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GEOGRAPHY

TOPICSTOPICSTOPICSTOPICS ----------------------- BranchesBranchesBranchesBranches OfOfOfOf
TOPICSTOPICSTOPICSTOPICS
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BranchesBranchesBranchesBranches OfOfOfOf GeographyGeographyGeographyGeography
EarthEarthEarthEarth InInInIn UniverseUniverseUniverseUniverse
Structure Of The Atmosphere
Physiographic Of India
OceanOceanOceanOcean AndAndAndAnd OceanographyOceanographyOceanographyOceanography

IAS OUR DREAM

Authored by: NISHA DOLAS

GEOGRAPHY |

GEOGRAPHY | APPROACHES A Greek scholars Eratosthenes is considered to have been the first to use

APPROACHES

A Greek scholars Eratosthenes is considered to have been the first to use the term geography.

According to Hartshorne, geography is concerned with providing “accurate, orderly and rational description and interpretation of variable character of earth surface.

and interpretation of variable character of earth surface. Three essential characteristics of geographical work, acc to

Three essential characteristics of geographical work, acc to Haggett

1. Emphasis on location, cartography (making maps) is an imp tools

2. Emphasis on society- land relations, environmental effects on humans,

changes of environment brought about by human intervention

3.

morphology

Regional analysis, involving identification of regions, analysis of their internal

Regional Geography- a region at different scales –a continent, a country, a local area –is studied in all its geographical aspects.

Systematic Geography- in the other aspect, any particular theme or element of the system is chosen, say climate and analyzed systematically6 over the earth surface – or a large part of it -with the idea of identifying the general law of its prevalence over the globe.

The two approaches are complementary.

BRANCHESBRANCHESBRANCHESBRANCHES OFOFOFOF GEOGRAPHYGEOGRAPHYGEOGRAPHYGEOGRAPHY

BRANCHESBRANCHESBRANCHESBRANCHES OFOFOFOF GEOGRAPHYGEOGRAPHYGEOGRAPHYGEOGRAPHY

GEOGRAPHY |

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY: concerned with natural features such as

land, water and climate, these features are and in relationship with one another as well as with human activities. Subdivided into

another as well as with human activities. Subdivided into I. Geomorphology- concerned with landforms, their

I.

Geomorphology- concerned with landforms, their distribution and origin : studies the relationship between landforms and human activities Climatology : making of weather and climate, changes in climate nd how climate is affected by human activity Hydrology :earth’s water- ocean, rivers, glaciers IV. Oceanography: study of ocean ,study of shape, depth and distribution of ocean, life forms, ecology and currents, besides the legal status of ocean

V. Soil geography: deals with kinds of soils, their evolution and Distribution

deals with kinds of soils, their evolution and Distribution II. III. IV. V. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY :

II.

III.

IV.

V.

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY: concerned with the earth features created by

human action in the course of contriving to build and improve habitats to live in comfort and security. Subfields of human geomorphology

I.

II.

Cultural Geography: deals with the location and diffusion of beliefs, customs and other cultural traits.

Social Geography: close to cultural Geography, examines relationship among groups of people

Economic geography: deals with the location and distribution of economic

activities IV. Population geography: concerned with pattern of population and the reasons for a change in those patterns.

V. urban geography: concerned with cities and other urban areas examining the imp of location; study the distribution of various groups within a city

III.

GEOGRAPHY |

VI. Political geography: concerned with relations between independent states, frontiers, boundaries, problems of political instability, pattern of voting and regional planning VII. Historical Geography: concerned with the geography forces that have caused the changes VIII. Anthrogeography: distribution of human communities on earth in relation to their geographical environment IX. Agricultural Geography: studies the development of different kinds of farms and farming systems in particular areas and compares them with the farms and farming systems of other areas

them with the farms and farming systems of other areas Other two imp branches MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

Other two imp branches

MATHEMATICAL

GEOGRAPHY: study of earth’s shape and size, of

GEOGRAPHY : study of earth’s shape and size, of time zones and of the motion of

time zones and of the motion of earth

CARTOGRAPHY: study of maps and charts, responsible for geodetic and topographical surveys and the preparation of maps on certain selected scales

