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Understanding RF Fundamentals and the Radio Design of Wireless Networks Session ID-BRKEWN-3016
Understanding RF Fundamentals and the Radio Design of Wireless Networks Session ID-BRKEWN-3016

Understanding RF Fundamentals and the

Radio Design of Wireless Networks

Session ID-BRKEWN-3016

Session Abstract

Session Abstract This advanced session focuses on the deep-dive understanding of the often overlooked Radio Frequency

This advanced session focuses on the deep-dive understanding of the often overlooked Radio Frequency part of the designing and deploying a Wireless LAN Network. It discusses 802.11 Radio, MIMO, Access Points and antenna placements, when to use a DAS

system, antenna patterns… It covers the main environments such as

carpeted offices, campuses and conference centers, and it provides feedback based on lessons learned from challenging deployments such as outdoor/stadium/rail deployments and manufacturing areas.

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Session Agenda - Objectives  What is radio how did we get here and what

Session Agenda - Objectives

What is radio how did we get here and what is frequency?

Basic 802.11 RF terminology and radio hardware identification

802.11 Antenna Basics Single & Diversity Antennas

Interpreting antenna patterns Cisco Richfield Facility

Diversity, Multipath, and the technical elements of 802.11n

DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems) overview how used

Access Point Models and Features

802.11n design and deployment

Installations above ceiling (plenum) installations that went wrong

Antennas for Rugged Access Points MIMO antennas for ceilings and walls

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What We Won‘t Be Covering

What We Won‘t Be Covering  Mesh deployments  Clean-Air (separate session for that)  Interference

Mesh deployments

Clean-Air (separate session for that)

Interference mitigation

Specific site survey utilities

LBS (Location Base Services)

FCC rules and regulations

WLAN management

802.11n beyond RF characteristics

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What is radio? How did we get here and what is frequency?

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Basic understanding of Radio…

Basic understanding of Radio… Battery is DC D irect C urrent Waves travel back and forth
Basic understanding of Radio… Battery is DC D irect C urrent Waves travel back and forth

Battery is DC

Direct Current

understanding of Radio… Battery is DC D irect C urrent Waves travel back and forth so

Waves travel back and forth so fast they leave the wire

Waves travel back and forth so fast they leave the wire AC Frequency 60 Hz or
Waves travel back and forth so fast they leave the wire AC Frequency 60 Hz or
Waves travel back and forth so fast they leave the wire AC Frequency 60 Hz or

AC Frequency 60 Hz or 60 CPS Cycles Per Second

60 Hz or 60 CPS – Cycles P e r S e c o n d

Vintage RF

Transmitter

Typical home is AC Alternating Current

Popular Radio Frequencies:

AM Radio 650 kHz = WSM 650 AM

Shortwave 3-30 MHz

FM Radio 88-108 MHz Weather Radio 162.40 MHz Cellular Phones 800-900 MHz WiFi 802.11a 5 GHz WiFi 802.11b/g 2.4 GHz

How fast the AC current goes is its ―frequency‖

AC is very low frequency 60 Hz (Cycles Per Second)

Radio waves are measured in kHz, MHz and GHz

The lower the frequency the physically longer the radio wave Higher frequencies have much shorter waves as such, they take more power to move them greater distances. This is why 2.4 GHz goes further then 5 GHz (given same amount of RF power)

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Radio Spectrum goes almost from DC to Light

You just need a radio receiver to “tune them in”

Light You just need a radio receiver to “tune them in” Each Frequency or sets of
Each Frequency or sets of frequencies (channels) have different services such as Shortwave, FM radio,
Each Frequency or sets of
frequencies (channels) have different
services such as Shortwave, FM
radio, television, etc - Most of these
are licensed services however some
like ―Wi-Fi‖ are ―unlicensed‖
Rest assured your Federal

DC

Government knows these frequencies well…

your Federal DC Government knows these frequencies well… Light Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

Light

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The US Radio Spectrum (3kHz-300GHz)

The US Radio Spectrum (3kHz-300GHz) Uncle Sam has allocated the entire usable RF spectrum from DC
The US Radio Spectrum (3kHz-300GHz) Uncle Sam has allocated the entire usable RF spectrum from DC

Uncle Sam has allocated the entire usable RF spectrum from DC to Light

Source: US Department of Commerce http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/allochrt.PDF

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Wi-Fi Portion of the Radio Spectrum

Wi-Fi Portion of the Radio Spectrum 2.4 GHz 5 GHz Wi- Fi is ―unlicensed‖ so it
Wi-Fi Portion of the Radio Spectrum 2.4 GHz 5 GHz Wi- Fi is ―unlicensed‖ so it

2.4 GHz

Wi-Fi Portion of the Radio Spectrum 2.4 GHz 5 GHz Wi- Fi is ―unlicensed‖ so it

5 GHz

Wi-Fi is ―unlicensed‖ so it doesn‘t show up in

the overall spectrum allocation as a service

The first frequencies available for Wi-Fi use was in the 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz range

As Wi-Fi popularity and usage

increased the FCC allocated additional spectrum in the 5 GHz band for (unlicensed usage)

Portions of the spectrum we use today is licensed by Amateur (Ham Radio) and other services such as radio location (weather radar)

But it has beginnings in the ISM (industrial Scientific Medical) band where it was not desirable or profitable to license such short range devices.

There is more bandwidth in 5

GHz and mechanisms are in

place to co-exist with radio

location (radar) services

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A radio needs a proper antenna

A radio needs a proper antenna As the frequency goes up the radiating element gets smaller
A radio needs a proper antenna As the frequency goes up the radiating element gets smaller

As the frequency goes up the radiating

element gets smaller

As the frequency goes up the radiating element gets smaller Cisco antennas are identified by color

Cisco antennas are

identified by color

Blue indicates

Black indicates 2.4 GHz

5 GHz

by color Blue indicates Black indicates 2.4 GHz 5 GHz Omni-Directional antennas like the one on

Omni-Directional antennas like the one on the left, radiate much like a raw light bulb would everywhere in all directions

like a raw light bulb would everywhere in all directions Directional antennas like this ―Patch‖ antenna

Directional antennas like this ―Patch‖ antenna radiate forward like placing tin foil behind the light bulb or tilting the lamp shade

Antennas are custom made and have frequency ranges and specifications

Note: Same RF energy is used but results in greater range as its focused at the cost of other coverage areas

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Complex Modulation Schemes

Complex Modulation Schemes Example of 802.11n Modulation Coding Schemes QAM or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation is one
Complex Modulation Schemes Example of 802.11n Modulation Coding Schemes QAM or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation is one

Example of 802.11n Modulation Coding Schemes

QAM or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation is one of the fastest modulation types actually sending two signals that are out of phase with each other and then somehow ―putting all the pieces back together‖ for even greater throughput.

This is one of the advantages of 802.11n

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Radio technology has a lot in

common with that old twisted pair

phone line that started out at 300

baud and then quickly increased

In order to get faster data rates, (throughput) into the radio signal,

complex modulation schemes as

QPSK or 64 bit QAM is used.

Generally speaking, the faster the data rate the more powerful the signal needs to be (at the receiver) to be successfully decoded.

Take-away here is that 802.11n is a method of using special modulation techniques and *not* specific to a frequency like 2.4 or 5 GHz

802.11n can be used in either band

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Wi-Fi Radio Spectrum

Wi-Fi Radio Spectrum Even today many portable devices in use are limited to 2.4 GHz only

Even today many portable devices in use are limited to 2.4 GHz only including newer devices but this is changing

802.11b/g is 2.4 GHz

802.11a is 5 GHz 802.11n (can be either band) 2.4 or 5 GHz

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and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public The 2.4 GHz spectrum has only (three non-overlapping

The 2.4 GHz spectrum has only (three non-overlapping channels

1,6 and 11 (US)

There are plenty of channels in the 5 GHz spectrum and they do not overlap

2.4 GHz and 5 GHz are different

portions of the radio band and

usually require separate antennas

Most if not all 5 GHz devices also have support for 2.4 GHz

Note: There are still many 2.4 GHz only devices today primarily because those chipsets are less costly to produce

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Basic 802.11 RF terminology and Radio Hardware Identification

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Common RF terms

Common RF terms  Attenuation – a loss in force or intensity – As radio waves

Attenuation a loss in force or intensity As radio waves travel through objects or in media such as coaxial cable attenuation occurs.

BER Bit Error Rate - the fraction of bits transmitted that are received incorrectly.

