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As the title indicates, this work focuses on machining hardened steels with CubicBoron Nitride (CBN) cutting tools.

The name itself implies hard turning is the process if turning hard material.Rotational turning may sound like a redundancy, because turning already involvesrotation. The work piece spins. However, rotational turning is a process that adds a b r a n d n e w rotating element. A special tool pivots to sweep its long cutting e d g e across the work piece surface. The result is turning so smooth that it can competewith grinding and polishing. Rotational turning is a dry process that does not requirethe costs associated with coolant. Meanwhile, rotational turnings cycle times tend to be twice as fast as those of hard turning.Hard materials are defined somewhat arbitrarily, but a consistent threshold of 45HRC(Rockwell C scale hardness) seems to exist. Typical materials for which hard turningm a y b e a p o t e n t i a l m a c h i n i n g process include heat treatment and case hardenedsteels. These steels c o n s t i t u t e a n i m p o r t a n t c l a s s o f e n g i n e e r i n g m a t e r i a l s d u e t o improve strength and wear resistance compared with other materials. Due to stringentd i m e n s i o n a l a n d s u r f a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e s e m a t e r i a l s h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n machined to finished geometries by abrasive processes such as grinding. However r e c e n t i m p r o v e m e n t s i n m a c h i n e t o o l t e c h n o l o g y ( s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e r i g i d i t y a n d precision of modern CNC lathes and the advent of ceramic cutting tools have made it possible to remove material from hardened steel components by turning and milling).Turning is a type of machining process which is shown in the figure 1.1 on a manuallathe and again from a side view in figure 1.2.In this process, material is removed bysliding a hard cutting tool through a softer material and forming a chip. The main process variables in this case are the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut.Cutting speed is either given as the rotational velocity of the work piece or the linear tangential velocity of the work piece at the tip of the cutting tool, feed rate is definedas the linear distance that tool traverses during one rotation of the work piece andcutting depth is the radial engagement between the cutting tool and the work piece.Hard turning differs from conventional turning of softer materials in several keyw a y s . B e c a u s e t h e material is harder, specific cutting forces are larger than i n conventional turning and thus the engagement between the cutting tools and theworkpiece must be limited. At the small cutting depths required, cutting takes place on the nose radius of cutting tools, and the tools are prepared with chamfered or h o n e d edges to provide the stronger edge geometry that is prone to p r e m a t u r e fracture. Cutting on a chamfered or honed edge.3

(fig 1.1) Example of turning process(from tvent 1977)equates to a large negative effective rake angle, when neutral or positive rake anglesare typical in conventional machining. The large negative rake angles yield increasedc u t t i n g f o r c e s c o m p a r e d t o m a c h i n i n g w i t h p o s i t i v e r a k e a n g l e s , a n d a l s o i n d u c e larger compressive loads on the machining surface. Higher temperatures are alsogenerated in the cutting zone, and because cutting is typically done without coolant,h a r d t u r n e d s u r f a c e s c a n e x h i b i t t h e r m a l d a m a g e i n t h e f o r m o f m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l changes and tensile residual stresses.

Cryogenic Hard Turning: Cubic boron nitride (CBN) and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) insertshave traditionally been the tools of choice for hard turning applications. However,many shops contemplating hard turning are turned off by their high price. A newextreme-temperature coolant method has been developed to offer longer insert life,faster cutting rates and more affordable hard turning insert options.The liquid nitrogen raises insert hardness, which significantly reduces the thermalsoftening effect that an insert may experience as a result of hard turnings inherenth i g h c u t t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s . T h e s t e e p t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t b e t w e e n t h e c h i p / t o o l interface and insert body also helps remove heat from the cutting zone. In addition,the

significant cooling maintains insert edge integrity to prevent smearing a partshot, compressed surface layer, thus providing a quality surface finish.