EEEE ARTHARTHARTHARTH ININININ THETHETHETHE UUUU NIVERSENIVERSENIVERSENIVERSE

EEEEARTHARTHARTHARTH ININININ THETHETHETHE UUUUNIVERSENIVERSENIVERSENIVERSE

GEOGRAPHY |

Earth, the planet on which we live, is the third planet outward from

lying with its satellite betw een Venus and Mars. The earth is an obl ate spheroid; taking into account an 18-m etre rise at the North Pole and a 26-me tre depression at the South Pol e, it may be called pear-shaped. It is fift h in order of size among the nine planets .

the sun,

at the South Pol e, it may be called pear-shaped. It is fift h in order

GEOGRAPHY |

EEEEARTHARTHARTHARTH DDDDATAATAATAATA

Age: At least 4.5 billion years Motion: Rotation (spinning motion around an imaginary line connecting the North and South Pole) once every 23hours, 56 minutes. 4.09seconds. revolution (motion around the sun) – once every 365days 6hours, 9minutes, 9.54 seconds. Size: polar diameters (distance through the Earth from North Pole to South Pole) – 12713.54 kms. Equatorial diameter (distance through the earth at the equator) – 12756.32kms. Polar circumference (distance around the earth through Poles) – 40008.00kms. Equatorial circumference (distance around the earth along the equator) – 40075.16kms

around the earth along the equator) – 40075.16kms Area : Total surface area– 509,700,000square kms. Land
around the earth along the equator) – 40075.16kms Area : Total surface area– 509,700,000square kms. Land
around the earth along the equator) – 40075.16kms Area : Total surface area– 509,700,000square kms. Land

Area: Total surface area– 509,700,000square kms. Land area– approximately 148,400,000 square kms, about 29per cent of total surface area. Water area – approximately 361,300,000 square kms, about 71 per cent of total surface area.

square kms, about 71 per cent of total surface area. tonnes Mean density : 5.517 Surface
square kms, about 71 per cent of total surface area. tonnes Mean density : 5.517 Surface

tonnes Mean density: 5.517 Surface features: Highest Land- Mount Everest, 8848 metres above sea level. Lowest Land- shore of Dead Sea, about 399 metres below the sea level Ocean depths: Deepest part of ocean – area of the Marina Trench in Pacific Ocean southwest of Guam, 11033 metres below surface. Average ocean depth – 3730 metres. Temperature: Highest – more than 99 %of the atmosphere is less than 80 kms above the earth’s surface, but particles of the atmosphere are 1600 kms above the surface. Regions of atmosphere – troposphere (up to 10or 16 kms above surface ); stratosphere( from about 48 to about 80kms); thermosphere( from 80kms into outer space) Chemical make-up of atmosphere – about 78 % nitrogen, 21 % oxygen, 1 % argon, and small amounts of other gases. Chemical make-up of earth’s crust( in per cent of the crust’s weight) :

oxygen 46.6; silicon 27.7; aluminum 8.1; iron 5.0; calcium 3.6; sodium 2.8; magnesium 2.0; and other elements totaling 1.6

Mass: 5.882×

GEOGRAPHY |

IIIINTERIORNTERIORNTERIORNTERIOR OFOFOFOF THETHETHETHE EEEEARTHARTHARTHARTH

Layer

Chemical composition

Physical property

Crust or Lithosphere

I. Outer or upper part

SIAL( silica and alumina) – sedimentary and granitic rocks Silica

Solid

II. Inner or outer

Silica

Partly molten

Partly SIMA( silica and magnesium) – basic rocks Wholly SIMA( ultra-basic rocks ) NIFE –
Partly SIMA( silica and
magnesium) – basic rocks
Wholly SIMA( ultra-basic
rocks )
NIFE – nickel (NI)and
iron(Fe)
Barysphere (heavy
metallic rocks )

part

Mantle or Mesosphere

I. Inner or

silicate layer

Some properties of a solid and some like those of plastic material

II.

zone of mixed metal and silicates

Transitional

Core or Barysphere

Outer metallic core

I.