Channel Bonding act of combining more than one channel for additional bandwidth

dBd abbreviation for the gain of an antenna system relative to a dipole

dBi abbreviation for the gain of an antenna system relative to an isotropic antenna

dBm decibels milliwatt -- abbreviation for the power ratio in decibels (dB) of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt of transmitted RF power.

Isotropic antenna – theoretical ―ideal‖ antenna used as a reference for expressing power in logarithmic form.

MRC Maximal Ratio Combining a method that combines signals from multiple antennas taking into account factors such as signal to noise ratio to decode the signal with the best possible Bit Error Rate.

Multipath refers to a reflected signal that combines with a true signal resulting in a weaker or some cases a stronger signal.

mW milliwatt a unit of power equal to one thousandth of a watt (usually converted to dBm)

Noise Floor The measure of the signal created from the sum of all the noise sources and unwanted signals appearing at the receiver. This can be adjacent signals, weak signals in the background that don‘t go away, electrical noise from electromechanical devices etc.

Receiver Sensitivity The minimum received power needed to successfully decode a radio signal with an acceptable BER. This is usually expressed in a negative number depending on the data rate. For example the AP-1140 Access Point requires an RF strength of at least negative -91 dBm at 1 MB and an even higher strength higher RF power -79 dBm to decode 54 MB

Receiver Noise Figure The internal noise present in the receiver with no antenna present (thermal noise).

SNR Signal to Noise Ratio The ratio of the transmitted power from the AP to the ambient (noise floor) energy present.

TxBF Transmit beam forming the ability to transmit independent and separately encoded data signals, so-called streams, from each of the multiple transmit antennas

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Identifying RF connectors

Identifying RF connectors RP-TNC Connector Used on most Cisco Access Points ―N‖ Connector Used on the
Identifying RF connectors RP-TNC Connector Used on most Cisco Access Points ―N‖ Connector Used on the

RP-TNC Connector

Used on most Cisco Access Points

connectors RP-TNC Connector Used on most Cisco Access Points ―N‖ Connector Used on the 1520 Mesh

―N‖ Connector

Used on the 1520 Mesh and 1400 Bridge

―N‖ Connector Used on the 1520 Mesh and 1400 Bridge ―RP -SMA ‖ Connector Used on

―RP-SMA‖ Connector

Used on some Linksys Products

―RP -SMA ‖ Connector Used on some Linksys Products ― SMA ‖ Connector ―Pig tail‖ type

SMA‖ Connector

―Pig tail‖ type cable assemblies

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Identifying different cable types

Identifying different cable types LMR- 400 Foil & shield LMR – 1200 Leaky Coax shield cut
Identifying different cable types LMR- 400 Foil & shield LMR – 1200 Leaky Coax shield cut

LMR- 400 Foil & shield

Identifying different cable types LMR- 400 Foil & shield LMR – 1200 Leaky Coax shield cut
Identifying different cable types LMR- 400 Foil & shield LMR – 1200 Leaky Coax shield cut

LMR 1200

cable types LMR- 400 Foil & shield LMR – 1200 Leaky Coax shield cut away on

Leaky Coax

shield cut away on one side

½ inch solid copper cable sometimes called ―hardline‖ or ―heliax‖ trade

names (side can be milled to be leaky)

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Antenna Cables LMR Series

Antenna Cables – LMR Series Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

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and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public This is a chart depicting different types of

This is a chart depicting different types of Times Microwave LMR Series coaxial cable.

Cisco uses Times

Microwave cable and has standardized on two types:

Cisco Low Loss (LMR-400) and Cisco Ultra Low Loss

(LMR-600).

LMR-600 is recommended when longer cable distances are required

Larger cables can be used but connectors are difficult to find and install

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Antenna Cables

LMR-400 is 3/8 inch Cisco Low Loss

LMR-600 is ½ inch

Cisco Ultra Low Loss

inch Cisco Low Loss LMR-600 is ½ inch Cisco Ultra Low Loss Trivia: LMR Stands for
inch Cisco Low Loss LMR-600 is ½ inch Cisco Ultra Low Loss Trivia: LMR Stands for

Trivia: LMR Stands for Land Mobile Radio

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Antenna Cables - Plenum

Antenna Cables - Plenum If the cable is ORANGE in color it is usually Plenum Rated.

If the cable is ORANGE in color it is usually

Plenum Rated.

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and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Plenum is the air-handling space that is found

Plenum is the air-handling space that is found above

drop ceiling tiles or below

floors.

Because of fire regulations this type of cable must burn with low smoke

The 3 Ft white cable attached to most Cisco antennas is plenum rated.

Our outdoor cable (black)

is not Plenum

Plenum cable is more expensive

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802.11 Antenna basics

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Antenna basics

Antenna basics  Antenna - a device which radiates and/or receives radio signals  Antennas are

Antenna - a device which radiates and/or receives radio signals

Antennas are usually designed to operate at a specific frequency Wide-Band antennas can support additional frequencies but it‘s a trade-off and usually not with the same type of performance.

Antenna Gain is characterized using dBd or dBi

Antenna gain can be measured in decibels against a reference antenna

called a dipole and the unit of measure is dBd (d for dipole) Antenna gain can be measured in decibels against a computer modeled antenna called an ―isotropic‖ dipole <ideal antenna> and the unit of measure is dBi (i for isotropic dipole) (computer modeled ideal antenna)

WiFi antennas are typically rated in dBi.

dBi is a HIGHER value (marketing folks like higher numbers)

Conventional radio (Public safety) tend to use a dBd rating.

To convert dBd to dBi simply add 2.14 so a 3 dBd = 5.14 dBi Again… dBd is decibel dipole, dBi is decibel isotropic.

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How does a Omni-directional dipole radiate?

The radio signal leaves the center wire using the ground wire (shield) as a counterpoise to radiate in a 360 degree pattern

as a counterpoise to radiate in a 360 degree pattern Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its

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in a 360 degree pattern Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco
in a 360 degree pattern Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco
in a 360 degree pattern Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

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Antenna theory (Dipole & Monopole)

Antenna theory (Dipole & Monopole) Dipole Monopole A Monopole requires a ground plane – surface) (conductive

Dipole

Antenna theory (Dipole & Monopole) Dipole Monopole A Monopole requires a ground plane – surface) (conductive

Monopole

Antenna theory (Dipole & Monopole) Dipole Monopole A Monopole requires a ground plane – surface) (conductive

A Monopole requires a

ground plane

surface)

(conductive

A dipole does not require a

ground plane as the bottom half

is the ground (counterpoise).

808 Ft Broadcast Monopole WSM 650 AM - Grand Ole Opry (erected in 1932)

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Antenna theory (dipole & monopole)

Antenna theory (dipole & monopole) Monopoles were added to our antenna line primarily for aesthetics and

Monopoles were added to our antenna line primarily for aesthetics

and require a metal surface to radiate

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a metal surface to radiate Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco

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How does a directional antenna radiate?

Although you don‘t get additional RF power with a directional antenna it does concentrate the available energy into a given direction resulting in greater range - much like bringing a flashlight into focus.

Also a receive benefit - by listening in a given direction, this can limit the reception of unwanted signals (interference) from other directions for better performance

(interference) from other directions for better performance A dipole called the ―driven element‖ is placed in

A dipole called the ―driven element‖ is placed in front of other elements. This motivates the signal to go forward into a given direction for gain. (inside view of the Cisco AIR-ANT1949 13.5 dBi Yagi)

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Patch Antenna a look inside

Patch Antenna a look inside Patch antennas can have multiple radiating elements that combine for gain.