Unlike CBN and PCBN, ceramic inserts tend to w e a r unevenly and are prone to fracturing when hard turningd r y o r w i t h w a t e r - o r o i l - b a s e d c o o l a n t s . I n c r e a s e d fracture toughness resulting from low-temperature liquidnitrogen cooling provides more predictable, gradual flank w e a r f o r c e r a m i c i n s e r t s , a s w e l l a s i n c r e a s e d c u t t i n g speeds up to 200 percent. Hard turning has many potential advantages compared to grinding, and several are ad i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e w a y i n w h i c h m a t e r i a l i s r e m o v e d b y t h e t w o p r o c e s s e s . A significant advantage of the turning process is that cutting is done with tools that havea geometrically defined cutting edge. This allows many different parts to be machinedwith same cutting tool by changing the relative path between the tool and the work piece. On modern CNC lathes, many tools are mounted in the turret of the machine,and the computer-controlled machines can produce a variety of part geometries withonly a handful of different tools. In grinding, where the individual grit geometries arer a n d o m , t h e o v e r a l l s h a p e o f t h e g r i n d i n g w h e e l m u s t b e m o d i f i e d t o p r o d u c e different parts. This is typically addressed either by stocking a different wheel for each part, or by reshaping the wheel into a new in to a mew geometry each time anew part is required. Both methods are time consuming, either due to changeover time or dressing time (the process of reshaping the wheel. The small sizes of typicalgrits also reduce the potential engagement between the grits and work piece thusl i m i t i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e c h i p s t h a t c a n b e r e m o v e d . T h i s g e n e r a l l y l e a d s t o s m a l l material removal rates compared to turning, although some grinding operations aredone with wide grinding wheels to improve the volumetric removal rate. By eliminating the need to change or redress grinding wheels, hard turning offersincreased flexibility by significantly reducing the setup time. For a typical setup, allt h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s c h a n g i n g o f t h e c o l l e t o r c h u c k i n t h e m a c h i n e a n d l o a d i n g a different computer program in the control. The combination of increased flexibilityand improved material removal rates is becoming more important as manufacturerst e n d t o w a r d p r o d u c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t h a t m i n i m i z e t h e i n v e n t o r y a n d b a t c h s i z e s . Furthermore, because the process is more flexible and productive, fewer machinet o o l s a r e r e q u i r e d . T h e c o s t o f l a t h e s i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r t h a n g r i n d e r s ( a s a n estimate, the cost of a good CNC lathe and associated tooling maybe 1/2 to 1/10 thecost of

modern CNC grinder). Turning is also a more efficient cutting process thangrinding, so less energy is required to remove the same volume of material. This isd u e t o t h e s m a l l e n g a g e m e n t s b e t w e e n a b r a s i v e g r i t s a n d t h e w o r k p i e c e i n t h e grinding, and the associated plowing that contributes to significant energy losses.Finally, hard turning has the additional benefit of environmental friendliness becausecutting is done typically dry. This eliminates the cost and the environmental impact o f u s i n g c u t t i n g f l u i d a n d d i s p o s i n g o f g r i n d i n g s l u d g e . G i v e n t h e p o t e n t i a l advantages of hard turning is not being used more extensively.First, it is a relatively new technology. It is only over the last couple of decades thatimprovements in machine tools and development of ceramic inserts have made thist e c h n o l o g y a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . F u r t h e r m o r e , b e c a u s e h a r d t u r n i n g i s s o y o u n g compared to grinding will take some time to overcome. Also, there are applicationsw h e r e h a r d t u r n i n g i s n o t c u r r e n t l y g o o d e n o u g h t o r e p l a c e c e r t a i n g r i n d i n g operations. A good example of this centre l e s s g r i n d i n g , w h i c h i s a p r o c e s s f o r grinding a cylindrical work piece where the part is not constrained to a geometriccenter of rotation (which typically results when holding in a chuck or collet).The process allows improved roundness, and existing fixturing methods on lathes will notallow hard turning to complete with center less grinding when roundness tolerancesa r e t i g h t (especially for compliant parts). Aside from special cases, the b i g g e s t limitations on further implementation of hard turning are concerns about surfacequality and un acceptable life of expensive cutting tools.Due to these concerns, there is a need to develop a better understanding of the effectsof process conditions on the wear behavior of cutting tools and the resultant surfacequality that can be obtained by hard turning. The potential advantages of hard turningare attractive to many manufacturers tools to make more educated decisions aboutselecting process conditions and enabling further implementation of this technology. 2.1 Turning to hard turning: The vast majority of hard components used in the automotive industry are machine tof i n a l g e o m e t r i c a l f o r m a f t e r h a r d e n i n g . C u r r e n t l y , g r i n d i n g i s t h e p r e d o m i n a n t method for finishing these parts, which includes bearings, Gears, shafts, and pinions.However, thanks to improvements in machine tool rigidity and development of CBNand PCBN cutting tools, hard turning is gaining ground as a cot effective alternativeto grinding.H a r d t u r n i n g i s p e r f o r m e d o n t h e m a t e r i a l s i n t h e 4 5 t o 6 0 H R C r a n g e u s i n g t h e variety of tipped of solid cutting inserts. Since its production in the mid 80s, the process has dramatically increased in popularity and the sales of CBN cutting toolsare dealing in hundreds of millions annually. Clearly, more and more manufacturersare recognizing the advantages of hard turning. But due to the cost of CBN cuttingtools, many continue to view it as an expensive process. 2.1.1 Is hard turning more expensive?????????? While CBN cutting tools ca cost up to 10 to 20 times more than conventional tools,studies have shown them to be 10 to 300 times more effective in terms

