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International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
Frequency domain analysis of uid–structure interaction in
liquid lled pipe systems by transfer matrix method
Q.S. Li ^{a}^{;}^{∗} , Ke Yang ^{a}^{;}^{b} , Lixiang Zhang ^{c} , N. Zhang ^{a}^{;}^{d}
^{a} Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Hong Kong ^{b} College of Architectural and Civil Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, China ^{c} School of Electric Power Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China ^{d} Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Received 22 February 2002; received in revised form 23 August 2002; accepted 3 October 2002
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the vibration analysis of a liquid lled pipe system, which extends the fre quency domain analysis of the uid–structure interaction from single pipe to a pipe system with multipipe sections using transfer matrix method. Taking into account all the three major coupling mechanisms, namely the friction coupling, Poisson coupling and junction coupling, the proposed method can be used to analyze the free vibration and the forced vibration of a pipe system with multipipe sections subjected to various kinds of external excitations. The transform matrix, impedance matrix and frequency equation in frequency domain are also presented and discussed. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method, which shows how the natural frequencies and mode shapes change with the radius and materials of the pipe system. ? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Fluid–structure interaction; Transfer matrix method; Liquid lled pipe systems; Laplace transform; Frequency domain
1. Introduction
The uid–structure interaction (FSI) in liquid lled pipe systems has been investigated extensively, because of its relevance to mechanical, civil, nuclear and aeronautical engineering. It has been widely accepted that in dynamic analysis of liquid lled pipe systems, neglecting FSI may lead to unrealistic predictions. Literature reviews on the advances in this eld were given in Refs. [1–4]. Therefore,
^{∗} Corresponding author. Tel.: +85227844677; fax: +85227887612. Email address: bcqsli@cityu.edu.hk (Q.S. Li).
00207403/02/$  see front matter ? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S00207403(02)001704
2068 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
only several previous investigations which are directly related to the present study are reviewed below. First of all, it is necessary to declare the three major coupling mechanisms of FSI in pipe systems, namely friction coupling, Poisson coupling and junction coupling. The friction coupling represents an axial interaction caused by friction between uid and pipe. The Poisson coupling is such an interaction that the change of uid pressure causes additional hoop stress in pipe wall and then, owing to Poisson ratio, induces corresponding normal stress in pipe wall, and vice versa. The junction coupling occurs only at the boundaries or the junction of two pipe sections. Mathematically, the Poisson and friction coupling make the governing equations coupled each other and cause the equations much di erent from the traditional ones [5], whereas the junction coupling is normally expressed as the boundary conditions, among the three coupling mechanisms, the junction coupling is,
therefore, the easiest one to deal with. In the present study, all the three major coupling mechanisms are taken into account. Thorley [6] was the rst who pointed out the existence of precursor wave caused by the Poisson coupling, and Vardy and Fan [7] veri ed it through a welldesigned experiment. Their experimental results will be used in the numerical example of this paper to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. Charley and Caignaert [8] used experimental data to demonstrate that transfer matrices with con sidering FSI can predict much better the measured pressure spectra than the classical waterhammer [5] transfer matrices, even in simple systems. D’souza and Oldenburger [9] presented one of the earliest studies in the eld. In their paper, the Laplace transform was used to solve an equation included the friction and junction coupling. Wilkinson [10] presented transfer matrices for the axial, lateral and torsional vibration of pipes. He considered the junction coupling, but without considering the friction and Poisson coupling. ElRaheb [11] and Nanayakkara and Perreira [12] derived transfer matrices for straight and curved pipes, including the e ects of the junction coupling but excluding those of the Poisson and friction coupling. Kuiken [13] studied the e ects of the Poisson and junction coupling through a numerical simulation. Lesmez [14], Lesmez et al. [15], Hat eld et al. [16] and Wiggert et al. [17] (in time domain), Tentarelli [18], Brown and Tentarelli [19] and De Jong [20,21] (in frequency domain), Svingen and Kjeldsen [22] and Svingen [23] (based on the nite element method) applied the transfer matrix method (TMM) to onedimensional wave problems. Among the abovementioned studies, only in Refs. [18,19] the friction coupling was taken into account. Moreover, the dynamic behavior of uid lled pipes with nonuniform crosssection or variable material properties was not investigated in these studies.