Patch antennas can have multiple radiating elements that combine for gain. Sometimes a metal plate is used behind the antenna as a reflector for more gain

is used behind the antenna as a reflector for more gain 9.5 dBi Patch, AIR-ANT5195-R Presentation_ID

9.5 dBi Patch, AIR-ANT5195-R

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Antennas identified by color

Antennas identified by color Blue indicates Black indicates 2.4 GHz 5 GHz Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco

Blue indicates

Black indicates 2.4 GHz

5 GHz

by color Blue indicates Black indicates 2.4 GHz 5 GHz Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its
by color Blue indicates Black indicates 2.4 GHz 5 GHz Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its

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Most common 2.4 GHz antennas

for Access Points (single and diversity)

2.4 GHz antennas for Access Points (single and diversity) Antenna   Description AIR-ANT4941 2.2 dBi

Antenna

 

Description

AIR-ANT4941

AIR-ANT4941

2.2 dBi Swivel-mount Dipole; most popular mounts directly to radio, low gain, indoor

AIR-ANT5959

AIR-ANT5959

2

dBi Diversity Ceiling-mount Omni

AIR-ANT1729

AIR-ANT1729

6

dBi Wall-mount Patch

AIR-ANT1728

AIR-ANT1728

5.2 dBi Ceiling-mount Omni

AIR-ANT3549

AIR-ANT3549

9

dBi Wall-mount Patch

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Most common 5 GHz antennas

for Access Points (single and diversity)

5 GHz antennas for Access Points (single and diversity) Antenna Description AIR-ANT5135D-R 3.5 dBi

Antenna

Description

Access Points (single and diversity) Antenna Description AIR-ANT5135D-R 3.5 dBi Omni-directional Antenna; mounts

AIR-ANT5135D-R

3.5 dBi Omni-directional Antenna; mounts directly to radio, low gain,

indoor

AIR-ANT5145V-R

4.5 dBi Omni-directional Diversity Antenna; unobtrusive, ceiling

mount, low gain, indoor

AIR-ANT5160V-R

6 dBi Omni-directional Antenna; ceiling or mast mount, indoor/outdoor

AIR-ANT5170P-R

7 dBi Patch Diversity Antenna; directional, small profile, wall mount, indoor/outdoor

AIR-ANT5195-R

9.5 dBi Patch Antenna;

directional, small profile, wall mount, indoor/outdoor

directional, small profile, wall mount, indoor/outdoor Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All
directional, small profile, wall mount, indoor/outdoor Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All
directional, small profile, wall mount, indoor/outdoor Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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Understanding and interpreting antenna patterns A quick peek at the Cisco Richfield Facility

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Understanding antenna patterns

Dipole (Omni-directional)

Understanding antenna patterns Dipole (Omni-directional) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Low gain dipoles radiate everywhere think ―light bulb‖
and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Low gain dipoles radiate everywhere think ―light bulb‖

Low gain dipoles radiate everywhere think ―light bulb‖

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Understanding antenna patterns

Monopole (Omni-Directional) MIMO

antenna patterns Monopole (Omni-Directional) MIMO Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All
antenna patterns Monopole (Omni-Directional) MIMO Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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When three monopoles are next to each other the radiating elements interact slightly with each other The higher gain 4 dBi also changes elevation more

compared to the lower gain 2.2 dBi Dipole

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Understanding antenna patterns

Patch (Directional)

5 GHz Patch Antenna
5 GHz Patch Antenna

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Understanding antenna patterns

Patch (Higher Gain Directional)

antenna patterns Patch (Higher Gain Directional) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Four element Patch Array Single

Four element Patch Array

© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Four element Patch Array Single

Single Patch Antenna

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Understanding antenna patterns

Sector (Higher Gain Directional)

Elevation plane has nulls due to high gain 14 dBi
Elevation plane has nulls due to high gain 14 dBi

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AIR-ANT2414S-R

14 dBi Sector 2.4 GHz

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Understanding antenna patterns

Sector (Higher Gain Directional)

antenna patterns Sector (Higher Gain Directional) Elevation plane has nulls due to high gain 14 dBi

Elevation plane has nulls due to high gain 14 dBi but antenna was designed with ―Null-Fill‖ meaning we scaled back the overall antenna gain so as to have less nulls or low signal spots on the ground.

AIR-ANT2414S-R

14 dBi Sector 2.4 GHz

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The Richfield Ohio (Aironet) facility

A quick peek where antennas are designed

(Aironet) facility A quick peek where antennas are designed Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates.
(Aironet) facility A quick peek where antennas are designed Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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The Richfield Ohio (Aironet) facility designs antennas and qualifies 3 rd party antennas

designs antennas and qualifies 3 r d party antennas Satimo software compatible with Stargate-64 System. Basic
designs antennas and qualifies 3 r d party antennas Satimo software compatible with Stargate-64 System. Basic

Satimo software compatible with

Stargate-64 System. Basic

measurement tool is 8753ES Network Analyzer.

Cisco Anechoic chamber using an 18-inch absorber all the way around 1-6 GHz Anechoic means ―without echo‖

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FCC regulatory compliance testing is also

done at the Richfield Ohio facility.

testing is also done at the Richfield Ohio facility. Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates.
testing is also done at the Richfield Ohio facility. Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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Yes we have just a few Access Points…

Yes we have just a few Access Points… Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All
Yes we have just a few Access Points… Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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RF Screen rooms everywhere

Copper shielding (Faraday Cage)

RF Screen rooms everywhere Copper shielding (Faraday Cage) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All
RF Screen rooms everywhere Copper shielding (Faraday Cage) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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RF Screen rooms

Copper shielding on top metal on bottom

RF Screen rooms Copper shielding on top metal on bottom Cables are typically fiber and exit
RF Screen rooms Copper shielding on top metal on bottom Cables are typically fiber and exit
RF Screen rooms Copper shielding on top metal on bottom Cables are typically fiber and exit

Cables are typically fiber and exit through well shielded holes

Doors have copper fingers and latch tight forming an RF seal

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RF Screen rooms

Copper shielding (Faraday Cage)

RF Screen rooms Copper shielding (Faraday Cage) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights
RF Screen rooms Copper shielding (Faraday Cage) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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Cisco Richfield Facility

Cisco Richfield Facility Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
Cisco Richfield Facility Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4

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Understanding multipath and diversity and the technical elements of 802.11n

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Understanding Multipath

Multipath can change signal strength

Understanding Multipath Multipath can change signal strength As radio signals bounce off metal objects they often

As radio signals

bounce off metal

objects they often combine at the receiver

This often results in

either an improvement ―constructive‖ or a ―destructive‖ type of interference

or a ―destructive‖ type of interference Note: Bluetooth type radios that ―hop‖ across the entire

Note: Bluetooth type radios that ―hop‖ across the entire band can reduce multipath interference by constantly changing the angles of multipath as the radio wave

increases and decreases in size (as the frequency constantly changes) however

throughput using these methods are very limited but multipath is less of a problem

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Understanding Multipath

Multipath reflections can cause distortion

Multipath Multipath reflections can cause distortion As the radio waves bounce they can arrive at slightly
Multipath Multipath reflections can cause distortion As the radio waves bounce they can arrive at slightly

As the radio waves bounce they can arrive at slightly different times and angles causing signal distortion and potential signal strength fading

signal distortion and potential signal strength fading 802.11n with more receivers can use destructive interference

802.11n with more receivers can use destructive interference

(multipath) as a benefit.

Different modulation schemes fair better

802.11a/g/n uses a type of modulation

based on symbols and is an improvement over the older modulation types used with 802.11b clients

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Tip: It is still best to reduce multipath conditions whenever possible Keep antennas away from metal objects

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Antenna placement considerations

Antenna placement considerations  AP antennas need placements that are away from reflective surfaces for best

AP antennas need placements that are away from reflective surfaces for best performance

Avoid metal support beams, lighting and other obstructions.

When possible or practical to do so, always mount the Access Point (or remote antennas) as close to the actual users as you reasonably can

Avoid the temptation to hide the Access Point in crawl spaces or areas that compromise the ability to radiate well

Think of the Access Point as you would a light or sound source, would you really put a light there or a speaker there?

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© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Never mount antennas near metal objects as

Never mount antennas near metal objects as it causes increased multipath and directionality

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48

Understanding Diversity (SISO)

802.11a/b/g diversity has just one radio

Non-802.11n diversity Access Points use two antennas sampling each

antenna choosing the one with the least multi-path distortion

choosing the one with the least multi-path distortion Cisco 802.11a/b/g Access Points start off favoring the
choosing the one with the least multi-path distortion Cisco 802.11a/b/g Access Points start off favoring the
choosing the one with the least multi-path distortion Cisco 802.11a/b/g Access Points start off favoring the

Cisco 802.11a/b/g Access Points start off favoring the right (primary antenna port) then if multi-path or packet retries occur it will sample the left port and switch to that antenna port if the signal is better.

Note: Diversity Antennas should always cover the same cell area

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Understanding Diversity (MIMO)

MRC Maximal Ratio Combining (three radios)

Diversity (MIMO) MRC Maximal Ratio Combining (three radios)  Receiver benefit as each antenna has a
Diversity (MIMO) MRC Maximal Ratio Combining (three radios)  Receiver benefit as each antenna has a

Receiver benefit as each antenna has a radio section

MRC is done at Baseband using DSP techniques

Multiple antennas and multiple RF sections are used in parallel

The multiple copies of the received signal are corrected and combined at Baseband for maximum SNR (Signal to Noise) benefit

This is a significant benefit over traditional 802.11a/b/g diversity where only one radio is used

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Understanding 802.11 MIMO terminology

MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output)

Some RF components of 802.11n include:

MRC Maximal Ratio Combining a method that combines signals from multiple antennas taking into account factors such as signal to noise ratio to decode the signal with the best possible Bit Error Rate.

