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AUERICIW BUREAU OFSHlPPtNG IIlFFlUIITrDCOYeAWIES

Rules for Building and Classing Single Point Moorings

American Bureau of Shipping


Incorporated by the Legislature of the State of New York 1862

Copyright O 1996 American Bureau of Shipping Two World Trade Center, 106th Floor New York, NY 10048 U.S.A.

In 1993, ABS initiated a project to update the 1975 Rules for Buliding and Classing Single Point Mmrings to reflect current design practice. A four Part format has been adopted for these Rules for the convenience of t, h-user. A cornpaison of new verms old Section are as follows:

1995 Section No.

Description

1975 Section No

Classification, Testing and Surveys Part 1 Section 1 Scope and Condition of ClassiKcation Part 1 Section 2 Testing During Construction Part 1 Section3 Surveys after Construction Part 1 Section 4 Definitions

5,7, 10 &New 10 & New 2 &New

Materials m d Welding Part2 Section 1 Part 2 Section2 Section 3 Part 2 Mwring System Design Part3 Section I Part3 Section2 Part3 Section3 Part? Section4
Equipment and Systems Part4 Section i Part4 Section2 Pati4 Section3 Par 4 Section4

Materials Welding and Fabrication Weld Design

Site m d Environmental Conditions Design Loadj Struciural Design and Stability Mooring and Anchoring Cargo or Product Transfer Systems Ancillary Systems and Equipment Hazardous Areas and Elecuical Installations Safety Provision

3 & New 4 & New 5 & New


6

9 8.9 8.5 & h'ew 8.1, 8.3, 8.7 &New

Current industry practice has been reflected by inclusion of requirements for tower mocrings, SALM Systems, ripid yokes and gravity boxes. CargoiProdnct Transier System requirements haye been enhanced for hoses, flexible r;sers, bsarings, swivels, PLEkIS, eti. W e r significant czlanges include: Mooring leg factors of Safery have been revised based on criticality of opration and resui& of associated damage due to fdure.

Section IN: New requirements for annual survey have been introduced. Section 311: Site conditions have been mdified. Section 3/2: Additional p~idance b k n pr~vided has regarding en-hronmeniii loading

Contents

Part 1 Cfassification, Testing and Surveys

1 2 3 4

Scope and Conditions of Classiiication Testing During Construction Surveys After Construction Definitions

Part 2 Materials and Welding

1 2
3

Materids Welding and Fabrication Weld Design

hi43

Moorin2 System Design

1 2 3
4

Site and Environmental Conditions Design Loads Smcturd Design Mwring and Anchoring

Part 4 Equipment and Systems

1 2 3 4

Cargo or Product Transfer Systems Ancillary Systems and Equipment Hazardous Areas and Electrical Installations Safety Provisions

Part 1
Classification, Testing and Surveys

PART 1 SECTION 1
Scope and Conditions of Classification

1 11 1. Classification 111.1.1 Process (I Jan. 1996) The Classification process consists of a) the development of Rules, Guides, Standards and other criteria for the design and construction of marine vessels, materials, and equipment and machinery, b) the review of d e s i g ~ survey during and aRer construction to verify compliance with such Rules, Guides, Standards or other criteria and c) the assignment and re&ration of class when such compliance has been verified and d) the issuance of a renewable class certificate, with annuai endorsements, valid for five years. The Rules and Standards are developed by Bureau staff and passed upon by committees made up of naval architects, marine engineers, shipbuilders, engine builders, steel makers and by other technical, operating and scientsc personnel associated with the worldwide maritime industry. Theoretical research and development,
promulgaiion. The Bureau and its commirreks can act only upon such theoretical and practical considerations in developing Rules and Standards. Certificates and Reports (1 Jan. 1996 111.1.2 a Plan review and surveys during and after construction are conducted by the Bureau to venfy to itself and irs committees that a Single Point Mooring (SPM) smcture, item of material, equipment or machinery is in compliance with the Rules, Guides, Standards or other criteria of tbe Bureau and to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor. All r e p a s and certificates are issued solely for the use of the Bureau, its committees, its clients and other authorized entities. b The Bureau will release information from reports and certificates to the Port State to assist in rectification of deficiencies during port state control intervention. Such information includes text of conditions of classification, survey due dates, and certificate expiration dates. The owner will be advised of any request and/or release ~Einformation. c The Bureau will release certain information to the SPM's underwriters and ?&I clubs for underwriting purposes. Such information includes text of overdue conditions of dassification, survey due dates, and certificate expiration dates. The owners will be aokised o any request and/or release of information. E In the case of overdue conditions of classification, the owners wiU be given the opporhinity to verify the acnrracy of the information prior to release.

111.1.3 Re~resentatioos to Classification as Classiiication is a representation by the Bureau as to the stmctural and mechanical fitness for a particular use or service in accordance with its Rules and Standards. The Rules of the American Bureau of Shipping are not meant as a substitute for the independent judgment of professional designers, naval architects, marine engineers, owners, operators, masters and crew nor as a substitute for the quality control procedures of hull or buoy builders, engine builders, steel makers, suppliers, mufacturers and sellers of hulls or buoys, materials, machinery or equipment. The Bureaq being a technical society, can only act through Surveyors or others who are believed by it to be skilled and competent The Bureau represents solely to the SPM Owner or other il client of the Bureau that when assigning class it wl use due diligence in the development of Rules, Guides and Standards, and in using normally applied testing standards, procedures and techniques as called for by the h: Rules, Guides, Standards or other criteria of t : Bureau for the purpose of assigning and maintaining class. The Bureau further represents to the SPM Owner or other client of the Bureau that its ceriiEicates and r e p a evidence compliance only with one or more of the Rnles, Guides, Standards or other criteria of the Bureau in accordance with the terms of such cer&cate or report. Under no circumsknces whatsoever are these representations to be deemed to relate to any tkird party.
111.1.4 Scope of Classification Nothing contained in any certificate or report is to be deemed to relieve any designer, builder, G-wner, manufacturer, seller, supplier, repairer, operator, other entity or permn of any warranty expressed or implied. Any certificate or r e p i t evidences compliance only with one or more of the Rules, Guides, Standards or other criteria of the American Bureau of Shipping and is issued solely for the use of the Bureau, its committees, its clients or other authorized entities. Nothing contained in any certificate, report, plan or document review or approval is to be deemed to be in any way a representation or statement beyond those contained in 111.1.3. The validity, applicability and interpretation of any certificate, r e p % plan or d-ent review or approval are governed by the Rules and Standards of the American Bureau of Shipping who shall remain the sole judge thereof. The Bureau is not responsible for the consequences arising &om the US$ by other parties of the Rules, Guides, Siaadards or other criteria of the American Bureau of Shipphg, without review, plan approval and suriq by the Bureau. The term "approved" shall be interpreted to m a n that the plans, reporis or dccuments have been reviewed for

PART , SECTIOE: 111 Scope and Conditions of Classification 1

compliance with one or more of the Rules, Guides, Standards, or other criteria of the Bureau. The Rules are published on the understanding that responsibility for operation, reasonable handling and loading, as well as for avoidance of distributions of loads which are likely to set up abnormally severe stresses in SPM does not rest upon the Committee.
111.2

d Class is suspended for any damage, m u r e , deterioration or repair that har not been completed as recommended. e Ifproposed repairs as referred lo in 111.15.1 have not been submittal to the Bureau and a p e d upon prior to commencement, class may be s q x n d e d .
111.2.5 Canceliation of Class a 1l the circurnstancs leading to suspension of class are not corrected wiihin the time specified, the SPM's class will be caaceled.

Suspension and Cancellation of (1 Jan. 1996)

CIass

1112.1 Termination of Classificatiou The continuance of the Classification of any SPM is conditional upon the Rule requirements for periodical, damage and other surveys being duly carried out. The Committee reserves the right to reconsider, withhold, suspend, or cancel the class of any SPM or any part of the machinery for noncompliance with the Rules, for d e f m reported by the Surveyors which have not been recrified in accordance with their recommendations, or for nonpayment of fees which are due on account of classification and other surveys. Suspension or cancellation of class may take effect immediately or after a specified period of time. 111.2.2 Notice of Surveys It is the responsibility of t i e owner to ensure that all w e y s necessary for the maintenance of ciass are carried out at the proper time. The Bureau will give proper notice to an owner of upcoming surveys. This may be done by means of a letter, a qua.rterly vessel status or other communication. The non-receipt of such notice, however, does not absolve the owner from his responsibility to comply with survey requirements for maintenance of class. 111.2.3 Specia! Notations If t t e survey requirements related to maintenance of special notations are not carried out as rquirzd, the suspension or cancellation may be limited to those special notations only. 111.2.4 Suspension of Class Includes: a Class is suspended for any use, opeiatio~loading condition or other application of any SPM for which it has not been approved and which afFects or may afiect class&cation or the structural integrity, quality or fitness for a particular use or s e ~ c e .

b An SPM's class is canceled immediately when an SPM resumes operation without having completed recommendations which were required to be dealt with before resuming opeiatiors.
111.3

Class Designation

111.3.1 SingleYoint Moorings Built Under Survey SPbffswhich have been built under the supervision of the Surveyors of the Bureau to the requirements of these Rules or to their equivalent, where approved by tie Classification Committee, will be classed and distinguished in the Record by the symbols @ A1 Single Point Mooring. TLis document is mainly applicable to SPM systems which are designed for temporarily moored vessels. For vessels which will be -permanently moored to a SPlvf, the ABS "Guide for Building and Classing Floating Production and Storage Systems" applies. Data as described in 1/1.3.4 will be indicated in the record.

Single Point Moorings Not Built Under Survey STM's which have not been buik under the supervision of the S w e y o n to Lile Bureau, but which are submitted for classification, wiil be subject to a special classificatiou w e y . W-ere fomd satisfactoly, ai7d ther&er approved by the Classification Committee, they will be classed and distin,pished in the Record in the manner as described as in 1/1.3.1 but the mark "B" signifying the nwey during construction aiu be omitted.
111.3.2

b If the periodical surveys required for maintenance of class are not carried out by the due date and no Rule allowed extension has been grantea class will he suspended.

c If iecorfiiendations issned by the Surveyor are not


carried out within their due dates, class -will be suspended.

Single Point Mooring as a Part of a Floating Production System SPM's built under survey for use as part of the mooring system for a ciassed fioating prduction system do not require a separate classification under these Rules. Requirements for mooring systems of floatlng production systems are found in the AJ3S "Guide Eci Building and Classing Floating Picduction, Storage and Ofnoading Systems".
ill.3.3

PA?T1, sECT!oN 112 SCODZ and Conditions of Classification

111.3.4 Classification Data Data on single point moorings will be published in the Record as to the latitude and longitude of the location of the mwring, the length overall and displacement of the ship it is designed to mwr, the depth of water at the site, maximum hawser tension where applicable, and general types of a g o and other fluids which the mooring is designed to handle.

Where designs for one or more SPM's comply with the Rules applicable at the time of approval, no retroactive application of later Rule changes to such SPM's will be required u n l w necessary or appropriate. 111.5.5 Other Conditions The committee reserves the right to refuse classification of any SPM where items for which there are Rule requirements are found not in accordance with the Rules. 111.7 Other Regulations

Application of Rules These Rules are applicable to unmanned SPM's as defined

115 1. 111.5.1

Rules For Classification Governmental and Other Regulation 111.7.1 While these Rules cover the requirements for the classification of new SPM's, the attention of Owners, builders, and designers is directed to various governmental regulations which control stability, structuxaI, machinery, and electrical features, particularly in hazardous areas where gas may be present or accumulate. Other considerations may include the arrangement and extent of watertight bulkheads and decks, fire-retarding bulkheads, the acceptability of watertight and weathertight closures, ventilation, and means of escape. 111.7.2 Governmental Regulations Where authorized by a government agency and u p n request of the Owners of a classed SPM or one intended to be classed, the Bureau will survey and certify a new or existing SPM for compliance with pariicular regulations of that government on its behall. 111.9 L4CS Audit Tine International Association of Classification Sccieties (IXCS) conducts audits of process followed by all i[s member societies to assess the degiee of compliance with the IACS Quality System Cerliiication Scheme requirements. For Lhis purpose, auditors from TACS may accompany ABS personnel at any stage of the classification or statutory work which may necessiQte the auditors having access to the SPM installation or access to the premises of the manufacturer or the fabricalor. In such instances, prior authorization for the auditor's access will be sought by the local M3S office. 111.11 Plans and Design Data to be Submitted

i Section 114 and are generally intended for tempo~ary n mwred vessels. These Rules are applicable to those features of the system that are permanent in nature and can be verified by plan review, calculation, physical survey or other appropriate means. Any statement in the Rules regarding other features is to be considered as a guidance to the designer, builder, owner, et al.
111.5.2 Alternatives The Committee is at all times ready to consider alternative arrangements and scantlings which can be shown, through either satisfactory service experience or a systematic analysis based on sound engineering principles, to meet the overall safety and streno@ standards of these Rules. The Committee will consider special arrangements or details of buoyant structures, equipment, or machinery which can be shown to comply with standards recognized in the country in which the SPM is registered or built, provided they are not less effective. 111.5.3 Novel Features SPM's with novel features of design in regard to buoyancy, structural and mooring arrangements, machinery, equipment, permanent manning, etc., to which these Rules are not directly applicable, may be classed when approved by the Committee on the basis that these Rules, insofar as applicable, have been complied with and that special consideration has been given to the novel features, based on the best information available at the time. Effective Date of Rule Change 111.5.4 a) Six Month Rule Changes to these Rules are to become effective six (6) months from the date on which the Technical Committee approves them. However, the Bureau may bring into force individual changes before that date if necessvy or appropriate. b) bmplementation of Xule Changes In general, the Rules in effect will apply unless application of new Rules before their effective date is specifically requested by the party signatory to the application for classification.

111.11.1 Plans Plans showing the wantrings, arrangements, and details of the principal paris of the structure, associated piping and equipment of each SPM to be built under nuvey are to be submitted for review and approved before co~33mctionis commenced. These plans are to ciearly indicate the scantlings, joint details and welding, or other methods of connection. The nurnkr of copies to be submined is to k

PART , SECTION 113 Scoce and Conditions of Classitication 4

in accordance wt 111.11.6 and 111.11.7. In general, ih plans are to inc!ude the following where applicable.
General arrangement An m g e m e n t plan of watertight wmpartmentation, including the locdtios type and disgasition of watertight and weathertight ccfosures Structural arrangement showing sheU plating, m g , bulkheads, flats, main and bracing members, joint details, as applicable Details of watertight doars and hatches Welding details and procedures Corrosion control arrangements Type, location and amount of permanent ballasi, if any Bilge, sounding and venting arrangements Hazardous areas Electrical system one line diagrams Location of fire saiety equipment Mooring arrangement ;Mooring components inciuding anchor legs, associated hardware, hawser(s), and hawser loaddeflection characteristics Foundations for mwring components, induSrriai equipment, etc. sho~wing aliachments to hull stnuctnre Anchoring system showing the size of anchor, holding capacity of piles, pile sizes, and capacity, etc. Pipe Line End ;LknZold (PLEM) as applicable SPM main bearing Cargo or product swivel including swivel driving mechanism, swivel bearings, and electrical swivel details Product or cargo systzm piping schematic drawing w t ih bill of materials Design data of equipment, piping and related components including minimum and maximum design pressure and temperature Ancillary piping systems schematic drawings with bills of material Floating and undehuoy hosedflexible risen TelemetryiControl system Navigation aids Methods and locations for nondemctive tesring WDT) Plan6 for conducting underwater inspections in lieu of drydocking Test and inspection plan for all major load carrying or pressure retaining components including cargo or product swivel, electical swivel, bearings. 'Test Prmedures

PART sEcrioN 1 4 Scope and Conditions of Classification 1, 1

1/1.11.2 . Site Charl number of copies to be returned to the submitter. Plans and spedications fIom designers and builders are To demonstrate that navigational considerations have been taken into account in establishing the m W ~ g generally to be submitted in triplicate, one copy to be returned to those making submission, one copy for the use location, a site chart of the mooring area is to be of the Surveyor where the SPM is being built, and one submitted in accordance with Section 311 which shows the copy to be retained in the Technical office for records. loation of the mwrlng, potential navigation hazards and Manufactnrer's plans are t o be submitted in quadruplicate existing and planned navigation aids, bottom contour where construction is to be canied out at a plant other elevations, manewering area and swing circle. than that of the builder. Additional copies may be required when the required 111.11.3 Site Condition Reports attendance of the Surveyor is anticipated at multiple To demonstrate that site conditions have been ascertained lmtions. and taken into consideration in establishing design AU plan submissions originating from manufaaurers are criteria, repom on subjects including the following are to understocd to have been made with the cognizance of the builder. be. submitted in accordance with Section 311. Calculations, analyses, a n d reports are to be submitted to a) Environmental conditions of wind, waves, current, the Bureau in duplicate. seiche, tide, visibility, temperature, and ice. b) Water d e p k at b e d and throu&out the manewering area, bottom soil con&uons, and subsurfjce h m d s . 111.11.4 Model tests When model tests are used to determine the design loads or to demonstrate that the established design loads have been based on the results of physical dynamic model tests, a report is to be submitted describing the design loads, calculations, description of model test facilities and It is procedures, and a summary of the results. recommended that the designer consult with the Bureau concerning model testing, procedures, methods and data analysis to ensure the investigation is adequate. 111.11.5 Calculations In general, where applicable, the following calculations are to be submitted: a) Structural design in accordance with Section 313 b) Stabiliry calculations in accordance with Section 313 C) Mooring and anchorage in accordance with Section 314 d) Piping in accordance with Sections 411 and 412 e) Calculations for all pressure retaining and load bearing components in accordance with Part 4
f) Swivel stack static and dynamic analysis in accordance with Part 4

Information Bmklet gt Maintenance Manual For each SPM, a document is to be submitted. This document is to include recommendations reeardine opention and maintznance of the S?\l facility, the"dcsi6 criteria for L!e SP\L informaticn rteardinu the mcorin~ . , area, and the components of the S P M ~ 111.13

Calculations when submitted are to be footnoted indicating references. 111.11.6 Additional Plans Where certification under the other regulations described in 111.7 is requested, submission of additional plans and calculations may be required. 111.11.7 Submissions The number of copies for submission should be adequate to include a minimum of iwo copies for the Bureau, and

Items Included in Information Booklet & Maintenance Manual The document is to include the following information. a) Site chart a described in 111.11.2 s b) Design vessel d a Q including deadweigh?, Tn e* , draii and distance from bow to manifold. c) En&-onmental design criteria with various sizes of vessels, including t h e operating wind, wave, current and tides. ye d) Design cargo transfer criteria, including t p of cargo and design maximum working pressure, temperature, flow rate, and minimum valve closing times inciuding the vessel's manifold vaives. e) P l m showing the general arrangement of the single point mooring components and details of those components required to be handled during operation or inspected during maintenance, including details of access to these components. Description of navigation aids and safety features. g) Recommended procedure for the mooring and disconnecting a vessel at the SPM. h) Recommended procedure for connecting and disconnecting floating hose to a ranker's manifold.