Liquid or in plastic state

II.

core

Inner metallic

6

SSSS TRUCTURETRUCTURETRUCTURETRUCTURE OFOFOFOF THETHETHETHE ATMOATMOSPHEREATMOATMOSPHERESPHERESPHERE

SSSSTRUCTURETRUCTURETRUCTURETRUCTURE OFOFOFOF THETHETHETHE ATMOATMOSPHEREATMOATMOSPHERESPHERESPHERE

GEOGRAPHY |

Principal layers Earth's atmosphere can be divided into five main layers. These layers are mainly determined by whether temperature increases or decrease with altitude. From highest to lowest, these layers are:

Exosphere

From highest to lowest, these layers are: • Exosphere The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends

The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward. Here the particles are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of km without colliding with one another. Since the particles rarely collide, the atmosphere no longer behaves like a fluid. These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and

Thermosphere Mesosphere
Thermosphere
Mesosphere

may migrate into and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind. The exosphere is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium.

Temperature increases with height in the thermosphere from the mesopause bup to the thermopause then is constant with height. The temperature of this layer can rise to 1,500 °C (2,730 °F), though the gas molecules are so far apart that temperature in the usual sense is not well defined. The International Space Station orbits in this layer, between 320 and 380 km (200 and 240 mi). The top of the thermosphere is the bottom of the exosphere, called the exobase. Its height varies with solar activity and ranges from about 350–800 km (220–500 mi; 1,100,000–2,600,000 ft).

The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to 80–85 km (50–53 mi; 260,000– 280,000 ft). It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere. Temperature decreases with height in the mesosphere. The mesopause, the temperature minimum that marks the top of the mesosphere, is the coldest place on Earth and has an average temperature around −100 °C (−148.0 °F; 173.1 K).

temperature around −100 °C (−148.0 °F; 173.1 K). • Stratosphere The stratosphere extends from the

Stratosphere

The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 51 km (32 mi; 170,000 ft). Temperature increases with height, which restricts turbulence and mixing. The stratopause, which is the boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere, typically is at 50 to 55 km (31 to 34 mi; 160,000 to 180,000 ft). The pressure here

is 1/1000th sea level.

GEOGRAPHY |

Troposphere

The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 7 km (23,000 ft) at the poles and 17 km (56,000 ft) at the equator, with some variation due to weather.

The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. This promotes vertical mixing (hence the origin of its name in the Greek word "τροπή", trope, meaning turn or overturn). The troposphere contains roughly 80% of the mass of the atmosphere. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.

is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere. Other layers Within the five principal layers determined

Other layers Within the five principal layers determined by temperature are several layers determined by other properties.

The ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere. In this layer ozone concentrations are about 2 to 8 parts per million, which is much higher than in the lower atmosphere but still very small compared to the main components of the atmosphere. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from about 15–35 km (9.3–22 mi; 49,000–110,000 ft), though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere.

The ionosphere, the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation, stretches from 50 to 1,000 km (31 to 620 mi; 160,000 to 3,300,000 ft) and typically overlaps both the exosphere and the thermosphere. It forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. It has practical importance because it influences, for example, radio propagation on the Earth. It is responsible for auroras.

The homosphere and heterosphere are defined by whether the atmospheric gases are well mixed. In the homosphere the chemical composition of the atmosphere does not depend on molecular weight because the gases are mixed by turbulence.[3] The homosphere includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere. Above the turbopause at about 100 km (62 mi; 330,000 ft) (essentially corresponding to the mesopause), the composition varies with altitude. This is because the distance that particles can move without colliding with one another is large compared with the size of motions that cause mixing. This allows the gases to stratify by molecular weight, with the heavier ones such as oxygen and nitrogen present only near the bottom of the heterosphere. The upper part of the heterosphere is composed almost completely of hydrogen, the lightest element.

