission grid. An Independent System Operator

(ISO) regulates and maintain the grid sale of power (MW) between these Gencos and Discos is

encouraged and these transactions are called bilateral transactions.

In a “Day -Ahead Market”, ISO invites from various pairs of Gencos and Discos, the details of

“Bilateral transactions” ente red into by them over and above the “Pool transactions” already

finalized. The ISO runs a computer program called Congestion Management and determines the

maximum quantum of these bilateral transactions that can be permitted in the grid tomorrow

without violating the transmission line and bus voltage operating limits. The ISO implements these

transactions the next day.

The market participants, gencos and discos, need to know the “Available Transfer Capacity

(ATC)” between various source nodes (Genco buses) , and sink nodes (Disco buses) of the gird

tomorrow in order to finalize these bilateral transactions. ATC between a source node ‘k’ and a

sink node ‘m’ is defined as the difference between the “Total Transfer Capacity (TTC)” of MW

power between nodes k and m and the base case MW flow (BCMW) between k and m.

The TTCkm is the maximum MW power that can be transferred in the system between the source

node k and the sink node m without violating the line flow and bus voltage operating limits.

ATCkm can be determined by conducting repeated Load Flow analysis on the system starting with

the base case load and increasing the generation at the kth bus and demand at the mth bus by certain

percentage until any of the line flow or bus voltage constraints is just violated. The increased

generation/load over the base case is the ATCkm.

The ISO needs to announce over the internet periodically for the benefit of market participants,

ATC between different pairs of nodes to enable the participants to decide their bilateral

transactions for the next day. Hence computation of ATC is an important task of the ISO to be

performed repeatedly every day, a number of times. Load Flow analysis is one of the tools

available for computing ATC. But it is a trial and error approach and it takes considerable time.

Optimal Load Flow tools are available for quickly determining ATC’s.

4-13

4.5 EXERCISES

4.5.1 (i) Prepare the data for the 6-bus system described in the Annexure 4.1

(ii) Specify the convergence tolerance of 0.01 MW

(iii) Run the FDLF program and obtain following convergence plots: Real power, Reactive

power, Voltage magnitude and Voltage phase angle versus number of iterations

(iv) Repeat the above with NRLF program

(v) Run the GSLF program with an acceleration factor of 1.4 and a convergence for

YROWDJHWROHUDQFHRISXDQGSORWWKHFRQYHUJHQFHFKDUDFWHULVWLFV û3YHUVXV

iteration number. Superpose on this plot the corresponding plots for FDLF and NRLF

methods and compare the convergence rate of the three methods.

4.5.2 Obtain an optimal (minimum transmission loss) load flow solution for the base case

loading of the 6 bus system in Annexure 4.1 by trial and error approach through repeated

load flow solutions using FDLF package for different combinations of generator voltage

magnitude settings, Vg, off-nominal tap ratios of transformers, and reactive power of shunt

elements. The final optimal state obtained must be a “feasible state” so that all the bus

voltages are within 0.9 p.u and 1.05 p.u, all the line / transformer flows are within their

continuous ratings and the transmission loss should be the minimum.

4.5.3 On the optimal state obtained for the 6 bus system in exercise 4.5.2. Carry out contingency

analysis for the following outages using FDLF or NRLF package and comment on the

line / transformer loading and bus voltages under the post contingency state:

(i) outage of line 4-6 and

(ii) outage of line 1-6.

4.5.4 Consider the optimal state obtained for the 6 bus system in exercise 4.5.2. Retain the MW

loadings of all the buses and reduce the power factor by increasing the reactive

power consumed by the loads. Obtain load flow solutions using FDLF or NRLF package

and comment on the resulting system voltage profile and transmission loss.

4.5.5. Consider the 2 bus system in Annexure 4.2 and obtain Load Flow solution for the base

demand using FDLF package. Increase the active power demand in steps of 50 MW,

assuming fixed power factor and obtain Load Flow solution for each case. Determine the

maximum demand that can be served by this system and the voltage at this load. Plot the P-

V curve. Verify the correctness of the numerical solution obtained using analytical solution.

Complete the bottom portion of the P-V curve.

4.5.6. Consider the base case operating state of the 6-bus system in Annexure 4.1 Assume

that the system load factor, k corresponding to this base case demand is 100 percent.

Increase the load at all the load buses uniformly by 10 percent by raising the system

demand factor by 10 percent. Allocate the increased system demand equally to generator

buses 1 and 2 and obtain the load flow solution. Repeat the process by increasing the factor

k successively until the voltage instability occurs (indicated by the non-convergence of

Load Flow solution). Identify the weakest load bus and draw the P.V. curve (abscissa P is

represented by the system demand factor k) for that bus. Also obtain the voltage stability

Margin (MW Index) at different operating states of the system.

4-14

4.5.7 Consider the optimal operating state for the base case loading of the 6-bus system in

Annexure 4.1. Determine the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) between the “source

bus” 1 and “sink bus” 5, for base case operating state. Limit on bus voltage magnitude:

0.9 ≤ V ≤ 1.05 per unit.

4-15

ANNEXURE 4.1

6-BUS, 7-LINES / TRANSFORMER POWER SYSTEM

Single-Line Diagram

G

S1 3

L2 4 T2

1

L3 a:1

L1 L5

T1 L4

6 5 2

S2

a:1

G

Lines : 5, numbered serially from L1 to L5

Transformers : 2, numbered serially as T1 and T2

Shunt Load : 2, numbered serially as s1 and s2

Base MVA : 100

No. MVAR Volt (p.u)

Schedule Max Min MW MVAR Max Min

1 ? 200 40 0.0 0.0 100.0 -50.0 1.02

2 50.0 100 20 0.0 0.0 50.0 -25.0 1.02

MW MVAR Assumed (p.u)

3 55.0 13.0 1.0

4 0.0 0.0 1.0

5 30.0 18.0 1.0

6 50.0 5.0 1.0

4-16

Transmission Line Data:

Line ID. Send Bus Receive Resist Reactance Half Line Rating

No No. Bus No. P.U P.U. charging MVA

Suscept.

P.U

1 1 6 0.123 0.518 0.0 55

2 1 4 0.080 0.370 0.0 65

3 4 6 0.087 0.407 0.0 30

4 5 2 0.282 0.640 0.0 55

5 2 3 0.723 1.050 0.0 40

Transformer Data:

ID.No Bus No. Bus No. P.U P.U. MVA

1 6 (*) 5 0.0 0.300 1.000 30

2 4 (*) 3 0.0 0.133 1.000 55

(*) Note: The sending end bus of a transformer should be the tap side.

MVAR (*)

1 4 2.0

2 6 2.5

Sign for Inductor : -ve

4-17

ANNEXURE 4.2 – TWO BUS POWER SYSTEM

Single-Line Diagram

1 2

System Data

ID No MVAR Volt, p.u.

Scheduled Max Min MW MVAR Max Min

1 ? 500.00 75 0.0 0.0 250 -50 1.0

MW MVAR Assumed (p.u)

2 100 100 1.0

Line ID Send Bus Receive Bus Resist.(p.u) Reactance Half Line Rating

No No No (p.u) Change suscep. MVAR

in p.u

1 1 2 0.0 0.1 0.0 300

4-18

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