Di erent from these studies, Zhang et al. [24] obtained a solution of the fourequation model
of FSI in the frequency domain in which the impact loads are considered. Followed by a series of researches conducted in recent years [25–31], it has been proved that the frequencybased approaches are e cient for the analysis of FSI in liquid lled pipe systems. However, up to now, this kind of method has been used for single pipes only. In this paper, based on these studies, a transfer matrix method is developed for the analysis of FSI in a series pipe system which may consist of many
sections of pipes. Meanwhile, some previously not considered aspects are also taken into account in this paper, which include the frequency equations, the impedance matrix, the frequency response matrix and the mode shapes. At the end of this paper, numerical examples are presented to illustrate
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
2069
the application of the proposed method and to investigate the e ects of the radius and the material properties of pipes on the dynamic behavior of a pipe system. In addition to the analysis of free vibration and frequency response of a liquid lled pipe system, the present TMM aims mainly at determining the solution for FSI at any point of the system when the system is subjected to external excitations in order to make the transient solution in time domain possible by taking inverse Laplace transform.
2. The frequency domain solution for single pipe and discussions
Following the derivation given in Ref. [13], the frequency domain solution for a single pipe is rewritten in this section, meanwhile, some discussions are given and expansions are made.
2.1. The governing equation and its uncoupling
The governing equation for a uid lled pipe system can be expressed with matrices as
_{A}
@y(z; t) _{+} _{B} @y(z; t)
@t
@z
+ Cy(z; t) = r(z; t);
where y(z; t) is a vector of unknowns
(1)
(2)
where V = V (z; t) and H = H (z; t) are the crosssectional average speed and the crosssectional pressure head of liquid, respectively; u˙ _{z} = u˙ _{z} (z; t) is the crosssectional average speed along the direction of z and _{h} = _{h} (z; t) is the crosssectional average stress head of pipe wall. r(z; t) in the righthand side of Eq. (1) is the external excitation acting along the pipe. H =H (z; t) and _{h} = _{h} (z; t) are de ned below related to pressure P = P(z; t) and normal stress _{z} = _{z} (z; t) as
y(z; t)=[V; H;
u˙ _{z} ;
_{h} ] ^{T} ;
H (z; t) = ^{P}^{(}^{z}^{;} ^{t}^{)} + z sin( ) − ^{P} ^{0} ^{(}^{z}^{)}
g
_{f}
g
_{f}
^{;}
_{h} (z; t) = ^{} ^{z} ^{(}^{z}^{;} ^{t}^{)} + z sin( ) − ^{} ^{0} ^{(}^{z}^{)} ;
g
_{t}
g
_{t}
(3)
where is the elevation angle of the pipe; P _{0} (z); _{0} (z) are the initial pressure and initial stress, respectively; and _{t} and _{f} are the density of the pipe and liquid, respectively. Other parameters in Eq. (1) are
A
=
1000
0
0010
0
2
g=c _{F}
0
_{0}
_{f} gR
_{t} ec ^{2}
T
0
−
^{1}
_{t} c ^{2}
T
;
B =
g
0
00
0
1
00
0
−2
0
1
0
0
−1= _{t}
0
;
(4)
2070 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
where
c
2
F =
f
1
k 1 _{+} 2R(1 − ^{2} ) eE
−1
;
c T ^{2} = ^{E} t
:
(5)
In Eq. (5) L is the length of the pipe, is Poisson’s ratio, R is the inner radius of the pipe, e is the thickness of the pipe wall, E is elastic modulus, g is the gravity and K is the bulk elastic modulus of liquid. Matrix C contains the coe cients of friction and structural viscous damping. When the laminar ow model is adopted, C is a constant matrix [12]. In Eq. (4), the terms a _{4}_{2} = _{f} gR = _{t} ec _{T} ^{2} and b _{2}_{3} = −2 represent the Poisson coupling, which, together with matrix C, make the governing equations coupled each other. Taking the Laplace transform, denoted by L (·), for Eq. (1) results in
where
sA(s)Y(z; s) + B ^{@}^{Y}^{(}^{z}^{;} @z ^{s}^{)} = r (z; s);
(6)
Y(z; s) = L (y(z; t));
A(s) = A + C=s;
r (z; s) = L(r(z; t)) + A(s)y(z; 0)
(7)
in which y(z; 0) is a vector of the initial conditions. From a generalized eigenvalues problem B− A=0 one obtains a diagonal matrix with eigenvalues in the diagonal elements
= diag{ _{1} (s);
_{2} (s); _{3} (s); _{4} (s)}
= diag{ _{1} (s); − _{1} (s); _{3} (s); − _{3} (s)}
(8)
and the full matrix S(s) whose columns are the corresponding eigenvectors satis es [5]
(9)
Evidently, matrix S(s) is regular, and in a frictionless system C = 0, the eigenvalues _{i} , and the elements of matrices A and S are all real numbers independent of s. Multiplying Eq. (1) with
BS(s) = A(s)S(s) (s):
T(s) = S ^{−}^{1} (s)A ^{−}^{1} (s) 
(10) 
and then combined with Eq. (9) yield 

