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Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Royal Commission at Yanbu University College – Yanbu Department of ACS & AIT Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah

– Yanbu Department of ACS & AIT Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah د ا ا ا ا ا -

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2 ND Semester 2007-08

CS-001 HANDOUT 1 (HO - 2)

PREPARATORY COMPUTERS I

Microsoft Windows

1. Introduction

Even if you’re new to Windows, it’s easy to get started. Your main software, called the operating system (MS-Windows), controls and manages your computer by translating your instructions into a language your hardware can understand.

instructions into a language your hardware can understand. 2. Review: Pointing and Clicking You perform most

2. Review: Pointing and Clicking

You perform most of the tasks on your computer by pointing at an object on your screen, and then clicking a mouse button. To point to an object, move the mouse until the tip of the mouse pointer is over the item or area you want. The following table describes common click actions.

pointer is over the item or area you want. The following table describes common click actions.

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The desktop is the workspace that appears on your screen. You use your desktop for almost any task: opening programs, copying files, connecting to the Internet, reading your e-mail, and so on.

What you see on your desktop varies depending on how Windows 98 is set up on your computer.

depending on how Windows 98 is set up on your computer. This is the Windows desktop.

This is the Windows desktop. It's the workspace of your screen on which icons, desktop components, application windows, and dialog boxes appear.

components, application windows, and dialog boxes appear. Your Windows desktop includes several small pictures. These

Your Windows desktop includes several small pictures. These are called icons. Icons provide an easy way to open the programs or documents you use on a daily basis.

to open the programs or documents you use on a daily basis. Several icons are located

Several icons are located on the left side of your desktop. Each icon represents an object, such as a folder or a program. Depending on how your computer is set up, your icons may be different from those in the illustration.

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The taskbar is one element of the Windows desktop. The taskbar is a gray rectangular bar located, by default, across the bottom of the Windows desktop.

by default, across the bottom of the Windows desktop. You can use the taskbar and Start

You can use the taskbar and Start button to easily navigate through Windows. Both features are always available on your desktop, no matter how many windows you have open.

on your desktop, no matter how many windows you have open. The taskbar includes the Start

The taskbar includes the Start button, a button for each program that is open, and the system clock.

Buttons on the taskbar show you which windows are open, even if some windows are minimized or hidden beneath another window. You can easily switch to a different window by clicking its taskbar button.

switch to a different window by clicking its taskbar button. 3.2. The START Button One of

3.2. The START Button

window by clicking its taskbar button. 3.2. The START Button One of the most useful items

One of the most useful items on the taskbar is the Start button. From here, you can quickly start a program, find or open a document, change your computer's settings, shut down the computer, and much more.

Using the Start button, you can accomplish almost any task. You can start programs, open documents, customize your system, get Help, search for items on your computer, and more. Depending on how your computer is set up, your Start menu may look slightly different from the following illustration.

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4 When you click the Start button, Microsoft Windows shows you the Start menu. A menu

When you click the Start button, Microsoft Windows shows you the Start menu. A menu is a list of software applications, documents, and other options available on your computer.

The Start menu is divided into three sections. The bottom section contains basic operating tasks, or commands, such as Shut Down

The middle section provides a way to open applications and customize options.

The top section is personalized with functions that you can add to the Start menu.

To the right of some of the items in the Start menu is a black triangular arrow pointing to the right edge of the menu.

You can point to one of these arrows with your mouse to bring up a submenu (also called a cascading menu).

Click the Start button to view the Start menu. Point to Programs, and the cascading Programs menu appears.

3.3. Starting and Quitting Programs

Most of the programs installed on your computer are available from one convenient location—the Programs section of the Start menu. Depending on how your computer is set up, what you see on the Start menu varies.

 To start a program

1. Click the Start button, and then point to Programs.

The Programs menu appears.

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5 Note You can also open a program by clicking Run on the Start menu, typing

Note You can also open a program by clicking Run on the Start menu, typing the path and name of the program, and then clicking OK.

 To quit a program

Click the Close button in the upper-right corner of the program window.

4. Shutting Down Your Computer

When you’re finished working in Window, you use the Shut Down command on the Start menu to close windows and programs and prepare your computer for shutting down. If you haven’t already saved your work, you’re prompted to do so.

Important Don’t turn off your computer until you see a message telling you that shutdown is complete. If you turn off your computer without shutting it down correctly, you risk losing information.

 To shut down your computer

1. Click the Start button, and then click Shut Down.

The Shut Down Windows dialog box appears.

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6 2. Click OK if you want to turn off your computer. If your computer doesn’t

2. Click OK if you want to turn off your computer.

If your computer doesn’t turn off automatically, a message appears when you can safely turn off your computer.

