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Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions

A.D. 79

Aug. 24, Italy: eruption of Mt. Vesuvius buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, killing thousands.



Dec. 22, Damghan, Iran: earthquake killed 200,000.



March 23, Ardabil, Iran: earthquake killed about 150,000 people.



Aug. 9, Aleppo, Syria: deadly earthquake claimed lives of 230,000 people.



Sept., Chihli, China: earthquake killed about 100,000 people.



Jan. 23, Shaanxi (Shensi) province, China: most deadly earthquake in history; 830,000 killed.



Nov., Shemakha, Caucasia: earthquake killed about 80,000 people.



Jan. 11, Sicily, Italy: earthquake killed about 60,000 people.



Oct. 28, Japan: tsunami caused by an earthquake drowned 30,000.



Nov. 18, Tabriz, Iran: about 77,000 victims killed in deadly earthquake.



Nov. 1, Portugal: earthquake, fires, and Atlantic tsunami leveled Lisbon and was felt as far away as southern France and North Africa; 70,000 killed.



South Sea, China: tsunami killed 40,000.



Feb. 4, Calabria, Italy: series of 6 earthquakes over two-month period caused massive destruction, killing 50,000. One of first scientifically investigated earthquakes. June 8, Iceland: eruption of Laki volcano lasted until Feb. 1784. Haze from eruption resulted in loss of island's livestock and widespread crop failure; 9,350 deaths, mostly due to starvation.



May 21, Kyushu Island, Japan: collapse of old lava dome during eruption of Unzen volcano caused avalanche and tsunami that killed an estimated 14,300 people. (Most were killed by the tsunami.) Japan's greatest volcano disaster.



Dec. 16, Mississippi Valley, nr. New Madrid, Mo.: earthquake reversed the course of the Mississippi River. Fatalities unknown due to sparse population in area. Aftershocks and tremors continued into 1812. It has been estimated that three of the series of earthquakes had surface- wave magnitudes of 8.6, 8.4, and 8.8 on the Richter scale. It is the largest series of earthquakes known to have occurred in North America.



April 5, 10–11, Netherlands Indies (Sumbawa, Indonesia): eruption of Tambora largest in historic times. An estimated 92,000 people were killed, about 10,000 directly as a result of explosions and ash fall and about 82,000 indirectly by starvation and disease.



June 26, north-central Ecuador: eruption of Mt. Cotopaxi caused severe mudflows that wiped out surrounding cities and valleys; 1,000 deaths.



Aug. 26–28, Netherlands Indies (Krakatau, Indonesia): eruption of Krakatau; violent explosions destroyed two-thirds of island and caused a tsunami on Java and Sumatra, killing more than 36,000. It was felt as far away as Cape Horn and possibly England.


Aug. 31, Charleston, S.C.: magnitude 7.3 quake, killed 60 people and caused extensive damage.



June 15, Sanriku, Japan: earthquake and tidal wave killed 27,000.



May 7, St. Vincent, West Indies: Soufrière volcano erupted, devastating one-third of the island and killing some 1,680 people. May 8, Martinique, West Indies: Mt. Pelée erupted and wiped out city of St. Pierre; 40,000 dead.



April 18, San Francisco: earthquake accompanied by fire razed more than 4 sq mi; estimates range from 700 to 3,000 dead or missing.For more, see The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake.



Dec. 28, Messina, Sicily: city totally destroyed by earthquake. Estimated death toll, from quake and tsunami, 70,000–100,000 in Sicily and southern Italy.



Jan. 13, Avezzano, Italy: magnitude 7.5 earthquake left 29,980 dead.



Dec. 16, Gansu province, China: magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 200,000 in northwest China.



Sept. 1, Japan: magnitude 7.9 earthquake destroyed one-third of Tokyo and most of Yokohama. More than 140,000 killed.



May 22, nr. Xining, China: magnitude 7.9 earthquake claimed approximately 200,000 victims.



Dec. 25, Gansu, China: magnitude 7.6 earthquake killed approximately 70,000.



March 10, Long Beach, Calif.: 117 left dead by earthquake.



May 30, Pakistan: earthquake at Quetta killed 30,000–60,000.



Jan. 24, Chile: earthquake razed 50,000 sq mi; about 30,000 killed. Dec. 27, northern Turkey: severe quakes destroyed city of Erzingan; about 30,000 casualties.



Oct. 5, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan: magnitude 7.3 earthquake destroyed the city, killing 110,000.



Aug. 15, India: earthquake affected 30,000 sq mi in Assam; 1500 killed.



Feb. 29, Agadir, Morocco: 10,000–12,000 dead as earthquake set off tidal wave and fire, destroying most of city. May 22, Chile: strongest earthquake ever recorded (9.5 magnitude) struck near the coast, causing a tsunami that traveled as far as Hawaii, Japan, and New Zealand, killing 4,000–5,000.



March 28, Alaska (03:36:14 UT; March 27, 5:36 P.M. local time): strongest earthquake ever to strike North America (9.2 magnitude) hit 80 mi east of Anchorage; followed by seismic wave (tsunami) 50 ft high that traveled 8,445 mi at 450 mph; 117 killed



Jan. 5, Yunnan province, China: magnitude 7.5 quake killed more than 10,000. May 31, Peru: magnitude 7.9 earthquake left more than 66,000 dead.



Dec. 22, Managua, Nicaragua: earthquake devastated city, leaving up to 6,000 dead.



Feb. 4, Guatemala: quake left over 23,000 dead. July 28, Tangshan, China: worst earthquake to hit China in 20th century; devastated 20 sq mi of city, leaving 255,000 (official) dead. Estimated toll as high as 655,000. Aug. 17, Mindanao, Philippines: earthquake and tidal wave left up to 8,000 dead or missing.