sv(z; s) + ^{@}^{v}^{(}^{z}^{;} @z ^{s}^{)} = T (s)r (z; s); 
(11) 
where 

v(z; s) = T(s)A(s)Y(z; s): 
(12) 
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Since is a diagonal matrix, Eq. (11) is a set of four independent ordinary equations with complex constant coe cients, and its general solution is
(13)
where
v(z; s) = E(z; s)v _{0} (s) + q(z; s);
E(z; s) = diag exp −
^{s}
1
_{(}_{s}_{)}
v(z; s) = {v _{1} ;
v _{2} ;
v _{3} ;
v _{4} } ^{T} ;
z ; exp −
^{s} _{(}_{s}_{)} z ; exp −
1
q(z; s) = {q _{1} ;
q _{2} ;
q _{3} ;
q _{4} } ^{T} :
^{s} _{(}_{s}_{)} z ; exp
3
s
3
(s)
^{z} ^{;}
(14)
v _{0} = v _{0} (s) contains undetermined integration constants depending on the boundary conditions, and q(z; s) is a particular solution. When denoting
(15)
the elements of vector q(z; s) can be determined by
= [r _{1} (z; s);
Tr
r _{2} (z; s); r _{3} (z; s); r _{4} (z; s)] ^{T} ;
q i =
_{s}_{e} −sz= _{i} (s)
_{i} (s)
^{} z
0
r _{i} (x; s)e ^{−}^{s}^{x}^{=} ^{} ^{i} ^{(}^{s}^{)} d x;
i = 1; 2; 3; 4:
From Eq. (12) and with S(s)=(T(s)A(s)) ^{−}^{1} , we have
Y(z; s) = K(z; s)v _{0} (s) + Q(z; s);
where
K(z; s) = S(s)E(z; s);
Q(z; s) = S(s)q(z; s):
It is evident that K(z; s) is regular.
(16)
(17)
2.2. The boundary conditions and their forms
To meet the needs of the transfer matrix method, it is necessary to express the boundary condi tions in matrix forms at individual end instead of at both ends of a single pipe. After taking the Laplace transform, the boundary conditions at an end point of a pipe can be generally expressed in matrix as
(18)
where D and f can be determined according to the forms of the boundary conditions. f is illustrated in the following equations (Eqs. (19)–(21)) in the form of f _{r} ; f _{R} and f _{m} . In Y(z; s) (de ned in Eq. (7)) z is the coordinate of the end (e.g., 0 or the length of the pipe L). The following is some examples for several boundary conditions expressed in this manner.
D(s)Y(z; s) = f(s);
(1) Reservoir (or an opened end ): If the pipe is xed at this end, we have
D r = ^{} 0010
0100
;
f _{r} (s)=[u _{g} (s) 0] ^{T} ;
(19)
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where u _{g} denotes the ground velocity, e.g., when it is subjected to an earthquake excitation. The pressure P _{o} of the reservoir is taken into account in H (see Eq. (3)) (2) Closed valve or closed end with mass m:
(a) Pipe xed
D R =
1000
0010
;
f _{R} (s)=[u _{g} (s) u _{g} (s)] ^{T} :
(b)
Pipe is movable in axial direction
D m =
1
0
0
g _{f} A _{f}
−1
±sm
t A t ;
0
−g
f _{m} = [0
(20) 