GEOGRAPHY |

The planetary boundary lay er is the part of the troposphere that is ne arest the Earth's surface and is directl y affected by it, mainly through turbulen t diffusion. During the day the planetary boundary layer usually is well mixed, w hile at night it becomes stably stratified wi th weak or intermittent mixing. The dept h of the planetary boundary layer ran ges from as little as about 100 m on clea r, calm nights to 3000 m or more during th e afternoon in dry regions.

ran ges from as little as about 100 m on clea r, calm nights to 3000
PPPP HYSIOGRAPHICHYSIOGRAPHICHYSIOGRAPHICHYSIOGRAPHIC OFOFOFOF IIII NDIANDIANDIANDIA

PPPPHYSIOGRAPHICHYSIOGRAPHICHYSIOGRAPHICHYSIOGRAPHIC OFOFOFOF IIIINDIANDIANDIANDIA

GEOGRAPHY |

India is a land of diversities. Great mountains, rivers, wide plateaus and plains, lengthy coastlines etc., constitute the topography of our country. It has a monsoon climate with local and seasonal climatic diversities. We shall look at the topography, rivers and climate of our country. Physiographically, India can be classified into four divisions.

The Northern mountain region

classified into four divisions. The Northern mountain region _ _ _ _ The Great Plains of

_

_

_

_

The Great Plains of the north

The Peninsular plateau

The Coastal plains and Islands

The Northern mountain region

This is the great wall like physiographic unit, which stretches from Kashmir in the North West to the Indian border in the east. This region is formed by the Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar and the Himalayan range of mountains and the eastern highlands. These mountain ranges are subdivided into three divisions namely, Trans Himalayas, Himalayas and the Eastern Highlands. The Trans Himalayas comprises the Karakoram, Ladakh and Zaskar ranges that originate from the Pamir Knot. The highest peak in India, ‘Mount K2’ (Mt. Godwin Austin, 8611m) is in the Karakoram Range. The Trans Himalayas, in which there are several gorges and mountain passes, has an average height of above 6000m.

The Trans Himalayas, in which there are several gorges and mountain passes, has an average height

THE ROOF OF THE WORLD

The Pamir plateau with the Pamir Knot in the central Asian country of Tajikisthan is known as the roof of the world. Mountain ranges such as the Hindukush, Sulaiman, Tienshan, Kunlun and Karakoram run to different directions from the Pamir Knot. The Kailas range in Tibet is an extension of the Karakoram Range.

The Himalayas, a part of the Northern mountain region, which trend in NW-SE direction for
The Himalayas, a part of the Northern mountain region, which trend in NW-SE
direction for a length of about 2400km is an arc shaped mountain range. This
mountain region with an area of about 5 lakh km2 is the highest region in the
world. The width of this mountain range is about 400km in Kashmir, and it shrinks
to 150 km in Arunachal Pradesh. There are three parallel mountain ranges in this
physical division, which is composed of many deep valleys and extensive plateaus.
The Himalayas, still growing!
Himalaya means the abode of snow. It is the youngest fold mountain
system of the world. These mountain ranges are formed due to the
intensive folding of the floor of an ancient sea called Tethys. The fossils of
different marine organisms, found at various locations on the mountain
ranges support the fact that the region was covered by sea in the past.
The height of the mountain ranges gradually decreases as they approach the eastern
parts of the Northern mountainous regions. This region with an average height of
500m to 3000m above MSL is known as the Eastern highlands (Purvachal). The
thickly forested Khasi-Jaintia hills in this region are the world’s rainiest (wettest)
spots.
Greater/Inner
Lesser/Middle
Outer/Lower Himalayas
Himalayas
Himalayas
*The highest mountain
range of the Himalayas.
*Under perpetual snow,
these ranges have an
average height of about
6000m.
*Mountain peaks with a
height of more than
8000m are situated in
this
*Situated to the south of
the Himadri
*Average height is
above 3000m
*Many health resorts
are
situated on the southern
slope of the mountain
range, eg: Shimla,
Darjeeling.
*This is the outer most
range, situated on the
south of the lesser
Himalayas.
*These discontinuous
ranges join the lesser
Himalayas in the
extreme east.
*Its average height is
about 1200m
GEOGRAPHY |

GEOGRAPHY |

mountain range. (Eg:

* There are several elongated and flat valleys running parallel to the mountain ranges. They are called “duns”. (Eg:

Dehradun)

Kanchenjunga- 8595 m, Nangaparbat- 8126m) *The source of Ganges and Yamuna

Himalayan Rivers

The snow clad peaks and glaciers are excellent sources of fresh water. Several great river
The snow clad peaks and glaciers are excellent sources of fresh water. Several
great river systems originate from the melt waters of these glaciers. Abundant rain
fall in the valleys enriches the flow of these rivers.
Tributaries and distributaries
Tributaries are those small and big streams that join a river. Upon reaching
a plain the rivers branch out and join the sea. These branches are called
distributaries.