5. The Window

When you start a program or application, a defined work area appears on the screen. This defined work area is called a window.

On the Programs menu, point to Accessories, and another cascading menu appears. Click WordPad, at the bottom of the list, and the application opens.

at the bottom of the list, and the application opens. A window is a movable, resizable

A window is a movable, resizable area in which information is displayed and with which you can interact.

5.1. Title Bar

The title bar appears at the top of each window. It displays the name of the open application or software.

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7 5.2. Moving a window A window may be moved from one location to another by

5.2. Moving a window

A window may be moved from one location to another by pointing to the title bar and dragging the window to another location.

5.3. The Scroll Bar

A scroll bar is a bar that can appear at the lower edge or the right edge of a window. Scroll bars are used when the amount of information in a window is larger than can fit comfortably in a single window.

Scroll bars are used when the amount of information in a window is larger than can

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5.4. The Minimize, Maximize, and Close Buttons

Since a window is a flexible (resizable) object, you can easily change its size. On the far right of the title bar are three important buttons: Minimize, Maximize, and Close. You can use these buttons to increase or decrease the size of a window, or to close the window.

or decrease the size of a window, or to close the window. You can easily move

You can easily move around and between windows using the title bar, scroll bars, and the Minimize, Maximize, and Close buttons.

6. Getting Help

If you have a question about how something works, most software applications include a built-in Help feature that provides information and suggestions.

On the Windows desktop, Help is available from the Start menu.

the Windows desktop, Help is available from the Start menu. Most applications have a Help button

Most applications have a Help button or a Help icon on the toolbar. This button usually looks like a question mark.

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9 In most software, the F1 function key opens the Help feature. No matter where you

In most software, the F1 function key opens the Help feature.

most software, the F1 function key opens the Help feature. No matter where you are working

No matter where you are working in Windows, help is never far away.

7. Exploring Your Computer

You can navigate around your computer in several different ways. For example, you can view your computer’s contents by using either My Computer or Windows Explorer. Both navigational tools are easy to find—My Computer opens from the desktop, and Windows Explorer opens from the Start menu.

navigational tools are easy to find—My Computer opens from the desktop, and Windows Explorer opens from

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The following table compares some of the navigational tools you can use.

table compares some of the navigational tools you can use. 7.1. My Computer My Computer is

7.1. My Computer

My Computer is helpful if you prefer viewing the contents of a single folder or drive. When you double-click My Computer on your desktop, available drives appear in a new window. When you double-click a icon, a window displays the folders contained on that drive. You can double-click a folder to see the files it contains.

You can double-click a folder to see the files it contains. drive then Some of the

drive

then

Some of the following icons may appear in your My Computer window.

a folder to see the files it contains. drive then Some of the following icons may

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 To use My Computer to view your hard disk

1. On the desktop, double-click My Computer.

The My Computer window appears.

double-click My Computer. The My Computer window appears. 2. Double-click the icon that represents your hard

2. Double-click the icon that represents your hard disk.

Your hard disk window appears, and the contents of your hard disk appear.

7.2. Windows Explorer

If you prefer to look at your files in a hierarchical structure, you’ll like using Windows Explorer. Instead of opening drives and folders in separate windows, you can browse through them in a single window. The left side of the Windows Explorer window contains a list of your drives and folders, and the right side displays the contents of a selected folder. You can use the View menu to change how the icons in the right half of the window appear.

 To use Windows Explorer to view your hard disk

1. Click the Start button, point to Programs, and then click Windows Explorer.

2. In the left pane, click the letter that represents your hard disk.

The contents of your hard disk appear in the right pane.

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12 8. Playing with Files and Folders 8.1. Creating Folders When you use a program and

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Playing with Files and Folders

8.1.

Creating Folders

When you use a program and save your work, or when you install a program, you’re creating files. You can store your files in many locations—on the hard disk, a network drive, a floppy disk, and so on. To better organize your files, you can also store them in folders.

 To create folders

1. On the desktop, double-click My Computer.

The My Computer window opens.

2. Double-click the disk drive or folder in which you want to create a folder.

The drive or folder window opens.

3. On the File menu, point to New, and then click Folder.

you want to create a folder. The drive or folder window opens. 3. On the File

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Type a folder name, and then press ENTER.

The new folder appears in the location you selected.

Note: File names in Windows 98 can be up to 255 characters, including spaces. However, file names cannot contain any of the following characters: \ / : * ? " < > |

8.2. Finding Files and Folders

When you’re looking for a particular folder or file, you can use the Find command instead of opening numerous folders. The Find command lets you quickly search a specific drive or your entire computer.

 To find a file or folder

1. Click the Start button, point to Find, and then click Files or Folders.

The Find dialog box appears.