± R _{l} (s)] ^{T} ; 
(21) 
where A _{f} ; A _{t} are the area of inner part of the pipe and area of the pipe wall, respectively. m is the mass of valve or the sealed end etc. The sign “±” is determined according to the direction of the coordinate and the position where the mass or the excitation appears. R _{l} is the Laplace transform of the external excitation at the corresponding end. In the case shown in Fig. 2, R _{l} can be written as
(22)
where the subscript r denotes the property of the impacting rod. Eq. (21) shows an example of the junction coupling since V and u˙ _{z} , or H and _{h} , appear in the same equation of boundary condition. With the above expressions, the boundary conditions can be written with relatively simple and uni ed forms. For example, when a single pipe is xed and connected with a reservoir at the upstream end z = 0, and is xed and connected with a closed valve at the downstream end z = L, then the boundary conditions can be written as
(23)
R _{l} = A _{r} ^{} E _{r} _{r} (e ^{−}^{s}^{T}^{c} − 1)=s;
D _{r} Y(0; s) = f _{r} (s);
D _{R} Y(L; s) = f _{R} (s):
2.3. The frequency domain solution for a single pipe
In Eq. (16), let z = 0 and z = L, we get eight relations between the unknowns and undetermined integration constants, namely
(24)
Y(0; s) = K(0; s)v _{0} (s) + Q(0; s);
Y(L; s) = K(L; s)v _{0} (s) + Q(L; s):
(25)
There are only two boundary conditions at the end z = 0 or L. The general expressions are
[D _{u}_{p} (s)] _{2}_{×}_{4} {Y(0; s)} _{4}_{×}_{1} = {F(0; s)} _{2}_{×}_{1} ;
[D _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} (s)] _{2}_{×}_{4} {Y(L; s)} _{4}_{×}_{1} = {F(L; s)} _{2}_{×}_{1} ;
(26)
where the subscripts outside the bracket denote the numbers of row and column of the matrix.
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
Combining Eqs. (24)–(26) yields
D _{u}_{p} (s)K(0; s)v _{0} (z; s) = F(0; s) − D _{u}_{p} (s)Q(0; s);
D _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} (s)K(L; s)v _{0} (z; s) = F(L; s) − D _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} (s)Q(L; s):
2073
^{(}^{2}^{7}^{)}
For a pipe system with a single section, the above equation can be written in a matrix form
R(s)v _{0} (s) = F(s);
where
R(s) =
D _{u}_{p} K(0)
D
down
K(L) _{4}_{×}_{4}
;
F(s) =
F(L) − D _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} Q(L) _{4}_{×}_{1}
F(0) − D _{u}_{p} Q(0)
:
(28)
(29)
Eq. (28) is similar to that given in Ref. [27], but Eq. (28) is more concise in form. For a pipe
system with more than one pipe sections, the two equations of Eq. (27) can be applied to di erent pipe sections, respectively, and 0 and L in the equation are the local coordinates.
If the boundary conditions are able to determine all the undetermined constants, R is certainly
regular. Substituting v _{0} = R ^{−}^{1} (s) F(s) into Eq. (16) gives
Y(z; s) = K(z; s)R ^{−}^{1} (z; s) F(s) + Q(z; s):
(30)
A similar equation was derived in Ref. [15], but the present form is more concise and clearer,
which paves the way to the analysis of multisection pipe systems. This concise form is attributed largely to Eq. (28) and to the individual expression of boundary conditions, namely Eq. (18).
2.4. The impedance and the frequency equation
Here, some necessary expansions are also made and discussions which are important for the TMM to be presented in the next section are given.
In Eq. (30), let the initial conditions and the external excitations along the pipe be zero, we get
Y(z; s) = K(z; s)R ^{−}^{1} (z; s) F(s); 
(31) 
H(z; s) = K(z; s)R ^{−}^{1} (z; s): 
(32) 
Since F(s) in Eq. (30) is the external excitation acting at the end of the pipe, which includes the movement of the constraint or close of valve, etc. Let s = j!; H de ned in Eq. (32) is, therefore, the frequency response matrix of the pipe subjected to the external excitation acting at the end of the pipe. The impedance matrix is then