TxBF Transmit beam forming The ability to transmit independent and separately encoded data signals, so- called ―streams‖ from each of the multiple transmit antennas.

Channel Bonding Use of more than one frequency or channel for more bandwidth.

Spatial Multiplexing A technique for boosting wireless bandwidth and range by taking advantage of multiplexing which is the ability within the radio chipset to send out information over two or more transmitters known as ―spatial streams‖.

Note: Cisco 802.11n Access Points utilize two transmitters and three receivers per radio module.

MIMO is pronounced ―My Moe‖ not to be confused with this Moe.

is pronounced ―My Moe‖ not to be confused with this Moe. Presentation_ID Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco

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51

Technical Elements of 802.11n

Technical Elements of 802.11n MIMO 40Mhz Channels Packet Backward Aggregation Compatibility MIMO 40Mhz

MIMO

40Mhz Channels

Packet

Backward

Aggregation

Compatibility

MIMO

Packet Backward Aggregation Compatibility MIMO 40Mhz Channels Packet Aggregation Backward

40Mhz

Channels

Aggregation Compatibility MIMO 40Mhz Channels Packet Aggregation Backward Compatibility

Packet

Aggregation

Compatibility MIMO 40Mhz Channels Packet Aggregation Backward Compatibility Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco

Backward

Compatibility

Channels Packet Aggregation Backward Compatibility Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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Aspects of 802.11n

Aspects of 802.11n MIMO 40Mhz Channels Packet Aggregation Backward Compatibility MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple

MIMO

40Mhz Channels

Packet

Aggregation

Backward

Compatibility

MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output)

Compatibility MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) With Beam Forming Transmissions Arrive in Phase, Increasing

With Beam Forming

MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) With Beam Forming Transmissions Arrive in Phase, Increasing Signal Strength

Transmissions Arrive in Phase, Increasing Signal Strength

Without Beam Forming

in Phase, Increasing Signal Strength Without Beam Forming Transmissions Arrive out of Phase and signal is

Transmissions Arrive out of Phase and signal is weaker

Performed by Transmitter (Talk Better)

Ensures Signal Received in Phase

Increases

Works with non-MIMO and MIMO Clients

Receive

Sensitivity

Beam Forming

Maximal Ratio Combining

Spatial Multiplexing

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Aspects of 802.11n

Aspects of 802.11n 40Mhz Channels Packet Aggregation Backward Compatibility MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output)

40Mhz Channels

Packet

Aggregation

Backward

Compatibility

MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output)

Without MRC

Multiple Signals Sent; One Signal Chosen

With MRC

Multiple Signals Sent and Combined at the Receiver Increasing Fidelity

MIMO AP
MIMO AP
and Combined at the Receiver Increasing Fidelity MIMO AP Performance Performed by Receiver (Hear Better) Combines
and Combined at the Receiver Increasing Fidelity MIMO AP Performance Performed by Receiver (Hear Better) Combines
and Combined at the Receiver Increasing Fidelity MIMO AP Performance Performed by Receiver (Hear Better) Combines
and Combined at the Receiver Increasing Fidelity MIMO AP Performance Performed by Receiver (Hear Better) Combines

Performance

Performed by Receiver (Hear Better)

Combines Multiple Received Signals

Increases

Works with non-MIMO and MIMO Clients

Receive

Sensitivity

Beam Forming

Maximal Ratio Combining

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Spatial Multiplexing

54

Aspects of 802.11n

Aspects of 802.11n 40Mhz Channels Packet Aggregation Backward Compatibility MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output)

40Mhz Channels

Packet

Aggregation

Backward

Compatibility

MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output)

Information Is Split and Transmitted on Multiple Streams

stream 1 MIMO AP stream 2
stream 1
MIMO AP
stream 2
Transmitted on Multiple Streams stream 1 MIMO AP stream 2 Performance Transmitter and Receiver Participate
Transmitted on Multiple Streams stream 1 MIMO AP stream 2 Performance Transmitter and Receiver Participate
Transmitted on Multiple Streams stream 1 MIMO AP stream 2 Performance Transmitter and Receiver Participate
Transmitted on Multiple Streams stream 1 MIMO AP stream 2 Performance Transmitter and Receiver Participate

Performance

Transmitter and Receiver Participate

Concurrent Transmission on Same Channel

Increases

Requires MIMO Client

Bandwidth

Beam Forming

Maximal Ratio Combining

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Spatial Multiplexing

55

Aspects of 802.11n

Aspects of 802.11n MIMO 40Mhz Channels Packet Aggregation Backward Compatibility MIMO

MIMO

40Mhz Channels

Packet

Aggregation

Backward

Compatibility

MIMO (Multiple40MhzInput,ChannelsMultiple Output)

Moving from 2 to 4 Lanes

20-MHz Gained Space 40-MHz 20-MHz
20-MHz
Gained Space
40-MHz
20-MHz
from 2 to 4 Lanes 20-MHz Gained Space 40-MHz 20-MHz 40-MHz = 2 aggregated 20-MHz channels

40-MHz = 2 aggregated 20-MHz channelstakes advantage of the reserved channel space through bonding to gain more than double the

data rate of two 20-MHz channels

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Aspects of 802.11n

Aspects of 802.11n     Packet Backward MIMO 40Mhz Channels Aggregation Compatibility 40Mhz
   

Packet

Backward

MIMO

40Mhz Channels

Aggregation

Compatibility

40Mhz Channels

Packet Aggregation

 

Carpooling Is More Efficient Than Driving Alone

  Carpooling Is More Efficient Than Driving Alone Without Packet Aggregation   802.11n Data Unit

Without Packet Aggregation

 

802.11n

Data Unit Packet
Data
Unit
Packet

802.11n

Data Unit Packet
Data
Unit
Packet

802.11n

Data Unit Packet
Data
Unit
Packet

Overhead

Overhead

Overhead

802.11n

Data Unit

Overhead

Packet

Packet

Packet

 

With Packet Aggregation

 

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Aspects of 802.11n

Aspects of 802.11n MIMO 40Mhz Channels Packet Aggregation Backward Compatibility BackwardPacket

MIMO

40Mhz Channels

Packet

Aggregation

Backward

Compatibility

BackwardPacket AggregationCompatibility

Compatibility BackwardPacket AggregationCompatibility 2.4GHz 5GHz 11n Operates in Both Frequencies 802.11ABG

2.4GHz

5GHz

11n Operates in Both Frequencies 802.11ABG Clients Interoperate with 11n AND Experience Performance Improvements

11n Operates

in Both

Frequencies

11n Operates in Both Frequencies 802.11ABG Clients Interoperate with 11n AND Experience Performance Improvements

802.11ABG Clients Interoperate with 11n AND Experience Performance Improvements

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Understanding MCS rates and Channel Bonding

40MHz 802.11n channel

Channel Bonding:

Wider channels means more bandwidth per AP

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

2.402 GHz

MCS rates 0-15 apply Regardless of channel

Bonding.

MCS 0-7 is one Spatial Stream

When you bond a channel You have a control channel and a data (extension) Channel

Legacy ABG clients use control channel for communication

20 MHz channel

2.483 GHz

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2.4 GHz, 40 MHz Bandwidths

2.4 GHz, 40 MHz Bandwidths Tip: Channel bonding in 2.4 GHz should be avoided in enterprise
2.4 GHz, 40 MHz Bandwidths Tip: Channel bonding in 2.4 GHz should be avoided in enterprise

Tip: Channel bonding in 2.4 GHz should be avoided in enterprise deployments

Tip: Use 5 GHz as there are no overlapping channels to worry about

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Example UNII-3 Channel Bonding

Example UNII-3 Channel Bonding In 40-MHz you define the control channel this is the channel that
Example UNII-3 Channel Bonding In 40-MHz you define the control channel this is the channel that

In 40-MHz you define the control channel this is the channel that is used for communication by Legacy .11a clients.

