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130 MEIN KAMPF ----- ADOLF HITLER AUTHORS PREFACE On April 1st, 1924, I began to serve my sentence of detention

in the Fortress of Landsberg am Lech, following the verdict of the !nich "eople#s $o!rt of that time% After years of !ninterr!pted labo!r it was now possible for the first time to begin a wor& which many had as&ed for and which I myself felt wo!ld be profitable for the ovement% 'o I decided to devote two vol!mes to a description not only of the aims of o!r ovement b!t also of its development% (here is more to be learned from this than from any p!rely doctrinaire treatise% (his has also given me the opport!nity of describing my own development in so far as s!ch a description is necessary to the !nderstanding of the first as well as the second vol!me and to destroy the legendary fabrications which the )ewish "ress have circ!lated abo!t me% In this wor& I t!rn not to strangers b!t to those followers of the ovement whose hearts belong to it and who wish to st!dy it more profo!ndly% I &now that fewer people are won over by the written word than by the spo&en word and that every great movement on this earth owes its growth to great spea&ers and not to great writers% *evertheless, in order to prod!ce more e+!ality and !niformity in the defence of any doctrine, its f!ndamental principles m!st be committed to writing% ay these two vol!mes therefore serve as the b!ilding stones which I contrib!te to the ,oint wor&% (he Fortress, Landsberg am Lech% At half-past twelve in the afternoon of *ovember 9th, 192., those whose names are given below fell in front of the Feldherrnhalle and in the foreco!rt of the former /ar inistry in !nich for their loyal faith in the res!rrection of their people0 Alfarth, Fel !, Mer"ha#t, $%r# &'l( )th, 1*01 +a'r e,l, A#,rea-, Hat.a/er, $%r# Ma( 0th, 112* Ca-ella, The%,%r, +a#/ Off " al, $%r# A'3'-t 1th, 1*00 Ehrl "h, 4 lhel., +a#/ Off " al, $%r# A'3'-t 1*th, 11*0 Fa'-t, Mart #, +a#/ Off " al, $%r# &a#'ar( 52th, 1*01 He"he#$er3er, A#t%#, L%"/-. th, $%r# Se6te.$er 51th, 1*05 K%er#er, O-/ar, Mer"ha#t, $%r# &a#'ar( 0th, 112) K'h#, Karl, Hea, 4a ter, $%r# &'l( 5)th, 11*2 Laf%r"e, Karl, St',e#t %f E#3 #eer #3, $%r# O"t%$er 51th, 1*00 Ne'$a'er, K'rt, 4a ter, $%r# Mar"h 52th, 11** Pa6e, Cla'- 7%#, Mer"ha#t, $%r# A'3'-t 18th, 1*00 Pf%r,te#, The%,%r 7%# ,er, C%'#" ll%r t% the S'6er %r Pr%7 #" al C%'rt, $%r# Ma( 10th, 1123 R "/.er-, &%ha##, ret re, Ca7alr( Ca6ta #, $%r# Ma( 2th, 1111 S"he'$#er-R "hter, Ma! Er9 # 7%#, Dr: %f E#3 #eer #3, $%r# &a#'ar( *th, 1110 Stra#-/(, L%re#; R tter 7%#, E#3 #eer, $%r# Mar"h 10th, 11** 4%lf, 4 lhel., Mer"ha#t, $%r# O"t%$er 1*th, 11*1 'o-called national officials ref!sed to allow the dead heroes a common b!rial% 'o I dedicate the first vol!me of this wor& to them as a common memorial, that the memory of those martyrs may be a permanent so!rce of light for the followers of o!r ovement% The F%rtre--, La#,-$er3 a<L:, O"t%$er 18th, 1*50 TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION In placing before the reader this !nabridged translation of Adolf 1itler#s boo&, ein 2ampf, I feel it my d!ty to call attention to certain historical facts which m!st be borne in mind if the reader wo!ld form a fair ,!dgment of what is written in this e3traordinary wor&% (he first vol!me of ein 2ampf was written while the a!thor was imprisoned in a 4avarian fortress% 1ow did he get there and why5 (he answer to that +!estion is important, beca!se the boo& deals with the events which bro!ght the a!thor into this plight and beca!se he wrote !nder the emotional stress ca!sed by the historical happenings of the time% It was the ho!r of 6ermany#s deepest h!miliation, somewhat parallel to that of a little over a cent!ry before, when *apoleon had dismembered the old 6erman 7mpire and French soldiers occ!pied almost the whole of 6ermany% In the beginning of 192. the French invaded 6ermany, occ!pied the 8!hr district and sei9ed several 6erman towns in the 8hineland% (his was a flagrant breach of international law and was protested against by every section of 4ritish political opinion at that time% (he 6ermans co!ld not effectively defend themselves, as they had been already disarmed !nder the provisions of the :ersailles (reaty% (o ma&e the sit!ation more fra!ght with disaster for

6ermany, and therefore more appalling in its prospect, the French carried on an intensive propaganda for the separation of the 8hineland from the 6erman 8ep!blic and the establishment of an independent 8henania% oney was po!red o!t lavishly to bribe agitators to carry on this wor&, and some of the most insidio!s elements of the 6erman pop!lation became active in the pay of the invader% At the same time a vigoro!s movement was being carried on in 4avaria for the secession of that co!ntry and the establishment of an independent $atholic monarchy there, !nder vassalage to France, as *apoleon had done when he made a3imilian the first 2ing of 4avaria in 1;<=% (he separatist movement in the 8hineland went so far that some leading 6erman politicians came o!t in favo!r of it, s!ggesting that if the 8hineland were th!s ceded it might be possible for the 6erman 8ep!blic to stri&e a bargain with the French in regard to 8eparations% 4!t in 4avaria the movement went even farther% And it was more farreaching in its implications> for, if an independent $atholic monarchy co!ld be set !p in 4avaria, the ne3t move wo!ld have been a !nion with $atholic 6erman-A!stria% possibly !nder a 1absb!rg 2ing% (h!s a $atholic bloc wo!ld have been created which wo!ld e3tend from the 8hineland thro!gh 4avaria and A!stria into the ?an!be :alley and wo!ld have been at least !nder the moral and military, if not the f!ll political, hegemony of France% (he dream seems fantastic now, b!t it was considered +!ite a practical thing in those fantastic times% (he effect of p!tting s!ch a plan into action wo!ld have meant the complete dismemberment of 6ermany> and that is what French diplomacy aimed at% Of co!rse s!ch an aim no longer e3ists% And I sho!ld not recall what m!st now seem @old, !nhappy, far-off thingsA to the modern generation, were it not that they were very near and act!al at the time Mein Kampf was written and were more !nhappy then than we can even imagine now% 4y the a!t!mn of 192. the separatist movement in 4avaria was on the point of becoming an accomplished fact% 6eneral von Lossow, the 4avarian chief of the 8eichswehr no longer too& orders from 4erlin% (he flag of the 6erman 8ep!blic was rarely to be seen, Finally, the 4avarian "rime inister decided to proclaim an independent 4avaria and its secession from the 6erman 8ep!blic% (his was to have ta&en place on the eve of the Fifth Anniversary of the establishment of the 6erman 8ep!blic B*ovember 9th, 191;%C 1itler staged a co!nter-stro&e% For several days he had been mobili9ing his storm battalions in the neighbo!rhood of !nich, intending to ma&e a national demonstration and hoping that the Reichswehr wo!ld stand by him to prevent secession% L!dendorff was with him% And he tho!ght that the prestige of the great 6erman $ommander in the /orld /ar wo!ld be s!fficient to win the allegiance of the professional army% A meeting had been anno!nced to ta&e place in the 4DrgerbrE! 2eller on the night of *ovember ;th% (he 4avarian patriotic societies were gathered there, and the "rime inister, ?r% von 2ahr, started to read his official pron!nciamento, which practically amo!nted to a proclamation of 4avarian independence and secession from the 8ep!blic% /hile von 2ahr was spea&ing 1itler entered the hall, followed by L!dendorff% And the meeting was bro&en !p% *e3t day the *a9i battalions too& the street for the p!rpose of ma&ing a mass demonstration in favo!r of national !nion% (hey marched in massed formation, led by 1itler and L!dendorff% As they reached one of the central s+!ares of the city the army opened fire on them% 'i3teen of the marchers were instantly &illed, and two died of their wo!nds in the local barrac&s of the Reichswehr% 'everal others were wo!nded also% 1itler fell on the pavement and bro&e a collar-bone% L!dendorff marched straight !p to the soldiers who were firing from the barricade, b!t not a man dared draw a trigger on his old $ommander% 1itler was arrested with several of his comrades and imprisoned in the fortress of Landsberg on the 8iver Lech% On Febr!ary 2Fth, 1924, he was bro!ght to trial before the :ol&sgericht, or "eople#s $o!rt in !nich% 1e was sentenced to detention in a fortress for five years% /ith several companions, who had been also sentenced to vario!s periods of imprisonment, he ret!rned to Landsberg am Lech and remained there !ntil the 2<th of the following ?ecember, when he was released% In all he spent abo!t thirteen months in prison% It was d!ring this period that he wrote the first vol!me of Mein Kampf% If we bear all this in mind we can acco!nt for the emotional stress !nder which ein 2ampf was written% 1itler was nat!rally incensed against the 4avarian government a!thorities, against the footling patriotic societies who were pawns in the French game, tho!gh often !nconscio!sly so, and of co!rse against the French% (hat he sho!ld write harshly of the French was only nat!ral in the circ!mstances% At that time there was no e3aggeration whatsoever in calling France the implacable and mortal enemy of 6ermany% '!ch lang!age was being !sed by even the pacifists themselves, not only in 6ermany b!t abroad% And even tho!gh the second vol!me of Mein Kampf was written after 1itler#s release from prison and was p!blished after the French had left the 8!hr, the tramp of the invading armies still echoed in 6erman ears, and the terrible ravages that had been wro!ght in the ind!strial and financial life of 6ermany, as a conse+!ence of the French invasion, had pl!nged the co!ntry into a state of social and economic chaos% In France itself the franc fell to fifty per cent of its previo!s val!e% Indeed, the whole of 7!rope had been bro!ght to the brin& of r!in, following the French invasion of the 8!hr and 8hineland% 4!t, as those things belong to the limbo of a dead past that nobody wishes to have remembered now, it is often as&ed0 /hy doesn#t 1itler revise ein 2ampf5 (he answer, as I thin&, which wo!ld immediately come into the