River Indus Originating at a height of about 5180m from the Manasarowar in Tibet, River Indus flows northwest through Tibet and enters Jammu and Kashmir. Flowing through the deep valleys of Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit, River Indus crosses the Indian border and reaches the plains through Attok in Pakistan. Having a length of about 2880 km, it is one of the longest rivers of the world. Only a length of 709 km of the river is in India. Flowing through the plains of Pakistan, Indus branches out into many distributaries and merges with the Arabian sea to the south of Karachi. Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej are the important tributaries of the Indus.

Beas and Sutlej are the important tributaries of the Indus. River Ganga The river Bhagirathi, which

River Ganga The river Bhagirathi, which originates from the Gaumukh caves of the Gangotri Glacier and the river Alaknanda, which originates from the Alakpuri glacier meet at Devaprayag and flows further as the Ganga. Flowing through the snow-clad valleys, it enters the plains at Hardwar and becomes sluggish. After flowing through different states the river flows southeast and enters Bangladesh at Farrakkain West Bengal. The Ganga, with a length of more than 2500 km is the river with the largest number of tributaries in India. Important tributaries of the Ganga are ˇ Yamuna ˇ Son ˇ Ghagharaˇ Kosi ˇ Gandak.

GEOGRAPHY |

Hooghly is an important distributary of the river Ganga. Kolkata city is situated on the banks of the river Hooghly. The river Damodar is a tributary of the river Hooghly.

The river Damodar is known as "Sorrow of Bengal". This is because of the severe threat it posed to the life and property due to the frequent floods and change in river course. The construction of dams across the river Damodar has mitigated this havoc to a considerable extent. The Ganga is known as Padma in Bangladesh. The river Padma joins the Brahmaputra near Chandpur in Bangladesh and is known as Meghna and Jamuna. Later it flows as a number of distributaries and builds an extensive delta. It then merges into the Bay of Bengal.

an extensive delta. It then merges into the Bay of Bengal. Farrakka Barrage It was with

Farrakka Barrage It was with the aim of developing water transport in Hooghly river that the Government of India decided to construct a barrage across the river Ganga. The barrage, which was completed in May 1986, has a length of 2240 m. The barrage is bridged with rail and road. The railway that connects the Eastern states with Kolkata passes over this barrage. Travelling by train over the roaring greatness of the river Ganga is an unforgettable experience.

River Brahmaputra The Chemayungdung glacier (5150m) on the Kailas range about 100 km from the Manasarowar Lake in Tibet is the source of the river Brahmaputra. Having a length of 2900 km, the Brahmaputra is one of the longest rivers of the world. This river, which is known by different names in Tibet and Bangladesh, has a length of 725 km in India. The river Tista, river Manas, river Luhit and river Subansiri are the major tributaries. With the maximum discharge among the Himalayan Rivers, Brahmaputra causes severe floods in Assam and Bangladesh

THE RED RIVER OF INDIA

The Brahmaputra is also known as the red river of India. It's red colour is due to the suspension of red soils of Assam. Brahmaputra is known as Tsangpo in Tibet and Jamuna in Bangladesh.

The disappeared River Saraswathi

GEOGRAPHY |

Saraswathi was an ancient river, which originated from Himachal Pradesh and flowed to the south and then to the southwest direction. The river which is mentioned in the Rig Veda remains totally disappeared. Studies, with the help of satellite imageries indicate that the river still flows, beneath the ground!

Water way on mountains! Ferries and boats of bamboo and leather are in use at
Water way on mountains!
Ferries and boats of bamboo and leather are in use at a height of 3658 m
above MSL. This is a spectacular scene in Brahmaputra River in the
Tibetan region. This waterway has a length of670 km.

In the mountainous zone, deep valleys have been formed due to soil erosion for centuries by rivers that originate from the Himalayas. These valleys break the continuity of the Himalayas. The Himalayas are divided into different divisions. The regions from one river bank to other have different names too.