Sept. 16, Tabas, Iran: earthquake destroyed city in eastern Iran, leaving 15,000 dead.


Sept. 19–20, Mexico: magnitude 8.0 earthquake devastated part of Mexico City and three coastal states; estimated 25,000 killed (9,500 official).

Nov. 14–16, Colombia: eruption of Nevada del Ruiz, 85 mi northwest of Bogotá. Mudslides buried most of the town of Armero and devastated Chinchiná; 21,800 killed.



Dec. 7, Armenia: earthquake measuring 6.8 in magnitude killed nearly 25,000, injured 15,000, and left at least 400,000 homeless.



Oct. 17, San Francisco Bay area: earthquake measuring 7.1 in magnitude killed 67 and injured over 3,000. Over 100,000 buildings damaged or destroyed.



June 21, northwest Iran: magnitude 7.7 earthquake destroyed cities and villages in Caspian Sea area. At least 50,000 dead, over 60,000 injured, and 400,000 homeless. July 16, northern Philippines: magnitude 7.7 quake killed nearly 2,000.



July 15, Luzon Island, Philippines: eruption of Mt. Pinatubo buried over 300 sq mi under volcanic ash and resulted in more than 800 deaths.



Aug. 8, Guam: earthquake measuring 8.1 in magnitude caused severe damage to many structures but no fatalities. Sept. 29, India: earthquake measuring 6.2 killed 9,748 and destroyed nearly all the buildings in Khillari.



Jan. 17, San Fernando Valley, Calif.: earthquake, 6.6 in magnitude, killed 61 and injured over 8,000. Damage estimated at $13–20 billion.



Jan. 17, Osaka, Kyoto, and Kobe, Japan: 5,500 killed and 36,800 injured. Magnitude: 6.9.



May 12, northeast Iran: severe earthquake measuring 7.3 in magnitude left more than 1,500 people dead and at least 4,460 injured. June–Sept., southern Montserrat: ongoing eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano since July 1995; killed 20 people in major eruption on June 25, 1997, rendered southern two-thirds of Montserrat uninhabitable, and forced some 8,000 of the island's 12,000 residents to abandon the island.



May 30, northern Afghanistan: magnitude 6.9 earthquake and aftershocks killed at least 4,000. A quake on Feb. 4 in same area killed about 2,300. July 17, Papua New Guinea: three tsunamis, possibly spurred by an undersea landslide following


earthquake, wiped out entire villages in the northwest province of Sepik. At least 2,100 killed.



Jan. 25, Armenia, Colombia: 1,185 dead and more than 4,000 injured in magnitude 6.2 earthquake. Over 200,000 left homeless. Aug. 17, northwest Turkey: magnitude 7.6 quake centered near Izmit killed over 17,000 and injured about 44,000. Damage estimated at $8.5 billion. Another severe 7.2 temblor killed more than 700 in Ducze and nearby towns in Nov. Sept. 21, central Taiwan: severe 7.7 earthquake and aftershocks killed 2,295 and injured 8,729.



Jan. 13, El Salvador: magnitude 7.7 earthquake set off some 185 landslides across El Salvador;


least 850 died and nearly 100,000 houses were destroyed.

Jan. 26, Bhuj, India: magnitude 7.7 earthquake rocked western Indian state of Gujarat, killing

more than 20,000 people and leaving 600,000 homeless.



March 25, northeast Afghanistan: series of earthquakes—the largest measuring 6.1 in magnitude—rattled an area 100 mi north of Kabul. Estimated 1,000 people killed. The city of Nahrin, a densely populated district capital, was completely razed.



May 21, Northern Algeria: magnitude 6.8 earthquake killed 2,266 people. The epicenter was 40


east of Algiers, the capital city.

Dec. 26, Bam, Iran: magnitude 6.6 earthquake devastated the ancient historic city of Bam in southeast Iran, killing 26,200 people, injured 30,000, and left 75,000 homeless, as mud-brick buildings collapsed.


Dec. 26, Sumatra, Indonesia: magnitude 9.0 earthquake, off the west coast of Sumatra, caused a tremendously powerful tsunami in the Indian Ocean that hit 12 Asian countries, killing more than 225,000 and leaving millions homeless. It was the deadliest tsunami in history.


Feb. 22, Zarand, Iran: magnitude 6.4 earthquake in central Iran shook more than 40 villages, killing at least 612 people, injuring over 1,400, and destroying villages with many mud–brick houses. March 28, Sumatra, Indonesia: magnitude 8.7 earthquake, off the west coast of Sumatra, killed 1,313. Many buildings in the islands of Nias and Simeulue were destroyed and some officials feared another tsunami would occur. The same area was at the center of a huge tsunami in December that killed over 225,000 people. Officials at the U.S. Geological Survey said that yesterday's earthquake was an aftershock of December's 9.0 quake. The 9.0 magnitude earthquake was twice the power of the 8.7 magnitude quake. Oct. 8, Pakistan: magnitude 7.6 earthquake centered in the Pakistani-controlled part of the Kashmir region killed more than 80,000 and injured 65,000. About half of the region’s capital city, Muzaffarabad, has been destroyed, other towns and villages were flattened, and the extreme mountainous terrain and bad weather made many areas unreachable for weeks after the quake. An estimated 4 million were left homeless with winter on the way and insufficient resources to provide shelter.


May 26, Java, Indonesia: (May 27 at 5:54 AM local time in Java, Indonesia). 6.3 magnitude earthquake killed 5,749 people and destroyed 127,000 homes. This area had also been under an intense volcano watch due to the ongoing eruption of the volcano Merapi July 17, Java, Indonesia: an earthquake triggered a tsunami, killing 730.