mind of an impartial critic is that Mein Kampf is an historical doc!ment which bears the imprint of its own time% (o revise it wo!ld involve ta&ing it o!t of its historical conte3t% oreover 1itler has declared that his acts and p!blic statements constit!te a partial revision of his boo& and are to be ta&en as s!ch% (his refers especially to the statements in Mein Kampf regarding France and those 6erman &insfol& that have not yet been incorporated in the 8eich% On behalf of 6ermany he has definitely ac&nowledged the 6erman portion of 'o!th (yrol as permanently belonging to Italy and, in regard to France, he has again and again declared that no gro!nds now e3ist for a conflict of political interests between 6ermany and France and that 6ermany has no territorial claims against France% Finally, I may note here that 1itler has also declared that, as he was only a political leader and not yet a statesman in a position of official responsibility, when he wrote this boo&, what he stated in Mein Kampf does not implicate him as $hancellor of the 8eich% I now come to some references in the te3t which are fre+!ently rec!rring and which may not always be clear to every reader% For instance, 1itler spea&s indiscriminately of the 6erman Reich % 'ometimes he means to refer to the first Reich , or 7mpire, and sometimes to the 6erman 7mpire as fo!nded !nder /illiam I in 1;G1% Incidentally the regime which he ina!g!rated in 19.. is generally &nown as the Third Reich , tho!gh this e3pression is not !sed in ein 2ampf% 1itler also spea&s of the A!strian Reich and the 7ast ar&, witho!t always e3plicitly disting!ishing between the 1absb!rg 7mpire and A!stria proper% If the reader will bear the following historical o!tline in mind, he will !nderstand the references as they occ!r% (he word Reich , which is a 6erman form of the Latin word Regnum, does not mean 2ingdom or 7mpire or 8ep!blic% It is a sort of basic word that may apply to any form of $onstit!tion% "erhaps o!r word, 8ealm, wo!ld be the best translation, tho!gh the word 7mpire can be !sed when the 8eich was act!ally an 7mpire% (he forer!nner of the first 6erman 7mpire was the 1oly 8oman 7mpire which $harlemagne fo!nded in A%?% ;<<% $harlemagne was 2ing of the Fran&s, a gro!p of 6ermanic tribes that s!bse+!ently became 8omani9ed% In the tenth cent!ry $harlemagne#s 7mpire passed into 6erman hands when Otto I B9.F-9G.C became 7mperor% As the 1oly 8oman 7mpire of the 6erman *ation, its formal appellation, it contin!ed to e3ist !nder 6erman 7mperors !ntil *apoleon overran and dismembered 6ermany d!ring the first decade of the last cent!ry% On A!g!st Fth, 1;<F, the last 7mperor, Francis II, formally resigned the 6erman crown% In the following October *apoleon entered 4erlin in tri!mph, after the 4attle of )ena% After the fall of *apoleon a movement set in for the re!nion of the 6erman states in one 7mpire% 4!t the first decisive step towards that end was the fo!ndation of the 'econd 6erman 7mpire in 1;G1, after the Franco-"r!ssian /ar% (his 7mpire, however, did not incl!de the 6erman lands which remained !nder the 1absb!rg $rown% (hese were &nown as 6erman A!stria% It was 4ismarc&#s dream to !nite 6erman A!stria with the 6erman 7mpire> b!t it remained only a dream !ntil 1itler t!rned it into a reality in 19.;#% It is well to bear that point in mind, beca!se this dream of re!niting all the 6erman states in one 8eich has been a dominant feat!re of 6erman patriotism and statesmanship for over a cent!ry and has been one of 1itler#s ideals since his childhood% In Mein Kampf 1itler often spea&s of the 7ast ar&% (his 7ast ar& - i%e% eastern frontier land - was fo!nded by $harlemagne as the eastern b!lwar& of the 7mpire% It was inhabited principally by 6ermano-$eltic tribes called 4a,!vari and stood for cent!ries as the firm b!lwar& of /estern $hristendom against invasion from the 7ast, especially against the (!r&s% 6eographically it was almost identical with 6erman A!stria% (here are a few points more that I wish to mention in this introd!ctory note% For instance, I have let the word Weltanschhauung stand in its original form very often% /e have no one 7nglish word to convey the same meaning as the 6erman word, and it wo!ld have b!rdened the te3t too m!ch if I were to !se a circ!mloc!tion each time the word occ!rs% Weltanschhauung literally means @O!tloo&-on-the /orldA% 4!t as generally !sed in 6erman this o!tloo& on the world means a whole system of ideas associated together in an organic !nity - ideas of h!man life, h!man val!es, c!lt!ral and religio!s ideas, politics, economics, etc%, in fact a totalitarian view of h!man e3istence% (h!s $hristianity co!ld be called a Weltanschhauung, and ohammedanism co!ld be called a Weltanschhauung, and 'ocialism co!ld be called a /eltanschha!!ng, especially as preached in 8!ssia% *ational 'ocialism claims definitely to be a Weltanschhauung% Another word I have often left standing in the original is vlkisch % (he basic word here is Volk, which is sometimes translated as People> b!t the 6erman word, Volk, means the whole body of the people witho!t any distinction of class or caste% It is a primary word also that s!ggests what might be called the basic national stoc&% *ow, after the defeat in 191;, the downfall of the onarchy and the destr!ction of the aristocracy and the !pper classes, the concept of Das Volk came into prominence as the !nifying co-efficient which wo!ld embrace the whole 6erman people% 1ence the large n!mber of vlkisch societies that arose after the war and hence also the *ational 'ocialist concept of !nification which is e3pressed by the word Volksgemeinschaft , or fol& comm!nity% (his is !sed in contradistinction to the 'ocialist concept of the nation as being divided into classes% 1itler#s ideal is the Vlkischer Staat, which I have translated as the "eople#s 'tate% Finally, I wo!ld point o!t that the term 'ocial ?emocracy may be misleading in 7nglish, as it has not a democratic connotation in o!r sense% It was the name given to the 'ocialist "arty in 6ermany% And that "arty was p!rely

ar3ist> b!t it adopted the name 'ocial ?emocrat in order to appeal to the democratic sections of the 6erman people% &AMES MURPH=: A$$%t- La#3le(, Fe$r'ar(, 1*3* E!"er6t-> H/hat soon gave me ca!se for very serio!s consideration were the activities of the )ews in certain branches of life, into the mystery of which I penetrated little by little% /as there any shady !nderta&ing, any form of fo!lness, especially in c!lt!ral life, in which at least one )ew did not participate5 On p!tting the probing &nife caref!lly to that &ind of abscess one immediately discovered, li&e a maggot in a p!trescent body, a little )ew who was often blinded by the s!dden light%H Bp%42C HAnd so I believe to-day that my cond!ct is in accordance with the will of the Almighty $reator% In standing g!ard against the )ew I am defending the handiwor& of the Lord%H Bp%4FC H(he yo&e of slavery is and always will remain the most !npleasant e3perience that man&ind can end!re% ?o the 'chwabing decadents loo& !pon 6ermany#s lot to-day as Iaesthetic#5 Of co!rse, one doesn#t disc!ss s!ch a +!estion with the )ews, beca!se they are the modern inventors of this c!lt!ral perf!me% (heir very e3istence is an incarnate denial of the bea!ty of 6od#s image in 1is creation%H Bp%1<GC H/hat we have to fight for is the necessary sec!rity for the e3istence and increase of o!r race and people, the s!bsistence of its children and the maintenance of o!r racial stoc& !nmi3ed, the freedom and independence of the Fatherland> so that o!r people may be enabled to f!lfil the mission assigned to it by the $reator%H Bp%12=C HFrom time immemorial, however, the )ews have &nown better than any others how falsehood and cal!mny can be e3ploited% Is not their very e3istence fo!nded on one great lie, namely, that they are a religio!s comm!nity, whereas in reality they are a race5 And what a raceJ One of the greatest thin&ers that man&ind has prod!ced has branded the )ews for all time with a statement which is profo!ndly and e3actly tr!e% 1e B'chopenha!erC called the )ew @(he 6reat aster of LiesA% (hose who do not reali9e the tr!th of that statement, or do not wish to believe it, will never be able to lend a hand in helping (r!th to prevail%H Bp%1.4C HIn short, the res!lts of miscegenation are always the following0 ?a@ The le7el %f the -'6er %r ra"e $e"%.e- l%9ere,A ?