111.13.1

i) Recommended maintenance schedde and procedures for the SPM facilities, including a check list of item.? recommended for periodic inspetion. Where applicable, procedures for adjusting anchor leg tension, removal and reinstallation of hoses, inspection of flexible risers, adjustment of buoyancy raoks, and replacement of d s in the cargo swivel are to be included.

PART SECTION 115 Scooe and Conditions of Classification 1.

j Recommended cargo system pressure testing. ) The Information Booklet & Maintenance Manual is to be
submitted for review by the Bureau solely to ensure the presence of the above information which is to be consistent with the design information and Limitations considered in the SPMs classification. The American Bureau of Shipping is not responsible for the operation of the S P M The Inforrnation Booklet & Maintenance Manual required by these Rules may contain information required by ilag and coastal Administrations. The= Administrations may require that additional information be included in the %ration & Maintenance Manual. Conditions for Surveys after Constructions 1/1.15 Damage, Failure and Repair ( Jon. 199Q 1 111.15.1 a) Ewrdnlbion andRepuir Damage to SPM structure, machinery, equipment mooring system or hoses/flexible risers which affects or may affect classification, is to be submined by the Owners or their representatives for examination by the Surveyor, at the first opportunity. All repairs found necessary by the Surieyor are to be camed out to his satisfaction. b) Representation Nothing contained in this section or in a rule or regulation of any government or other administration, or the issuance of any report or certificate is pursuant to this section or such a nrle or regulatio~ to be deemed to enlarge upon the representations expressed in 111.1.1 through 111.1.5 thereof and the issuance and use of any such repom or certificates are to be governed in all respects by ill.l.1 through 111.1.5 ttereof. Wotif'icatiou and Availability for Sulvey (1 Jon. 1996) The Swieyors are to have access to classed SPM's at all reasonable times. For the purpose of Sw~eyor monitoring, monitoring nweyors shali also bave access to classed SPM's at dl reasonable times. Such access may include attendance at the same iime as the assigned Suri.eyor or duing I subsequent visit without the assigned Surveyor. The Owners or their representatives are to not@/ the Surveyors on ali occasions when an SPM can be examined in the dry condition. The Surveyors are to undertake all surveys on classed SPM's upon request, with adequate notiIicatio% of the Owners or their representatives and are to report thereon to the Committee. Should the Surveyors h d occasion dwing any survey to reconmend repairs or further exarthtion, noacation is to be given immediately to the h e r s or their representatives in order hat appropriate achon may be taken. T i e Sweyors are to avail themselves of wery convenient opportunity for carrying out periodical surveys in conj~?nction with surveys of damges and repairs LI order to avoid duplication of work.
111.15.2

Attendance at P r o t State Request (3,. 1996) I It is re~gnlzed port State authorities legally may that ces have a c s to a vessel. In cooperation with port States, ABS Surveyors will attend on board a classed vessel when so requested by a port State, and upon concurrence of the ay SPM owner, will c n out a survey in order to facilitate the rectification of reported deficiencies or other fet discrepancies that a f c or may afEect classijication. ABS Surveyors will also cwperate with Port States by providing inspators with background information, if requested. Such information includes text of conditions of class, m e y due dates, and certificate emiration dates. be notified of Where appropriate, the SPMs flag state such attendance and survey.
1iP.15.3

kill

111.17 Fees Fess in accordance w r nonnal ABS schedules will be ib charged for all services rendered by the Bureau. Expenses incurred by the Bureau in connection with these senices will be charged in addition to the fees. Fees and expenses will be billed to the party requesting that particular service.

111.19

Disagreement

111.19.1 Rules Any disagreement regarding either the proper interpretation of the Rules, or translation of the Rules from the English language edition, is to be referred to the Bureau for reujlution.
111.19.2 Surveyors In case of disagreement between the Owners or buiiders and the Surveyors regarding the material, workmanship, extent of repairs, or application of the Rules relating io any SPM classed or proposed to be classed by this Bureau, an appsai may be made in writing to the Committee who .will order a special survey to be heid. Should the opinion of the Surveyor be confirmed, the expense of this special survey is to be paid by the party appeaiing.

PAET 1 , SECTION 416

Scope and Conditions of Classification

111.21 Limitation of Liability The combined liability of the American Bureau of Shipping, its committees, officen, employees, agents or subcontractors for any loss, claim, or damage arising from its negligent performance or nonperformance of any of its semces or from breach of any implied or expressed warranty of workmanlike performance in c o n n d o n with tbose services, or from any other reason, to any person, corporation, partnership, business entity, sovereign, country or nation, will be limited to the greater of a) $100,000 or b) an amount equal to ten (10) times the sum actually paid for the services alleged to be deficient The limitation of liability may be increased up to an amount twenty-five times that sum paid for semces upon receipt of Client's written request at or before the time of performance of services and upon payment by Client of an additional fee of S1O.OO for every S1,000.00 increase in the limitation.

PART SECTION 117 Scope and Conditions o i Classification 1,

PART

1 SECTION 2

Testing During Construction

112.1

Tank, Bulkhead and Fittinflightness Testing

112.1.1 Ceneral Aiter all hatches and watertight accesses are installed, penetrations including pipe connections are fitted, all tanks and watertight bulkheads or flats are to be tested and proven tight. Refer to Table lB.1 for specific test requirements. Close visual examination combined with NDT may be accepted in certain areas where specially approved, as an alternative to hose testing. 112.1.2

112.1.4 Hose Testing fbr Tanks Hase testing is to be carried out under simdiancous inspection of bath sides of the joint. The pressuhe in the hose is not to be less than 2.06 bar (2.1 k@cm2, 30 psi). 112.3 Tank Test for Structural Adequacy In order to demonsuate the struchual adequacy, representative hydrostatic testing of ranks or buoyant structures may be required in connection with the approval of the design. In general this would include at least one tankof each type of new or u n d buoy design. 112.5 Mwring System Tests Each anchor leg is to be examined together with attachments and securing devices provided foi connection to the buoy. Proper fitting of components, co1111ecton and securing devices is to 'be demonstrated.

Tank Testing

A t n testing procedure is to be submitted for review and ak


approval. Table 112.1 lists the types of tests which normaUy apply. Where permitted in Table 112.1, air testing or combined air. hydrostatic testing by an approved procedure may be accepted unless the specified test is deemed necessary by the Surveyor. Where air testing is adopted, all boundary welds, erection joints and penetrations including pipe connections are to be examined under the approved test procedure with a suitable leak indicator solution prior to the application of special coatings. Air test pressure differential should normally be 0.137 bar (0.14 k@cm2, 2 psi). i e n are to be provided to prevent accidental over Mas pressuring of tanks during testing. Air pressure drop testing, i.e., checking for leaks by monitoring drop in pressures, is n o t an acceptable substitute for required hydrostatic or airlsoap testing. Tank testing is to be carried out to the satisfaction of the anending surveyor, and additional or alternative testing may be required at the surveyor's discretion.
112.1.3 Hydrostatic Testing ~ank designs and c o n f i ~ t i o n s a non-~onventional of MtuR may be required to be hydrostatically tested. Tanks or units which will be submitted in senice and designed to withstand external hydrostatic loading wiU require hydrostatic testing unless otherwise approved. When hydrostatic testing applies, tests may be carried out before or after the buoy is launched. Special coatings r a y be applied before hydrostatic testing provided all welded joint and penetrations are .iisually e.ua;nined to the satidaction of the sWeyor before coating is
~nnlied

Anchor Legs consist of mooring chains, cx~mectors such as shackles, comecting links, and other fittings. These are to be in accordance with 211.13 and 211.15 of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units" and tested in the presence of the attending Surveyor. Each mooring leg is to be pull tested upon instailation in accordance with an approved procedure in the presence of a Surveyor. The pull test is to be in accordance .with 114.3.

Mooring between Vessel and SPM which may include either flexible hawsers or rigid mooring s[iilcture (ri@d arms and yokes) are to be examined. The hawsers are to be examined and verified for size, materials, specifications, and t p of the approved design. Proper ye fitting and Kcuring of all components is to be veriiied. NDT of the rigid mooring structure to the SPM buoy is to be carxied out to the satisfaction of the attending Sweyor. Tower Mooring designed u a Lxed structure, usually of made of tubular members, may be used in buoyant m a eand mooring lines, a e te&g of such mooring structure is to be in accordance with the ASS for Busding and mhore ~ ~ a i ~ t i ~ Part 1 StruceJresn. kxes used are Pile and -4nchor Where piles or as a n c h o ~ g system of an SPM system NDT is to k performed in accordance with the AE(S " R d 6 lo< Building and Classing Offshore I d l a i i o n s : Part 1 Structures". Surveys regarding the manufacediin:: and testing of anchors are to be in accordance with 211.11 of KBS

FP~e

PART SECTION 211 Testing During Conslmdion 1,

"Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units".


112.7 Cargo Transfer System The entire cargo transfer system including hoszdflexible risers, swivels, and valves is to be hydrostatically tested after inallation to the design pressure. Refer to 112.11 and Tabie 112.2 for specific requirements.

112.9 Control and Safety System Ail ~ n t r o and safety equipment is to be examined and l proven to be adequate for the intended s e ~ c e .Refer to Table 112.2 for specific requiremen=.

112.11

HoseslFleribleRisers

112.11.1 Floseimexible Riser Testing Refer to 411.5.5 of these Rules.


112.11.2 Buoyancy Tank Pressure Test Any buoyancy tank intended to be pressurized to equalize the external pressure will be tested to a pressure 1.5 times the maximum allowable working pressure.

TABLE 112.1 Initial Tank & Bulkheads Tightness Test Requirements


item Test Method
Air Test or Hydro Test Air Test or Hydro Test Air Test or Hydro Test

Tanks Watertight Bulkheads, Fiats & Boundaries


Dry Spaces

Chain Lockers Hawse P i p s Watertight Closing Appliances Oil Storage Void Space Boundaries Required to be Watertight

To Be Filled Witb Water Hose Test Hose Test


Air Test or Hydro Test Air Test or Hose Test

Note:

"Hose Test" in this Table and Section 1/2.1.4 is intended to mean testing of boundaries with a stream of waterjiom a hose provided for i h i pipose. ~

PART , SECTION I

212 Testing During Construction

TABLE 1/23
Survey and Testing Requirements During Constmction

Buoy Structure, Buoyancy Elemenf and other Structure

CargoiProduct Swivel

X X

Hydraulic Swivel
Electrical Swivel Swivel Driving Mechanism SPM Main Bearing Flexible Risers, Underbuoy Hoses Floating Hoses Expansion Joints of Piping Mwring Chain tvlooring Hawser Standard valves, fittings, flanges Electrical ControivTelemetry Navigation Aids

LEGEND
A. .4BS Attendance at Vendor's shop to verifj materials for compliance with drawingdspecification and their traceability record and ta review welding and NDT specifications and procedures, and welder and N7lT personnel qualification records.

B. ABS attendance at Vendor's shop during critical phases of fabrication such as fit-up, ali-went, and NDT
examination as indicated in Test and Lupection plan. C. ABS attendance at Vendar's shop in order to witness and report on factory acceptance testing.

D. Exempt from Ai3S Shop I-tion

and Testing Attendance. n o s e items may be accepted based on Vendor s ! or manufacturer providing acceptable dawnentation that component is designed, manufawed, and tested i accordance with an applicable standard or code.

Xcfer lo all pasts of these Ruies for firther testing requirements

PART . I

SECTION

213 Testing During Construction

PART 1 SECTION 3

Surveys After Construction


regular rotation to complete all the requirements of the particular Special Periodical Survey within a five (5) year period If the Continuous Survey is completed beyond the live (5) year period, the completion date will be recorded to agree with the original due date of the cycle. If the Continuous Survey is completed prematurely but within three (3) months prior to the due date, the Special Periodical Survey will be credited to agree with the effeaive due date. R t e Committee reserves the right to authorize extensions of Rule required Special Periodical Surveys under extreme circumstances. Each part (item) surveyed becomes due again for survey approximately five (5) years from the date of survey. For continuous Surveys, a suitable notation w i l l be entered in the Record and the date of completion of the cycle published. If any d e f m are found during the survey, they are to be dealt with to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. b) At a survey approximately four (4) years after each Special Continuous Survey of an SPM hull or buoy has been credited, thickness gau,~gs ihat are required for forthcoming Special Periodical Survey that are accessible are to be taken. 113.1.6 Lay-up and Reactivation a) The Bureau is to be notified by the Owner that an STM has been laid-up or othenuise removed from serv;.ce. This status will be noted in the record and any surveys falling due during lay-up may then be held in abeyance until the SPM is placed back in service. Lay-up procedures and arrangements for maintenance of conditions during lay-up may be submitted to tbe Bureau for review and veri6cation by s m e y . b) In the case of SPMs which have been laid up for an extended period (i.e., six (6) mouth or more) the requirements for the surveys for reactivation are to be specially considered in this case, due regard being given to the status of the surveys at the time of the commencement of the lay-up period and the leu,@ and the conditions under which the SPM had b e n maintzined during that period. c) Where the lay-up preparation and procedures have been submitted to the Bureau for review and survey, and re-verltied annually by survey, consideration may be given to deducting part of all of the tirue in lay-up from the progression of survey intervals, or to modifying the requirements of the up-dating survey at time of reactivation. d) For SPMs returning to active =mice reg,ardlw of whether the Bureau has been informed pmously that the SPM has been in lay-up, a Reactivation Purvey is required.

113.1

Conditions for Surveys after Construction

113.1.1 Damage See 111.15.1 Notification and Availability for Survey 113.1.2 See 111.15.2 113.1.3 Annual Classification Surveys Annual Classification Surveys are to be made within three (3) months either way of each annual anniversary date of the crediting of the previous Special Periodical Survey or original constxuction date. 113.1.4 Special Periodical Surveys A Special Periodical Survey is to be completed within five (5) years after the date of build or after the crediting date of the previous Special Periodical S w e y . The interval between Special Periodical Surveys may be reduced by the Committee. If a Special Periodical Survey is not completed at one time, it will be credited as of the completion date of the survey but no later than five (5) years from the date of build or from the date recorded for the previous Special Periodical Survey. If the Special Periodical Survey is completed prematurely but within three (3) months prior to the due date, the Special Periodical Survey will be credited to agree with the effective due date. Special consideration may be given to Special Periodical Survey requirements in the case of single point moorings of unusual design, in lay-up or in unusual circumstances. The Committee reserves the right to authorize extensions of Rule-required Special Periodical Surveys under extreme circumstances. Special Periodical Surveys may be commenced at the fourth annual survey and be continued with a view to completion by the due date. In connection with the preparation for the Special Periodical Survey, thickness gaugings required for the Special Periodical Surveys are to be taken to the extent accessible and practical in connection with the fourth annual survey. Where the Special Periodical Survey is commenced prior to the fourth annual survey, the entire survey is normally to be completed within 12 months if such work is to be credited to the Special Periodical Survey. 113.1.5 Continuous Surveys a) At the request of the h e r , and upon the approval of the proposed arrangements, a system of continuous Surveys may be undertaken whereby the Spffial Periodical Survey requirements are canied out in

YS PART SECTION 311 S U N ~ARer Construction 1,

113.1.4 Incomplete Surveys When a s w e y is not completed the Surveyor is to report immediately upon the work done in order that Owners and the Committee may be advised of the paroj nil1 to be surveyed. 113.1.8 Alterations No alterations which affect or may afFect classification are to be made to the hull or machinery of a classed SPM unless plans of the proposed alterations are submitted and approved by the ABS Technical Oace before the work of alterations is commenced and such work, when approved, is carried out to the satigaaction of the Surveyor. Nothing contained in this section or in the rule or regulation of any govenunent or other admi~sti'ation, or the issuance of any report or certificate pursuant to this section or such a rule or regulation, is to be deemed to enlarge upon the representations expressed in 111.1.1 through 111.1.5 thereof and the issuance and use of any such reports or certiticates are to in all respects be governed by 111.1.1 through l/i.l.5 thereof. 113.1.9 Welding and Replacement of Materials

Annual Surveys At each h ~ ~ u a l Survel, the SPM is to be generally examined so far as can be seen and placed in satisfanory condition as n e e s a y . For a fixed mooring system e.g., tower mwring system the surveys are to be carried out in accordance with the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Or?shore Installations: Part 1 Stnthrres? For floating SPM systems, the following, !tern are to be examined, placed in satisfactory condition and reported upon:
313.5

113.5.1 a) h) c)

a) Ordinary and Wigher Strength Structural Steels Welding or other fabrication performed on s t ~ ~ c t u r a l d) steels is to be in accordance with the requirements of Paxt 2 of these Rules and Section 2/3 of the "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Oflshore Drilling e) Watertight bulkheads, bulkhead penetrations, and the U~t.5". operation of any doors in the same. b) Special Materials Welding or other'fabrication performed on other steel 113.5.2 Other Areas or adjacent to such steel is to be accomplished with a) Protection of personnel: guard rails, lifelines, and pracedures approved for the special materials access ladderways. involved. Refer to Part 2 of these Rules and Sections 212 and 213 of the "Rules for Building and Classing b) Ve&cation o f loading ,pidance and stabiliry data as Mobile Offshore Drilling Units". applicabie. c) Substitutions and Alterations c) Verification that no alterations have been made to the Substitutions of steel differing fiom thar originally SPM -which affect the ciassification. original structural installed, alteration of d) Anchoring and mooring equipment including conti,@ration, or change from riveted to welded joints verification of mooring chain tensions. is not to be made without approval by the ABS Technical OBce. e) Confirmation that electrical equipment in hazardous locations has been properly maintained. 113.3 Drydocking Surveys or Equivalent f j Product lines, swivels and seals An examination of the underwater p w of each SPM and g) Coniirmation that there are no potential sources of associated mooring hardware is to be made at intervals ignition in or near the cargo area and that access not exceeding five (5)years. This examhation is to align ladders are in good condition. wkh the due date of the Special Survey.
Tarij to 'oe e&ed include externdi surfaces of the SPM. Prior to examinatioq all mooring and anchoring artchments are to be cleaned including all openings to the sea, if any. Anchor legs including connecting bard=-e a s to be examined over the fall lengih from the lowest exposed point at the seabed to the connection point at the SPM.