• From River Indus to River Sutlej –Punjab Himalaya • From River Sutlej to River
• From River Indus to River Sutlej –Punjab Himalaya
• From River Sutlej to River Kali –Kumaon Himalaya
• From River Kali to River Tista –Nepal Himalaya
• From River Tista to River Brahmaputra-Assam Himalaya
Northern Great Plains
Extensive plains have been formed due to the continuous depositional activity of
the Himalayan Rivers. With several thousand kilometers of thickness, the Northern
Great Plains spread out to about 7 lakhs km2. This plain is one of the world's most
extensive alluvial plains.
Northern mountain zone
Northern Great Plains
*Stands as a natural barrier in the northern part of
India
*Prevents foreign invasion to a certain extent
*Supports an indigenous culture
*This is the birth place of
Indian culture
*It forms the backbone of
Indian agriculture
* Protects India from the cold winds blowing
from the northern parts of Asia
*Obstruct south western monsoon winds and
provides rain throughout India
* One of the world’s most
densely populated regions
* Many metropolitan cities and
industrial Centres are situated
* Forms the source of several rivers
*This region has a remarkable role in the
in this zone.
*There is an extensive network

GEOGRAPHY |

formation of the Northern Great Plains, which is the food bowl of India *It is the abode of diverse animal n plant species. *This region with cool climate and serene nature is a heaven for tourists

of rail and road system in this zone

Peninsular Plateau

The peninsular plateau is a landmass believed to have got separated from the ancient Gondwanaland. This zone is built of stable rocks and is the most extensive physiographic division of India. Note the characteristic features of the peninsular plateau given below.

This physiographic division has an area of about 15 lakh km2 It has a diverse
This physiographic division has an area of about 15 lakh km2
It has a diverse topography of mountains, plateaus and valleys
Anamudi with a height of 2695m is the highest peak in this zone
There are large deposits of different minerals occur in this zone

The plateaus of this physiographic division has an average altitude of above 400m from mean sea level.

Most of the rivers that originate from this zone flow towards the east

Based on the uniqueness of the different regions, the peninsular plateau has been divided into nine subdivisions. The Aravalli hills, Malwa plateau, Vindhya ranges,

Satpura ranges, the Chotta Nagpur plateau, the Deccan plateau, the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats, the Kachchh and Kathiawar of Gujarat are these subdivisions. Many small and large hills and plateaus are also included in these subdivisions

Deccan Trap Region The northwestern part of the Deccan plateau was formed due to the cooling down of lava from volcanic eruption hat occurred millions of years ago. Formed out of igneous rocks, this region is known as the Deccan Trap. Black soils have developed as a result of weathering of rocks in the lava plateau, one of the largest in the world. This black soil, also known as regur (black cotton soil) is most suitable for cotton cultivation.

largest in the world. This black soil, also known as regur (black cotton soil) is most

Rann of Kachchh

The brackish swampy region in the northwestern part of Gujarat is called the Rann of Kachchh. High tides from the Arabian Sea and the rivers Luni and Banas, inundate this region. There are two different divisions in the Rann of Kachchh, namely the Great Rann and the Little Rann. The Great Rann which is situated to the north of the Kachchh peninsula is a region filled by black sedimentary deposits and salts.

Peninsular Rivers Originating from the Peninsular Plateau, rivers Chambal, Betwa, Kenand Sind flow towards the
Peninsular Rivers
Originating from the Peninsular Plateau, rivers Chambal, Betwa,
Kenand Sind flow towards the north and join the Yamuna and the
river Son joins the River Ganga. When compared to other peninsular
rivers, these rivers are comparatively smaller in length.
River
Source
Length
Major
tributaries
The sea to
which it
merges
Mahanadi
Maikala Ranges
(Madhya
Pradesh)
857
km
Ib, Tel
Bay of
Bengal
Godavari
Western Ghats
(Nasik district of
Maharashtra)
1465
km
Indravati,
Bay of
Sabari
Bengal
Krishna
Western Ghats (a
spring to the north
of Mahabaleshwar
in Maharashtra)
1400
km
Bhima,
Bay of
Tungabhadra
Bengal
Cauvery
Western Ghats
(Brahmagiri hills in
Coorg district of
Karnataka)
800
km
Kabani,
Bay of
Amaravati
Bengal
Narmada
Maikala
1312
km
Hiran, Bajan
Arabian Sea
ranges(Chhattisgarh)
Tapti
Multai plateau
(Betul district of
Madhya Pradesh)
724
km
Aanar, Girna
Arabian Sea
GEOGRAPHY |