(33)
When considering a free vibration problem, the second righthand term in Eq. (24) and Eq. (25) are set to zero, and from Eqs. (24) and (25) we have
Z(z; s) = H ^{−}^{1} (z; s):
Y(L; s) = S ^{−}^{1} (s)E(L; s)S(s)Y(0; s);
Y(0; s) = S(s)E ^{−}^{1} (L;
s)S ^{−}^{1} (s)Y(L; s)
(34)
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or in matrix form as follows:
[[I] _{4}_{×}_{4} [ − S(s)E ^{−}^{1} (L; s)S ^{−}^{1} (s)] _{4}_{×}_{4} ]
Y(0; s)
Y(L;
^{s}^{)} 8×1
= 0
(35)
by setting the righthand term equal to zero, Eq. (26) yields
[D _{u}_{p} (s)] _{2}_{×}_{4} {Y(0; s)} _{4}_{×}_{1} = 0;
[D _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} (s)] _{2}_{×}_{4} {Y(L; s)} _{4}_{×}_{1} = 0:
Combining Eqs. (35)–(37), we get
[D _{u}_{p} (s)] _{2}_{×}_{4}
[0]
[I]
_{2}_{×}_{4}
_{4}_{×}_{4}
[0] _{2}_{×}_{4}
[D _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} (s)] _{2}_{×}_{4}
[ − S(s)E ^{−}^{1} (L; s)S ^{−}^{1} (s)] _{4}_{×}_{4}
Y(0; s)
Y(L;
^{s}^{)} 8×1
= 0;
(36)
(37)
(38)
where [0] is a zero matrix. Since Y is not always equal to zero, there must be
[D _{u}_{p} (s)] _{2}_{×}_{4}
0
[I] _{4}_{×}_{4}
0
[D down (s)] _{2}_{×}_{4}
[ − S(s)E ^{−}^{1} (L; s)S ^{−}^{1} (s)] _{4}_{×}_{4}
= 0:
(39)
Eq. (39) is the desired frequency equation with s = + j! as variable, the complex frequencies can be obtained by setting the real part and the imaginary part of Eq. (39) equal to zero, respectively. Taking F of Eq. (31) equal to zero yields
(40)
Therefore, when the ith natural frequency is gained, with Eq. (40), the mode shape function of the system corresponding to the ith natural frequency can be obtained with standard methods [32–35].
Z(z; s)Y = 0:
3. The transfer matrix method for pipe systems with several sections
A series pipe system consisting of several sections with di erent radiuses, thickness of pipe wall and material properties (see Fig. 1) is widely used in practices such as in the highpressure pipe lines of water power stations. Meanwhile, if a pipeline under the action of a concentrated force, the pipe line must be divided into two sections for analysis. It is, therefore, necessary to obtain the FSI frequency domain response for a pipe system with multisections. Fig. 1 illustrates a series pipe system with N pipe sections numbered 1; 2;:::;N from upstream to downstream. A point connecting two adjacent pipe sections is called node, the sequence num bers is 0; 1;:::;N also from upstream to downstream. The direction of axis z is from upstream to downstream.
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
2075
Fig. 1. The sections and nodes of pipe system.
The coordinate z of the ith section is used as local coordinate and denoted as z _{i} . For the ith section, the upstream node, namely the (i − 1)th node, has z _{i} = 0 and its downstream node, namely the ith node, has a coordinate z _{i} = L _{i} . Adopting the local coordinate will make the formulas clear.
3.1. The eld transfer matrix
Since Eq. (16) is valid for all sections, then for the ith section, we have
(41)
where v _{0}_{i} (s) is a vector of undetermined integration constants related to the ith section (also see Eqs. (13) and (14)). Substituting 0 and L _{i} into Eq. (31) yields
Y _{i} (z _{i} ; s) = K _{i} (z _{i} ; s)v _{0}_{i} (s) + Q _{i} (z _{i} ; s);
i = 1; 2; : : : ; N;
Y _{i} (0; s) = K _{i} (0; s)v _{0}_{i} (s) + Q _{i} (0; s);
Y _{i} (L _{i} ; s) = K _{i} (L _{i} ; s)v _{0}_{i} (s) + Q _{i} (L _{i} ;
s):
(42)
From Eq. (32), v _{0}_{i} (s) can be expressed as follows:
v _{0}_{i} (s) = K
v _{0}_{i} (s) = K
which results in
−1
i
−1
i
(0; s){Y _{i} (0; s) − Q _{i} (0; s)};
(L _{i} ; s){Y _{i} (L _{i} ; s) − Q _{i} (L _{i} ; s)};
^{(}^{4}^{3}^{)}
K
−1
i
(0; s){Y _{i} (0; s) − Q _{i} (0; s)} = K
−1
i
(L _{i} ; s){Y _{i} (L _{i} ; s) − Q _{i} (L _{i} ; s)}
(44)
or 