$@ 6h(- "al a#, .e#tal ,e3e#erat %# -et- #, th'- lea, #3 -l%9l( $'t -tea, l( t%9ar,- a 6r%3re-- 7e ,r( #3 '6 %f the 7 tal -a6: (he act which brings abo!t s!ch a development is a sin against the will of the 7ternal $reator% And as a sin this act will be avenged% an#s effort to b!ild !p something that contradicts the iron logic of *at!re brings him into conflict with those principles to which he himself e3cl!sively owes his own e3istence% 4y acting against the laws of *at!re he prepares the way that leads to his r!in%H Bp%1F2C HIt is ,!st at those ,!nct!res when the idealistic attit!de threatens to disappear that we notice a wea&ening of this force which is a necessary constit!ent in the fo!nding and maintenance of the comm!nity and is thereby a necessary condition of civili9ation% As soon as the spirit of egotism begins to prevail among a people then the bonds of the social order brea& and man, by see&ing his own personal happiness, veritably t!mbles o!t of heaven and falls into hell%H Bp%1F<C HIn times of distress a wave of p!blic anger has !s!ally arisen against the )ew> the masses have ta&en the law into their own hands> they have sei9ed )ewish property and r!ined the )ew in their !rge to protect themselves against what they consider to be a sco!rge of 6od% 1aving come to &now the )ew intimately thro!gh the co!rse of cent!ries, in times of distress they loo&ed !pon his presence among them as a p!blic danger comparable only to the plag!e%H Bp%1G4C H1e will stop at nothing% 1is !tterly low-down cond!ct is so appalling that one really cannot be s!rprised if in the imagination of o!r people the )ew is pict!red as the incarnation of 'atan and the symbol of evil% (he ignorance of the broad masses as regards the inner character of the )ew, and the lac& of instinct and insight that o!r !pper classes display, are some of the reasons which e3plain how it is that so many people fall an easy prey to the systematic campaign of falsehood which the )ew carries on% /hile the !pper classes, with their innate cowardliness, t!rn away from anyone whom the )ew th!s attac&s with lies and cal!mny, the common people are cred!lo!s of everything, whether beca!se of their ignorance or their simple-mindedness% 6overnment a!thorities wrap themselves !p in a robe of silence, b!t more fre+!ently they persec!te the victims of )ewish attac&s in order to stop the campaign in the )ewish "ress%H Bp%1;4C H1ow devoid of ideals and how ignoble is the whole contemporary systemJ (he fact that the ch!rches ,oin in committing this sin against the image of 6od, even tho!gh they contin!e to emphasi9e the dignity of that image, is +!ite in &eeping with their present activities% (hey tal& abo!t the 'pirit, b!t they allow man, as the embodiment of the 'pirit, to degenerate to the proletarian level% (hen they loo& on with ama9ement when they reali9e how small is the infl!ence of the $hristian Faith in their own co!ntry and how depraved and !ngodly is this riff-raff which is

physically degenerate and therefore morally degenerate also% (o balance this state of affairs they try to convert the 1ottentots and the K!l!s and the 2affirs and to bestow on them the blessings of the $h!rch% /hile o!r 7!ropean people, 6od be praised and than&ed, are left to become the victims of moral depravity, the pio!s missionary goes o!t to $entral Africa and establishes missionary stations for negroes% Finally, so!nd and healthy - tho!gh primitive and bac&ward - people will be transformed, !nder the name of o!r Ihigher civili9ation#, into a motley of la9y and br!tali9ed mongrels%H Bp%22FC HLoo& at the ravages from which o!r people are s!ffering daily as a res!lt of being contaminated with )ewish blood% 4ear in mind the fact that this poisono!s contamination can be eliminated from the national body only after cent!ries, or perhaps never% (hin& f!rther of how the process of racial decomposition is debasing and in some cases even destroying the f!ndamental Aryan +!alities of o!r 6erman people, so that o!r c!lt!ral creativeness as a nation is grad!ally becoming impotent and we are r!nning the danger, at least in o!r great cities, of falling to the level where 'o!thern Italy is to-day% (his pestilential ad!lteration of the blood, of which h!ndreds of tho!sands of o!r people ta&e no acco!nt, is being systematically practised by the )ew to-day% 'ystematically these negroid parasites in o!r national body corr!pt o!r innocent fair-haired girls and th!s destroy something which can no longer be replaced in this world% (he two $hristian denominations loo& on with indifference at the profanation and destr!ction of a noble and !ni+!e creat!re who was given to the world as a gift of 6od#s grace% For the f!t!re of the world, however, it does not matter which of the two tri!mphs over the other, the $atholic or the "rotestant% 4!t it does matter whether Aryan h!manity s!rvives or perishes% And yet the two $hristian denominations are not contending against the destroyer of Aryan h!manity b!t are trying to destroy one another% 7verybody who has the right &ind of feeling for his co!ntry is solemnly bo!nd, each within his own denomination, to see to it that he is not constantly tal&ing abo!t the /ill of 6od merely from the lips b!t that in act!al fact he f!lfils the /ill of 6od and does not allow 6od#s handiwor& to be debased% For it was by the /ill of 6od that men were made of a certain bodily shape, were given their nat!res and their fac!lties% /hoever destroys 1is wor& wages war against 6od#s $reation and 6od#s /ill%H Bp%.1<C :ol!me One, H8etrospectH - $hapter One HIn the 1ome of y "arents

It has t!rned o!t fort!nate for me to-day that destiny appointed 4ra!na!-on-the-Inn to be my birthplace% For that little town is sit!ated ,!st on the frontier between those two 'tates the re!nion of which seems, at least to !s of the yo!nger generation, a tas& to which we sho!ld devote o!r lives and in the p!rs!it of which every possible means sho!ld be employed% 6erman-A!stria m!st be restored to the great 6erman otherland% And not indeed on any gro!nds of economic calc!lation whatsoever% *o, no% 7ven if the !nion were a matter of economic indifference, and even if it were to be disadvantageo!s from the economic standpoint, still it o!ght to ta&e place% "eople of the same blood sho!ld be in the same 8eich% (he 6erman people will have no right to engage in a colonial policy !ntil they shall have bro!ght all their children together in the one 'tate% /hen the territory of the 8eich embraces all the 6ermans and finds itself !nable to ass!re them a livelihood, only then can the moral right arise, from the need of the people to ac+!ire foreign territory% (he plo!gh is then the sword> and the tears of war will prod!ce the daily bread for the generations to come% And so this little frontier town appeared to me as the symbol of a great tas&% 4!t in another regard also it points to a lesson that is applicable to o!r day% Over a h!ndred years ago this se+!estered spot was the scene of a tragic calamity which affected the whole 6erman nation and will be remembered for ever, at least in the annals of 6erman history% At the time of o!r Fatherland#s deepest h!miliation a boo&seller, )ohannes "alm, !ncompromising nationalist and enemy of the French, was p!t to death here beca!se he had the misfort!ne to have loved 6ermany well% 1e obstinately ref!sed to disclose the names of his associates, or rather the principals who were chiefly responsible for the affair% )!st as it happened with Leo 'chlageter% (he former, li&e the latter, was deno!nced to the French by a 6overnment agent% It was a director of police from A!gsb!rg who won an ignoble renown on that occasion and set the e3ample which was to be copied at a later date by the neo-6erman officials of the 8eich !nder 1err 'evering#s regime 1C% In this little town on the Inn, haloed by the memory of a 6erman martyr, a town that was 4avarian by blood b!t !nder the r!le of the A!strian 'tate, my parents were domiciled towards the end of the last cent!ry% y father was a civil servant who f!lfilled his d!ties very conscientio!sly% y mother loo&ed after the ho!sehold and lovingly devoted herself to the care of her children% From that period I have not retained very m!ch in my memory> beca!se after a few years my father had to leave that frontier town which I had come to love so m!ch and ta&e !p a new post farther down the Inn valley, at "assa!, therefore act!ally in 6ermany itself% In those days it was the !s!al lot of an A!strian civil servant to be transferred periodically from one post to another% *ot long after coming to "assa! my father was transferred to Lin9, and while there he retired finally to live on his