The Extension channel is the bonded channel that High Throughput ―HT‖ 802.11n clients use in addition to the control channel for higher throughput as they send data on BOTH channels

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Channel Bonding - Subcarriers

Channel Bonding - Subcarriers 802.11n uses both 20- MHz and 40-MHz channels. The 40-MHz channels in

802.11n uses both 20- MHz and 40-MHz channels.

The 40-MHz channels

in 802.11n are two adjacent 20-MHz channels, bonded together.

802.11n are two adjacent 20-MHz channels, bonded together . When using the 40-MHz bonded channel, 802.11n

When using the 40-MHz bonded channel, 802.11n takes advantage of the fact that each 20-MHz channel has a small amount of the channel that is reserved at the top and bottom, to reduce interference in those adjacent channels.

When using 40-MHz channels, the top of the lower channel and the bottom of the upper channel don't have to be reserved to avoid interference. These small parts of the channel can now be used to carry information. By using the two 20-MHz channels more efficiently in this way, 802.11n achieves slightly more than doubling the data rate when moving from 20-MHz to 40-MHz channels

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Understanding Guard Interval

Understanding Guard Interval The guard interval that is part of each OFDM symbol is a period

The guard interval that is part of each OFDM symbol is a

period of time that is

used to minimize inter-symbol interference.

This type of

interference is

caused in multipath environments when the beginning of a new symbol arrives at the receiver before

the end of the last symbol is done.

at the receiver before the end of the last symbol is done. Default mode for 802.11n

Default mode for 802.11n is 800 nanoseconds

If you set a shorter interval it will go back to long

in the event retries occur

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802.11n Operation

Throughput improves when all things come together

MRC

TxBF

Spatial Multiplexing

802.11a/g AP (non-MIMO)

802.11a/g AP (non-MIMO)
 MRC  TxBF  Spatial Multiplexing 802.11a/g AP (non-MIMO) 54 48 36 24 Mbps 802.11a/g

54

48

36

24 Mbps
24 Mbps
36 24 Mbps
36 24 Mbps

802.11a/g client (non-MIMO)

MRC

TxBF

Spatial Multiplexing

802.11n AP

(MIMO)

802.11n AP (MIMO)
 MRC  TxBF  Spatial Multiplexing 802.11n AP (MIMO) 54 Mbps 802.11a/g client (non-MIMO)
 MRC  TxBF  Spatial Multiplexing 802.11n AP (MIMO) 54 Mbps 802.11a/g client (non-MIMO)
 MRC  TxBF  Spatial Multiplexing 802.11n AP (MIMO) 54 Mbps 802.11a/g client (non-MIMO)
54 Mbps
54 Mbps
54 Mbps
54 Mbps

802.11a/g client (non-MIMO)

MRC

802.11n AP

300 Mbps

Channel Bonding

TxBF

Spatial Multiplexing

(MIMO)

(MIMO)
 TxBF  Spatial Multiplexing (MIMO) 802.11n client (MIMO)
 TxBF  Spatial Multiplexing (MIMO) 802.11n client (MIMO)
 TxBF  Spatial Multiplexing (MIMO) 802.11n client (MIMO)
 TxBF  Spatial Multiplexing (MIMO) 802.11n client (MIMO)
 TxBF  Spatial Multiplexing (MIMO) 802.11n client (MIMO)
 TxBF  Spatial Multiplexing (MIMO) 802.11n client (MIMO)

802.11n client (MIMO)

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MCS index of 802.11n rates

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Understanding DAS Antenna Systems Overview How used

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Antenna Technologies ―DAS‖

Traditional DAS deployments over coaxial cable

―DAS‖ Traditional DAS deployments over coaxial cable  DAS – Distributed Antenna System  Mostly seen

DAS Distributed Antenna System

Mostly seen in healthcare, higher education & hospitality

Major benefits of DAS include:

Carry multiple wireless signals simultaneously (cellular, paging, etc) Consolidates work above ceiling fewer cables Aggregates majority of active components in closet for easy replacement

Disadvantages

Usually one antenna per AP lack of MIMO and diversity support

Cisco TAC will not support RF signal when radio is separated from the antenna on non-Cisco equipment

Compromises the benefits of CUWN‘s advanced features including RRM, Location, VoFi, etc.

Reduced technology migration paths - 802.11n can be more difficult to support

Large solid copper cable once installed, is difficult to move if changes are later required (remodeling etc).

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How does DAS work?

How does DAS work?  DAS works by placing multiple radio services on a common cable

DAS works by placing multiple radio services on a common cable or antenna system using selective filters and/or a low gain multiband antenna.

Two methods are typically used ―Leaky coax‖ and ―discrete

wideband antennas‖ or sometimes a combination of both.

Tip: Avoid daisy-chaining antennas as this breaks key features like location/voice based services use only discrete wideband antennas (one antenna per AP) with this type of DAS

wideband antennas (one antenna per AP) with this type of DAS Leaky ―radiating‖ coaxial cable Bad

Leaky ―radiating‖ coaxial cable

Bad for location based applications

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Wide-Band antenna

68

Leaky coax DAS

Leaky coax DAS Cable has shielding removed on one side – center radiates Leaky coaxial systems
Leaky coax DAS Cable has shielding removed on one side – center radiates Leaky coaxial systems
Leaky coax DAS Cable has shielding removed on one side – center radiates Leaky coaxial systems

Cable has shielding removed on one side center radiates

Leaky coaxial systems are sometimes used in mining applications and assembly lines (think above assembly work benches)

For leaky coax to be effective, it needs to be installed in very close proximity to the actual WLAN users (distances are short typically 5-20 Ft) and will not work reliably at higher 5 GHz frequencies. Limited to single channel - high potential for co-interference issues

Note: Leaky coax should be used for only the most basic Wi-Fi scenarios, i.e. light connectivity for low bandwidth apps. Not recommended for features such as voice or location

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Traditional coaxial DAS solutions

Traditional coaxial DAS solutions Depending on the type of ―wide band antenna‖ DAS system used, signals
Traditional coaxial DAS solutions Depending on the type of ―wide band antenna‖ DAS system used, signals

Depending on the type of ―wide band antenna‖ DAS system used, signals leave the Access Point‘s antenna port and go through RF filters (passive) and/or bi-directional amplifiers (active) circuitry

While better then a leaky coaxial system, it is not a simple installation and requires professional installers with experience cutting and terminating

the expensive (solid copper shielded) cable. Connector termination can

be a point of failure and cable moves can be expensive

Note: Unused antenna ports should be terminated to avoid interference to Access Points that are co-located

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RP-TNC

Terminator

70

New approach

In-building cellular CAT 5e/6/6a

New approach In-building cellular – CAT 5e/6/6a Cisco has a Solutions Plus Resell partnership with Mobile

Cisco has a Solutions Plus Resell partnership with Mobile Access Whereas Cisco resells the MA branded and supported product

Whereas Cisco resells the MA branded and supported product Mobile Access active indoor cellular over same

Mobile Access active indoor cellular over same UTP cable that can be shared with Cisco Access Points

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New approach In-building cellular CAT 5e/6/6a

New approach In-building cellular – CAT 5e/6/6a Mobile Access Pod using one UTP cable from the

Mobile Access Pod using one UTP cable from the cellular controller can filter the cellular signals from the cable and pass GigE PoE to the Cisco Access Point

from the cable and pass GigE PoE to the Cisco Access Point • Eliminates the need

Eliminates the need for expensive solid copper cabling and the complexities of same

Enables quicker and cost effective deployment with common UTP cabling

Allows MA solution & Wi-Fi to co-exist on one single UTP cable

No modifications or wide band antennas, no terminators are required on the AP

Note: Cisco Access Points with integrated antennas can also be used with this solution.