GEOGRAPHY |

Himalayan Rivers

Peninsular Rivers

* Extensive catchment area

*Comparatively small catchment area

* Rain fed and snow fed

* Rainfed

* High erosive capability

* Low erosive capability

* Develop gorges in the mountains and

Meanders in the plains *Inland navigation is possible in the

Deep valleys are not produced as they Flow through hard crystalline rocks *Less chances for inland navigation

*

plains.

 
Coasts and Islands Extending from the Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat to the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta,
Coasts and Islands
Extending from the Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat to the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta,
it has a length of about 6083 km and lies divided into the west and the east coasts.
West Coast
East Coast
*Between Arabian Sea and Western
Ghats
*Stretches from Rann of Kachchh to
Kanyakumari.
*Comparatively narrow
*Between Eastern Ghats and Bay of
Bengal
* Stretches from Sundarbans to
Kanyakumari.
* Comparatively wider
* Divided into Gujarat coastal plain,
Konkan coast and Malabar coast
* Lagoons and estuaries are formed in
the west coast
* Highly influenced by the south west
monsoon
*Divided into Coromondel coast and
North Sircar coastal plains
*Deltas are formed in this coastal
stretch
*Influenced by north east monsoons
Islands

There are many islands situated in the Indian Ocean, which form part of our country. These are distributed in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and in the Gulf of Mannar, between India and Sri Lanka. Lakshadweep means a hundred thousand islands. But, there are only 36 coral islands present in this group of islands. Only ten islands in the group have been inhabited. This group of islands is situated about 300 km away from the Kerala coast. Kavarati is the capital of Lakshadweep. Known as Bay Islands, the Andaman and Nicobar islands are located in the Bay of Bengal. There are about 200 islands, in this group the majority of which are uninhibited. The Barren volcano is situated in the Barren Island of this island group.=

GEOGRAPHY |

GEOGRAPHY | 18
OCEANOCEANOCEANOCEAN ANDANDANDAND OCEANOGRAPHYOCEANOGRAPHYOCEANOGRAPHYOCEANOGRAPHY

OCEANOCEANOCEANOCEAN ANDANDANDAND OCEANOGRAPHYOCEANOGRAPHYOCEANOGRAPHYOCEANOGRAPHY

GEOGRAPHY |

The ocean floor can be divided into four major divisions.

Continental Shelf: the continental shelf is gently sloping part of continent that lie submerged below the sea.| The ocean floor can be divided into four major divisions. Average width: 70km and Average

Average width: 70km and Average Depth: 200m In all, the continental shelves cover about 7.5 % of total area of the ocean North Sea and The Baltic Sea - lie on the continental shelf, known as epicontinental or shelf seas About 20% of the world production of petroleum and gas comes from shelves.

world production of petroleum and gas comes from shelves. Continental Slope: that descends from the edge

Continental Slope: that descends from the edge of the continental shelf to the deep – sea platform.

Continental Rise: where the continental slopes ends, the rise Continental begins. Continental Rise has an average slope of between 0.5 to1 and its general relief is low.

slope of between 0.5 to1 and its general relief is low. Abyssal Plain: are the areas

Abyssal Plain: are the areas of deep –ocean floor found at depth of 3000 to 6000metres. they occupy about 40% of the ocean floor.

Ocean Facts Pacific Ocean- name was coined by Ferdinand Magellan. Shape: roughly triangular with the apex in the north at the Bering Strait Deepest part: North Pacific Deepest trench: the Mariana off the Guam Islands; most of the islands are of volcanic or coral origin.