Protection of Batches and other Openings Hatchways, manholes, and scuttles Coamings including deck C O M ~ C ~ ~ O Meners, and R brackets. Hatches fitted with mechanically operated steel covers including cover plating, stiffener, cross joints, gaskets, cleats and dogs. Exposed steel hatch covers are to be examined to confirm structural integrity and capability of maintaising weatheriightness. Where si&cant wastage of batch covers is noted, thicknw gaugings are to be carried out and renewals made as necessary. Proper operation and functioning of hatch covers and securing arrangements is to be confirmed. Ventilators, air pipes together with flame screens, scuppers and discharges serving spaces in the SPM

h) Cargo equipment and piping appararus including supports, gland seals, remote control and shutdown devices.

i) B3ge parping system.


j) Ventilation system including ducting, damper; and screens.

k) Verification that cargo discharge pressure gauges and level indicator systems are operational.

PAT 1 , SECTiCN 3/02 Surveys After Constrdction

1) S t r u d areas of the SPM hull or buoy particularly susceptible to corrosion, including spaces used for saltwater hall% as accessible. Thickness gaugings may be required. m) Lights, navigational aids, etc., if applicable.

Every &ort should be made to avoid cleaning damage to special ccatings. g) AU openings to the sea, together with the cock, and valves connected therewith are to be examined internally and externally while the SPM is in drydock, or at the time of underwater examination in lieu of drydocking, and the fastenings to the shelf plating are to be renewed when considered necessary by the Surveyor. h) For a tower mooring, the applicable requirements of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Ohshore Installations: Part 1 Structures" shall govern.
113.7.2

113.7 Special Surveys Special Survey No. 1 of the SPM hull or buoy is to include compliance with the foregoing Annual Survey and Drydockng Survey requirements and in addition, the following requirements as listed below are to be carried out as applicable, the ppanr examined, placed in satisfactory condition, and repported upon. Structure a) The SPM buoy or platform mucture including bracing members, tanks, watertight bulkheads and decks, cofferdams, void spaces, sponsons, chain lockers, machinery spaces, and all other internal spaces are to be examined externally and internally for damage,
13.7.

Mooring Hardware

a) The comptete mooring system including anchors,


chains, chain stoppers, mooring line connectors, securing devices and pilings as applicable are to be examined. Arrangements are to be made for examination of all underwater areas. Areas not accessible by divers may be examined by ROV. All chain and accessories are to be checked for damage or wastage. Particular attention should be given to mooring components or complete leg assemblies for further examination. b) Removal of one section of the mooring system for emmination out of the water will be required at Special Survey No. 4 (20 years of service). c) Mwriug system components (flexible or rigid) for mooring of the attached vessel are to be examined throughout provided this equipment is associated with the classed SPM. NDT of high stressed joints in rigid mooring camection may be required at the Surveyors discretion. Flexible hawsers are to be examined for wear and 6lament breakage. Items found worn may . require replacement
113.7.3

ividexit or suspectd. Suspea areas may be required to be tested for tightness, non-dest~uctivetested or thickness gauged. Tanks and other normally closed c o m p w e n t s filled with foam or corrosion inhibitors, and tanks used only for lube oil, light fuel oil, diesel oil, or other noncorrosive products may be waived provided that upon a general examination, the Surveyor considers their condition to be satisfactory. External thickness gaugings may be required to coniirm corrosion control.
b) Mooring components including chain stoppers, hawser padeyes, etc. are to be examined.

c) Foundations and supporting headers. brackets and stiffeners irom cargo transfer related apparalus, where attached to hull or deck smcture are to be examined. d) Survey of pars of the SPM which are underwater and inaccessible to the Surveyor may be accepted on the basis of an examination by a qualified diver carried out in the presence of the Surveyor. Survey by ROV, in Lieu of a diver, is to be specially considered. The underwater examination is to be canied out in accordance with an approved procedure using two (2) way audio visual communication. e) At each Special Survey, thickness gaugiugs are to be W e d out where wastage is evident or suspect At Spaial Survey No. 2 and subsequent Special Surveys, representative gaugings wiil be required. Special aRention should *be paid to splash zones on the hull, related structure, in ballw tanks, and free-flwded spaces.

Cargo Hoses or Flelibie Risers

a)

cargo H~~~~
&go hoses forming pait of the SPM classification are to be removed, disassembled, pressure tested to rated working pressure and e x a ~ n e dat each Special Survey. This requirement applies to all hoses that have been in service for five (5) years. In the event cargo hoses have been renewed or replaced with new hoses within the five (5) year period, the above requirements may be modified and removal and testing deferred until the hose has been in service five (5) Y w . Vacuum testing of cargo hoses is required in association with Special Survey or &er five (5) years of service as indicated above.

0 Where inspection of underwater joints is required,

sllfficient cleaning is to be canied out i way of, and n water clarity is to be adequate to permit mevlingfui T s visual, video, camera or m examination a required.

b) Flexible Risen An inspestion manual for risers included as part of the SPM classification is to 'e submined to the Bureau for a approval. The manual is to include procedures for the follovrjlg:

1. Underwater ewnination of the flexible risers including arch support buoyancy tank;.
2. Examinahon of high stress areas such as areas in way of the end flanges, in way of the arch support clamps and the bottom of all lmped areas.

3. Examination of wear and tear on spreader bars, if fined, which separate one riser string from another.
4. Hydrostatic testing of flexible risen to be carried

out to working pressure with special anention paid to upper end terminations.
113.7.4 Safety Equipment Safety equipment associated with the classification of the SPM is to be examined and tested as required by the attending Surveyor. Refer to Section 4/4 for requirements applicable to the safety equipment.
113.7.5 Swivel and Cargo Transfer Equipment Swivel assemblies, foundations, seals and associated piping assemblies aie to &'examined externally. R e m e retaining sections which convey corrosive or erosive materials are to be opened and examined internally. Thickness ga;gings may be reqnired to be taken on cargo d e r pipe lines and vsociated exposed equipment. Upon completion~ofthe examination, the swivel assembly is to be hydrostatically tested to design pressure and the sealing capability of the swivel is to be verified through one complete revolution.

113.7.6 Electrical Installations Satisfactory operation of equipment is to be verified and ci-cuits are to be inspected for possible development of The insulation physical c-hanges or deterioration. iesisiancc of the circuits is to be mwured between conductors and between conductors and ground. These values are to be compared with those previously measured. .Any large and abrdpt decrme in i d a t i o n resistance is to be further investigated and either restored to normal or renewed as indikted by the conditions found

PART 1 SECTION 4

Definitions, & Abbreviations

1/4.1

Definitions Mooring element connecting the Single point mooring structure to the seabed at the anchor point, and is essential for station keeping of the system. A buoyancy member provided to support the weight of mooring equipment or risen, and designed to resist differential pressure from submergence and internal pressure. Any fluid transferred between the moored v e ~ ai n d the pipe line end manifold (PLEM) such as crude oil, petroleum product, petroleum gas, slurry, and bunkers. Mooring line between SPM structure and moored vessel. Conduit designed to convey fluids between supply a n d delivery points with si@cant relative movement and able to tolerate large deflections. Typically, a hose is comprised of a string or series of short hose segments joined together at flanged ends. Hose or hose string located between the SPM structure and the moored vessel for the purpose of conveying fluid. When not connected to a moored vessel ii remains connected to the SPM structure and floats on the sea water surface. Hose or hose string located between the SPM structure and the pipe l i e end manifold (PLEM) for the purpose of conveying fluids.

Anchor Leg Buoyancy Element Cargo

Hawser
Hose

Hose, Floating

Main Bearing

The bearing which supporn the load fiom the mooring and hawser and provides a mechanism for the moored vessel to rotate or weathervane about the mwring strncture.

Product Swivel

A mechanism which provides for passage of cargo o r product while alIowing the main structure to weathervane freely with respect to the bed or anchored structure without
significant leakage at the rated design pr,-sure. Conduit desigea io convey fluids hruecn ;upply a n d deliver). pains ~ i L or AlLlour i s i d c a n t rzlativ- moternent and 3blz to tolente 1ar.e dcrlecticns :\ tls.~Me x r is n d l y comprised of one continuous lengLh, used f& relatively greater water depths and consuucted to be used totally submerged.

Riser, Flexible

Single Point Mooring (SPM)

A system which permits a vessel to weathervane while the vessel is mwred to a hed
or floating structnre anchored to the seabed by a rigid or an articulated S m c W system or by catenary spread mooring. Examples o f such system are CALM, S a M , Dower mooring, etc.

SPM, Fixed

A tower mooring and a Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALMJ which are p l based ~y (fixed or pinned) system are defined here as %xed SPMs. A Catenary Anchored Leg Mooring ( C L ? is an example of a floating SPM. The suing circle is the area swept by the moored vessel as it revolves about the mooring point.

SPM, Floating
Swing Circle

fax^ 1, SECTION 411 Definitions & Abbreviations

Abbreviations
AFBMA

mc
ANSI

Anti Friction Bearing Manufacturers Asxiation American Institute of Steel Construction American Nationai Standards Instihlte
American Petroleum Institute American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society for Testing and Materials Dead Weight Expansion Joint Manufactureer's Assxiation National Association of Corrosion Engineers Non-Destructive Testing Oil Companies International Marine Fonun

API
A& s Z Am s DWT EJMA NACE
NDT

ocm
PLEM

ROV m D

Pipe L i e End i W o 1 d Remotely Operated Vehicle U n d e ~ t eInspection In Lieu of Drydocking r

114.5 Systems of Measurement These Rules are written in the three systems of units, i.e., SI units, MKS units and US customary units. Each system is to be used independently of any other system. Tne format of presenution in the Rules of the three nt systems of u i s is as follows: SI units ( M K S units, US Customary units) unless otherwise indicated.

PART 1, SECTION 412

Definitions & Abbreviations

part '2
Materials and Welding

PART 2

SECTION

Materials
211.1 General These Rules are intended for single point moorings (SPM) to be constructed of materials manufactured and tested in accordance with the requirements of these Rules and at where applicable, P r 2 of the "Rules for Building and Classing Mobiie Offshore Drilling Units". Where it is intended to use materials of different process, manufacture or of different properties, the use of such materials and corresponding scantlings will be specially considered.
Structure 211.3 For most applications, ordinary strength steel, such as, ABS Grade A or ASTM A36, is considered acceptable. Critical load carrying components in the mooring load path, such as hawser comectio~padeyes, are to be considered as p r i n v y application structure. Materials used in the construction of the SPM buoy structure are to comply with Section 211 of the "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units". Materials used in the construction of the tower mooring structure are to be in accordance with the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Offshore Installations: Part 1 Structures". The use of other commercial material specifications for SPM applications will be specially considered.

within appropriate limits of chemical composition, heat treatment and hardness to resist sulfide st-ess cracking. Material selection is to comply with the requirements of NACE MR-01-75. Material selection is to consider ~e possibility of chloride stress cracking if chlorides are present in the cargo or product fluid. Refer to 4/1.5.4 for further requirements regarding underbuoy hodflexible risers and floahg hoses.

Mooring System 211.5 Materials used in the construction of anchors, anchor legs, associated hardware, etc. are to comply with one of the following when applicable: a) Section 2/1 of the "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units". ABS "Guide for the Certification of OEshore b) Mooring Chain". c) .@I Recommended Practices, and kII Specifications 2F and 9A. Where synthetic materials are used, inaterial specifications are to be submitted for review. 211.7 Cargo or Product Transfer Systems Materials used in the construction of cargo or product transfer systems are to comply with appropriate material specifications as may be approved in connection with a particular design. The material specifications are to comply with recognized standards and are to sFecify a suitable range of established values for tensile strength yield strength and ductility at design temperatwe. Materials need not be tested in the presence of the Surveyor. In general they may be accepted on the basis of a review of mill certificates by the Surveyor. Materials used in cargo or product tiansfer systems that will be exposed to hydrogen sul6de are to be selected

PART SECTION 111 Materials 2,

PART 2 SECTION

Welding m d Fabrication
212.1

General

2i2.1.1 Welding Welding in SPM hull or buoy construction of the mooring system is to comply with the requirements of this section, unless specially approved otherwise. It is recommended that appropriate permanent markings be applied to the side shell of welded SPM buoys or hulls to indicate the l m t i o n of buW1eads for reference. In all instances, welding procedures and filler metals are to produce sound welds havinrr strenah and toughness comearable to the base materia1 Welding of tubular andlor bracing members which may be used in tower mooring is to comply with the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Offshore Inslallations: Part 1 Structures".

appropriate to the grades shown in Appendk 21C of the ABS "Rules f o r Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units", may be used.
c) Weld

Metal Toughness-Criteria for Other Steels Weld metal is to exhibit Chaxpy V-notch toughness values at least equivalent to transverse base metal requirements (213 of the longitudinal b a s metal requirements).
Preparation for Welding

212.3

212.1.2 Plans and Specifications The plans submitted are to clearly indicate the proposed extent of welding to be used in the principal parts of the structure. The welding process, fdler metal and joint design are to be shown on the detail drawings or in separate specifications submitted for approval which should distinguish between manual and automatic welding. The builders are to prepare and file with the Surveyor a planned procedure to be followed in the erection and welding of the i r n p o m t wdctural members. 212.1.3 Workmanship and Supenision Tbe S w e y o r is to satidy hihimself that ail welders and welding operators to be employed in the construction of SPMs to be classed are orooeriv ouaiiiied and are

212.3.1 Edge Preparation and Fitting The edge preparation is to be accurate and uniform and the parts to be welded a r e to be fitted in accordance with All means adopted for the approved joint detail. correcting improper fitting are to be to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor. The S w e y o r may accept a welding procedure for build up of each edge that does not exceed one half the thickness of the member or 12.5 mm (112 in.), whichever is the lesser. The Surveyor may accept edge build up in excess of the above up to the full thickness of the member on a case-by-case basis provided he is notiried of such cases before the members are weldd together. Where plates to be joined M e i in thickness and have an offset on either side of more than 3 mm (118 in.), a suitable transition taper is to be provided. For butts in bottom shell, sttength deck plathg and other joints which may b rubject to comparati~ely high messes, the e transition taper length is to be not less than three (3) times the offset. The L-ansition may be formed by tapering the thicker memher or by specifying a weld joint design which will provide the required transition. 212.3.2 Alignment Means are to be provided for maintaining the parts to b 'e welded in correct position and alignment during the welding operation. in general, stmng backs, or other appliances used for this purpose are to be SO arranged as to allow for expansion and contraction during production welding. The removal of such items is to be carried out to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. 212.3.3 C!eanliness All surfaces to be welded are to be free from moisture, grease, loose mill scale, excessive Nsi or ,pa.int. Primer coatings of ordinary thicknesses, thin coamgs of S i e e d oil, or equivalent coatings r a y be used provided it is demon$cated that their usz has no adverse effect in the production of satidactoiy welds. Slag and .Vale are to be removed not only from the edges to be welded but SO from each pass or layer before the deposition of subsequent passes or layers. Weld joints prepared by arcair gouging may require additional pzeparation by

ik;l~ed u p e ~ s o r s &,&re a thoroi* supervision and s to


control of ail welding operations. Inspection of welds employing methods outlined in U2.5.9 is to be farried our to the satisfaction of the Surveyor.
212.1.4

Welding Procedures

a) General Procedures for the welding of all joints are to be established before construction for the welding processes, types of electrodes, edge preparations, welding techniques, and positions proposed. See U3C.5 of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units". Details of proposed welding procedures and sequences may be required to be submitted for review depending on the intended application. b) Weld iWetal Toughness-Criteria for ABS Grades of Steel For steels shown in Tables 211.1 and 211.2 of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Driliing Units" approved filler metals

PART sEcT!oN 211 Weidinq and Fabrication 2.

grinding or chipping and wire brushing prior to welding on the to minimize the possibility of excessive &n Compiiance with these cleanliness scarfed &aces. requirements is of prime importance in the welding of higher-strength steels especially those which are quenched and tempered.