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Cellular and Wi-Fi sharing CAT-5e/6/6a

Cellular and Wi-Fi sharing CAT-5e/6/6a 2 Cellular Bands or 1 MIMO Service POE Alt B Access
2 Cellular Bands or 1 MIMO Service POE Alt B
2 Cellular Bands
or 1 MIMO Service
POE Alt B

Access

Pod

2 Cellular Bands or 1 MIMO Service POE Alt B Access Pod Cellular Controller WLAN AP

Cellular

Controller

WLAN AP

Service POE Alt B Access Pod Cellular Controller WLAN AP Switch New / Existing Cat-5/6 Ethernet

Switch

New / Existing Cat-5/6 Ethernet GigE POE Alt A BDA, BTS, Cellular Pico, Femto “Cell,
New / Existing Cat-5/6
Ethernet GigE
POE Alt A
BDA, BTS,
Cellular
Pico, Femto
“Cell, PCS”

WLAN

“802.11n”

Ethernet-LAN Traffic Passes Over 0 to ~100 MHz
Ethernet-LAN
Traffic Passes
Over
0 to ~100 MHz
MobileAccessVE Shifts Carrier to Intermediate Frequencies
MobileAccessVE
Shifts Carrier to
Intermediate
Frequencies
Frequencies Starting at 140 MHz and Above
Frequencies
Starting at
140 MHz and
Above
Shared Structured Cabling System is Passive to WLAN and Cellular
Shared Structured
Cabling System is
Passive to WLAN
and Cellular

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Co-existence of

Wi-Fi and Cellular Antenna

Wi-Fi over Traditional DAS Shared Coax cabling APs in closet No Cisco RF Support Likely
Wi-Fi over
Traditional DAS
Shared Coax cabling
APs in closet
No Cisco RF Support
Likely no MIMO, MRC
or ClientLink, RRM,
Poor roaming, Location
Overlay No Wi-Fi limitations Expensive cabling Duplicate cabling
Overlay
No Wi-Fi limitations
Expensive cabling
Duplicate cabling

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Cellular over CAT5 No Wi-Fi limitations Cheap UTP cables RF signals limited by UTP cabling
Cellular over CAT5
No Wi-Fi limitations
Cheap UTP cables
RF signals limited by
UTP cabling two for
CAT5 more with CAT6a

74

Access Point Models and Features

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Introduction of new Access Points

Introduction of new Access Points 11abg 11n 11n + CleanAir 1250 3500e 1240 1260 Ruggedized 1130
11abg 11n 11n + CleanAir
11abg
11n
11n + CleanAir
1250 3500e 1240 1260 Ruggedized
1250
3500e
1240
1260
Ruggedized
1130 1140 3500i Carpeted
1130
1140
3500i
Carpeted

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Aironet Indoor Access Point Comparison

AP 1130 AP 1140 AP 3500i AP 1240 AP 1250 1260 3500e Integrated CleanAir No
AP 1130
AP 1140
AP 3500i
AP 1240
AP 1250
1260
3500e
Integrated CleanAir
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Data Uplink (Mbps)
10/100
10/100/1000
10/100/1000
10/100
10/100/1000
10/100/1000
10/100/1000
E-PoE
Power Requirement
802.3af
802.3af
802.3af
802.3af
802.3af
802.3af
802.3af*
Installation
Carpeted
Carpeted
Carpeted
Rugged
Rugged
Rugged
Rugged
Temp Range
0 to +40° C
0 to +40 ° C
0 to +40° C
-20 to +55° C
-20 to +55 ° C
-20 to +55° C
-20 to +55 ° C
Antennas
Internal
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
External
Wi-Fi standards
a/b/g
a/b/g/n
a/b/g/n
a/b/g
a/b/g/n
a/b/g/n
a/b/g/n
DRAM
32
MB
128 MB
128 MB
32
MB
64
MB
128 MB
128 MB
Flash
16
MB
32 MB
32 MB
16
MB
32
MB
32 MB
32 MB

802.3af fully powers single radio AP1250 or provides 1x3 performance on a dual radio 1250

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Integrated antenna? External antenna?

Integrated antenna? – External antenna? Rugged areas Use for industrial applications where external or directional
Rugged areas
Rugged areas

Use for industrial applications where external or directional

antennas are desired and or

applications requiring higher temperature ranges

Carpeted areas

requiring higher temperature ranges Carpeted areas Integrated antenna versions are designed for mounting on a

Integrated antenna versions are designed for mounting on a ceiling (carpeted areas)

where aesthetics is a

primary concern

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When to use integrated antennas

When to use integrated antennas  When there is no requirement for directional antennas and the

When there is no requirement for directional antennas and the unit will be ceiling mounted

Areas such as enterprise carpeted office

environments where aesthetics are important

When the temperature range will not exceed 0 to +40C

 When the temperature range will not exceed 0 to +40C Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or
 When the temperature range will not exceed 0 to +40C Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or

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When to use external antennas Rugged AP in ceiling enclosure Reasons to consider deploying a

When to use external antennas

When to use external antennas Rugged AP in ceiling enclosure Reasons to consider deploying a rugged

Rugged AP in ceiling enclosure

Reasons to consider deploying a rugged AP

When directional ―focused‖ coverage is desired or greater range is needed

The environment requires a more industrial strength AP with a higher temperature rating of -20 to +55 C (carpeted is 0 to +40 C)

The device is going to be placed in a NEMA enclosure and the antennas need to be extended

You have a desire to extend coverage in two

different areas with each radio servicing an independent area - for example 2.4 GHz in the

parking lot and 5 GHz indoors

Requirement for outdoor or greater range Bridging application (aIOS version)

Requirement for WGB or mobility application where the device is in the vehicle but antennas need to be mounted external

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When to use AP-1240 and AP-1250

When to use AP-1240 and AP-1250 Reasons to consider the AP-1240 or AP-1250  The AP-1240

Reasons to consider the AP-1240 or AP-1250

The AP-1240 and AP-1250 support higher

gain antennas - a benefit only if a high gain

antenna already exists or is required

Higher gain (up to 10 dBi) can improve WGB and outdoor Bridging distances

Recommend the AP-1240 if the

infrastructure is older 10/100 ports and

there is no interest in upgrading to 11n

AP-1240 will work with older Cisco PoE switches (Cisco proprietary power)

AP-1240 draws less power so better for solar applications

AP-1240 supports Cisco Fiber injectors

Tip: Higher than 10 dBi antenna gains are supported with the 1300 Series Bridge/AP

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802.11n Design and Deployment

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82

Phases of 802.11n deployment

Phases of 802.11n deployment  Design Considerations • Which AP to choose • 1:1 Replacement Strategy

Design Considerations Which AP to choose 1:1 Replacement Strategy for Capacity 5 GHz Strategy 11n Clients

Strategy for Capacity • 5 GHz Strategy • 11n Clients  Planning • WCS Planning Tool

Planning WCS Planning Tool Infrastructure Considerations

Deployment Site Survey

Operation Configuration (40 MHz RRM, Data Rates, Security, etc.) Tracking and augmenting controller capacity

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83

Which 802.11n Access Point is right?

Which 802.11n Access Point is right?  AP-3500i and AP-3500e have the very latest Cisco features

AP-3500i and AP-3500e have the very latest Cisco features such as Clean Air

Cisco‘s spectrum intelligence

AP-1140 and AP-1260 are of similar design less Cisco Clean Air features and can also run autonomous code (aIOS) for stand alone or Workgroup Bridge applications.

Note: 3500 Series does not support the

older aIOS autonomous mode

All the Access Points were designed to have similar coverage for ease of deployment

designed to have similar coverage for ease of deployment Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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84

Coverage Comparison 5GHz

Coverage Comparison – 5GHz AP1140 AP1250 AP3500i AP3500e Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All
AP1140 AP1250 AP3500i AP3500e
AP1140
AP1250
AP3500i
AP3500e

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85

1130 Access Point

Placement

1130 Access Point Placement1130 Access Point Placement 1 per 5,000 sq feet for data only 1 per 3,000 sq

1 per 5,000 sq feet for data only 1 per 3,000 sq feet for voice, location

Radio Resource Managementfeet for data only 1 per 3,000 sq feet for voice, location Adaptive channel / power

Adaptive channel / power coverage

Operational simplicity

Web Email Several Supported Apps
Web
Email
Several
Supported Apps

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86

1140, 3500i Access Point

Placement

1 for 1 replacement1140, 3500i Access Point Placement AP1140, 3500i reuses existing AP1130 T-Rail Clip Improved coverage at higher

AP1140, 3500i reuses existing AP1130 T-Rail Clip

Improved coverage at higher data ratesreplacement AP1140, 3500i reuses existing AP1130 T-Rail Clip ERP Backup Video Voice Web Email More

ERP

ERP

Backup

Backup

Video

Video

Voice

Voice

Web

Web

Email

Email
rates ERP Backup Video Voice Web Email More Applications Supported at Any Given Location

More Applications Supported at Any Given Location

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ABG ABG ABG ABG
ABG
ABG
ABG
ABG

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87

Access Points (Internal Antenna Models)

Designed Primarily for ceiling (carpeted) Installations

Designed Primarily for ceiling (carpeted) Installations Access Point has six integrated 802.11n MIMO antennas 4 dBi
Designed Primarily for ceiling (carpeted) Installations Access Point has six integrated 802.11n MIMO antennas 4 dBi