pension% 4!t this did not mean that the old gentleman wo!ld now rest from his labo!rs% 1e was the son of a poor cottager, and while still a boy he grew restless and left home% /hen he was barely thirteen years old he b!c&led on his satchel and set forth from his native woodland parish% ?espite the diss!asion of villagers who co!ld spea& from Ie3perience,# he went to :ienna to learn a trade there% (his was in the fiftieth year of the last cent!ry% It was a sore trial, that of deciding to leave home and face the !n&nown, with three g!lden in his poc&et% 4y when the boy of thirteen was a lad of seventeen and had passed his apprenticeship e3amination as a craftsman he was not content% L!ite the contrary% (he persistent economic depression of that period and the constant want and misery strengthened his resol!tion to give !p wor&ing at a trade and strive for Isomething higher%# As a boy it had seemed to him that the position of the parish priest in his native village was the highest in the scale of h!man attainment> b!t now that the big city had enlarged his o!tloo& the yo!ng man loo&ed !p to the dignity of a 'tate official as the highest of all% /ith the tenacity of one whom misery and tro!ble had already made old when only half-way thro!gh his yo!th the yo!ng man of seventeen obstinately set o!t on his new pro,ect and st!c& to it !ntil he won thro!gh% 1e became a civil servant% 1e was abo!t twenty-three years old, I thin&, when he s!cceeded in ma&ing himself what he had resolved to become% (h!s he was able to f!lfil the promise he had made as a poor boy not to ret!rn to his native village !ntil he was Isomebody%# 1e had gained his end% 4!t in the village there was nobody who had remembered him as a little boy, and the village itself had become strange to him% *ow at last, when he was fifty-si3 years old, he gave !p his active career> b!t he co!ld not bear to be idle for a single day% On the o!ts&irts of the small mar&et town of Lambach in Mpper A!stria he bo!ght a farm and tilled it himself% (h!s, at the end of a long and hard-wor&ing career, he came bac& to the life which his father had led% It was at this period that I first began to have ideals of my own% I spent a good deal of time scampering abo!t in the open, on the long road from school, and mi3ing !p with some of the ro!ghest of the boys, which ca!sed my mother many an3io!s moments% All this tended to ma&e me something +!ite the reverse of a stay-at-home% I gave scarcely any serio!s tho!ght to the +!estion of choosing a vocation in life> b!t I was certainly +!ite o!t of sympathy with the &ind of career which my father had followed% I thin& that an inborn talent for spea&ing now began to develop and ta&e shape d!ring the more or less stren!o!s arg!ments which I !sed to have with my comrades% I had become a ,!venile ringleader who learned well and easily at school b!t was rather diffic!lt to manage% In my freetime I practised singing in the choir of the monastery ch!rch at Lambach, and th!s it happened that I was placed in a very favo!rable position to be emotionally impressed again and again by the magnificent splendo!r of ecclesiastical ceremonial% /hat co!ld be more nat!ral for me than to loo& !pon the Abbot as representing the highest h!man ideal worth striving for, ,!st as the position of the h!mble village priest had appeared to my father in his own boyhood days5 At least, that was my idea for a while% 4!t the ,!venile disp!tes I had with my father did not lead him to appreciate his son#s oratorical gifts in s!ch a way as to see in them a favo!rable promise for s!ch a career, and so he nat!rally co!ld not !nderstand the boyish ideas I had in my head at that time% (his contradiction in my character made him feel somewhat an3io!s% As a matter of fact, that transitory yearning after s!ch a vocation soon gave way to hopes that were better s!ited to my temperament% 4rowsing thro!gh my father#s boo&s, I chanced to come across some p!blications that dealt with military s!b,ects% One of these p!blications was a pop!lar history of the Franco-6erman /ar of 1;G<-G1% It consisted of two vol!mes of an ill!strated periodical dating from those years% (hese became my favo!rite reading% In a little while that great and heroic conflict began to ta&e first place in my mind% And from that time onwards I became more and more enth!siastic abo!t everything that was in any way connected with war or military affairs% 4!t this story of the Franco-6erman /ar had a special significance for me on other gro!nds also% For the first time, and as yet only in +!ite a vag!e way, the +!estion began to present itself0 Is there a difference - and if there be, what is it - between the 6ermans who fo!ght that war and the other 6ermans5 /hy did not A!stria also ta&e part in it5 /hy did not my father and all the others fight in that str!ggle5 Are we not the same as the other 6ermans5 ?o we not all belong together5 (hat was the first time that this problem began to agitate my small brain% And from the replies that were given to the +!estions which I as&ed very tentatively, I was forced to accept the fact, tho!gh with a secret envy, that not all 6ermans had the good l!c& to belong to 4ismarc&#s 7mpire% (his was something that I co!ld not !nderstand% It was decided that I sho!ld st!dy% $onsidering my character as a whole, and especially my temperament, my father decided that the classical s!b,ects st!died at the Lyce!m were not s!ited to my nat!ral talents% 1e tho!ght that the 8ealsch!le 2C wo!ld s!it me better% y obvio!s talent for drawing confirmed him in that view> for in his opinion drawing was a s!b,ect too m!ch neglected in the A!strian 6ymnasi!m% "robably also the memory of the hard road which he himself had travelled contrib!ted to ma&e him loo& !pon classical st!dies as !npractical and accordingly to set little val!e on them% At the bac& of his mind he had the idea that his son also sho!ld become an official of the 6overnment% Indeed he had decided on that career for me% (he diffic!lties thro!gh which he had to str!ggle in ma&ing his own career led him to overestimate what he had achieved, beca!se this was e3cl!sively the res!lt of his own indefatigable ind!stry and energy% (he characteristic pride of the self-made man !rged him towards the idea

that his son sho!ld follow the same calling and if possible rise to a higher position in it% oreover, this idea was strengthened by the consideration that the res!lts of his own life#s ind!stry had placed him in a position to facilitate his son#s advancement in the same career% 1e was simply incapable of imagining that I might re,ect what had meant everything in life to him% y father#s decision was simple, definite, clear and, in his eyes, it was something to be ta&en for granted% A man of s!ch a nat!re who had become an a!tocrat by reason of his own hard str!ggle for e3istence, co!ld not thin& of allowing Iine3perienced# and irresponsible yo!ng fellows to choose their own careers% (o act in s!ch a way, where the f!t!re of his own son was concerned, wo!ld have been a grave and reprehensible wea&ness in the e3ercise of parental a!thority and responsibility, something !tterly incompatible with his characteristic sense of d!ty% And yet it had to be otherwise% For the first time in my life - I was then eleven years old - I felt myself forced into open opposition% *o matter how hard and determined my father might be abo!t p!tting his own plans and opinions into action, his son was no less obstinate in ref!sing to accept ideas on which he set little or no val!e% I wo!ld not become a civil servant% *o amo!nt of pers!asion and no amo!nt of Igrave# warnings co!ld brea& down that opposition% I wo!ld not become a 'tate official, not on any acco!nt% All the attempts which my father made to aro!se in me a love or li&ing for that profession, by pict!ring his own career for me, had only the opposite effect% It na!seated me to thin& that one day I might be fettered to an office stool, that I co!ld not dispose of my own time b!t wo!ld be forced to spend the whole of my life filling o!t forms% One can imagine what &ind of tho!ghts s!ch a prospect awa&ened in the mind of a yo!ng fellow who was by no means what is called a Igood boy# in the c!rrent sense of that term% (he ridic!lo!sly easy school tas&s which we were given made it possible for me to spend far more time in the open air than at home% (o-day, when my political opponents pry into my life with diligent scr!tiny, as far bac& as the days of my boyhood, so as finally to be able to prove what disrep!table tric&s this 1itler was acc!stomed to in his yo!ng days, I than& heaven that I can loo& bac& to those happy days and find the memory of them helpf!l% (he fields and the woods were then the terrain on which all disp!tes were fo!ght o!t% 7ven attendance at the 8ealsch!le co!ld not alter my way of spending my time% 4!t I had now another battle to fight% 'o long as the paternal plan to ma&e a 'tate f!nctionary contradicted my own inclinations only in the abstract, the conflict was easy to bear% I co!ld be discreet abo!t e3pressing my personal views and th!s avoid constantly rec!rrent disp!tes% y own resol!tion not to become a 6overnment official was s!fficient for the time being to p!t my mind completely at rest% I held on to that resol!tion ine3orably% 4!t the sit!ation became more diffic!lt once I had a positive plan of my own which I might present to my father as a co!nter-s!ggestion% (his happened when I was twelve years old% 1ow