Tack Welds 212.3.4 Tack welds of consistent good quality, made with the same grade of filler metal as intended for production welding and depcsited in such a manner as not to interfere with the completion of the final weld, need not be removed provided ihey are found upan examination to be thoroughly clean and free from cracks or other defects. Preheat may be necessary prior to tack welding when the materials to be joined are highly restrained. Special consideration is to be given to use the same preheat as specSied in the welding procedure when tack welding higher-strength steels, partidarly those materials which are quenched and tempered. The= same precautions are to be followed when making any permanent welded markings.
212.3.5 ;TZun-oa m d Run-off Tabs When used run-on and run-oE tabs are to be designed to minimize the pssibiiity of high-stress concenuations and base-metal and weld-metal cracking. 212.3.6 Stud Welding The attachment of pins, hangers, studs, and other related items to ordinary and higher-streno& hull m c t u r a i steels or equivalent, by stud weldinq may be accepted by the Surveyor in accordance with 2kc.5.2 of the ABS "Rules for Bu3h.g and Classing Mobile Offshore Drillirig Units" or satisfactory trial stud welding. Stud welded attachments to quenched and tempered steel is to be specially approved. Trial m d welds may be required by the Surveyor to demonstrate that the base material in way of the stud welds is free from cracking and excessively T i e use of Siid welding for struclural high &dness. attachments is subject to special approval and may require special procedure tests appropriate to each application. 212.3.7 Forming Steel is not to be formed between the upper and lower crirical temperatures; forming in the range berwcen 205'C (400F) and 42SC (800'0 should be avoided. If the forming temperatwe exceeds 650C (1200F) for asrolled, contiolled rolled, thermo-mechanical controlled rolled or normalized steels, or is not at least 28C (5O0F) lower than the tempering temperature for quenched and c tempered steels, mec-hanial tern are to ' e made to assure that these temperatures have not advenely afected the mecl.anical properties ofthe steel. For appiicalions where iwghness is of pazjcdar concern (such as Class TV or Class V of Tabie 3R.lb of the A B S "Rules for Bai!ding and Classing itfobile Wshore Drilling Units"), when steel is formed below 650C (1200F) kyond 3% smin* on the outer fiber, supporting data is io be provided to the satisfaction of the Surveyor indicating Cnai the impact propefies meet minimum

requirements aRer forming. After straining, specimens used in C h a w impact tests aro to be subjected to an artificial aging treatment of 28gC (550F) for 1 hour before testing. Rule steels of Tables 211.1 and 211.2 of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units" or equivalent steels uwi for radius pwaies (in accordance with Table 312.lb of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore DriiIing Uis) may be cold formed to a minimum radius nt' of 15t without requiring stress relieving or other supporting data.
*~dculated the basis of % Nain = on

e thicloleu;

212.5 Production Welding 212.5.1 Environment Proper precautions are to be taken to insure that all welding is done under conditions where the welding site is protected against the deleterious effects of moisture, wind and severe cold. 212.5.2 Sequence , Welding is to be planned to progress symmetrically u that shrinkage on both sides of the structure will be equalized. Tne ends of frames and stifEenen should be left unattached to the plating at the subassembly stage until comectinz welds are made in the intersectine svstems of g and sGfFeners at the ere&& stage. plating, h Welds are not to be canied across an unwelded joint or beyond an unwelded joint which terminates at the joint being welded unless specially approved.
212.5.3 Preheat The us= of preheat and interpass temperature control are to be considered when welding higher-strength steels, materials of thick cross-section or materials subject to high restraint. When welding is performed under high humidity conditions or when the temperature of steel is below 0C (32"F), the base metal is to be preheated to at least 16C (60F) or to a temperature appropriate to the alloy and the thickness, whichever is higher. The control of interpass tempenture is to be specially considered when welding quenched and tempered higher-strength steels. When preheat is used, the preheat and interpass temperatures are to be in accordance with the accepted welding procedure and to the satisfaction of the Sweyor. In all cases preheat and interpass temperature control are to be sufficient to maintain dry surfaces and minimize the possibility of the formation of fractures.

Low-hydrogen Electrodes or Welding Processes a) Welding of Ordinary and Higher Strength Steel The use of low-hydrogen eiectrcdes or welding processes is recommended for welding all higherstrength steel and may also be considered for ordinarystrength steel weldiients subject to high restmint. When using low-hydrogen electrodes or processes, proper precautions are to be taken to ensure that the

212.5.4

PART , 2

SECTION

2 2 VVe!ding and Fabrication 1

electrodes, fluxes and gases used for welding are clean and dry. b) Welding of Quenched and Tempered Steels Unless approved otherwise, matching strength, low-hydrogen electrodes or welding p r o c c m are to be used for welding quenched and tempered steels and overmatching should be genemlly avoided. When welding quenched and tempered steels to other steels, the weld filler metal selection is to be based on the lower strength base material being joined and lowhydrogen practice being comparable to that for the higher strength material. In all cases, filler metal strength is to be no less than that of the lowest strength member of the joint unless approved otherwise. The Surveyor is to be satistied that the procedures for handling and baking Bler metals and fluxes are commensurate with the low-hydrogen practices appropriate to the highest strength steel. Back Gouging Chipping, grinding, arc-air gouging or other suitable methods are to be employed at the rwt or underside of the weld to obtain sound metal before applying subsequent beads for all full-penetration welds. When arc-air gouging is employed, a selected technique is tobe used so that d n buildup and burning of the weld or base metal is minimized. Quenched and tempered steels are not to be flame gouged.
212.5.5 212.5.6 Peening The use of peening is not recommended for single-pass welds and the rout or cover passes on multipass welds. Peening, when used to correct distoition or to reduce residual stresses, is to be effected immediately after depositing and cleaning each weld pass. 212.5.7 Fairing and Flame Shrinking Fairing by heating or flame shiinking and other methods of correcting distortion or defective workmanship in fabrication of main sttengt!! members and other plating which may be subject to high stresses is to be carried out only with the express approval of the Surveyor. These corrective measures are to be kept to an absolute minimum when the higher-strength steels are involved, due to high local stresses and the pssible degradation of the mechanical properties of the base material.

212.5.9

hspection @f Weids Inspection of welded joints in important imtions is to be carried out by an approved nondestmctive t e s method such as radiographic, ultrasonic, magnetic-particle or dyepenetrant inspection. The Bureau's separately issued "Rules for Nondestructive Inspeaion of Hull & 'e & l ' or an approved equivalent standard is to be be in evaluating radiographs and ultrasonic indications. Evaluation of radiographs and ultrasonic indications is one of the factors in assessing shipyard weld quality control. Radiographic o r ultrasonic inspection, orb& is to be used when the overall soundness of the weld cross section is to be evaluated. Magnetic-particle or dyepenetrant inspection or other approved methods are to be used when investigating the outer surface of welds or may be used as a check of intermediate weld passes such as rout passes and also to check back-gouged joints prior to depositing subsequent passes. Surface inspection of important tee or corner joints in critical locations, using an approved magnetic particle or dye penetrant metho& is to be conducted to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. E m high-strength steels, [415690 N l d (4270 k@mm2, 60,000-100,000 psi) minimum yield strength] may be susceptible to delayed cracking. When welding these materials, the kina1 NDT is to be delayed sufiicientiy to permit detection of such defects. Weld run-on or run-off tabs may be used where practical and be sectioned for examination. Where a method (such as rac!iograp+ic or ultrasonic) is selected as the primary non-destructive method of inspection, t h e acceptance standards of such a method govern. However, if additionai inspection by any method should indicate the presence of defects that could jeopardize the i n t e a t y of structure, removal and repair f of such defects are to b e to the satisfaction o the atienchg Surveyor.
212.5.10 Repair Welding Defective welds and other injarious defects, as detenined by visual inspection, non-destructive test methods, or leakage are to be excavated in way of the defa% to sound metal and corrected b y rewelding ,using a suitable repair i t h welding procedure to be consistent w tile material being welded. Removal by grinding of minor suifacc imperfections such as scars, tack welds and arc d e s may be carried out where permixed by the anending Surveyor. Special precautior~, such as the w of preheat interpass temperame control, and low-hyeogen e!ectrodes, are to be considered when repairing weids in all higher strength steel, ordinary st-cngth i h e I of thick cross section, or steel subject to high restraint. hhterials thicker than appro:kmiely 19 om (314 L-.) arc considered to be of thick cross-section. In d l -s, preheat and interpass temperame conuo! are 10 be sufiicient to tnain-An dry surfaces and miniirize the possibiliry of the formation of fiachLies.

Surface Appearance and Weld Souudness 212.5.8 a) Surface Appearance The surfaces of welds are to be visually inspecid and are to be regular and uniform with a minimum amount of reidorcement and reasonably free from uixdercut and overlap. Welds and adjacent base metal are to be free from injw:ous arc strikes. b) Weld Soundness Welds are to be sound, crack free throughout the weid cross sectios and fused to the base material to the satisfaction of the anending Surveyor and should generally be considered on the

basisofU2.1.3,212.1.4,andY2.5.9.

P m r 2, SECTION 213 Welding and Fabiicatizn

32.7 Butt Welds . Manual Welding Using Covered Eiedrodes 212.7.1 Manual welding using covered electrodes may be ordinarily employed for butt welds in members not exceeding 6.5 mm (114 in.) in thickness without beveling the abutting edges. Members with thickness exceeding 6.5 m m (114 in.) are to be prepared for welding in a manner acceptable to the Surveyor by using an appropriate edge preparation, root opening and rwt face (land) to. provide for welding from one or bath sides. For welds made from bath sides, the rwt of the tint side welded is to be removed to- sound metat by an approved method before applying subsequent weld passes on the reverse side. Where welding is to be deposited from one side only, using ordinary welding techniques, appropriate backing (either permanent or temporary) is to be provided. The backing is to be fitted so that spacing between the backing and Lhe members to be joined is in accordance with established procedures. Unless spaidly approved otherwise, splices in permanent backing strips are t o b e welded -with m i penemtion weids prior to making the primarj weld 212.7.2 Submerged-Arc Welding Submerged-Arc welding, using wire-flux combinations for butt welds in members not e x d g 16 pun (518 in.) in thickness, may be ordinady employed uithout beveling the abutting edges. Members wish thickness exceeding 16 mm (518 in.) are normally to be prepared for welding in a manner acceptab1e to the Surveyor by using an appropriate edge preparation, r w t opening and r w t face (land) to provide for welding from one or both sides. When it is determined Chat sound welds can be made without back gouging, she provisions of 212.5.5 are not applicable. Where h e metal is to be deposited from one side- only, using ordinary welding tec'briques, backing (either p m a n e n t or temporary) is to he provided and the memkrs are to be beveled and fitted in accordance with established procedures.

2127.5 Special Welding Techniques Special welding techniques employing any of the basic welding p r m s s mentioned in U2.7.1 through 212.7.4 will be specially considered, depending upon the extent of the variation from the generally accepted techniques. Such special techniques include one-side welding, narrow-gap welding, tandem-arc weldiiig, open-arc welding and consumable-node elediroslag welding. The use of gas tungsten-arc welding will also be subject to special consideration, depending upon the application and whether the process is used manually or automatically.
2/29 Algrnates The foregoing are considered minimum requirements for electric arc welding in hull construction, but altemte methds, arrangements and details will be considered for approval.

212.11 Welding of Piping See Section 213B of the ABS "Rules for Buiiding and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units" and ASME B31.3 as applicable, for welding procedures and details of piping and machinery components.
212.13 Welding Procedures See Section 213C of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile (Xlshore DriUiog Units'' for the procedure to be followed in obtaining tbe approval of she Bureau for electrodes and weiding procedures, for quallfylng welders and for demonstrating satisfactory workmanship. For tubular members of SPM structure as in a tower mooring, welding procedure is to comply piiih ABS "Ruies for Building and Classing Offshore Instaliations: Pan l Suuccures".

Gm . Metal-Arc and F!ux Cored-Arc Welding Manual serniauto.mtic or machine automatic gas metalarc welding and flux cored-ax welding using wire-gas combinations and associated processes, may be ordinarily employed utilizing the conditions q s~ec&ed in 212.7.1 except that specific joint desi,p may diEer between processes. 5as metal-arc welding utilizing shoIt circuiting-a?c W e r technique (the consumable electrode is deposited during repeated short circuits) is to be restTcted to welding lhickxess up to 6.5 mm (114 in.) unless specially approved o t h e h s e , (see 213C.11.2 of the AaS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Oeshore Drilling Uniis" for special requirement for welder qualiiicalion).
212.7.3 212.7.4 Eiectroslag and Elecrrogas Welding The use of slectroslag and electrogas welding prcc-sses be jebject.to special consideration, depending u p n the speciiic application and the mechanical properties of the resdiing weids and heat-afiected zones.

PAST 2, S E c ~ i c b214 i

Welding and Fabricalioii

PART 2 SECTION .3
Weld Design
213.1
213.1.1 Fillet Welds General

a) Plans and Specifications The actual sizes of fillet welds are to be indicated on detail drawings or on a separate welding schedule and submitted for approval in each individual ose.

in selecting the leg s i z e and spacing of matched fillet welds, the leg size is to be taken the lesser of the designed leg size or 0.7tp, + 2.00 mm (0.7tp1+ 0.08 in.). In determining weld sizes based on the above equations, the nearest half millimeter or one-thirty second of an inch
maybeused The throat size, r, is to b e not less than 0.70 w. For the weld size for ipl less than 6.5 mm (0.25 in.), see 213.1.2f. b) Length and Arraogement o f Fillet Where an intermittent weld i s permittid by Table 213.1, the length of each Blet weld is to be not less than 75 mm (3 in.) for t of 7 &I X (0.28 in.) or more, nor less than 65 mm (2.Pin.) for lesser tPi. The unwelded length is to be not more than 3 2 tpl. c) Intermittent Weldiog a t Znter~ection Where beams, stiffeners, frames, etc., are intermittently welded and pass through slotted girders, shelves or stringers, there is to be a pair of matched intermittent welds on each side of each such intersection and the beams, stiffeners and h m e s are to be efficiently attached to the girders, shelves and stringers. d) Welding of Longitudinal to Plating Welding of Iongitudinals to plating is to have double continuom welds at the ends a n d in way of transveises equal in length to depth o f the longitudinai. For deck longitudiilais only, a matched pair of weids is required at the W e r s e s . e) Stiffeners and W e b s to Batch Coven Vnbracketed stiffeners and webs of hatch covers are to be welded o continuously : the plating and to the face plate for a length at ends equal to the end depth of the member.
f ) Thin Plating For plating of 6 . 5 m (0.25 in) or less,

b) Workmanship Completed welds are to be to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor. The gaps between the faying surfaces of members being joined should be kept to a minimum. Where the opening between members k i n g joined exceeds 2.0 mm (1116 in.) and is nwt greater than 5 mm (3116 in.), the weld leg size is to be increased by the amount of the opening. Where the opening between members is greater than 5 mm (3116 in.), corrective procedures are to be specially approved by the Surveyor.
c) Special Precautions Special precaution such

as the use of preheat or low-hydrogen electrodes or lowhydrogen welding processes may be required where small fillers are used to attach heavy plates or sections. When hemy sections are attached to relatively light plating, the weld size may be required to be modified.

Tee Connections 213.1.2 a) Size of Fillet Welds Tee connections are generally to be formed by continuous or intermittent fillet welds on each side, as required by Table 213.1. The leg size, w, of fillet welds (see figure in Table 213.1) is obtained from the following eqktions.
w =

or

tPI C y7
pi

2.00mm

w = t w,,,

C sN + 0.08 in.
Where 213.1.5 is

= 0.3tP1or4.5mm (0.18 in.). applicable, w,,, = 4.0mm (0.16 in.).

where,

the requirements of 213.1.2a may be mcdified as follows: w w


w,,, =

i = the actual length of weld fillei clear of crater, in mm or in.


s = the distance between successive weld fillets, from

tpl C dl + 2.00 ( 1.25 -Us) mm = ipl C d + 0.0%( 1.25 L's) in. l = 3 . 5 m (0.14 in).

center to center, in mm or in. fl = 1.0 for continuous fillet welding $ = thickness of the thinner of the two members beiig joined in mm or in. C = weld factors given in Table 213.1

The use of above equations for plating in excess of 6.5 mm (0.25 in.) may be specially considered d e ~ n d i n g upon the locationand qditycontrol proced~e. 213.1.3 Tee-Type E n d Connections Tee-tSTe end connections where fillet welds are used are to have continuous welds on each side. In general, the leg sizes of the weids are to be in accordance with Table 2!3.1 for unbracketed end aitachments, but in special cases

whereheavy members are attached to relatively light piating, the sizes may be mdified. Where only the webs of girders, beams and M e n e r s are required to be attached to plating, it is recommended that the unattached face plate or fhnges be cut back.
213.1.1 Ends of Unbracketed Stiffenen Unbracketed a e n e r s of sheU, watertight and oiltight bulkheads are to have double continuous welds for onetenth of their length at mch end. Unbracketed stiffeners of nontight s'uuctural bulkheads, deckhouse sides and aRer ends are to have a pair of matched intermittent welds at each end. 213.1.5 Reduced Weld Size Reduction in fillet weld sizes except for slab longitudinals of thickness greater than 25 m m (1.0 in.) may be specially approved by the Sweyor in accordance with either 213.1.5a or b provided the requirements of 213.1.2 are satisried.

doublers and similar locations, such welds may be spaced h u t 305 mm (12 in.) between centers inboth directions. 213.1.8 Weld in Tubular Joints The weld design of joints of intersaxing tubular members which are uxd in fixed structure in a tower mooring is to be in accordance with the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Offshore Installations: Part 1 Structures".
213.3

Full or Partial Penetration Corner or Tee Joints A N 1 or partial penetration weld may be required at critical joints. Measures taken to achieve full or partial penetration comer or tee joints, where speciiied, are to 4 x to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor. The designer is to give consideration to minimize the possibility of lamellar tearing in such joints.
213.5 Alternatives The foregoing are considered minimum requirements for electric-arc welding in hull construction, but alternative methods, arrangements and details will be considered for approval. See 213C.5 of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units". Fillet weld sizes may be determined from structural analyses based on sound enginering principles provided they meet the overall strength standards of the Rules.

a) Controlled Gaps Where quality control facilitates working to a gap between members being attached of 1 rnm (0.04 in.) or less, a reduction in fillet weld leg size w of 0.5 mm (0.03 in.) may be permitted. b) Deep Penetration Welds Where automatic double continuous fillet welding is used and quality control facilitates working to a gap between members being attached of 1 mm (0.04 in.) or less, a reduction in fillet weld leg size of 1.5 mm (1116 in.) may be permitted provided that the penetration at the root is at least 1.5 A ( i / l 6 in.) into the members being attached. m
213.1.6 Lapped Joints Lapped joints are generally to have overlaps of not less width than & ie ihe thinner plate thickness plus 25 mm vc (I in.).