Access Point has six integrated 802.11n MIMO antennas

4 dBi @

2.4 GHz

3 dBi @

5 GHz

MIMO antennas 4 dBi @ 2.4 GHz 3 dBi @ 5 GHz Antenna element Note: Metal
MIMO antennas 4 dBi @ 2.4 GHz 3 dBi @ 5 GHz Antenna element Note: Metal

Antenna element

4 dBi @ 2.4 GHz 3 dBi @ 5 GHz Antenna element Note: Metal chassis and

Note: Metal chassis and inverted ―F‖ antenna elements were designed to

benefit ceiling installations as

the signal propagates downward in a 360 degree pattern for best performance

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88

Antenna Patterns

Azimuth and Elevation Patterns for 2.4 GHz & 5 GHz

2.4 GHz

Azimuth

2.4 GHz

Elevation

for 2.4 GHz & 5 GHz 2.4 GHz Azimuth 2.4 GHz Elevation Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco
for 2.4 GHz & 5 GHz 2.4 GHz Azimuth 2.4 GHz Elevation Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco

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Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5 GHz Azimuth 5
Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5 GHz Azimuth 5

Cisco Public

Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5 GHz Azimuth 5

5 GHz

Azimuth

5 GHz

Elevation

89

AP Placement Wall Mounting

AP Placement – Wall Mounting AP-1140 and AP-3500i Wall mounting is acceptable for small deployments such
AP Placement – Wall Mounting AP-1140 and AP-3500i Wall mounting is acceptable for small deployments such

AP-1140 and AP-3500i

Wall mounting is acceptable for small deployments such as hotspots, kiosks, etc but radiation is better on ceiling

AP-1260 and AP-3500e

Best for enterprise deployments as

coverage is more uniform especially for advanced features such as voice and location

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90

What about mounting options?

Different mounting options for ceiling APs

mounting options? Different mounting options for ceiling APs Cisco has options to mount to most ceiling
mounting options? Different mounting options for ceiling APs Cisco has options to mount to most ceiling
mounting options? Different mounting options for ceiling APs Cisco has options to mount to most ceiling

Cisco has options to mount to

most ceiling rails and directly into

the tile for a more elegant look

rails and directly into the tile for a more elegant look Locking enclosures and different color

Locking enclosures and different color plastic ―skins‖ available from third party sources such as www.oberonwireless.com

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91

AP PlacementEvaluate Problem Areas

Signal Object in Signal Path Attenuation  Plasterboard wall  3 dB  Glass wall
Signal
Object in Signal Path
Attenuation
 Plasterboard wall
 3 dB
 Glass wall with metal frame
 6 dB
 Cinder block wall
 4 dB
 Office window
 3 dB
 Metal door
 6 dB
 Metal door in brick wall
 12 dB
 Phone and Head position
 6 dB

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Clips adapt Rail to ―T‖ bracket.

Attaching to fine line ceiling rails

to ―T‖ bracket. Attaching to fine line ceiling rails If the ceiling rail is not wide
to ―T‖ bracket. Attaching to fine line ceiling rails If the ceiling rail is not wide

If the ceiling rail is not wide enough or too recessed for the ―T‖ rail this can be resolved using the optional clips

Part number for ceiling clips is AIR-ACC-CLIP-20=

This item is packaged in 20 pieces for 10 Access Points

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93

Effective Frequency Use5GHz and 2.4GHz

Create a 5GHz Strategy

5GHz Recommended for 802.11n

Create a 5GHz Strategy  5GHz Recommended for 802.11n • More available spectrum — greater number

More available spectrumgreater number of channels

Reduced interference (no Bluetooth, Microwave Ovens, etc.)

Maximum throughput in a 40MHz channel

Many 11n devices only support 40MHz in 5GHz

2.4GHz still benefits from MIMO and packet aggregation

2.4GHz 20MHz Channels

1 6 11
1
6
11

5GHz 40MHz Channels

2 4 6 8 10 1 3 5 7 9 11
2
4
6
8
10
1
3
5
7
9
11

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94

11n

Client Adapters

11n Client Adapters  Make sur e adapter is 11n Draf t 2.0 or better certified

Make sure adapter is 11n Draft 2.0 or better certified by WiFi Alliance - http://www.wi-fi.org

802.11n adapters have a major influence on performance levels that can be achieved

Built-in 11n adapters out perform add-on

be achieved  Built-in 11n adapters out perform add-on • USB and PCMCIA 11n adapters have

USB and PCMCIA 11n adapters have less than optimal antenna placement as those form factors have less then ideal antenna spacing

Not realistic to upgrade most older laptops with internal 11n

adapters

Need three antennas connectors

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11n Client Adapter

Recommendations

11n Client Adapter Recommendations  Update 802.11n client drivers to the latest revision  Cisco-Intel relationship

Update 802.11n client drivers to the latest revision

Cisco-Intel relationship means that the Intel 11n adapter

with Cisco‘s APs have had the most test time

Presentation_ID

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96

WCS Planner

1140 and 11n Support

WCS Planner 1140 and 11n Support  Set AP type  Select ‗Enable 11n support‘ 
WCS Planner 1140 and 11n Support  Set AP type  Select ‗Enable 11n support‘ 

Set AP type

Select ‗Enable 11n support‘

Select protocol ‗802.11a/n, b/g/n‘

Select optimize for HT

Select Voice & location if desired

Calculate/Apply/Add APs to Map

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WCS Planner

Data Rate Heat Map

WCS Planner Data Rate Heat Map  Add APs to map  Set Heat Map type
WCS Planner Data Rate Heat Map  Add APs to map  Set Heat Map type

Add APs to map

Set Heat Map type to Data Rates

Set Cutoff to desired minimum data rates

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WCS Planner

Proposal

WCS Planner Proposal  Generate proposal  Use proposal for budgetary estimates  Use proposal with
WCS Planner Proposal  Generate proposal  Use proposal for budgetary estimates  Use proposal with

Generate proposal

Use proposal for budgetary estimates

Use proposal with survey to create final install

AP count and placement design

Recommend survey to validate and calibrate proposal results

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Third Party Survey Tools

There are many and I believe they are all good

Survey Tools There are many and I believe they are all good  Airmagnet  EDX

Airmagnet

EDX

Ekahau

Helium Networks

Wireless Valley

… and many others

Networks  Wireless Valley  … and many others Tip: Survey and use Cisco antennas If
Networks  Wireless Valley  … and many others Tip: Survey and use Cisco antennas If
Networks  Wireless Valley  … and many others Tip: Survey and use Cisco antennas If

Tip: Survey and use Cisco antennas

If you contract this out, some companies use their own antennas and then lock you into them saying ―that‘s what we surveyed with‖… if in doubt use Cisco Advanced Services as they also perform site surveys

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Site Survey

Site Survey Recommendations

Use ―Active Survey‖ tools

Example - AirMagnet 6.0 uses Iperf to send traffic when surveying to measure actual data link speeds

Survey for lowest common

client

Once for 11a/g clients

Once for 11n clients (optional)

Survey at intended AP power levels

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at intended AP power levels Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco
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101

11n Deployment Expectations

Data Services

Range

11n Deployment Expectations Data Services  Range • 10-15% increase in maximum range versus a non-N

10-15% increase in maximum range versus a non-N AP

Recommended 1:1 replacement of an 802.11a/g deployment

Coverage

10-20% increase in 802.11a/g high data rate coverage

More uniform coverage and consistent coverage (MIMO)

Capacity

Largest gain for 802.11n capable clients

Maximum data rates of 144Mbps in 2.4GHz

Maximum data rates of 300Mbps in 5GHz

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Improved 802.11g Coverage

1130 vs. 114011G Active Survey

Improved 802.11g Coverage 1130 vs. 1140 — 11G Active Survey 1130 11G Survey 48 Mbps Coverage
Improved 802.11g Coverage 1130 vs. 1140 — 11G Active Survey 1130 11G Survey 48 Mbps Coverage
Improved 802.11g Coverage 1130 vs. 1140 — 11G Active Survey 1130 11G Survey 48 Mbps Coverage

1130 11G Survey

48 Mbps Coverage

86 Feet

11G Active Survey 1130 11G Survey 48 Mbps Coverage 86 Feet 1140 11G Survey 48 Mbps

1140 11G Survey 48 Mbps Coverage

102 Feet

Coverage 86 Feet 1140 11G Survey 48 Mbps Coverage 102 Feet  Note the more uniform