2. In Named, type the file or folder name you want to find.

3. Click the Look in down arrow, or click Browse to specify where to search.

4. Click Find Now.

After a moment, the results of the search appear.

Find Now. After a moment, the results of the search appear. 8.3. Opening Files and Folders

8.3. Opening Files and Folders

After you’ve located the file you want, you can double-click to open it.

 To open a file or folder

1. On the desktop, double-click My Computer.

The My Computer window opens.

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2. Double-click the drive that contains the file or folder you want to open.

3. Double-click the file or folder.

8.4. Renaming Files and Folders

If you decide to change the name of a file or folder, you can quickly rename it.

 To rename a file or folder

1. In a window, select the file or folder you want to rename.

2. On the File menu, click Rename.

3. Type a name, and then press ENTER.

8.5. Copying and Moving Files and Folders

When you create files and folders, you may want to copy or move them to another location. Unless you’re an advanced user, you should avoid moving program and system files.

 To copy or move a file or folder

1. In a window, select the file or folder you want to copy or move.

Note You can select multiple items. To select nonadjacent items, hold down CTRL and click the items you want to select. To select adjacent items, hold down SHIFT while you select items. To select all of the items in a window, on the Edit menu, click Select All.

2. On the Edit menu, click Copy to copy the file, or click Cut to move the file.

3. Double-click the folder in which you want to place the file or folder.

4. On the Edit menu, click Paste.

The file appears in its new location.

8.6. Dragging Files and Folders

Moving objects on your screen is a lot like moving objects around your desk. For example, clicking and dragging an icon is a lot like physically picking up a pencil with your hand and dropping the pencil in a new location. Similarly, to move a screen object, you first position the mouse pointer on the object. Next, you “pick up” the object by pressing and holding down the left mouse button. While you’re still holding down the mouse button, move the mouse pointer to where you want to “drop” the object, and then release the mouse button. The following illustration demonstrates dragging a document to a folder.

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15 You also drag to select text, such as words in a document or the name

You also drag to select text, such as words in a document or the name of a file. To select text, you first insert your cursor (a blinking vertical line) where you want to start the selection. Then you hold down the left mouse button, move the mouse pointer to where you want to end the selection, and release the mouse button.

8.7. Working with Frequently Used

release the mouse button. 8.7. Working with Frequently Used Files You can quickly open documents and

Files

You can quickly open documents and programs that you use often. The Start menu lists the documents used most recently, so that you can quickly reopen them.

 To open recently used documents

1. Click the Start button, and then point to Documents.

A list of your recently opened documents appears.

point to Documents. A list of your recently opened documents appears. 2. Click a document on

2. Click a document on the list.

The document opens.

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8.8. Deleting Files and Folders

Whenever you delete a file, it’s temporarily moved to the Recycle Bin on your desktop. If you change your mind, you can restore the file. However, when you empty the Recycle Bin, all of the items in it are permanently deleted from your computer.

 To delete files and folders

1. On the desktop, double-click My Computer.

The My Computer window appears.

2. Select the file or folder you want to delete.

3. On the File menu, click Delete.

The Confirm File Delete dialog box appears.

4. Click Yes.

The file is moved to the Recycle Bin.

 To permanently delete files

1. On the desktop, double-click Recycle Bin.

The Recycle Bin opens.

2. On the File menu, click Empty Recycle Bin.

computer)

Disk Defragmenter Utility

As advanced as hard drives have become, one item they are not very good at is housekeeping, or maybe that should be drive keeping. When files are created, deleted, or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety, or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location. Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. The more fragmented files there are on a drive, the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance.

Accessing Disk Defragmenter

Disk Defragmenter can be opened a number of different ways. The most common methods are listed below.

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Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools | Disk Defragmenter

Start | Run | and type dfrg.msc in the Open line. Click OK

Start | Administrative Tools | Computer Management. Expand Storage and select Disk Defragmenter

The first two methods take you to a standalone window containing Disk Defragmenter. The last method opens Microsoft Management Console and displays Disk Defragmenter as one of the snap- in modules. In all cases, a window similar to the one below will be displayed.

cases, a window similar to the one below will be displayed. When Disk Defragmenter first opens

When Disk Defragmenter first opens (Fig. 01) you'll see a list of the hard drives displayed at the top of the screen. The Estimated Disk Usage Before Defragmentation and Estimated Disk Usage After Defragmentation will be blank until a drive is selected and the Analyze button is clicked. In the screen shot above, I've already analyzed the drives as evidenced by the Session Status showing as Analyzed and the Estimated Disk Usage Before Defragmentation area containing a graphical representation of the drive fragmentation.

and the Estimated Disk Usage Before Defragmentation area containing a graphical representation of the drive fragmentation.