it came abo!t I cannot e3actly say now> b!t one day it became clear to me that I wo!ld be a painter - I mean an artist% (hat I had an aptit!de for drawing was an admitted fact% It was even one of the reasons why my father had sent me to the 8ealsch!le> b!t he had never tho!ght of having that talent developed in s!ch a way that I co!ld ta&e !p painting as a professional career% L!ite the contrary% /hen, as a res!lt of my renewed ref!sal to adopt his favo!rite plan, my father as&ed me for the first time what I myself really wished to be, the resol!tion that I had already formed e3pressed itself almost a!tomatically% For a while my father was speechless% HA painter5 An artist-painter5H he e3claimed% 1e wondered whether I was in a so!nd state of mind% 1e tho!ght that he might not have ca!ght my words rightly, or that he had mis!nderstood what I meant% 4!t when I had e3plained my ideas to him and he saw how serio!sly I too& them, he opposed them with that f!ll determination which was characteristic of him% 1is decision was e3ceedingly simple and co!ld not be deflected from its co!rse by any consideration of what my own nat!ral +!alifications really were% HArtistJ *ot as long as I live, never%H As the son had inherited some of the father#s obstinacy, besides having other +!alities of his own, my reply was e+!ally energetic% 4!t it stated something +!ite the contrary% At that o!r str!ggle became stalemate% (he father wo!ld not abandon his I*ever#, and I became all the more consolidated in my I*evertheless#% *at!rally the res!lting sit!ation was not pleasant% (he old gentleman was bitterly annoyed> and indeed so was I, altho!gh I really loved him% y father forbade me to entertain any hopes of ta&ing !p the art of painting as a profession% I went a step f!rther and declared that I wo!ld not st!dy anything else% /ith s!ch declarations the sit!ation became still more strained, so that the old gentleman irrevocably decided to assert his parental a!thority at all costs% (hat led me to adopt an attit!de of circ!mspect silence, b!t I p!t my threat into e3ec!tion% I tho!ght that, once it became clear to my father that I was ma&ing no progress at the 8ealsch!le, for weal or for woe, he wo!ld be forced to allow me to follow the happy career I had dreamed of% I do not &now whether I calc!lated rightly or not% $ertainly my fail!re to ma&e progress became +!ite visible in the school% I st!died ,!st the s!b,ects that appealed to me, especially those which I tho!ght might be of advantage to me

later on as a painter% /hat did not appear to have any importance from this point of view, or what did not otherwise appeal to me favo!rably, I completely sabotaged% y school reports of that time were always in the e3tremes of good or bad, according to the s!b,ect and the interest it had for me% In one col!mn my +!alification read Ivery good# or Ie3cellent#% In another it read Iaverage# or even Ibelow average#% 4y far my best s!b,ects were geography and, even more so, general history% (hese were my two favo!rite s!b,ects, and I led the class in them% /hen I loo& bac& over so many years and try to ,!dge the res!lts of that e3perience I find two very significant facts standing o!t clearly before my mind% First, I became a nationalist% 'econd, I learned to !nderstand and grasp the tr!e meaning of history% (he old A!stria was a m!lti-national 'tate% In those days at least the citi9ens of the 6erman 7mpire, ta&en thro!gh and thro!gh, co!ld not !nderstand what that fact meant in the everyday life of the individ!als within s!ch a 'tate% After the magnificent tri!mphant march of the victorio!s armies in the Franco-6erman /ar the 6ermans in the 8eich became steadily more and more estranged from the 6ermans beyond their frontiers, partly beca!se they did not deign to appreciate those other 6ermans at their tr!e val!e or simply beca!se they were incapable of doing so% (he 6ermans of the 8eich did not reali9e that if the 6ermans in A!stria had not been of the best racial stoc& they co!ld never have given the stamp of their own character to an 7mpire of =2 millions, so definitely that in 6ermany itself the idea arose - tho!gh +!ite an erroneo!s one - that A!stria was a 6erman 'tate% (hat was an error which led to dire conse+!ences> b!t all the same it was a magnificent testimony to the character of the ten million 6ermans in that 7ast ar&% .C Only very few of the 6ermans in the 8eich itself had an idea of the bitter str!ggle which those 7astern 6ermans had to carry on daily for the preservation of their 6erman lang!age, their 6erman schools and their 6erman character% Only to-day, when a tragic fate has torn several millions of o!r &insfol& away from the 8eich and has forced them to live !nder the r!le of the stranger, dreaming of that common fatherland towards which all their yearnings are directed and str!ggling to !phold at least the sacred right of !sing their mother tong!e - only now have the wider circles of the 6erman pop!lation come to reali9e what it means to have to fight for the traditions of one#s race% And so at last perhaps there are people here and there who can assess the greatness of that 6erman spirit which animated the old 7ast ar& and enabled those people, left entirely dependent on their own reso!rces, to defend the 7mpire against the Orient for several cent!ries and s!bse+!ently to hold fast the frontiers of the 6erman lang!age thro!gh a g!erilla warfare of attrition, at a time when the 6erman 7mpire was sed!lo!sly c!ltivating an interest for colonies b!t not for its own flesh and blood before the threshold of its own door% /hat has happened always and everywhere, in every &ind of str!ggle, happened also in the lang!age fight which was carried on in the old A!stria% (here were three gro!ps - the fighters, the hedgers and the traitors% 7ven in the schools this sifting already began to ta&e place% And it is worth noting that the str!ggle for the lang!age was waged perhaps in its bitterest form aro!nd the school> beca!se this was the n!rsery where the seeds had to be watered which were to spring !p and form the f!t!re generation% (he tactical ob,ective of the fight was the winning over of the child, and it was to the child that the first rallying cry was addressed0 H6erman yo!th, do not forget that yo! are a 6erman,H and H8emember, little girl, that one day yo! m!st be a 6erman mother%H (hose who &now something of the ,!venile spirit can !nderstand how yo!th will always lend a glad ear to s!ch a rallying cry% Mnder many forms the yo!ng people led the str!ggle, fighting in their own way and with their own weapons% (hey ref!sed to sing non-6erman songs% (he greater the efforts made to win them away from their 6erman allegiance, the more they e3alted the glory of their 6erman heroes% (hey stinted themselves in b!ying things to eat, so that they might spare their pennies to help the war chest of their elders% (hey were incredibly alert in the significance of what the non-6erman teachers said and they contradicted in !nison% (hey wore the forbidden emblems of their own &insfol& and were happy when penalised for doing so, or even physically p!nished% In miniat!re they were mirrors of loyalty from which the older people might learn a lesson% And th!s it was that at a comparatively early age I too& part in the str!ggle which the nationalities were waging against one another in the old A!stria% /hen meetings were held for the 'o!th ar& 6erman Leag!e and the 'chool Leag!e we wore cornflowers and blac&-red-gold colo!rs to e3press o!r loyalty% /e greeted one another with 1eilJ and instead of the A!strian anthem we sang o!r own ?e!tschland Dber Alles, despite warnings and penalties% (h!s the yo!th were ed!cated politically at a time when the citi9ens of a so-called national 'tate for the most part &new little of their own nationality e3cept the lang!age% Of co!rse, I did not belong to the hedgers% /ithin a little while I had become an ardent I6erman *ational#, which has a different meaning from the party significance attached to that phrase to-day% I developed very rapidly in the nationalist direction, and by the time I was 1= years old I had come to !nderstand the distinction between dynastic patriotism and nationalism based on the concept of fol&, or people, my inclination being entirely in favo!r of the latter% '!ch a preference may not perhaps be clearly intelligible to those who have never ta&en the tro!ble to st!dy the internal conditions that prevailed !nder the 1absb!rg onarchy%