Atlantic Ocean

the islands are of volcanic or coral origin. Atlantic Ocean Shape: resembles the latter ‘S’ Striking

Shape: resembles the latter ‘S’ Striking feature: presence of Mid- Atlantic Ridge which divides the Atlantic into two deeper basins on either side. The Atlantic Ocean has less troughs and trenches than the Pacific Ocean. Of all the oceans, the Atlantic Ocean has longest coastlines.

Indian Ocean: considered half ocean, because, unlike the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, it does not open out northward into Arctic Ocean. Most of the islands in the Indian Ocean represent detached parts of the continental blocks. The Lakshadweep and Maldives Islands in the Indian Ocean are coral Islands, while the Mauritius and Reunion Island to the east of Madagascar is of volcanic origin.

MAJOR OCEAN CURRENTS

Name Types Description PACIFIC OCEAN NORTH warm current EQUATORIAL CURRENT flows westwards in north of
Name
Types
Description
PACIFIC OCEAN
NORTH
warm current
EQUATORIAL
CURRENT
flows westwards in north of the
equator ,
produced by north east trades
SOUTH
warm current
EQUATORIAL
flows westwards in south of the
equator south east trades
CURRENT
KURO SIWA
warm current
CURRENT
/KUROSHIO
/JAPAN
north east trades winds blow the north
equatorial current off the coasts of the
Philippines and Formosa into East
China sea as Kuro Siwa Current
CURRENT
NORTH PACIFIC
CURRENT
warm current
from the south-east coast of Japan the
current flows right across the ocean
from west to east
ALASKA CURRENT
cold current
flows anti-clock wise along the coast of
British Columbia and Alaska , branch
of north Pacific current
CALIFORNIAN
cold current
CURRENT
flows southwards along the Pacific
coastline , caused by upwelling g of
colder water from greater depths due
to the southward deflection of the
north Pacific current, joins north
equatorial current
PERU/HUMBOLDT
cold current
CURRENT
reaching the south western coast of
South America, the South Pacific
currents turns northward as Peru
current
COUNTER
EQUATORIAL
Between the north and south equatorial current, a current
flows from west to east
CURRENT
OYA SIWA OR
OYASHIO
The cold Alaska current/Bering strait current creeps
GEOGRAPHY |
CURRENT southwards from narrow Bering strait and is joined by Okhotsk Current(cold current) to meet
CURRENT
southwards from
narrow Bering strait and is joined by Okhotsk Current(cold
current) to
meet the warm Japan current
ATLANTIC OCEAN
NORTH OR
warm current
SOUTH
EQUATORIAL
CURRENT
the steady trade winds in north and
south
of the equator drive two streams of
surface
water westwards
GUINEA
warm current
CURRENTS
(EQUATORIAL
COUNTER
CURRENT
flows from west to east between the
two
main equatorial Current, known as
Guinea
Currents off the West African Coast
BRAZIL
CURRENT
The South equatorial Current is split into two branches Cape
de sao Roque. One branch turns south as warm Brazil
Current
GULF
warm current
CURRENT
originates in gulf of Mexico b4
flowing
past Florida , keeps the Norwegian
coast
ice-free during the winter months
CANARY
cold current
CURRENT
caused by upwelling g of colder water
from greater depths due to the
southward
deflection of the west wind drift in
North
Atlantic and transference of surface
water
back across the Atlantic by north
equatorial current
BENGUELA
cold current
CURRENT
flowing northwards off the coast of
South West Africa
FLORIDA
CURRENT
commences as branch of the North Equatorial current ,
enters the Caribbean and returns to the Atlantic Ocean
through Florida Straits
GEOGRAPHY |

GEOGRAPHY |

INDIAN OCEAN SOUTH – WEST MONSOON DRIFT in summer ,when the dominant wind is the
INDIAN OCEAN
SOUTH – WEST
MONSOON DRIFT
in summer ,when the dominant wind is the south-west
monsoon
NORTH –EAST
MONSOON DRIFT
in winter , when the dominant wind is the north-east
monsoon
WEST WIND
DRIFT
cold current ;
one of the branches of this current turns northwards
along the west coast of Australia- known as
AUSTRALIAN CURRENT
SOUTH
include the Agulhas current and Mozambique current
EQUATORIAL
CURRENTS