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After the Analyze button has been clicked and the process completes the window shown above (Fig. 02) opens with a brief recommendation of what action Disk Defragmenter thinks should be taken regarding the drive. It's important to note that this is just a recommendation based on the percentage of fragmented files to total files and doesn't prevent the drive from being defragmented if you feel it needs to be done and might improve system performance. If you want to go ahead and defragment without more information, click the Defragment button. If you're in agreement with their recommendation and don't want to defragment, click the Close button. Click the View Report button to view a more detailed drive analysis.

View Report button to view a more detailed drive analysis. An Analysis Report contains quite a

An Analysis Report contains quite a bit of additional information about the selected drive. The report shown above (Fig. 03) details the File Fragmentation status of drive WXP02-D. The top pane provides Volume information, and as you can see there are 3,851 fragmented files. This may not seem like many fragmented files, but consider that this is only a 20GB drive, which is very small by today's standards, and that 81% of the total drive space is currently unused. Look at the Average Fragments Per File number of 1.04 and this tells you that approximately 4% of the files on the drive are in two or more pieces. My experience has been that when this number reaches 1.05 the message in the quick analysis window (Fig. 02) will recommend defragmenting the drive. The bottom pane, Most Fragmented Files, lists the files in descending order that are the most fragmented.

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19 In spite of the recommendation not to defragment this particular disk, I went ahead and

In spite of the recommendation not to defragment this particular disk, I went ahead and clicked the Defragment button. The results of that choice are shown above (Fig. 04) in the Estimated Disk Usage After Defragmentation section. The graphical representation clearly shows that not only have the red lines depicting fragmented files been eliminated, many of the contiguous files indicated by the blue have been repositioned toward the beginning of the drive, reducing the amount of searching the drive heads have to do to locate a file. The drive in this example is not a system drive, nor does it have a paging file which would be indicated by the lime green Unmovable Files color.

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20 After the defragmentation process completes, clicking the View Report button will bring up the Defragmentation

After the defragmentation process completes, clicking the View Report button will bring up the Defragmentation Report (Fig. 05). It takes the exact same form as the Analysis Report (Fig. 03) but shows the post defragmentation results. The Total Files and Average File Size remain identical, but notice that Total Fragmented Files and Total Excess Fragments have been reduced to zero (0) and the Average Fragments Per File is now 1.00, indicating most or all of the files are contiguous. In addition, there are no files listed that did not defragment.

Additional Disk Defragmenter Notes

For the majority of users, the Disk Defragmenter Utility included with XP is sufficient to keep the hard drives in relatively good condition, but it's actually what is known as a Lite or slightly crippled version of Diskeeper, a product made by Executive Software. You may have noticed in Fig. 04 that even after the drive had been defragmented, there were still gaps showing where no files were shown as being present. What are these gaps and why weren't they eliminated by compacting the files to the beginning of the drive? It's due to limitations imposed by the Lite version of Diskeeper supplied with XP. I don't currently have Diskeeper installed, but look at the images below, created from PerfectDisk v5.0 by Raxco Software.

The top image is a drive analysis of the same drive that was used in the previous examples. The analysis was performed immediately after the drive was defragmented using Disk Defragmenter supplied with XP. Using the Legend shown below, we can see that there are a number of details supplied that flesh out the areas shown in Fig. 04 as being Free Space. In reality, this really isn't free space but is the MFT and MFT Zone.

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21 Now look at the image directly below the Legend map. It shows the same drive
21 Now look at the image directly below the Legend map. It shows the same drive
21 Now look at the image directly below the Legend map. It shows the same drive

Now look at the image directly below the Legend map. It shows the same drive after being defragmented with PerfectDisk. It shows the same blocks, but notice that a number of the different legend categories have been moved and optimized for even better drive performance. This is essentially the difference between the built in Disk Defragmenter and an upgraded disk defragmentation program. The more sophisticated programs allow you to optimize page files at reboot and a number of other options that are impossible with the stock offering.

Conclusion

If you're an average XP user the standard Disk Defragmenter utility will do a good job of keeping your drives defragmented and help to maintain peak system performance. If you are the type that wants to extract the best possible performance from a system, consider upgrading to one of the premium defragmenter products. Most o them have a free trial available that will showcase the best features each has to offer.

The important point is that whatever product you decide meets your level of need, it doesn't do a bit of good unless the drives are defragmented on a regular basis. Make it a part of your regular system maintenance.

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Appendix A

General Windows Keys

To quickly open shortcut menus, you can use the application key on a Microsoft Natural Keyboard or any other compatible keyboard that includes the application key.

the application key on a Microsoft Natural Keyboard or any other compatible keyboard that includes the