Among historical st!dies !niversal history was the s!b,ect almost e3cl!sively ta!ght in the A!strian schools, for of specific A!strian history there was only very little% (he fate of this 'tate was closely bo!nd !p with the e3istence and development of 6ermany as a whole> so a division of history into 6erman history and A!strian history wo!ld be practically inconceivable% And indeed it was only when the 6erman people came to be divided between two 'tates that this division of 6erman history began to ta&e place% (he insignia 4C of a former imperial sovereignty which were still preserved in :ienna appeared to act as magical relics rather than as the visible g!arantee of an everlasting bond of !nion% /hen the 1absb!rg 'tate cr!mbled to pieces in 191; the A!strian 6ermans instinctively raised an o!tcry for !nion with their 6erman fatherland% (hat was the voice of a !nanimo!s yearning in the hearts of the whole people for a ret!rn to the !nforgotten home of their fathers% 4!t s!ch a general yearning co!ld not be e3plained e3cept by attrib!ting the ca!se of it to the historical training thro!gh which the individ!al A!strian 6ermans had passed% (herein lay a spring that never dried !p% 7specially in times of distraction and forgetf!lness its +!iet voice was a reminder of the past, bidding the people to loo& o!t beyond the mere welfare of the moment to a new f!t!re% (he teaching of !niversal history in what are called the middle schools is still very !nsatisfactory% Few teachers reali9e that the p!rpose of teaching history is not the memori9ing of some dates and facts, that the st!dent is not interested in &nowing the e3act date of a battle or the birthday of some marshal or other, and not at all - or at least only very insignificantly - interested in &nowing when the crown of his fathers was placed on the brow of some monarch% (hese are certainly not loo&ed !pon as important matters% (o st!dy history means to search for and discover the forces that are the ca!ses of those res!lts which appear before o!r eyes as historical events% (he art of reading and st!dying consists in remembering the essentials and forgetting what is not essential% "robably my whole f!t!re life was determined by the fact that I had a professor of history who !nderstood, as few others !nderstand, how to ma&e this viewpoint prevail in teaching and in e3amining% (his teacher was ?r% Leopold "oetsch, of the 8ealsch!le at Lin9% 1e was the ideal personification of the +!alities necessary to a teacher of history in the sense I have mentioned above% An elderly gentleman with a decisive manner b!t a &indly heart, he was a very attractive spea&er and was able to inspire !s with his own enth!siasm% 7ven to-day I cannot recall witho!t emotion that venerable personality whose enth!siastic e3position of history so often made !s entirely forget the present and allow o!rselves to be transported as if by magic into the past% 1e penetrated thro!gh the dim mist of tho!sands of years and transformed the historical memory of the dead past into a living reality% /hen we listened to him we became afire with enth!siasm and we were sometimes moved even to tears% It was still more fort!nate that this professor was able not only to ill!strate the past by e3amples from the present b!t from the past he was also able to draw a lesson for the present% 1e !nderstood better than any other the everyday problems that were then agitating o!r minds% (he national fervo!r which we felt in o!r own small way was !tili9ed by him as an instr!ment of o!r ed!cation, inasm!ch as he often appealed to o!r national sense of hono!r> for in that way he maintained order and held o!r attention m!ch more easily than he co!ld have done by any other means% It was beca!se I had s!ch a professor that history became my favo!rite s!b,ect% As a nat!ral conse+!ence, b!t witho!t the conscio!s connivance of my professor, I then and there became a yo!ng rebel% 4!t who co!ld have st!died 6erman history !nder s!ch a teacher and not become an enemy of that 'tate whose r!lers e3ercised s!ch a disastro!s infl!ence on the destinies of the 6erman nation5 Finally, how co!ld one remain the faithf!l s!b,ect of the 1o!se of 1absb!rg, whose past history and present cond!ct proved it to be ready ever and always to betray the interests of the 6erman people for the sa&e of paltry personal interests5 ?id not we as yo!ngsters f!lly reali9e that the 1o!se of 1absb!rg did not, and co!ld not, have any love for !s 6ermans5 /hat history ta!ght !s abo!t the policy followed by the 1o!se of 1absb!rg was corroborated by o!r own everyday e3periences% In the north and in the so!th the poison of foreign races was eating into the body of o!r people, and even :ienna was steadily becoming more and more a non-6erman city% (he IImperial 1o!se# favo!red the $9echs on every possible occasion% Indeed it was the hand of the goddess of eternal ,!stice and ine3orable retrib!tion that ca!sed the most deadly enemy of 6ermanism in A!stria, the Archd!&e Fran9 Ferdinand, to fall by the very b!llets which he himself had helped to cast% /or&ing from above downwards, he was the chief patron of the movement to ma&e A!stria a 'lav 'tate% (he b!rdens laid on the sho!lders of the 6erman people were enormo!s and the sacrifices of money and blood which they had to ma&e were incredibly heavy% Net anybody who was not +!ite blind m!st have seen that it was all in vain% /hat affected !s most bitterly was the conscio!sness of the fact that this whole system was morally shielded by the alliance with 6ermany, whereby the slow e3tirpation of 6ermanism in the old A!strian onarchy seemed in some way to be more or less sanctioned by 6ermany herself% 1absb!rg hypocrisy, which endeavo!red o!twardly to ma&e the people believe that A!stria still remained a 6erman 'tate, increased the feeling of hatred against the Imperial 1o!se and at the same time aro!sed a spirit of rebellion and contempt% 4!t in the 6erman 7mpire itself those who were then its r!lers saw nothing of what all this meant% As if str!c&

blind, they stood beside a corpse and in the very symptoms of decomposition they believed that they recogni9ed the signs of a renewed vitality% In that !nhappy alliance between the yo!ng 6erman 7mpire and the ill!sory A!strian 'tate lay the germ of the /orld /ar and also of the final collapse% In the s!bse+!ent pages of this boo& I shall go to the root of the problem% '!ffice it to say here that in the very early years of my yo!th I came to certain concl!sions which I have never abandoned% Indeed I became more profo!ndly convinced of them as the years passed% (hey were0 (hat the dissol!tion of the A!strian 7mpire is a preliminary condition for the defence of 6ermany> f!rther, that national feeling is by no means identical with dynastic patriotism> finally, and above all, that the 1o!se of 1absb!rg was destined to bring misfort!ne to the 6erman nation% As a logical conse+!ence of these convictions, there arose in me a feeling of intense love for my 6erman-A!strian home and a profo!nd hatred for the A!strian 'tate% (hat &ind of historical thin&ing which was developed in me thro!gh my st!dy of history at school never left me afterwards% /orld history became more and more an ine3ha!stible so!rce for the !nderstanding of contemporary historical events, which means politics% (herefore I will not HlearnH politics b!t let politics teach me% A precocio!s revol!tionary in politics I was no less a precocio!s revol!tionary in art% At that time the provincial capital of Mpper A!stria had a theatre which, relatively spea&ing, was not bad% Almost everything was played there% /hen I was twelve years old I saw /illiam (ell performed% (hat was my first e3perience of the theatre% 'ome months later I attended a performance of Lohengrin, the first opera I had ever heard% I was fascinated at once% y yo!thf!l enth!siasm for the 4ayre!th aster &new no limits% Again and again I was drawn to hear his operas> and to-day I consider it a great piece of l!c& that these modest prod!ctions in the little provincial city prepared the way and made it possible for me to appreciate the better prod!ctions later on% 4!t all this helped to intensify my profo!nd aversion for the career that my father had chosen for me> and this disli&e became especially strong as the ro!gh corners of yo!thf!l boorishness became worn off, a process which in my case ca!sed a good deal of pain% I became more and more convinced that I sho!ld never be happy as a 'tate official% And now that the 8ealsch!le had recogni9ed and ac&nowledged my aptit!de for drawing, my own resol!tion became all the stronger% Imprecations and threats had no longer any chance of changing it% I wanted to become a painter and no power in the world co!ld force me to become a civil servant% (he only pec!liar feat!re of the sit!ation now was that as I grew bigger I became more and more interested in architect!re% I considered this fact as a nat!ral development of my flair for painting and I re,oiced inwardly that the sphere of my artistic interests was th!s enlarged% I had no notion that one day it wo!ld have to be otherwise% (he +!estion of my career was decided m!ch sooner than I co!ld have e3pected% /hen I was in my thirteenth year my father was s!ddenly ta&en from !s% 1e was still in rob!st health when a stro&e of apople3y painlessly ended his earthly wanderings and left !s all deeply bereaved% 1is most ardent longing was to be able to help his son to advance in a career and th!s save me from the harsh ordeal that he himself had to go thro!gh% 4!t it appeared to him then as if that longing were all in vain% And yet, tho!gh he himself was not conscio!s of it, he had sown the seeds of a f!t!re which neither of !s foresaw at that time% At first nothing changed o!twardly% y mother felt it her d!ty to contin!e my ed!cation in accordance with my father#s wishes, which meant that she wo!ld have me st!dy for the civil service% For my own part