213.1.6a Bveriapped End Connections Overlapped end connections of main men,@ members ate to have continuous fillet welds on both edges each qcal al s u e -N to the thickness of the thinner of the two plates joined. All other overlapped end connections are to have continuous welds on each edge of sues w such that the sum of the two is not less than 1.5 times the thickness of the thinner plate.

Overlapped Seams Overlapped seam are to have coutinuous weids on bath edges of the sizes required by Table 23.1 for the b*mda-ies of deep kmk or wa?erti&t bulkheads, except Lwi for iJE plates 12.5 mm (112 in.) or less clear of i.&, one d g e m y have intennitteni welds in accordance with Table 23.1 for watertight bulkhead ba*mdaries.
213.1.6b

Plug Welds or Slot Welds 3 . 7 ?hg weids or slot welds may be specially approved for

p d c n i z r applications.

Where used in the body of

TABLE 2/3.1 Weld Factors

w = leg size in mrn or

'

Periphery Conneciion

Factor C

C =Continuous DC=Double Continuous


0.42 one side other side 0.58 0.12 0.35
DC

Tight Joints 1. Main bulkhead to deck, battom or inner bottom 2. W other ti& joints a. watertight bulkhead t,, 112.5 mm (0.50 in.) b. atl other joints

C
DC

B.

Non-tight Joints i. Platform decks 2. Swash bnlkheads in deep +ah hn 3. Non-tight b u e a d s oLhei t a item B2 Bottom Roars 1. To Shell 2. To h e r Bottom 3. To Main Girders 4. To Side Shell and Bulkheads 5. Open Floor Bracket a. to center girder b. to -gin plate Bottom Girders 1. Center Giide:

I. T -

IiL

W.

Web Frames, Stringers, Deck Girders mil Dock Transverses 1. To Plating a. in ianks b. elsewhere 2. To Face Plates a. face area 5 63.5 cmZ(10 in2) b. face area > 64.5 smZ(10 inZ) 3. End Attachment a. unbracketed (see nore 1) b. bracketed

PART

2 , SECT!ON 313 Weid Design

Frames, Beams md StiKeners 1. To Shell - 2. To plating elsewhere 3. End attachment a unbracketed (see note 1) b. bracketed

VL

Hatch Coven 1. Oiltight Joints 2. Watertight Joints outside inside 3. Stiffeners and Webs to Plating and to Face Plate (see note 2) Stifeners and Web to Side Plating or other stiffeners 4. -unbracketed (see note 1) -bracket Hatch Comings and Ventilators 1 To Deck . a. at hatch comer b. elsewhere 2. Coamingstzys a to deck b. to coarning Foundations 1. Major Equipment and Ai~viliaries

VrZ

VIIZ

1. The weld size is to be determined from the thickness of the member being attached. 2. Unbracketed SXeners and webs of hatch covers are to be welded continuously to the plating and to the face plate for a len,@ at ends equal to the end depth of the member. 3. With longitudinal framing the weld size is to be increased to give an equivalent weld area to that obtained without cut-outs for longitudinal.

PRT 2, SECTION 314 Weld Design

Part 3
Mooring System Design

PART 3 SECTION 1
Site and Environmental Conditions
Where it is s h a m that m t e r depth is far in excess of the required water depth, the survey may be appropriately modSed.
311.3.3

311.1

General The provisions of this section are intended to establish the method of defining the lmtion of the SPM, the at environmental conditions which will affect o p e r a t i 0 ~ the SPM and which are to be considered in establishing design criteria, and the bottom soil conditions which affect the anchorage of the SPM.
311.3

Maneuvering Area

Mwring Location

311.3.1 Site Chart A complete chart of the mooring area is to be submitted.

The manewering area is to be indicated and on the site chart manewering area is defined as the area through which a vessel is to manewer in making an aoproach to. or a deoarture from the SPM. The sham a ; size of the madewering a r k are to be establish& ;d based on oertinent local conditions. The radius of the manewenkg area about the mooring is to be at least three (3) times the length of the largest vessel for which the
Llrirl La UZ*,g,LllLIL

c,,R,,

:-

This chart is to show depth sobdings and obstructions within the swing circle, the maneuvering area, and where applicable, the approach channel from deep water or an established navigation channel. The chart may be based on local charts published by government agencies or on hydrographic surveys conducted by a marine consultant. In case of charts based on hydrographic surveys, a survey report is to be submitted describing the surveying method, equipment, and personnel employed to conduct the survey. The exact location and water depth of the mwring base or pipe line end manifold (PLEM), and each anchor point, is to be indicated on the chart. The route of the submarine pipeline and of all other pipelines and cables is to be indicated on the chart. If the mooring is associated with other SPMs in the area or with a oumoine or control platform, these features b e to be in&catid G the chart. n &I other features and water use areas which may present potential navigational hazards are to be identified. All existing and planned navigation aids such as tights, buoys, and shore markers which wili be used in conjunction with the mooring are to be indicated and identified on the chart.
311.3.2

Where it can be shown that the prevailing environment (wind, waves, current, and tides) favorably imluences the mooring manewer, and that the vessel can always manewer to and from the SPM without danger, the maneuvering area may be appropriately moditied. Where tugs will always be used to assist in mooring, the manewering area may be appropriately modified Where mooring maneuvers are to be made in extreme environment, the minimum radius is to be increased Fixed obstacles such as platforms or buoys, other than the mooring, are not to be anywhere within the maneuvering area. The route of the submarine pipelines may be marked by a buoy at the edge of the manewering area. It is suggested that no other pipelines exist in the SPM ma"euvenng area. Swing Circle The nving circle as defined in 114.1 is to be indicated and captioned on the site chart. The radius of the swing circle is the sum of the horizontal excursion of the SPM from its center position under operating hawser load and minimum tide, the horizontal projection of the length of the hawser under operating hawser load, the length overall of the largest vessel for which the SPM is i. designed, and a safety allowance of 30 m (100 f)
311.3.4 311.3.5 Water Denth ddeth at a&place within the manewering area The the SPM no vessel which may is to be such vstem wiu touch the sea bottom or any prouusion therefrom in any sea condition under which such a vessel is expected to be present as ouclined in the design area. premises within the m a n e w e ~ g The designer may elfft to specify ]*ting dr* for various vessel sizes when the proposed water depth is not to allow a vessel of the muimum size to be moored in the maneuvering area under the design operating environmental condition

Bottom Topography All depths on the chart are to be referenced to the datum of the local navigational chart. The chait is to be based on depth soundings laken at 15 m (50 A) horizontal intervals or less. The chart is to show bottom contours at a vertical interval of 1.5 m (5 ft). Where the bottom is irregular, the Spacing of soundings is to be reduced. Where side scan sonar or wire b g is employed, the spacing of soundings may be increased. All obstacles, such as sunken wrecks, rocks, and pinnacles are to be identified and their clear depths indicated. Where such are wire at a depth beneath the required mter depth or a side w;an sonar survey is to be conducted throughout.

PART SECTION 111 Site and Environmental Conditions 3,

The detemrination of the required water depth is to be based upon calculations, data from ship model tests or full scale trials, designers' experience or other available sources of information. The designer is to submit evidence to demonsuate to the satisfaction of the Bureau that in determinine the rcouired water depth, the following effects have been knsideied: a) Vessel's dimensions and other relevant characteristics b) Wave height, wave period, and compass direction with respect to the vessel. c) The prevailing wind and astronomical tides. d) The expected vessel's heaving, rolling and pitching and adequate vessel under keel clearance. e) The consistency of the sea bottom material or the character of any protrusion rom the sea bottom.
f ) The level of accuracy of the depth survey data.

seastate in which a vessel is permitted to remain moored to the SPM without exceeding the allowable loads and stresses required in Parts 3 and 4 of these Rules. Wind, waves and the associated currents used in the d e s i p shall be based on site specific data, as determined by marine and meteorological consultants. b) Stonn Condition The storm condition for an SPM design is defined as the environmental condition with maximum wind, waves and associated m e n t s based on a 100 year recurrence interval. At this condition no vessel is moored to the SPM system, unless the SPM system is specifically designed for this environmental loading. The wind, waves and the associated currents are to be established by marine and meteorological consuttants.
311.7.2 Waves a) Operating Wave The characteristic of the wave for the operating environmental condition described in 311.7.1 is to be established The wave characteristics are to include wave height in terms of significant wave height (the average of the highest one third wave heights), associated wave spectrum and associated mean spectral period. b) Design Storm Wave The wave characteristics representing the storm condition as described in 311.7.1 for the design of an SPM and its anchorage are to be established based on not less than a 100 year recurrence interval. The characteristics to describe the storm wave are to include: the signiiicant wave height and the maximum wave height, the maximum wave in terms of maximurn crest elevation above mean low water, an indication if the wave is expeaed to be a breaking wave, the wave specirum, a k i a t e d mean spectral period corresponding to the maximum wave, and the tide surge associated with the maximum wave. When component parts are designed for a wave representing lesser recurrence interval, they are to be noted in the design document

311.5

Soils Data

311.5.1 Bottom Soil Condition The geneml character of the soil on the sea floor throughout the maneuvering area is to be indicated on the site chart. The presence of a rock bottom or of rock outcroppings is to be clearty indicated. Where soil movements such as soil slides, excessive erosion or deposition of soil, or an active fault are suspected, an analysis by a soils consultant of the nature and degree of this hazard is to be submitted. 311.5.2 Sub-Bottom Soil Conditions Soil data should be taken in the vicinity of the mooring site; an interpretation of such data is to be submitted by a soils consultant. In the case of a mooring having a piIed or gavity base, a boring or probing is to be taken at the location of the base to the depth of any piles or to a depth sufficient to establish the soil characteristics of the site. For mwring system with anchor piles, gravity boxes, or drag anchors, borings or probings are to be taken at all anchor locations to the depth of any piles or to a depth sufficient to establish the soil characteristics of the site. As an alternative, sub-bottom profile runs may be taken and correlated with at least h ~ (2) borings or probings in o the SPM vicinity and an interpretation may be made by a soils consultant to adequately establish the soil profile at d anchor pile locations. l

311.7

Design Environmental Condition and Data

3!1.7.1 Design Environmental Conditions The design of an SPM system is to consider the following hvo environcnentai conditions:

a) Operating Condition The operating environmental condition for an SPM is defined as the maximum

c) Wave Statistics A report is to be submitted presenting wave statistics for the mooring area. The statistics are to be b a e d on wave data analyzed and interpreted by a marine consultant. The statistics are to include; a table showing the frequency distribution of wave height, period, and direction, and a table or graph showing the recurrence period of design storm waves. It is recommended that data be obtained from a wave recorder operated in the general vicinity of the SPM for a period of time sufficiently long to establish the f reliability of the wave statistics. L the site of the wave remrder'is in a Werent water depth or different exposure from the mooring site, an interpretation to transfer the data to the mooring site is to be performed bv a marine consultant. Alternatively, data may be $ on wave observation records for a period of &me & m3ciently long to establish the reliability of the wave statistics from a local shore station or from pubiished references. The bias of such o b s e ~ a t i o nagainst ~ design storms and therefore against e.xtreme wave heights is to be accounted for.

PART SECTION 3. 112 Site and Environmental Conditions

The statistics for the maximum wave are to be based on wave records for a period of time Naciently long to establish the reliability of the wave statistics performed by a marine consultant
311.7.3 Wind a) Operating Wind The wind characteristics for the operating condition described in 311.7.1 are to be established. The wind velocity is to be specified at a height of 10 m (33 ft) a b v e the ocean surface, and averaged over a one minute period. A one-hour wind with appropriate wind spectrum may be used as an alternative approach.

b) Storm Current The storm current characteristics for the storm condition described in 311.7.1 are to be established The current velocities at the sea surface and seabed are to be included. If the current profle is not linear, the velocities at a suBicient number of intermediate depths are to be included.
311.7.5 Seiche The location of the mooring site in relation to seiche nodal points is to be investigated by a marine consultant if the site is in a basin or other area known for seiche action. Seiche is defined as long period oscillation of the water in a basin as excited by a disturbance such as wind, waves, atmospheric pressure, or earthquake. Mooring sites located at or near seiche nodal points may be influenced by currents not otherwise predicted. If the mwring site is at or near a seiche nodal point, currents induced by seiche are to be reflected in the operating current and maximum current, and the influence of the period of the current on the dynamic response of the moored vessel is to be considered. 311.7.6 Tidal Data Tidal data is to be based on astronomical tides and storm surge. The astronomical tidal extremes and tidal means for the mooring site are to be established. Sufficient data is to be submitted to establish the validity of the tide data. Tide levels may preferably be determined from records of a tide gauge in the vicinity of the sire or from published tide tables for a location in the vicinity of the site. If the location from which the tide data is obtained is from a remote mooring site, a transformation of the tide data to the mooring site is to be performed by a marine consulrant. The maximum storm surge for the mwring site is to be established if the mooring is in a coastal or estuary location. SuEcient data is to be submitted to establish the validity of this storm surge. Maximum storm surge may preferably be determined from tide records taken near the location. if the location from which the tide data is obtained is remote from the of the tide data to the mooring site, a *&ormation mooring site is to be performed by a marine consuitant Storm surge hindcasts for design (extreme) storms performed by a marine consultant may be submitted. 3i1.7.7 Temperatures and Ice Where drit ice may be a hazard to a mooring or to a vessel navigating to or moored at a mooring or to floating hoses at a mooring, a n analysis of the natii-e and degree of this hazard is to be submitted. When air temperature and precipitation, spray, or tidal action may combine to cause substantial ice formation on the mooring an analysis of the degree to which ice may form and how this ice may &ect the performance of the mooring is to be submined. The structure, equipment, hoses'flexible risers, component parts and their respective material which may be affected by low temperatures are to be examined.

b) Storm Wind The wind characteristics for the storm condition described in 311.7.1 for design of SPM, are to be established based on not less than a 100 year recurrence interval. The wind velocity is to be specified at a height of 10 m (33 ft) h v e the ocean surface,. and averaged over a one m u t e priod. A one,hour wind with appropriate wind spectrum may be used as an alternative approach. c) Wind Statistics A report is to be submitted presenting wind statistics for the mooring area. The statistics are to be based on wind data analyzed and interpreted by a marine consultant The statistics are to include; a wind rose or table showing the frequency distribution of wind velocity and direction, a table or graph showing the recurrence period of extreme winds, and the percentage of time which the operating wind velocity is expected to be exceeded during a year and during the worst month or season. Where possible, statistics are preferably to be based on data from an anemometer operated in the general vicinity of the mooring for a period of time silEFicieutly long to establish the reliability of the wind statistics. If the site of the anemometer is influenced by terrain or is inland, or if the mooring site is far offshore, an interpretation to transfer the data to the mooring site, performed by a marine consultant is to be submitted. Alternatively, the statistics may be based on wind velocity determined from synoptic weather chart pressure gradients for a period of time d c i e n t l y long to establish the reliability of the wind statistics performed by a marine consultant If synoptic weather charts are not available, the statistics may be based on observations from published references. These records are to be reviewed and interpreted for the site by a marine consultant. The bias of such obse~ations against extreme storms and therefore agaimt extreme wind speeds is to be accounted for.
311.7.4 Current a) Operating Current The current characteristics for the operating condition described in 311.7.1 are to be established. The operating current is defined as the maximum current associated with the maximum wind and waves in which a vessel will remain moored. The current velocities at the sea surface and seabed are to be included. If the current profile is not linear, the velocities at a suBcient number of intermediate depths are also to be included.

PART SECTION 113 Site and Environmental Conditions 3,

PART 3 SECTION 2

Design Loads
accordance with the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing W h o r e W a t i o n s -Part I Structures". The wave induced responses of a vessel cansist of three categories of reqmnse, e.g., first order (wave frequency) motions, low frequency or slowly varying motions, and steady drift are to be taken into account for designing the SPM structure including the moaring line, anchors, piles, etc. as applicable. 312.5.2 Wind Forces For a moored vessel, wind forces on the vessel may be calculated using the coefficients presented in the d m e n t "Prediction of W i d and Current Loads on VLCCs", Oil Companies International Marine Fonun (2nd Edition, OCIIG), 1994. For equipment onboard with unusual shape and arrangement, wind forces on such equipment may be calculated as drag forces and are to be added as necessary. Wind m e 1 tests may be required in some design to determine the wind loads. The wind force on the SPM structure and the moored vessel is considered as a constant (steady) force due to the one-minute wind. Alternatively, the designer may use a one-hour wind with appropriate wind specuum. The wind force on the SPM structure and wind exposed appendages and unusual items onboard the vessel may be calculated as drag force. The wind pressure pw, on any particular windage may be calculated usiag the foilowing equations:

312.1 Design Loads The design conditions are to be established by varying vessel size and loading conditions to determine the critical loading conditions under the enviornrnental conditions described in 311.7. The designer is to submit dculations for the design condition. The following loads are to be considered in the design: Dead Loads and Buoyancy Environmental Loads Mooring Loads Fatigue Loads 312.3 Dead Loads and Buoyancy Dead loads are 'the weight of the SPM structure and associated stkctural appendages, and equipment which are permanently attached to the structure. The buoyancy of the SPM structure results in upward forces, the distribution of which depends on the distribution of the submergence of the structure. 312.5 Environmental Loads The environmental loads due to the following environmental parameters are to be considered in the design: Waves Wind Currents Tides and storm surges Ice and snow biarine growth Air and sea temperatures Other phenomena, such as inmamis, s u b w i n e slides, seiche, abnormal composition of air and water, air humidity, salinity, ice drift, icebergs, etc. may require special consideration. 312.5.1 Wave L o a d i n s The wave loads on the SPM structure and the moored vessel are to be determined by suitable methods such as strip theory, diffraction theory, Morison's equation, etc. The wave loading on a tower mooring is to be in

V__, is in d s for the first two of the a b v e equations, while it is in knots for the third equation.