Y _{i} (0; s) 
= K _{i} (0; 
s)K 
i 

where 
−1
(L _{i} ; s)Y _{i} (L _{i} ; s) + q _{i} (z; s);
q _{i} (s) = K _{i} (0; s){Q _{i} (0; s) − K
−1
i
(L _{i} ; s)Q _{i} (L _{i} ; s)}:
We now de ne the eld transfer matrix as
F _{i} (s) = K _{i} (0; s)K
F
−1
i
(L _{i} ; s) = S _{i} E ^{−}^{1} (L _{i} ; s)S
−1
i
(s) = S
−1
i
(s)E(L _{i} ; s)S _{i} (s):
−1
i
^{;}
(45)
(46)
(47)
2076 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
F _{i} (s) provides the relation between the unknowns at both ends of a section
Y _{i} (0; s) = F _{i} (s)Y _{i} (L _{i} ; s) + q _{i} (s):
3.2. Point transfer matrix
(48)
The junction condition between the two pipe sections in Fig. 1 can be found in Ref. [29]. Here, expressing them in matrix form and then taking Laplace transform results in
D _{i} Y _{i} (L _{i} ; s) = D _{i}_{+}_{1} Y _{i}_{+}_{1} (0; s) + P _{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)}_{i} (s);
i = 1; 2;:::;N − 1:
For the ith node, the matrix D _{i} in Eq. (49) is of the form
D i =
A f(i)
0
01
00
0
A f(i)
−A f(i)
0
1
0
0
0
0
−A t(i)
;
P (out)i (s) =
L
0
0
(P _{o}_{u}_{t} (t))
0
(49) 

; 
(50) 
where A _{f}_{(}_{i}_{)} ; A _{t}_{(}_{i}_{)} are the area of liquid and the pipe wall in the ith section, respectively. Obviously, the matrix D _{i} is regular. P _{o}_{u}_{t} is a concentrated external force acting at the ith node. So the relation between the unknowns of the ith and (i + 1)th sections is provided by Eq. (49). From Eq. (49), we have
(51)
The point transfer matrix of the ith node is de ned as
(52)
With the point transfer matrix P _{i} , the unknowns on the both sides of the ith node are related with
Y _{i} (L _{i} ; s) = D
i
P _{i} = D
−1
i
D _{i}_{+}_{1} :
−1
D _{i}_{+}_{1} Y _{i}_{+}_{1} (0; s) + D
−1
i
P _{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)}_{i} (s):
Y _{i} (L _{i} ; s) = P _{i} Y _{i}_{+}_{1} (0; s) + P _{i} F _{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)}_{i} (s); 
(53) 

where 

F _{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)}_{i} (s) = D ^{−}^{1} _{i}_{+}_{1} P _{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)}_{i} (s): 
(54) 
To make the expression clear, it must be pointed out that, in this paper, only in the expressions of P _{i} ; P _{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)}_{i} (s); F _{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)}_{i} (s) the subscript i identi es the ith node which is the downstream node of section i. For other variables and matrices, the subscript i identi es the ith pipe section.
3.3. The transfer matrix method
By means of the point transfer matrices and the eld transfer matrices, the relation of the unknowns in the ith and the (i + 1)th sections can be found by substituting Eq. (48) into Eq. (53)
(55)
Y _{i} (L _{i} ; s) = P _{i} Y _{i}_{+}_{1} (0; s) + P _{i} F _{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)}_{i} (s) = P _{i} F _{i}_{+}_{1} (s)Y _{i}_{+}_{1} (L _{i}_{+}_{1} ; s) + P _{i} Q _{i}_{+}_{1} (s);
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
2077
where
Q _{i}_{+}_{1} (s) = F _{(}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{)}_{i} (s) + q _{i}_{+}_{1} (s):
Let N _{n} be the global transfer matrix and denoted by
N _{n} (s) =
n
i=1
(F _{i} (s)P _{i} );
n = 1; 2;:::;N − 1;
the general relation between the 1st and N th sections is
Y _{1} (0; s) = N _{N}_{−}_{1} (s)F _{N} (s)Y _{N} (L _{N} ; s) +
N
k=2
N k−2 (s)P k−1
(56) 

(57) 