I was even more firmly determined than ever before that !nder no circ!mstances wo!ld I become an official of the 'tate% (he c!rric!l!m and teaching methods followed in the middle school were so far removed from my ideals that I became profo!ndly indifferent% Illness s!ddenly came to my assistance% /ithin a few wee&s it decided my f!t!re and p!t an end to the long-standing family conflict% y l!ngs became so serio!sly affected that the doctor advised my mother very strongly not !nder any circ!mstances to allow me to ta&e !p a career which wo!ld necessitate wor&ing in an office% 1e ordered that I sho!ld give !p attendance at the 8ealsch!le for a year at least% /hat I had secretly desired for s!ch a long time, and had persistently fo!ght for, now became a reality almost at one stro&e% Infl!enced by my illness, my mother agreed that I sho!ld leave the 8ealsch!le and attend the Academy% (hose were happy days, which appeared to me almost as a dream> b!t they were bo!nd to remain only a dream% (wo years later my mother#s death p!t a br!tal end to all my fine pro,ects% 'he s!cc!mbed to a long and painf!l illness which from the very beginning permitted little hope of recovery% (ho!gh e3pected, her death came as a terrible blow to me% I respected my father, b!t I loved my mother% "overty and stern reality forced me to decide promptly% (he meagre reso!rces of the family had been almost entirely !sed !p thro!gh my mother#s severe illness% (he allowance which came to me as an orphan was not eno!gh for the bare necessities of life% 'omehow or other I wo!ld have to earn my own bread% /ith my clothes and linen pac&ed in a valise and with an indomitable resol!tion in my heart, I left for :ienna% I hoped to forestall fate, as my father had done fifty years before% I was determined to become Isomething# - b!t certainly not a civil servant%

$hapter (wo, HNears of '!ffering in :iennaH /hen my mother died my fate had already been decided in one respect% ?!ring the last months of her illness I went to :ienna to ta&e the entrance e3amination for the Academy of Fine Arts% Armed with a b!l&y pac&et of s&etches, I felt convinced that I sho!ld pass the e3amination +!ite easily% At the 8ealsch!le I was by far the best st!dent in the drawing class, and since that time I had made more than ordinary progress in the practice of drawing% (herefore I was pleased with myself and was pro!d and happy at the prospect of what I considered an ass!red s!ccess% 4!t there was one misgiving0 It seemed to me that I was better +!alified for drawing than for painting, especially in the vario!s branches of architect!ral drawing% At the same time my interest in architect!re was constantly increasing% And I advanced in this direction at a still more rapid pace after my first visit to :ienna, which lasted two wee&s% I was not yet si3teen years old% I went to the 1of !se!m to st!dy the paintings in the art gallery there> b!t the b!ilding itself capt!red almost all my interest, from early morning !ntil late at night I spent all my time visiting the vario!s p!blic b!ildings% And it was the b!ildings themselves that were always the principal attraction for me% For ho!rs and ho!rs I co!ld stand in wonderment before the Opera and the "arliament% (he whole 8ing 'trasse had a magic effect !pon me, as if it were a scene from the (ho!sand-and-one-*ights% And now I was here for the second time in this bea!tif!l city, impatiently waiting to hear the res!lt of the entrance e3amination b!t pro!dly confident that I had got thro!gh% I was so convinced of my s!ccess that when the news that I had failed to pass was bro!ght to me it str!c& me li&e a bolt from the s&ies% Net the fact was that I had failed% I went to see the 8ector and as&ed him to e3plain the reasons why they ref!sed to accept me as a st!dent in the general 'chool of "ainting, which was part of the Academy% 1e said that the s&etches which I had bro!ght with me !n+!estionably showed that painting was not what I was s!ited for b!t that the same s&etches gave clear indications of my aptit!de for architect!ral designing% (herefore the 'chool of "ainting did not come into +!estion for me b!t rather the 'chool of Architect!re, which also formed part of the Academy% At first it was impossible to !nderstand how this co!ld be so, seeing that I had never been to a school for architect!re and had never received any instr!ction in architect!ral designing% /hen I left the 1ansen "alace, on the 'chiller "lat9, I was +!ite crestfallen% I felt o!t of sorts with myself for the first time in my yo!ng life% For what I had heard abo!t my capabilities now appeared to me as a lightning flash which clearly revealed a d!alism !nder which I had been s!ffering for a long time, b!t hitherto I co!ld give no clear acco!nt whatsoever of the why and wherefore% /ithin a few days I myself also &new that I o!ght to become an architect% 4!t of co!rse the way was very diffic!lt% I was now forced bitterly to r!e my former cond!ct in neglecting and despising certain s!b,ects at the 8ealsch!le% 4efore ta&ing !p the co!rses at the 'chool of Architect!re in the Academy it was necessary to attend the (echnical 4!ilding 'chool> b!t a necessary +!alification for entrance into this school was a Leaving $ertificate from the iddle 'chool% And this I simply did not have% According to the h!man meas!re of things my dream of following an artistic calling seemed beyond the limits of possibility% After the death of my mother I came to :ienna for the third time% (his visit was destined to last several years% 'ince I had been there before I had recovered my old calm and resol!teness% (he former self-ass!rance had come bac&, and I had my eyes steadily fi3ed on the goal% I wo!ld be an architect% Obstacles are placed across o!r path in life, not to be boggled at b!t to be s!rmo!nted% And I was f!lly determined to s!rmo!nt these obstacles, having the pict!re of my father constantly before my mind, who had raised himself by his own efforts to the position of a civil servant tho!gh he was the poor son of a village shoema&er% I had a better start, and the possibilities of str!ggling thro!gh were better% At that time my lot in life seemed to me a harsh one> b!t to-day I see in it the wise wor&ings of "rovidence% (he 6oddess of Fate cl!tched me in her hands and often threatened to smash me> b!t the will grew stronger as the obstacles increased, and finally the will tri!mphed% I am than&f!l for that period of my life, beca!se it hardened me and enabled me to be as to!gh as I now am% And I am even more than&f!l beca!se I appreciate the fact that I was th!s saved from the emptiness of a life of ease and that a mother#s darling was ta&en from tender arms and handed over to Adversity as to a new mother% (ho!gh I then rebelled against it as too hard a fate, I am gratef!l that I was thrown into a world of misery and poverty and th!s came to &now the people for whom I was afterwards to fight% It was d!ring this period that my eyes were opened to two perils, the names of which I scarcely &new hitherto and had no notion whatsoever of their terrible significance for the e3istence of the 6erman people% (hese two perils were ar3ism and )!daism% For many people the name of :ienna signifies innocent ,ollity, a festive place for happy mortals% For me, alas, it is a living memory of the saddest period in my life% 7ven to-day the mention of that city aro!ses only gloomy tho!ghts in my mind% Five years of poverty in that "haecian =C town% Five years in which, first as a cas!al labo!rer and then as a painter of little trifles, I had to earn my daily bread% And a meagre morsel indeed it was, not even s!fficient to still the h!nger which I constantly felt% (hat h!nger was the faithf!l g!ardian which never left me b!t too& part in

everything I did% 7very boo& that I bo!ght meant renewed h!nger, and every visit I paid to the opera meant the intr!sion of that inalienabl companion d!ring the following days% I was always str!ggling with my !nsympathic friend% And yet d!ring that time I learned more than I had ever learned before% O!tside my architect!ral st!dies and rare visits to the opera, for which I had to deny myself food, I had no other pleas!re in life e3cept my boo&s% I read a great deal then, and I pondered deeply over what I read% All the free time after wor& was devoted e3cl!sively to st!dy% (h!s within a few years I was able to ac+!ire a stoc& of &nowledge which I find !sef!l even today% 4!t more than that% ?!ring those years a view of life and a definite o!tloo& on the world too& shape in my mind% (hese became the granite basis of my cond!ct at that time% 'ince then I have e3tended that fo!ndation only very little, and I have changed nothing in it% On the contrary0 I am firmly convinced to-day that, generally spea&ing, it is in yo!th that men lay the essential gro!ndwor& of their creative tho!ght, wherever that creative tho!ght e3ists% I ma&e a distinction between the wisdom of age - which can only arise from the greater prof!ndity and foresight that are based on the e3periences of a long life - and the creative geni!s of yo!th, which blossoms o!t in tho!ght and ideas with ine3ha!stible fertility, witho!t being able to p!t these into practice