Note the more uniform coverage of high (green) data rates

18% Increase in 802.11g Coverage
18% Increase in 802.11g Coverage

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5GHz - Maximum Range

AP1130 – 5GHz
AP1130 – 5GHz

AP1140 5GHz

5GHz - Maximum Range AP1130 – 5GHz AP1140 – 5GHz Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its
5GHz - Maximum Range AP1130 – 5GHz AP1140 – 5GHz Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its
5GHz - Maximum Range AP1130 – 5GHz AP1140 – 5GHz Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its

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802.11n Deployment

Designing Around 5GHz 40MHz Channels

802.11n Deployment Designing Around 5GHz 40MHz Channels Cisco Public One AP Data Rate vs. RSSI Full
Cisco Public
Cisco Public
Deployment Designing Around 5GHz 40MHz Channels Cisco Public One AP Data Rate vs. RSSI Full Deployment
Deployment Designing Around 5GHz 40MHz Channels Cisco Public One AP Data Rate vs. RSSI Full Deployment

One AP Data Rate vs. RSSI

Full Deployment

Contiguous 5GHz Coverage

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105

5 GHz Dynamic Frequency Selection

5 GHz Dynamic Frequency Selection When Radar Is Present APs Shift Channels— Results in Lower Available

When Radar Is

Present APs Shift Channels— Results in Lower Available Channels and Loss of UNI 2 and
Present
APs Shift
Channels—
Results in Lower
Available Channels
and Loss of UNI 2
and UNI 2e Bands
Radar
No DFS
DFS
Available
Support
Support
40MHz
Channels
4
11
5 GHz Frequency
UNI 1
UNI 2
UNI 2
UNI 2 Ext.
UNI 2 Ext.
UNI 3

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DFS and Available Bandwidth

DFS and Available Bandwidth  Full DFS support is required for complete use of channels in

Full DFS support is required for complete use of channels in 5GHz

Limited DFS support directly

impacts available bandwidth

Limited bandwidth restricts application support and

negates investment in 11n

Available Bandwidth in 5GHz for 11n

1350

1200

1050

900

750

600

450

300

150

0

1350Mbps

1350Mbps

600Mbps

US

600Mbps US Europe US 300Mbps Europe
600Mbps US Europe US 300Mbps Europe

Europe

US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe

US

300Mbps

Europe

US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe
US 300Mbps Europe

Meru/Aruba

Meru/Aruba

Cisco

* 40 MHz Channels in 5GHz

Cisco

Available Channels per Region

Theoretical

Cisco

Meru/Aruba

 

11n 5GHz

     

United States

20MHz

24

21

8

11n 5GHz

     
 

40MHz

11

9

4

 

11n 5GHz

     

Europe

20MHz

19

19

4

11n 5GHz

     
 

40MHz

9

9

2

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Tuning RRM 5GHz Channel Selection

UNII-2 Extended Channel Considerations

Channel Selection UNII-2 Extended Channel Considerations  Wireless ->802.11a/n -> DCA  Some older

Wireless ->802.11a/n -> DCA

Considerations  Wireless ->802.11a/n -> DCA  Some older clients cannot utilize UNII-2 Extended

Some older clients cannot utilize UNII-2

Extended Channels

The 5GHz radio could be ‗invisible‘ to the client

If your clients do not support these channels

they can be disabled

see below

Uncheck channels 100-140

(UNII2-Extended)

see below Uncheck channels 100-140 (UNII2-Extended) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All

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Utilizing 11n Wide Channels

20MHz vs. 40MHz Considerations

Utilizing 11n Wide Channels 20MHz vs. 40MHz Considerations  The 40MHz mode of 802.11n provides the

The 40MHz mode of 802.11n provides the highest throughput with

data rates of 300Mbps

Should not be utilized in the 2.4GHz band

Not enough channels for 40 MHz mode

The 5GHz band has enough spectrum to make 40MHz feasible

Use 20MHz for 802.11a voice deployments

Use 40MHz for maximum data throughput with 802.11n clients

Use RRM for 40MHz

data throughput with 802.11n clients  Use RRM for 40MHz Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its

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Mixed Mode

Performance WLAN Controller 11n 54 Mb 300 Mb 11g 11n Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or
Performance
WLAN Controller
11n
54 Mb
300 Mb
11g
11n
Presentation_ID
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© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.  Mixed mode experiences slight performance impact

Mixed mode experiences slight performance impact due to ABG

clients

11n clients still transmit at full performance

PHY and MAC for 11n provides co- existence and protection for ABG clients

Move 11n clients to 5GHz, keep legacy clients at 2.4GHz

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Improving Mixed Mode Performance

Disabling Unnecessary Data Rates

Mixed Mode Performance Disabling Unnecessary Data Rates  Benefit: Beacons and Broadcast traffic utilize less

Benefit: Beacons and Broadcast traffic utilize

less ―airtime‖

For 802.11b/g deployments Disable: 1, 2, 5.5, 6 and 9Mbps

For 802.11g-only deployments

Disable: 1, 2, 5.5, 6, 9 and 11Mbps

For 802.11a deployments Disable: 6 and 9 Mbps

Higher rates can also be disabled (ex. 12,

18Mbps) dependant on deployment

Tuned 802.11b/g Data Rates:

Tuned 802.11b/g Data Rates:

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Installations Above Ceiling (Plenum) When they must be invisible

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AP Placement in Plenum Areas

AP Placement in Plenum Areas  When placing the Access Point above the ceiling tiles (Plenum

When placing the Access Point above the ceiling tiles (Plenum area) Cisco recommends using rugged Access Points

with antennas mounted below the Plenum

area whenever possible

Cisco antenna have cables that are plenum rated so the antenna can be placed below the Plenum with cable extending into the plenum

If there is a hard requirement to mount

carpeted or rugged Access Points using dipoles above the ceiling This can be done however uniform RF coverage becomes more challenging especially if there are metal obstructions in the ceiling

Tip: Try to use rugged Access Points and locate the antennas below the ceiling whenever possible

and locate the antennas below the ceiling whenever possible Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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Installation above the ceiling tiles

An optional rail above the tiles may be used

ceiling tiles An optional rail above the tiles may be used Note: The AP should be
ceiling tiles An optional rail above the tiles may be used Note: The AP should be
ceiling tiles An optional rail above the tiles may be used Note: The AP should be

Note: The AP should be as close to the tile as practical

AP bracket supports this optional T-bar box hanger item 2 (not supplied) Such as the Erico Caddy 512 or B-Line BA12.

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Installation above the ceiling tiles

Mount AP close to the tiles and away from objects

tiles Mount AP close to the tiles and away from objects Try to find open ceiling
tiles Mount AP close to the tiles and away from objects Try to find open ceiling

Try to find open ceiling areas away from metal obstructions (use common sense)

Installing Access Points

above the ceiling tiles

should be done only when mounting below the ceiling

is not an option.

Such mounting methods can be problematic for

advanced RF features

such as voice and location as they depend on uniform coverage

Tip: Mount antennas either

below ceiling tile or the AP

as close to the inside of the

tile as possible

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115

Plenum installs that went wrong

Yes it happens and when it does its bad…

that went wrong Yes it happens and when it does its bad… Dipole antennas up against
that went wrong Yes it happens and when it does its bad… Dipole antennas up against

Dipole antennas up against a metal box create a patch like antenna - that plus metal pipes create unwanted Multipath Destructive Interference

When a dipole is mounted

against a metal object you

lose all Omni-directional properties.

It is now essentially a directional patch suffering

from acute multipath

distortion problems.

Add to that the metal pipes and it is a wonder it works at all.

Tip: Try to get Access Points close to the actual users This

antenna is radiating forward

high in the ceiling where there are no users - try to avoid these

types of installs

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Plenum installs that went wrong

Huh?? You mean it gets worse?

Plenum installs that went wrong Huh?? You mean it gets worse? Antennas cannot radiate well with
Plenum installs that went wrong Huh?? You mean it gets worse? Antennas cannot radiate well with

Antennas cannot radiate well with all this mess someone went to a lot of ―trouble‖ to mount this -- just to encounter even more connectivity ―trouble‖.

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Installations that went wrong

Installations that went wrong Ceiling mount AP up against pipe not good Antennas are obstructed Presentation_ID
Installations that went wrong Ceiling mount AP up against pipe not good Antennas are obstructed Presentation_ID

Ceiling mount AP up against pipe not good Antennas are obstructed