C, C,

Shape Coefficient

= Height Coefficient

(dimensionless) (dimensionless)

The height coefficient Cbis used in the formulation above to take into account of the effect of wind ve1oci;y profile in the vertical plane. The height coefficient Chis given by the following equation:

v4 -

PART , SECTiON 211 Besign Loads 3

where, the velocity of wind at a height z above water line is S be calculated as follows: o

CD
uc

=
=

Y;
V,

= V*x(I/Z,+)B

V . is f o be taken as equal to Vr601 elevations below the


rejerence elevation Z,+
= Velocity of wind at an reference elevation Z,+ of

A,

drag w&cient, in steady flow (dimensionls). current velocity vector n o d to the plane of s projected area in d s ( d s , p ) 2 2 2 p r o j d area exposed to current in m (m ,j )

10 m (33 feet)

= 0.10

typically for one-minute average wind, other values supported by site specific data will be specially considered.

The corresponding wind force F _ , on the windage is:

where Awind = Projected area of windage on a plane normal to the direction of the wind, in m' (fi? The t o t . wind force is then obtained by summing up the wind forces on each windage. The shape coefficients for typical structural shapes are presented (for reference only) in Table 3B.l. The height coefficients to represent the wind velocity profile (corresponding t o p value of 0.10) are presented in Table 3/22 for height intervals of 50 feet. 312.5.3 Current Forces For a moored vessel, current forces on the vessel alone may be calculated by using coefficients based on model test data as presented in "Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on TiLCCs", published by O C M (2nd Edition, 1994). For underwater bodies of unusual shape and arrangemenr, model tern may be required to determine the current forces. The current forces on the submerged buoy andor mooring structure, hull of the mwred vessel, mooring lines, risers or any other submerged objeca associated with the system are to be calculated using the appropriate current profile. The basis of the current profile depends on the environmental conditions described in 311.7.1. Current force F, on the submerged part of the mooring structure, mwring lines, risers, etc. are to be calculated as the drag force as shorn below:

312.7 Mooring Laads The design loads of mooring legs, and mooring elements r (flexible hawsers or rigid mooring elements such as a m and yoke) between the vessel and SPM may be calculated based on physical model testing of the system, or by analytical methods verified by physical model testing of a similar system. The calculation to determine the mooring load is to include high frequency, low frequency, and mwring line dynamics. The most probable extreme values are to be obtained by time domain analysis for the design storm described in 311.7.2 using a storm duration of three hours, unless specific site data suppons other durations. 312.7.1 Operating Mooring Laads Operating mwring loads are the loads on the SPM structure and foundation with the vessel mwred to it. The loads are to be determined in the operating environment for the established design condition as indicated in Section311. Operating mooring loads are to be established and submitted for the hawser, rigid connection between the vessel and the SPM as applicable, and the SPM anchor leg loads. Operating Mooring Load behveen Vessel and SPM The operating mooring load between vessel and SPM is to be established for the SPM system. Tne operating mooring load is defined as the maximum load imposed on i the mooring element (e.g., hawser or rigid a m and yoke) for the maximum size vessel for the operating envirormentai condition described in 311.7.1, unless a smaller mwred vessel is apt KO impose higher loads under the influence of the operating win& wave, current and tides as established in Section 311. Data and calculations are to be submitted to estabiish the validity of this operating mwring load. The operating mwring load may be statistically determined from model testing muor analysis. The model testing and analysis on which the operating mooring load is based is to reflect the combined effects of wind, waves, current and tides on the loaded and unloaded vessel. The model testing is to model the mooring system appropriately in regard to load-dispiacement characteristics, and pretensioning of mooiing legs as applicable. a)

where:

= =

mass density of water 1.025 (So, 0.1045 (MKS), 1.99

(Use)

PART , SECTION 212 Design Loads 3

b) Operating Anchor Leg Loads The anchor leg loads in the operating environmental condition are to be established for the anchor leg or legs

Design Storm Loads Design *om loads are to be established for the SPM Structure. each anchor leg, and the foundation as applicable for the storm condition as described in 3/1.7.1.
312.7.2

load is defined as the &mum load in the most highly loaded anchor leg for the maximum size vessel for which the SPM is designed, or other vessel of a smaller size if the smaller vessel is apt to impose higher loads. For a mooring system with several anchor legs of different size or construction, an operating anchor load is to be established for each anchor leg. Model test data andlor calculations are to be submitted to establish the validity of the operating anchor load.

&-tablish hev&di& of these loads.


3,29 Fatigue Loading For tower mooring system, fatigue analysis of the structure is to be performed Ln accordance ~ t the ABS h "Rules for Building and Classing Offshore M i a t i o n s Part I

Table 312.1
Shape Coefficients C f o r W i n d a g e s w
Cylindrical Shapes Hull above waterline Deck House Isolated structural shapes (Cranes, channels, beams, angles, etc.) Under deck areas (smwth) Under deck areas (exposed beans and girders) T m s structure (each face) f.)
() .

Table 312.2
Height C o e E c i e n t s C,
gofor 0.10) p=
0.50-1.00 1.00 1.00

Height above Waterline Meters Feet


0.0 15.3 30.5 46.0 61.0 76.0 91.5

c#,
1-min
1.00 1.18 1.3 1 1.40 1.47 1.53 1.58

1.50 1.00 1.30 1.25

15.3 30.5 46.0 61.0 76.0 91.5 106.5

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

50 100 150 200 250 300 350

30% of proj~ted block areas for both &ont and back sides

PART , SECTICN 213 Design Loads 3

PART 3

SECTION

Structural Design and Stability


313.9.3. The maximum reduction that will be allowed is 10% of the shell plating, but not more than 0.125 in. (3 mm), provided that t e section modulus reduction is no h more than 10%. In such instances, the justification for the reduction is to be subrnitted for review together with the patticulars of t e coatings with or without sacrificial h anodes including the program for maintenance. The plans are to show the required and proposed scantlings, both suitably identified. Where any of the proposed reductions are approved, a notation will be made in the Record that such reductions have been taken. Where scantlings and structural design are determined by the requirements of 313.5 and 313.7, or by alternative structural design methods other than the requirements in 313.9, the fouowing apply:

313.1 General An SPM structure is generally characterized as a floating or fixed type. 313.1.1 Floating SPM Structure A floating. SPM structure consists of a buoyant hull held in position by ancbor leg($ that transmit mooring forces to the seabe4 the equipment and piping used to carry fluid cargo or products, and provides a platform for hawser mooring attachment points. 313.1;~ F i e d SPM Structure F i e d SPM structures, such as a SALM or a tower mooring, are typically supported at the seabed by piles or a gravity based foundation. A SALM is ofcen designed as buoyant structure, while a tower mooring may be designed with tubular members. The structure supports the uy equipment and piping used to c r fluid cargo or prducts, and provides a platform for hawser (or rigid) mooring attachment points. 313.3

General Design Criteria

313.3.1 Strength of Structure The m c m e and framing members are to be of adequate size and strength to withstand the operating and storm loads estabLished in Section 312. Each mooring attachment point between vessel and the SPM is to be designed to withstand an appropriate portion of the total operating mooring load on the connecting structure (hawser or rigid yoke). Each anchor attachment point or pile foundation is to be designed to withstand the operating load or the storm load, whichever is greater. Stress levels due to loads as determined from Section 312 are to be within the requirements given in 313.5 and 313.7. 313.3.2 Pile Foundation For an SPM structure intended to be anchored by piles, the pile design is to be in accordance with the appropriate P sections of API R 2 q "Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. 313.3.3 Corrosion Control Where deemed necessary to suit the particular type and senice of the structure, a reduction in scantlings in association with protective coatings with or without sacrificial anodes may be considered from those determined by the requirements in 313.9.1, 313.9.2, and

a) Where effective methods of corrosion control are provided, additional scantlings may not be needed. The particulars of the coatings with or without sacrificial anodes including the program for maintenance are to be submitted. b) Where effective methods of corrosion control are not provided, the scantlings and structural thicknesses are to be suitably increased by a margin based on expected rates of corrosion particular to the S P M location and the rype of corrosive environment in contact with the structure. The scantling inneases are to be submitted to the Bureau for review.
313.5

Stresses

313.5.1 Structurai Analysis The overall structure of the SPM buoy is to be analyzed using appropriate methods, such as frame analysis or finite element methods to determine the resultant stresses for each member, under the loadings stipulated herein. A complete analysis is to be submitted for each of the s t r u c h d frames for review. Full consideration is to l x taken of secondary stresses, carry over moments, etc., and of three dimensional aspects such as direction of applied forces or reactions. Consideration is to be given, to the need of analysis for each loading condition, including the following:

a) Transmission of the operating hawser (or yoke) lead from the hawser (or yoke) attachment point(s) to the anchor leg attachment point($ or to the foundation, b) Application of the ma.uimum anchor load to the anchor leg attachment point including application of appropriate wave and hydrostatic loads, in the case of a floating structure,

P ~ 3,T SECTION 3 / 1 Striictural Design and Stability

c) Application of the maximum wave, maximum wind and maximum current loads in the case of a fixed structure.
313.5.2

Bending Stresses

Against Local Buckling When a) Provisions computing bending stresss, the effective flange areas are to be reduced in aaordance with accepted "shear lag" and local buckling theories. Local stiffeners are to be of suflicient size to prevent local buckling or the allowable stress is to be reduced proportionately. b) Consideration of Eccentric Axial Loading In the consideration of bending stresses, elastic deflections are to be taken into account when determining the effects of eccentricity of axial loading and the resulting bending moments superimposed on the bending moments computed for other trpes of loadings.
313.5.3

F, = specified minimum yield point or yield strength as defined in Part 2 of the ABS %Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units". F S = factor of safety .. for design operational loadings as defined in 313.7.1a = 1.67 for axial or bending stress = 2.50 for shear stress for design storm loadings as defined in 313.7.16 = 1.25 for axial or bending stress = 1.88 for shear stress
313.7.3 Buckling Considerations Where buckling of a structural element due to compressive or shear stresses, or both is a consideration, the compressive or shear stress is not to exceed the corresponding allowable stress F as obtained from the following equation.

Buckling Stresses The possibility of buckling of structural elements is to be specially considered in accordance with 313.7.3. For a fixed SPM structure, the bucWing of tubular members is to be evaluated in accordance with ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Offshore Installations: Part 1 Structures".
313.5.4

Shear Stresses When computing shear stresses in bulkheads, plate girder webs, or shell plating, only the area of the web is to be considered effective. The total depth of the @der may be considered as the web depth.
313.7 313.7.1

F , = critical compressive or shear buckling stress of the structural element appropriate to its dimensional configuration, boundary conditions, loading pattern, material, etc. F.S. = factor of safety = 1.67 for design operational loadings as defined in 313.7.2 = 1.25 for design storm loadings as defined in 313.7.2
313.7.4

Miowable Stresses

Members Subjected to Combined .Axial Load and Bending

General The members of effective structural elements of the SPM structure are to be anaiyzed using the loading conditions stipulated below and the resultant stresses are to be determined. For each loading condition considered, the following stresses are to be determined, and are not to exceed the allowable stresses in 313.7.2.
a)

a) When structural members are subjected to axial compression in combination with compression due to bending, the computed stresses are to comply with the following requirements:

Stresses due to combined gravity, environmental and mooring loading at operating design condition as described in 311.7.1. Stresses due to combined gravity, environmental and mooring loadings at design storm condition as described in 311.7.1. and in addition, at ends of members:
1.67 Cf$Fy) + CfJFb)5 1.0

6)

313.7.2

Member Stresses Individual stress components and, as applicable, direct combinations of such stresses, are not to exceed the allowable stress F, as obtained from the following equation.

for design operational loadings as defined

--

~12.7.2

1.25 W F y )c CfCfdFb) 1.0 5

for design storm loadings as detined in 313.7.2

PART 3,

SECTION

312 Structural Design and Stability

b) When s t r u d members are subjected to axial tension in combination with tension due to bending, the computed stresses are to comply with the following requirements:

fa

+ fb< Fj1.67

for design operational loadings as defined in 313.7.2 for design storm loadings as defined in 313.7.2

+ fb< Fj1.25

Howwer, the computed bending compressive stress, fb taken alone shall not exceed Fb where,

but not less than 0.4, where M,MZ is the ratio of t h e smaller to larger moments at the ends of that portion of the member un-braced in the plane of bending under consideration. The ratio M,M2is positive when the member is bent in reverse curvature and negative when it is bent is single curvature. 3) For compressive members in frames braced against joint translation in the plane of loading a n d subject to transverse loading between their supports, the value of C, may be determined by rational analysis. Howwer, in lieu of such analysis the following values may be used: (a) for members whose ends are restrained, c, = 0.85 @) for members whose ends are unrestrained c, = 1.0 313.7.5 Column Buckling Stresses

f = computed axial compressive or tensile stress , fb= computed compressive or tensile stress due to
bending Fa = allowable a.Uial compressive stress, which is to be the least of the following: 1) Yield mess divided by factor of safety for axial stress specified in 313.7.2 2) overall buckling stress divided by factor of safety specie3 in 313.7.5a 3) Local buckling stress divided by factor of safety for axial stress specified in 313.7.5b Fb= allowable axial compressive stress due to bending, determined by dividing the yield stress or local buckling stress, whichever is Ifis, by the factor of safety specified in 313.7.2

a) Overall Buckling For compression members which are sabject to overall coiurnn buckling, the critical buckling stress is to be obtained from the following equations.

when

K Z / ~

F',= Euler buckling stress, may be increased 113 for


combined loadings as defined in 313.7.2 Modulus of Elasticity != unsupported length of column K = effective length factor which accounts for support conditions at ends of length 1. For cases where lateral defections of end supports may exist K is not be considered less than 1.0. r = radius of gyration C, = is a coefficient as follows 1) For compression members in frames subject to joint translation (sideways), C, = 0.85 2) For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint translation and not subject to transverse loading between their supports, in the plane ofbending.

when W r 2 d ( 2 x 2 EIF,)

F ,

critical overall buckling stress

Fy = as defined in 313.7.2
E,Xl,r, are defined in 313.7.1b
The factor of safety f o r overall column buckling is to be as follows. For gravity and mwring loading as defined in 313.7.2

when KVi >

PART SECYIOR 3 3 Structural Design and Stability 3, 1

F.S.

1.92 when KYr 2

t =

d
1+0.15

t=

rn 1254) + 2.5 mm (sk rn 1 460) + 0.10 in.


(sk

but not less then 6.5mm (0.25 in.) or s 1150 (~1150 0.10 in.) whichever is greater +

+ 2.5mm

For combined tcadings as detined in 3i3.7.2

F.S. = 1.25

t = thickness in mm or in. s = stiffener spacing in nun or in. k = (3.075 a 2.077)( a + 0.272) (1 S a S 2) = 1 (&2) a = aspect ratio of the panel (longer edgdshorter edge) q = 235lY (N/mm2), 241Y (kgVrnrn2) or 34,000N

@si)
when KYr 2 b) Local Buckling Members which are subjected to axial compression or compression due to bending are to be inve.&gared for ld'buckhng, as appropriate,in addition 10 overall buchng as speclfid in 3,3.7.53.

In the case of unstiffened or ring-stiffened cylindrical


shells, local buckling is to be investigated if the proportions of the shell conform to the follow~g relationship. D/t > E / 9 F y , D = mean kameter of cylindrical shell t = thickness of cylindrical shell (expressed in the same units as D), E and Fyaxe as defined in 313.7.5a Equivalent Stress Criteria for Plated Structures For plated structures considered on the basis of the equivalent stress criterion and analyzed in accordance with the loading given in 311.7.1, the factors of safety will be specially considered. 313.7.6 313.9 Structural Design Tne bull and frame($ which axe part of the floating structure are to be designed in accordance with the requirements of 313.5 and 313.7. In addition to those requirements, the scantlings of plating, stiffeners, and beams are to meet the requirements of 313.9.1, 313.9.2, and 313.9.3. Alternatively the hull and frame design is to be based on a systematic analysis based on sound engineering principles and accounting for the external static and dynamic pressures imposed by the marine environment and the internal pressure of the contents of tanks and floodable compartments. 313.9.1 Plating

Y = specified minimum yield point or yield strength in Nlmmz (kgYmm2, psi), or 72% of the specified minimum tensile strength, whichever is the lesser h = for plating, the greatest distance in m or ft from the lower edge of the plate to the highest wave crest level. du&g the most unfavorable design situation, or 1.0 m (3.28 ft), whichever is greater.
b) Tank Plating Where the internal space is a tank, the design head h, in association with the equation given in a), is to be taken from the lower edge of the plate to a point located at two thirds of the distance from the ak top of the t n to the top of the ovefflow or 1.0 m (3.28 it), whichever is greater. Where the specific gravity of the liquid exceeds 1.05, the design head, h, in this section is to be increased by the ratio of the specific gravity to 1.05. 313.9.2 Stiifeners and Beams Tine section modulus SM of each bulkhead eerier or beam in association with the plating to which it is attached, is not to be less than obtained fiom the foUowing equation.

f = 7.8 (0.0041)
c 0.9 for M e n e r s having clip attachments to decks or flats at the ends or having such attachments at one end with the other end supported by girders = 1.00 for M e n e r s supported at both ends by girders h = vertical distance, in m (it), from the middle of length 1 to the same heights to which h for p!ating is measured (see 313.9.la) s = spacing of stiffeners, in m (t f)
=

a) Hull and Watertight Bulkhead Plating Hull plating is to be of the thickness derived fiom the following equation.

PART SECTION 314 Structural Design and Stability 3,

1 = length, in m or A between supports.