Q _{k} (s); 
N ¿ 2 
(58) 
in which we de ne that N _{0} = I and
to zero if the upper limit is less than the lower limit. For example, if the pipe system consists of three sections, from Eq. (58) we have
Q _{1} = q _{1} , and the second righthand term in Eq. (58) is equal
Y _{1} (0) = F _{1} P _{1} F _{2} P _{2} F _{3} Y _{3} (L _{3} )+(q _{1} + F _{1} P _{1}
Q 2 + F 1 P 1 F 2 P 2 Q 3 )
or
Y _{1} (0) =
2
i=1
(F _{i} P _{i} )F _{3} Y _{3} (L _{3} ) + q _{1} +
1
i=1
(F _{i} P _{i} ) Q _{2} +
Y _{1} (0) = N _{2} F _{3} Y _{3} (L _{3} )+(q _{1} + N _{1}
Q 2 + N 2
Q _{3} ):
2
i=1
(F _{i} P _{i} ) Q _{3} ;
(59)
Similar to Eqs. (27) and (28), another four algebra equations are
[D _{u}_{p} (s)] _{2}_{×}_{4} {Y(0; s)} _{4}_{×}_{1} = {F(0; s)} _{2}_{×}_{1} ;
[D _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n} (s)] _{2}_{×}_{4} {Y(L; s)} _{4}_{×}_{1} = {F(L; s)} _{2}_{×}_{1} :
(60)
At last, we have eight algebra equations with eight unknowns, namely Eqs. (58) and (60), and we rewrite them in a uni ed matrix form
where
[G(s)] _{8}_{×}_{8}
Y(0; s)
Y(L _{N} ;
^{s}^{)} 8×1
˜
[ Q(s)] _{8}_{×}_{1} ;
=
(61) 




; 
(62) 
_{} 

Q _{k} (s) T : 
(63) 
[D up ] 2×4
^{[}^{0}^{]} 2×4
[I]
[0] 2×4
^{[}^{D} down ^{]} 2×4
[ − N _{N}_{−}_{1} (s)F _{N} (s)] _{4}_{×}_{4}
G(s) =
_{4}_{×}_{4}
Q(s) = F(0; s);
˜
N
k=2
F(L _{N} ; s);
N k−2 (s)P k−1
2078 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
Denoting
G ^{−}^{1} (s) = ^{[}
[
G
G _{2} (s)] _{4}_{×}_{8} ^{;}
1
(s)]
4×8
^{(}^{6}^{4}^{)}
then
(65)
By using Eq. (65), and with the reverse process used in the above deduction, we can obtain the solution for any intermediate section from the upstream to downstream, and vice verse. First, let us go from upstream to downstream. If the solution Y _{i} (L _{i} ) in the ith section has been obtained, the following three formulas can be used successively to get the solution for the (i + 1)th section:
˜
v _{0}_{1} (s) = G _{1} (s) Q(s);
˜
v _{0}_{N} (s) = G _{2} (s) Q(s):
from Eq. (49)
(66)
from Eq. (43)
(67)
from Eq. (41)
(68)
Eq. (68) gives the general frequency domain solutions for the (i + 1)th section. Let z = L _{i}_{+}_{1} in Eq. (68), Y _{i}_{+}_{1} (L _{i}_{+}_{1} ) is determined, then go back to Eq. (66), the solution for the (i + 2)th section can then be obtained, and so on. Similarly, taking the inverse way, going from downstream to upstream, the solutions for interme diate sections can also be obtained. Namely, if Y _{i} (z; s) in the ith section has been known, Y _{i} (0; s) is, therefore, known. The following three formulas can be used successively to get the solutions for intermediate sections, since the righthand side in each formula is known.
(69)
Y _{i}_{+}_{1} (0) = P
i
v 0(i+1) = K
−1
Y _{i} (L _{i} ) − (F _{o}_{u}_{t} ) _{i} ;
−1
_{i}_{+}_{1} (0; s){Y _{i}_{+}_{1} (0) − Q _{i}_{+}_{1} (0)};
Y _{i}_{+}_{1} (z; s) = K _{i}_{+}_{1} (z; s)v _{0}_{(}_{i}_{+}_{1}_{)} (s) + Q _{i}_{+}_{1} (z):
Y _{i}_{−}_{1} (L _{i}_{−}_{1} ) = P _{i}_{−}_{1} Y _{i} (0) + P _{i}_{−}_{1} (F _{o}_{u}_{t} ) _{i}_{−}_{1} ;
v 0(i−1) = K
−1
_{i}_{−}_{1} (0; s){Y _{i}_{−}_{1} (L _{i}_{−}_{1} ) − Q _{i}_{−}_{1} (L _{i}_{−}_{1} )};
(70)
Y _{i}_{−}_{1} (z; s) = K _{i}_{−}_{1} (z; s)v _{0}_{(}_{i}_{−}_{1}_{)} + Q _{i}_{−}_{1} (z):
(71)
The abovementioned method is generally used for calculating the frequency domain response of the system subjected to external excitations. When the inverse Laplace transform is adopted, the transient response of the system can also be obtained. On the other hand, for calculating the natural frequencies, we can simply take the righthand side of Eq. (61) equal to zero, namely
(72)
For calculating the corresponding complex mode shapes, the following equation that is similar to Eq. (40) for each pipe section can be used
(73)
G(s) = 0:
Z _{i} (z _{i} ; s)Y _{i} (z _{i} ; s)=0:
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
2079
Fig. 2. Experiment rig of steel pipe [7].
Table 1 Geometrical and material properties of the pipe apparatus [7]
Steel Pipe 
Water 
Steel Rod 