of overall productivity and tool life. In part, these finding are based on the tool cost per partsanalysis. For a better understanding of economic benefits of hard turning, it helps toconsider a few factors that are some times overlooked by the accounting department.19 These include tool change time, setup time, cycle time, machine maintenance, partquality and original machine cost.Part of the cost effectiveness of the hard turning may be attributed to the machine toolitself. A grinder is a much larger investment than a CNC Lathe, it is typically one half to one third of a grinders cost. Also, CNC Lathes are much more flexible in terms of machining capabilities. Tool changes can be made in less than 2 mins , without the production time losses necessary for a wheel change. This flexibility allows fast, costeffective production of small batches of parts. 2.1.2 Benefits of hard turning: 1)Low maintenance is also a benefit , as worn CBN tools may be quickly removedand replaced with new inserts, and do not require truing or dressing to maintain thecutting profile.2)CNC lathe also takes less floor space than grinders, do not require flume systems.3 ) I t d o e s n o t r e q u i r e c o o l a n t . 4)Since hard turning removes metal peeling a softened chip from the work piece,c o o l a n t i s g e n e r a l l y n o t r e c o m m e n d e d . T h i s h e l p s t o k e e p c o s t s d o w n w h i l e eliminating the environmental damage caused by coolant use.5 ) D r y m a c h i n i n g a l s o r e d u c e s t h e t i m e a n d m o n e y s p e n t o n g o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t e d chip disposal and reclamation process.6 ) A l t h o u g h grinding is known to produce good surface finishes at relatively highfeed rates, hard turning using CBN inserts can produce better s u r f a c e f i n i s h a n d significantly higher metal removal rates.7)Although the process consists of small depth of cuts and feed rates, estimates of reduced machining time are as high as 60% for conventional hard turning.8)Studies have shown that by using the right combination of insert nose radii, feedrate, or the new wiper technology, hard turning can produce a better surface finishthan grinding.9 ) T h e f a c t t h a t m u l t i p l e h a r d t u r n i n g o p e r a t i o n s m a y b e p e r f o r m e d i n s i n g l e chucking rather than multiple grinding setups also contributes to high accuracies.However, there is still much debate surrounding the overall surface integrity of hardturned parts. 2.2 Hard turning vs. Grinding: 1)Material removal rates are higher in hard turning than in grinding.2 ) T h e experimental results showed that intermittent hard turning c a n p r o d u c e surface integrity which is good enough for replacing the grinding process.3)Machining time is reduced in Hard turning compared to Grinding.4)The fatigue life of hard turned surfaces is better than that of ground surfaces.5) The turned surface has a longer life than the ground one with equivalent surfacefinish.6 ) H a r d t u r n i n g g e n e r a t e s l e s s h e a t i n t h e w o r k p i e c e t h a n g r i n d i n g , d u e t h e C B N s ability to put most of the heat into the chips -- not into the workpiece.21 7)Traditional grinding, in contrast, creates extreme heat that r e q u i r e s c o o l a n t a n d may cause surface imperfections.8)Shorter cutting time,

less tool change time make the hard turning process a faster process than grinding