Where brackets are fitted at shell, deck, or bulkhead supports, and the brackets are in accordance with Table 313.1 and have a slope of approximately 45 degrees, the length f may be measured to a point on the bracket l w t e d at a distance from the toe e q d to 25% of the length of the bracket Girders and Webs

313.11.1 Intact Stability The bull is to be stable under the following conditions. a) In calm water without mooring leg(s) in place b) During installation

313.9.3

l c) In the operating environment with a l mooring l e y in place and pretensioned under the operating hawser load
d) Under tow, if the buoy is towed
lo The designer is a s to verify the following:
1. Positive GM providing adequate initial stability in the calm water condition without any mooring leg@) in place. 2. Suf6cient reserve stability to w i ' t d the ovemuning moments caused by the enviro~nental and operational loads during towout, installation and operation. The waterline at any equilibrium condition is to be below the firs downflwding point 3. The compartments are to be arranged fo that the hull or buoy will not capsize or sink due to the pull of the anchor legs wider pretension and of the underbuoy hose.$flexibie risers under the design storm condition.

a) Strength Requirements Each girder or web which supports a frame, beam, or sWener is to have a sedtion modulus SM not less than obtained from the following equation.

f = 4.74 (0.0025)
c = 1.5 h = vertical distance, in m (ft), from the middle of s in the case of girders or from the middle of 1 in the case of webs, to the same heights to which h for plating is measured (see 313.9.la) s = sum of h l lengths, in m (ft) (on each side of af or beams girder or web) of the &$nets supported i = length, in m (ft), between supports; where brackets are fitted at shell, deck or bulkhead nrpprts, and the brackets are in accordance with Table 313.1 and have a slope of approximately 45 degrees, the length !may be measured to a point on the bracket iocated at a distance from the toe equal to 25% of the length of the bracket Where efficient struts are fitted connecting girders or webs on each side of the tanks and spaced not more than four (4) times the depth of the girder or web, the section modulus SM for each girder or web may be one-half that obtained from the above.
b) Proportions Girders and webs are to have a depth not less than 0.125 i where no struts or ties are fitted, and 0.0833 1 where struts are fined. The thickness is not to be less than 1 % of depth plus 3 mm (0.12 in.), but need not exceed 11 m (0.44 in.). In general, the m depth is not to be less than 2.5 times the depth of cutouts.

313.11.2 Damage Stability The designer is to verify that the buoy bas enough reserve buoyancy to stay .@oat in a condition with one compartment (adjacent to the sea) damaged. It is also required to venfy Ulai the waterline is below the first downfiwding point in a damage equilibrium condition with one compartment damaged under the design operating condition.
Fired Mooring Structure 313.13 The fixed mooring structure is to be analyzed as a space h m e taking into account the gravity, functional, environmental and mooring loads. The analysis is to ta!se into account operating and maximum conditions. For SALM type of mooring structure, the analysis is be in accordance with the requirements of 313.5 and 313.7. The connections between vessel and fmed mooring platfarm other than chose stated in Section 314.9 should Se adequately designed. I h e design of the fixed m w ~ g platform is to withstand the operating and storm condition as described in 311.7.1. A structure with buoyant structural elements is to meet requirements of 30.5 and 313.7, while a tower mooring structure designed as a gravity based fixed structure with tubular members is to be in accordance with the requirements of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Ofishore Installations: Pan 1 Smctures".

c) Tripping Brackets Girders and webs are to be supported by tripping brackets at intervals of about 3 m (10 R) near the change of the section. Where the width of the unsupported face plate exceeds 200 m m (8 in.), tripping brackets are to support the face place. 313.11 Stability The hull is to be divided by buW5ads into watertight compartments. Watertight manholes are to be provided for access to all main flwdable compartments.

PART SECTION 315 Structural Design and Stability 3,

Additional Structural Requirements An appropriate system is to be designed to prevent damage to the cargo transfer system due to impact from attendant vessels.
313.15

313.17 Buoyancy Tanks for HosesfFlexible Risen The buoyancy tank provides buoyancy to support the weight of hoses and flexible risers belonging to the single p i n t mooring system. The average shell membrane stress at the test pressure is to be limited to 90% of the minimum specified yield strength when subject to hydrostatic testing, and to 80% of the yield strength under pneumatic testing. The combination of average shell membrane stress and bending stress at design operating pressure is to be limited to 50% of the ultimate strength, or the minimum specified yield stren-ah whichever is less. When the external pressure is nor compensated by internal p r m e the stress values are alu, to be checkd against critical bucWing.

PART SECTION 3 6 Structural Design and Stability 3, 1

TABLE 31'3.1 Thickness and Flanges of Brackets and Knees


Inches

Depth of Longer

Arm.

Thickness* Plain Flanged

Width of Flange

Depth of Longer Arm

Thickness* Plain Flanged

Width of Flange

*The thickness of brackets is to be suitabiy increased in cases where the depth at throat is less than two thirds that of the knee.

PART 3. SECTION 317

Structural Oesign and Stability

PAXr 3 SECTION 4

Mooring and Anchoring


3/41 General The mooring legs and anchors of an SPM are to be designed to protect against the failure of the underbuoy hose or riser with one anchor line broken, for the design environmental conditiom desnibed in 311.7.1. 3/4.3 Anchor Points Theanchors are to be designed to have adequate holding capacity. For mooring systems with drag anchors, the holding capacity of each anchor is to be determined by using the soil characteristics of the bottom samples. The t p of anchorage for the anchor leg($ is to be selected ye according to conditions of the seabed and the maximum design anchor load. The design factor of safety with respect to the holding capaci& o f l h e anchor is not to be less than 2.00 for the operating condition with the vessel moored to the SPM, and not less than 1.50 for the design storm condition (without the vessel). Where lower iactors of saiety of anchor ieg(s) are desired with additionai mooring analysis for any one line broken case as indicated in 3/43, the factor of safety on the holding capacity of the anchor in a broken line case for the operating condition should not be less than 1.60. In case of an SPM system using anchor piles, it is recommended that pile foundations be designed to comply with the appropriate sections of API RP 2A. A pile driving record or pile grouting record is to be taken and submined for each pile. The method of installation of the piles and tihe equipment employed is to be included in the pile driving record. Where the anchoring system uses gravity boxes, resistance against sliding, uplifting, and overtnming of the gravity The forces due to boxes are to bt: analyzed. environmental, gravity and mooring are to be taken into account appropriately. Scour effects on the gravity boxes are to be considered in the design. On deployment of the mooring system with drag anchors, each mooring line is to be pull tested to 80% of the ma.rimum design load and is to be held at rhat load for 30 minutes in presence of the Surveyor. Cdcuiatiom or data from prior experience are to be submitted to support the choic: of anchorage system and number of anchor paints. See also 311.5.2.
314.5 Anchor Leg(@ The components of each anchor leg are to be designed with the foilowhg safety factors of against breaking.

Lower factor of safety of 2.50 against the mioLaum breaking strength of the anchor leg companent(s) will be allowed for the design operating condition if a mooring analysis of the mooring system with any one line broken meets a factor of safety of 2.00 with respect to the minimum breaking Strength of anchor leg component(s). The mooring structure of a fixed SPM system is to be designed in accordance with 313.13.
31'4.7 Anchor and Chains Anchors and chains are to comply with the requii~ments of Ul.11 and 2 1 . 1 3 of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Ofishore Drilling Units". Equipment designed to other standards wiU be specially considered. 3N.9 Mooring between Vessel and SPM When hawsers are u e as the oomecting links, they are sd to be designed using t h e following factors of safety on the breaking strength of the weakesi part. The strength of ropes or hawsers is to be determined in accordance with and certified to the latesf version of " O C M P r o t o w Rope Testing". The br-&ng strength of spliced rope is to be established by appropriate testing. The breaking strength of the hawser t o be used.is to ?E*Lielower value of the hawser in wet or dry condition. with one fairizad, F.S. = 1.67 with muitipiefairieads, F.S. = 2.50 Where the vessel is moored to the SPM wing hawsers running through more than two (2) fabrlads on the vessei, the hawser load! are to be calcdated as if there are only two (2) fairleads. Hawser manufachii-e is to comply -with the "OCIMF Quality Control and I m p c h o n during the Production of Hawsers". When a rigid mooring structure is used as the rnoorixig structure between the vessel and the SPM, the connecting structnres are to comply with 3.7.5 of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units". 314.11 Structural Comporaernas Lf not indicated elsewhere in these Rules, the structural and mechanical components (mooring hardmare, e.g., connecting links, shackles, etc.) which traosrnil the mooring loads are to I designed lo the geajeb of the x following two loads: a) 2.50 times the maximum design anchor leg (or mooring line) load in design storm condition. b) 3.00 times the maximum d e s i p anchor leg (or mooring line) load i operating condidon. n

Design S t o m Condition without vessel Ail Lines Ineocr 2.50 Design Operating Condition with vessel All Lines Intact 3.00

PART SECTION 412 3,

Mooring and Anchoring

Part 4
Equipment and Systems

Cargo or Product Transfer Systems


=bed contact in design storm condition wiU be specially considered. Checking of designs for interference is required Adequately reinforced hosedflexible risers in areas of maximum hoMexible riser flexing are to be provided. The procedures for installation, removal (f i applicable), and maintenance are to be submitted for review.
411.5.3 Floating Hoses Lifting arrangements are to be provided at the end of the floating hose. Spgial hose is to be provided at the vessel end to accommodate the bending of the hose over the vessel rail (Tanker Rail Hose). The vessel end of the hose is to be provided with a blind flange to avoid contamination of the sea water. Consideration is to be given to providing swivels, specially reinforced hose, or both, at the connection of the floating hose with compnnents of the SPM system. Consideration is to be given to providing a breakaway coupling with shut off valves in each floating hose string to provide surge and axial overload protection to the hose string, and to minimize pollution i the event of an excessive pressure n surge or tanker breakout.

411.1 General The provisions of this section are applicable to the cargo or product Uanrfer system and associated components of single point moorings (SPMJ. The cargo or product transfer system includes all system components from the &wr connection to a pipeline to the first flange on the loading tanker or other type of unit Pipe Line End bfanifolds (PLEMs), if provided, are to comply with the provisions of this seaion. 411.1.1 Conditions Aoolicable to Pipeline .. Connection The followina conditions aoolv to the PLEN or pipeline and the connection &tween the und&a underbuoy hosedflexible risers. a) It is to be anchored to t l e sea bottom to resist forces due to waves, nurent, and forces imposed by the SPM and the undersea pipeline. b) A meam of closure is to be provided to permit isolation of the SPM L-om the undersea pipeline. Materials 411.3 Refer to 211.7 for material requirements for cargo or product transfer systems.

413.5.1 General Toe !en& of the hosdflexibie riser system, provision for buoyancy, spreaders between hosesinexibie risers, external restraints (3 required) and angle of connection to the pipeline end and the SPM are to be established taking into account at least the f o i l ~ ~ g . a) M u m excursion of the S?M structure both under the operating conditions wiIh a moored vessel and the design conditions without a moored vessel. b) Motion of the components of the system. c) External forces on the hodflexible riser system d) Range of fifiecific gravity of the contents of the hoseinexibIe riser system including the various cargoes anticipated and sea water. 11.. Underbuoy BosesiFlexible %sen The system is to be designed to avoid chafing of i\ underwater hoses/flexible ;isen due to contact wt the SPM hull or buoy, anchor legs or applicable w r i n g system, seabed, and other hosesifiexibl:: risers (f any). i System designed w i ~ 3 wear protection against iqcidental PART 4,
SECT!ON ? j

Constmction 411.5.4 All hose is to comply with the O C M "Guide to Purchasing, bknufacturing and Testing of Loading and Discharge Hoses for OfFshore Mmrings" and is to be manufactured to the Survey and Inspection of the Bureau. Prototype hose approval in accordance with Part B of this standard is required. Variances lrom the OCIMF "Guide to Purchasing, Manufacturing and Tesiing of Loading and Discharge Hoses for Offshore Moorings" as required to satisfy the system's operating conditions will be considered on a case by case basis. Adequate justification for such variances wilt be required. The bolting and gasket materials and design are to comply with an applicable recognized design standard and be suitable for their intended senice. Rexible risen, if utilized, are to meet the requiremem found in the ABS "Guide for Building and Classing Undersea Pipeline Systems and Risers" and MI R? 17B "Recommended Practice for Flexible Pipe". 411.5.5 System Design Pressure Design pressure is defined as the larger of a) The shut-aff head at the vessel's manifold at zero flow, plus the gravity head of the contents to the part of the SPM pipe or hose in question. b) The head calculated due to surge pressure, resulting from design valve closing times.

Caigo or Produd Transfer Systems

4t1.5.6 Testing Fach length of hose is to be subjected to hydrostatic and vacuum tests in accordance with requirements of 1.11.6 and 1.11.8 respectively of the OCIMF "Guide to Purchasing, Manufacturing and Testing of Loading and Discharge Hoses for OEshore M m ~ g s " .These tests are to be witnessed by a Surveyor. In all cases where the design pressure of the system exceeds 15.5 bar (15.8 kgf/m2, 225 psi), the hydrostatic test is to be carried out at not less than the design pressure. Where flexible risers are used, they are to be tested using recognized standards.

3. Hydrostatic pressure test to design pres37~e through four (4) complete revolutions. The first revolution is to be clockwise, and the final countercloc~se.Each rotation is to be in stages of 30 degrees at a rate of approximately 30 smnds per 30 degrees with a 30 second pause between each 30 degree rotation. For each 30 degree rotation, the breakaway torque and the rotating torque are to be recorded. Where fluid assembly swivel rotates in unison with mwri:.ngs u i v z l , th& tesr is to k conduced an the combined qn~.:n.

411.7 4.7.

Cargo o r Product Swivels and Related Systems and Equipment Cargo or Product Swivels

a) Design Cargo or product swivels are to be of steel construction with flanged or welded connections. Details of the swivel connecting stationary SPM piping with rotating piping are to be submitted for approval. Such details are to include fixed and rotating parts details, plate thicknesses, nozzle locations and arrangemen6 seal and and bearing d e s i g ~ welding. The swivel design is to consider the most adverse AI least the combination of applicable loads. following loads are to be considered: 1. Breakaway torque required for each swivel at maximum design pressure 2. Weight of swivel and its structural components
3. D y n a i c loads due to vessel motion

Leak Monitoring, Xmovery and Pressurization Svstem: .ZU piping for leak recovery and presmrktion ynems is to be of steel c o m c t i o n or mlivaient and des~xedin accordance with ASME B3 1.3. A pressure balanced, or over-pressured, isolation s%l shall be used between the primary seal and the product in gas or gas containing production fluid swivels.
411.7.2

411.7.3

Bearings

a) Mooring Bearings Bearings which carry the operating hawser load, rotating structure load and mooring load are to be designed with a saEety factor of not less than 2 without destructive yielding of the bearing surfaces. Bearing mounting bolts are to be designed in accordance standards. For high tension bolts stress with recow corrosion cracdng is to be considered
b) Swivel Bearings

4. Piping loads
5 . Mooring forces

Swivel bearings that do not carry the hawser load are to be designed in accordance with AFBMA CoCes (Anti Friction Bearing hianufacturen Association) or other recognized industy standards 4 . 7 Corrosion Protection The swivels are to be coated on the outside with a suitable corrosion resistant coating. This coating will not be required for parts made of corrosion resistant material. The possibility of corrosion due to the presence of CO,, 0 , or y S in the cargo or product fluid is to be considered in the swivel design. 411.9 Cargo o r Product Piping Systems

6. Pressure loads

7. Thermai loads
Pressure retaining components of the swivel are to be designed in accordance with a recognized standard such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Structural components of the swivel and driving mechanism are to comply with Section 313 of these Rules, the ASME code or other recognized structural design standard. b) Testing Testing is to be conducted at the manufacturer's plant in accordance with an approved test procedure in the presence of a Surveyor. The procedure is to address acceptable leakage criteria and is to spec@' the following t e s as a minimum: 1. Hydrostatic pressure test to at least 1.5 rimes the design pressure for at least two (2) hours. 2. Hydrostatic pressure test io design pressure through two (2) complete revolutions in each direction at a rate of approximately ten (10) minutes per revolution.

411.9.1 Piping All piping for the cargo or product t r a d e r system mounted on the SPM is to be of steel with welded or flanged connections. Piping is to be securely mounted on the SPM and anchored to resist the forces resulting kom internal pressure and flow in the system and loads induced by the hoseinexible riser sysiem connected to it. Provision is to be made for expansion. Piping is ! be shop tested o &er fabrication to a minimum pressure of 1.5 times the design pressure in the presence of a Surveyor. Cargo or product piping installed on SP(tls is to comply with ASME B3 1.3 eycept that piping less than Standard weight should not be used. Standard weight pipe is

PART SECTION112 Cargo or Product Transfer Systems 4.

defined as the American National Standards Institute Schedule 40 up to a maximum wall thickness of 9.5 m m (0.375 in).
411.9.2

cargo or product fluid is to be considered in the piping desip.

Valves A shut-off valve is to be provided on the SPM for each cargo transfer line. Valves are to be of steel construction and capable of manuat operation. Valves are to be constructed and tested in accordance with recognized standards such as those of the American National AS) Standards Institute ( N I . Non-standard valves are those valves that are not certified by the manufactnrer as complying with a recognized standard. The use of nonstandard valves is subject to special consideration and drawings of such valves showing details of construction and materials are to be submitted for review, as well as the basis for valve pressure rating, such as design calculations or appropriate burst test data.
41.9.3 Flanges and Fittings Flanges and fittings are to be constructed and tested in accordance with recognized standards such as those of the American National Standards Lnstitute (ANSI). Nonstandard flanges and fittings are those components that are not certified by the manufacturer as complying with a recognized standard. The use of non-standard flanges and fittings is subject to special consideration and drawings of such components showing details of construction, materials and design calculations or test results are to be submitted for review.