L 
= 4:5 m length 
K = 2:14 GPa bulk model 
L _{r} = 5:02 m length 

R 
= 52:0 mm inner 
radius 
_{t} = 999 
kg=m ^{3} density E _{r} = 200 GPa 
Young’s modulus m ^{3} density 

e 
= 3:945 mm pipe 
wall thickness 
P _{0} = 2:0 
MPa initial pressure 
_{r} = 7848 kg= 

E 
= 168 GPa Young’s modulus 
v _{r} =1m=s velocity T _{c} = 1:98 ms impact time V _{r} = 0:1175 m=s impact velocity 


= 0:3 Poisson’s ratio 

_{t} = 7985 kg=m ^{3} density of pipe 

m 
_{0} = 1:312 kg mass at z = 0 

m 
_{L} = 0:3258 kg mass at z = L 
4. Numerical examples and discussions
Vardy and Fan [7] has designed an experiment rig to make accurate measurement and to study the dynamic behavior of waterhammer. The test rig is shown in Fig. 2 and the speci cations are list in Table 1. This rig consists of a water lled pipe closed at both ends (with mass m _{0} , m _{L} , respectively) and suspended by wires. The closed pipe is subjected to axial impact by a steel rod at the end of z =0 to generate transients. This rig has its superiority to conventional reservoirpipevalve system in describing the in uence of FSI. Also, in this apparatus, e ects of friction and gravity are unimportant, and the in uences of uid–structure interaction related to the Poisson and junction couplings can be clearly isolated in case of axial wave propagation [29]. It can be seen from Eq. (3) that the two initial conditions are H  _{t}_{=}_{0} = 0 and _{h}  _{t}_{=}_{0} = 0. The system is initially still, this problem has, therefore, only zero initial condition. The boundary conditions of this system are
1
0
1
0
0
g _{f} A _{f}
0
g _{f} A _{f}
−1
sm
−1
−sm
t A t Y(0; s)=0;
0
−g
t A t Y(L _{2} ; s)=0:
0
−g
(74)
2080 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
Fig. 3. The analytical model for the TMM.
Table 2 Frequency results of a single pipe
Results 
Frequencies in mode sequence numbers (±0:5 Hz) 

12345678 

Test [7] Zhang et al. [24] Reduced TMM R _{1} = R _{2} = R=2 
173 
289 
459 
485 
636 
750 
918 
968 
172 
286 
455 
473 
627 
741 
907 
945 

172 
286 
454 
472 
627 
741 
907 
945 

167 
303 
458 
470 
635 
772 
874 
939 
Table 3 TMM results with m _{0} = m _{L} and L _{1} = L _{2} = L=2
Results 
Frequencies in mode sequence numbers (±0:5 Hz) 

12345678 

R _{1} = R _{2} = R=2 R _{1} = R; R _{2} = R=2 Reduced TMM E _{1} = E; E _{2} = 3E=4 E _{1} = E _{2} = 3E=4 
167 
302 
434 
470 
633 
769 
874 
939 
166 
302 
439 
471 
607 
769 
905 
914 

171 
285 
454 
460 
624 
740 
907 
921 

169 
278 
432 
449 
614 
725 
873 
894 

167 
271 
414 
442 
605 
706 
828 
889 
In the numerical example, the total length of the system remains as unchanged, and at the middle point, the pipe is divided into two parts, each of them has a length L=2. This makes it possible for the TMM calculation to be consistent with the original test by taking the parameters of the two pipe se
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