411.9.4 Elpansion Joints Expansion joints are to b v e a maximum allowable working pressure of no greater that one third of the hydrostatic bursting pressure of the joint. For oonmetaiiic expansion joints. cross sectional drawings of the joint showing construction of the joint including end fitting attachment and a bill of materials are to be submitted for review. For metallic bellows expansion joints, cross sectional drawings of the joint along with a bill of materials are to be submitted for review. Calculations verifying that the expansion joint has been designed in accordance wiLh the Expansion Joint Manufacturer's Association (EJMA) Smdards or other applicable recognized codes or standards, and is suitable for its intended use are also to be submitted for review.
411.9.5 PEEM Piping The requirements of 4/1.9.1, 411.9.2 and 111.9.3 are also applicable to the piping, valves, flanges and fittings forming the Pipe Line End EiIaaifold 0 .

Conosion Protection Tne cargo or product piping valves and fittings are to be coated on the outside with a suitable corrosion resistant coating. This coating wiU not be required for parts made of corrosion resistant material. The possibiliiy of , corrosion due to the presence of CO, 0,. or y S in the
411.9.6

Pas? 4 s ~ c ~ i 1!3 Camo or Prod~irt ou Transfer Svsterns

PART4

SECTION

Ancillary Systems and Equipment

General Ancillary W s t m such as hydraulic, pneumatic. fuel, ballast, telemetry, controls, etc. which may be provided on a single point mooring are to comply with the applicable requirements of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units" exceol as specifid in this section.
412.1

Aneiltarv Comnnncnts , r----Ancillary mechanical components such a , hoists, winch=, quick corn& and discomect devices, ato be desiped accordance with applicable industry and published rammended pra&ces,
412.9

Bilge Pumping Single point moorings are to be provided with a means for l pumping from and draining a l tanks and void compartments. Pumping by means of a portable hand operated pump would be acceptable in lieu of a fixed bilge system.
412.3 412.5 Tank Sounding A manual means of sounding is to be provided for all

tanks and void compartments.

412.7 Tank Ventine .All t a k kt are filled or empt!d through fixed pumping rranremer.rs md all voids through uhich przssure piplng .. passes are to be fined with vent pypes.

The shctural arrangement of tanks or voids requiring a vent is to be such as to permit the free passage of air and gasses from all parti; of the spaces to the vent pipes. Each tank or void requiring a vent is to be fitted with at least one vent pipe, which n located at the highest part of the tank. Vent pipes are to be arranged to provide adequate selfdrainage under normal conditions. Vent outlets on the open deck are to terminate by way of return bends. Satisfactory means, permanently attached, are to be provided for closing the vent pipes. The internal diameter of each vent pipe is not to be less than 51 mm (2 in.) unless specially approved otherwise. Where tasks are to be filled by pump pressure, the aggregate area of the vents on the tank is to be at least 125% of the effective area of the iilling line. Nohvitbstanding the above, the pump capaclty and pressure head are to be considered in the sizing of the vents. Vent pipes are to terminate in the weather and their height is to be at least 760 mnt i 3 0 i n ) above the deck exmot where this heieht mav interfere with the working ofthi SPM, a lower hgght be approved provided tha? the closing arrangements and other cinumstan= justify a lower height.

may

PART^, SECTION 211 Ancillary Systems and Equipment

$ART 4 SECTION

H a a d o u s Pireas and Electrical Installations

413.1 General Electrical installations onbaard single point moorings are to comply with the requirements of Section 4/3 of the ABS "Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Wshore Drilling Units" and the additional or m&ed requirements contained in this d o n . Alternatively, consideration wilI be given to installations that comply with the requirements contained in this section and applicable recognized standards, provided that they are not less effective. 413.3

413.5

Cables and Types of Electrical Equipment Permitted in Hazardous Areas 413.5.1 Electrical EquipmentTbe following equipment and cables are acceptable for W a t i o n in hazardous locztions: a) Zone 0 Areas: Only certified intrinsically-safe circuits or equipment and associated wiring are permitted in Zone 0 areas. b) Zone 1 Areas: Equipment and cables permitted in Zone 1 areas are to be: 1. Certified intrinsically-safe circuits or equipment and associated wiring 2. Certified flameproof (explosion proai) equipment
3. Certified increased safety equipment; for increased safety motors due consideration is to be given to the protection against overcment
4. Pressurized enclosure type equipment @resmrhtion systems are to comply with applicable industry standards)

Hazardous . h a s

413.3.1 Definitions Hazardous Areas: Ifazardom areas are all those areas where a flammable atmosphere may be expected to exist continuously or intermittently. Hazardous areas are subdivided into Zones 0, 1 and 2 defined as follows:

Zone 0: A zone in which an explosive gas-air m i x l u r e is continuously present or present for long periods. Zone I A zone in which an explosive gas-air m i m e is : likely to cccSxin normal operating conditions. Zone 2: A zone in which an explosive gas-air mixture is not likely to %cur, and i it o c r ,it will exist only for a f cus short time. Enclosed Space: An enclosed space is considered to be a space bounded by decks and bulkheads which may or may not have doors, windows, or other similar openings.
413.3.2 Classification of Areas The wa w t i 3 meters (10 Pi) of a cargo or product e ihn n swivel is considered a Zone 2 area when i a non-enclosed area. When a cargo or product swivel is installed within an enclosed space, the space is considered a Zone 1 area. Tne inside of tanks, swivels or pipes containing hydr-ns are considered Zone 0 areas. In addition to the hazardous areas deKned above, the principles of AD1 l7F 500 Section B "Recommended Practice for ClassZcation of Locatioas for Electrical Installations at PeLroleum Facilities" are to be considered in delineating hazardous areas associated with cornpnents of the sinse point mooring.

5 . Peimanently installed cables with metallic armor, a metallic sheath, or installed in metallic conduit with explosion proof gastight fittings. Exception: flexible cables, where necessary, may be installed ye provided they are of heavy duty t p . c) 2ane 2 Areas: Equipment and cables perrniiied in Zone 2 areas are all equipment approved for Zone 1 areas and the following equipment provided the operating temperature does not exceed 31jC (600F) and provided any brushes, switching mecEanisms, or sirniiar arc-producing devices are approved for Zone 1 areas: 1. Enclosed squirrel-cage induction motors
2. Fixed lighting L-es damage

protected from mechanic4

3. Transformers, solenoids, or impedance coils in general purpose enclosures


4. Cables with moisture-resistant jacket (impe~0u.s

sheathed) and protected from mechanical damage.


4/3.5.t Cable Lostallation Electiical conductors are to be run with a view to avoiding as far as practical, spaces where gas may n o d y be expected to accumulate. No cable splices are allowed in hazardous areas except in intrinsically-safe circuits. W e r e it is necessary to join cables in a hazardous area

P A ~4TSECTION 311 Hazardous A r e x and Eledrical lrstallaticns

(e.g. flexible cable c o ~ e c t i o n to non-flexible cables), the s joints are to be made in approved junction boxes. 413.7 Electrical Swivets If installed in a hazardous area, the electrical swivel is to be certified by an independent testing laboratory as suitable for installation within such an area as per 413.3 of

these R l s ue.

The amperage ratings of electrical swivels (slip rings) are to be adequate to cany the full load Nnent of the equipment supplied

PART SECTION 312 Hazardous Areas and Electrical installations 4,

PART4

SECTION 4

Safety Provisions

414.1 4/4.1.1

~ a v i ~ a t i Aids on

Obstruction Lights Obstruction lights are to be provided as prescribed by the National Authority having jurisdiction I the SPM is f located outside the territorial waters of any National Authority or if no lights are prescribed by the authority having jurisdiction, the following is to be provided as a minimum: One 360 degra: white light visible for five (5) miles under an atmospheric transmissivity of 0.85, flashing six (6) times per minute, and ananged for operation at least from sunset to sunrise local time. It is recommended that the floating hoses be marked with winker lights. Fog Signal Audible fog signals are to be provided'ifprescribed by the National Authority having jurisdiction.
4/4.1.2

4413 1.. Radar Reflector A radar reflector is ta be provided if prescribed by the Nationai Authority having jurisdiction.
Fire Fighting Equipment SPMs are to be equipped with at least one B-11 type portable fire extinguisher. Where the risk of an electrical fire also exists, one C-11 type portable extinguisher is also to be provided In lieu of providing two (2) extinguishers, consideration will be given to a single extinguisher of a type suitable for both oil and electrical fires. A B-11rated portable extinguisher could be 9.5 liter (2.5 U.S. gallons) foam, 6.7kg (15 lb) carbon dioxide or 4.5 kg (10 Ib) dry chemical. A C-I1 rated prtabie extinguisher could be 6.7 kg (15 lb) carbon dioxide or 4.5 kg (10 lb) dry chemical.
414.3
414.5 Identification Marks A name or number is to be assigned to each single p i n t

mooring and is to conform to requirements of the National Authority having jurisdiction. This name or number is to be permanently displayed on the structure and will be entered in the ABS Record. Draft marks are to be permanently marked in at least two (2) places.

PART^, SECTION411 Safzty Provisions

lengrh overall U1.3.4 water deprh 1/1.3.4

classification Process 111.1.1


fees 1/1.17 flag state 1/1.15.3 liability 1/1.21 novel features 1/1.5.3 represenration to classification 1/1.1.3 reports 1/1.1.2 scope of Classification 1/1.1.4 suspension 1/1.1.5 termination IN. 1.6

abbreviations 114.3 air Testing 112.1.3 alignment 212.3.2 allowable stresses 313.7.1, 313.7.2, 313.7.3 alternate welding 212.9 alterations 113.1.8, 113.1.9 alternatives 111.5.2 anchoring 314 anchors 111.11.1, 111.11.5, 112.5, 113.7.2, 314.7 anchor leg loads 312.7.1 ancillary systems 412 ancillary components 412.9 annual survey U3.1.3, 113.5 application of Rules 111.5.1 approved 111.1.4 ballast 111.11.1,412.1 bearing 111.11.1.411.7.3 bending stress 313.5.2 bilge pump 412.3 bottom topography 311.3.2 buckling 313.7.3 buckling stress 313.5.3 bulkhead plating 313.9.1 buoyant element 313.13 buoyancy tank 112.11.2, 313.17 butt weld 212.7 cable 4/3.5.2 cargo swivel 111.11.1, 111.13.1, Table 112.2 calculations 111.11.5 chains 113.7.2 chain stoppers 113.7.1, 113.7.2 connector 113.7.2 continuous survey 113.1.5 cargo transfer 211.7 cargo transfer system 411 classification Ill .I
application of Rules 1/1.5.1 approved 1/1.1.4 certi$cates 1/1.1.2 class designation 1/1.3

classification of areas 4/'3.3.2 column buckling 313.7.5 combined axial and bending 313.7.4 controls 412.1 corrosion 111.11.1, 411.7.4.411.9.6 corrosion control 313.3.3 current 311.7.4 current forces 312.5.3 damage 111.1.5,1/1.15.1, IU3.1.1 damage stability 313.1 1.2 dead loads 312.1 definitions 114.1 design loads 312.1 design pressure 411.5.5 design storm loads 312.7.1 disagreement 111.19.1 displacement 111.3.4 draft marks 414.5 electrical system 1 11 . 1 . 11 electrical installations 113.7.6 electrical equipment 413.5.1 environment 212.5.1 environmental loads 312.5 equipment 412 expansion joints 411.9.4 factor of safety
anchor 3/4.3 anchor leg 3/4.5 hawser 3/4.9

classification data 111.3.4


latitude 1/1.3.4 longitude 1/1.3.4 displacement 1l1.3.4

fatigue loading 312.9 fees 111.17 fillet welds 213.1, 213.1.2 fire fighting 414.3 fire safety 111.l 1.1 fittings 411.9.3 flag state 111.15.3 flexible risers 4/1.5,4/1.5.1,411.5.2; 411.5.4,411.5.6

floating hoses 411.5.3 floating production system 111.3.3 fog signal 414.1.2 general arrangement 6/1.11..1,111113.1 girders 313.9.3 governmental regulations 111.7.2 hatches 111.11.1,1/3.5.1 hawser 111.11.1, 114.1,3/4.9 hazardous areas 111. 1I. 1 height coefficient 312.5.2, Table 312.2 high strength steel 212.5.4 hoists 412.9 hoses 211.7,411.5,411.5.1,411.5.4 hose testing 411.5.6 hull plating 313.9.1 hydraulic 412.1 hydrostatic testing 112.1.2 IACS 319.9 identification marks 4i4.5 inspection 212.5.9 load bearil~g111.61.5 lay-up 113.16 lapped joints 213.1.5 leak monitoring 411.7.2 local buckling 313.7.5 main bearing I/L.11.1, definition 114.1 maintenance schedule 111.1 3.1 manholes 113.5.1 manual 111.13, 111.13.1 manual weiding 212.7.1 materials 211 . l , 411.3 measurement 114.5 member stresses 313.7.1 model test 111.1 1.4 mooring 111.11.1, 111.11.5, 111.15.1, 112.5. 113.5.2, 113.7.1, 113.7.2, 2/1.5, 314, mooring hardware 314.11 mooring structure 314.9, navieation 111.11.1.1/L.P3.1. Table 112.2 navication aids 414. i NDT 111.11.1 novel features 111.5.3 operating en'iironment 3/4.7.% operating current 311.7.4 operating mooring load 312.7.1 operating wave 311.7.2 operating wind 311.7.3 other regulations 111.7

padeye 1/3.7.1 peening 212.5.6 pile 313.3.2 pipeline connection 411.1.1 pressurizing system 411.7.2 plans l/1.11.1, 111.11.6 plated structures 313.7.6 plating 313.9.1 PLEM 311.3.1 PLEM piping 411.9.5 plug welds 213.1.7 pneumatic 412.1 product lines 113.5.2 product piping 411.9 product swivel 411.7,4/1.7.1 pull test 112.5, 314.3 quenched 212.5.4 r a d a r reflector 414.1.3 repair 212.5.10 riser - seeflexible risers ROV 113.7.1, 113.7.2, 114.3 Rules i11.1.2 alternatives 111.5.2 application of rules 111.5.1 disagreement 111.19.1 rule Change 111.5.4 seiche 311.7.5 single point mooring (SPM) 111.1.2, 111.3.1, 111.3.3, 111.3.4, definition 114.1 site 111.1 1.2, 111.11.3, 111.13.1 sounding 111.1 1.I, 412.5 Special surveys 113.7 chain stoppers 113.7.1, 113.7.2 electrical installations 113.7.6 foundations 113.7.1 gauging 113.7.1 structure 113.7.1 mooring 113.7.1, 113.7.2 padeye 113.7.1 ROV 113.7.1, 113.7.2, 114.3 safety equipment 1i3.7.4 swivel 113.7.5 surveyor 111.1.2, 111.1.3, 111.15.1, 111.15.2, 111.15.3, 111.19.2 suspension 111. I .5 swivel 111.1 1.1, 111.13.1, 113.7.5 stability 111.1 1.5, 313.1 1 damage stability 313.11.2 intact stability 3i3.11.1 standards 111.I .2

structural Arrangement 1/1.11.1 coaming V3.5.1 hatches 111.11.1, 113.5.1 manholes 113.5.1 structural design 111.1 1.5, 3/3 water tight doors 111.1 1.1 welding Details 111.1 1.1 submissions 111.11.7 survey 1/3.7.3,411.5.5 annual survey 1/3.1.3, 113.5 continuous survey 113.1.5 damage 111.15.1, 113.1.1 definition U4.1 drydocking 113.3 lay-up 113.1.6 notification 111.15.2 product lines 113.5.2 reactivation 113.1.6 surveys after constructions 111.15 special periodical survey 113.1.4 swivel 113.5.2 welding material 113.1.9 swivel stack 1/1.11.5

venting 1/1.11.1 water depth 1/1.3.4 water tight doors l / l .11.1


welding 212.1.1 alignment 2n.3.2 alternate welding 2/2.9 back gouging 20.5.5 butt weld 2D.7
cleanliness 2R.3.3 controlled gaps 2/3.1.5 deep penetration welds 2/3.1.5 edge preparation 20.3.1 electrogas weld 2R.7.4 environment 2/2.5.1 fillet welds 2/3.1, 2/3.1.2 flame shrinking 2 / 2 3 7 fliu; cored-arc weld 2R.7.3 forming 20.3.7 full or partial penetration 213.3 gas metal-arc welding 20.7.3 high strength steel 2R.5.4 inspection 2R.5.9 lapped joints 2/3.1.6 man~ial welding 2L.7.1 overlapped end connecrions 2/3 Z.6a overlapped seams 2/3.1.6b peening 212.5.6 plug +velds 2/3.1.7 preheat 2/2.5.3 preparation 2R.3 procedure 2/2.1,4 production welding 2 / 2 5 quenched 212.5.4 repair 2f2.5.10 run-on/rim-off tabs 2D.3.5 sequence 2/2.5.2 slot welds 2/3.1.7 special welding 2R.7.5 specification 2R.1.2 stud welding 20.3.6 submerged-arc welding 2D.7.2 surface apppearance 2n.5.8 tack welds 2L.3.4 tee conmections 2/3.1.2 tee-type end connections tempered 20.5.4 toughness criteria 2f2.3.4 tubular joints 2/3.1.8 unbracketed stiffeners weld factors Table 2/3.1

tank plating 3i3.9.1


tank sounding 4/2.5, also see sounding tank venting 412.7, see also venting telemetry 111.11.1,412.1, Table U2.2 tempered steel 212.5.4 termination of classification 1/1.1.5 testing air Testing U2.1.3 Bulkhead 1 R . I buoyancy tank I D . 11.2 fittings IL2.l flexible riser ID.7, ID.11 Nose testing IR.1.4 Hydrostatic 1/2.1.2, 4/1.5.6 model test 1/1.11.4 mooring IR.5 swivel I R . 7 tank, bulkhead andfittings 1/21 vacicum test 4/1.5.6 valve 1/27 tidal 3/1.7.6 tripping bracket 3/3.9.3 tubular joints 2/3.1.8

unbracketed stiffeners 213.1.4 underbuoy hoses 1/1 .I 1.1,4/1.5.2,


definition 114.1

weld soundness 2D.5.8 welder 20.1.3 welding environment 2~2.5.1 welding o piping 2R.1l f welding procedure 2D.13