immediately, beca!se of their very s!perab!ndance% (hese f!rnish the b!ilding materials and plans for the f!t!re> and it is from them that age ta&es the stones and b!ilds the edifice, !nless the so-called wisdom of the years may have smothered the creative geni!s of yo!th% (he life which I had hitherto led at home with my parents differed in little or nothing from that of all the others% I loo&ed forward witho!t apprehension to the morrow, and there was no s!ch thing as a social problem to be faced% (hose among whom I passed my yo!ng days belonged to the small bo!rgeois class% (herefore it was a world that had very little contact with the world of gen!ine man!al labo!rers% For, tho!gh at first this may appear astonishing, the ditch which separates that class, which is by no means economically well-off> from the man!al labo!ring class is often deeper than people thin&% (he reason for this division, which we may almost call enmity, lies in the fear that dominates a social gro!p which has only ,!st risen above the level of the man!al labo!rer - a fear lest it may fall bac& into its old condition or at least be classed with the labo!rers% oreover, there is something rep!lsive in remembering the c!lt!ral indigence of that lower class and their ro!gh manners with one another> so that people who are only on the first r!ng of the social ladder find it !nbearable to be forced to have any contact with the c!lt!ral level and standard of living o!t of which they have passed% And so it happens that very often those who belong to what can really be called the !pper classes find it m!ch easier than do the !pstarts to descend to and intermingle with their fellow beings on the lowest social level% For by the word !pstart I mean everyone who has raised himself thro!gh his own efforts to a social level higher than that to which he formerly belonged% In the case of s!ch a person the hard str!ggle thro!gh which he passes often destroys his normal h!man sympathy% 1is own fight for e3istence &ills his sensibility for the misery of those who have been left behind% From this point of view fate had been &ind to me% $irc!mstances forced me to ret!rn to that world of poverty and economic insec!rity above which my father had raised himself in his early days> and th!s the blin&ers of a narrow petit bo!rgeois ed!cation were torn from my eyes% *ow for the first time I learned to &now men and I learned to disting!ish between empty appearances or br!tal manners and the real inner nat!re of the people who o!twardly appeared th!s% At the beginning of the cent!ry :ienna had already ta&en ran& among those cities where social conditions are ini+!ito!s% ?a99ling riches and loathsome destit!tion were intermingled in violent contrast% In the centre and in the Inner $ity one felt the p!lse-beat of an 7mpire which had a pop!lation of fiity-two millions, with all the perilo!s charm of a 'tate made !p of m!ltiple nationalities% (he da99ling splendo!r of the $o!rt acted li&e a magnet on the wealth and intelligence of the whole 7mpire% And this attraction was f!rther strengthened by the dynastic policy of the 1absb!rg onarchy in centrali9ing everything in itself and for itself% (his centrali9ing policy was necessary in order to hold together that hotchpotch of heterogeneo!s nationalities% 4!t the res!lt of it was an e3traordinary concentration of higher officials in the city, which was at one and the same time the metropolis and imperial residence% 4!t :ienna was not merely the political and intellect!al centre of the ?an!bian onarchy> it was also the commercial centre% 4esides the horde of military officers of high ran&, 'tate officials, artists and scientists, there was the still vaster horde of wor&ers% Ab,ect poverty confronted the wealth of the aristocracy and the merchant class face to face% (ho!sands of !nemployed loitered in front of the palaces on the 8ing 'trasse> and below that :ia (ri!mphalis of the old A!stria the homeless h!ddled together in the m!r& and filth of the canals% (here was hardly any other 6erman city in which the social problem co!ld be st!died better than in :ienna% 4!t here I m!st !tter a warning against the ill!sion that this problem can be Ist!died# from above downwards% (he man who has never been in the cl!tches of that cr!shing viper can never &now what its poison is% An attempt to st!dy it in any other way will res!lt only in s!perficial tal& and sentimental del!sions% 4oth are harmf!l% (he first beca!se it can never go to the root of the +!estion, the second beca!se it evades the +!estion entirely% I do not &now which is

the more nefario!s0 to ignore social distress, as do the ma,ority of those who have been favo!red by fort!ne and those who have risen in the social scale thro!gh their own ro!tine labo!r, or the e+!ally s!percilio!s and often tactless b!t always genteel condescension displayed by people who ma&e a fad of being charitable and who pl!me themselves on Isympathising with the people%# Of co!rse s!ch persons sin more than they can imagine from lac& of instinctive !nderstanding% And th!s they are astonished to find that the Isocial conscience# on which they pride themselves never prod!ces any res!lts, b!t often ca!ses their good intentions to be resented> and then they tal& of the ingratit!de of the people% '!ch persons are slow to learn that here there is no place for merely social activities and that there can be no e3pectation of gratit!de> for in this connection there is no +!estion at all of distrib!ting favo!rs b!t essentially a matter of retrib!tive ,!stice% I was protected against the temptation to st!dy the social +!estion in the way ,!st mentioned, for the simple reason that I was forced to live in the midst of poverty-stric&en people% (herefore it was not a +!estion of st!dying the problem ob,ectively, b!t rather one of testing its effects on myself% (ho!gh the rabbit came thro!gh the ordeal of the e3periment, this m!st not be ta&en as evidence of its harmlessness% /hen I try to-day to recall the s!ccession of impressions received d!ring that time I find that I can do so only with appro3imate completeness% 1ere I shall describe only the more essential impressions and those which personally affected me and often staggered me% And I shall mention the few lessons I then learned from this e3perience% At that time it was for the most part not very diffic!lt to find wor&, beca!se I had to see& wor& not as a s&illed tradesman b!t as a so-called e3tra-hand ready to ta&e any ,ob that t!rned !p by chance, ,!st for the sa&e of earning my daily bread% (h!s I fo!nd myself in the same sit!ation as all those emigrants who sha&e the d!st of 7!rope from their feet, with the cast-iron determination to lay the fo!ndations of a new e3istence in the *ew /orld and ac+!ire for themselves a new home% Liberated from all the paralysing pre,!dices of class and calling, environment and tradition, they enter any service that opens its doors to them, accepting any wor& that comes their way, filled more and more with the idea that honest wor& never disgraced anybody, no matter what &ind it may be% And so I was resolved to set both feet in what was for me a new world and p!sh forward on my own road% I soon fo!nd o!t that there was some &ind of wor& always to be got, b!t I also learned that it co!ld ,!st as +!ic&ly and easily be lost% (he !ncertainty of being able to earn a reg!lar daily livelihood soon appeared to me as the gloomiest feat!re in this new life that I had entered% Altho!gh the s&illed wor&er was not so fre+!ently thrown idle on the streets as the !ns&illed wor&er, yet the former was by no means protected against the same fate> beca!se tho!gh he may not have to face h!nger as a res!lt of !nemployment d!e to the lac& of demand in the labo!r mar&et, the loc&-o!t and the stri&e deprived the s&illed wor&er of the chance to earn his bread% 1ere the element of !ncertainty in steadily earning one#s daily bread was the bitterest feat!re of the whole social-economic system itself% (he co!ntry lad who migrates to the big city feels attracted by what has been described as easy wor& - which it may be in reality - and few wor&ing ho!rs% 1e is especially entranced by the magic glimmer spread over the big cities% Acc!stomed in the co!ntry to earn a steady wage, he has been ta!ght not to +!it his former post !ntil a new one is at least in sight% As there is a great scarcity of agric!lt!ral labo!r, the probability of long !nemployment in the co!ntry has been very small% It is a mista&e to pres!me that the lad who leaves the co!ntryside for the town is not made of s!ch so!nd material as those who remain at home to wor& on the land% On the contrary, e3perience shows that it is the more healthy and more vigoro!s that emigrate, and not the reverse% Among these emigrants I incl!de not merely those who emigrate to America, b!t also the servant boy in the co!ntry who decides to leave his native village and migrate to the big city where he will be a stranger% 1e is ready to ta&e the ris& of an !ncertain fate% In most cases he comes to town with a little money in his poc&et and for the first few days he is not disco!raged if he sho!ld not have the good fort!ne to find wor&% 4!t if he finds a ,ob and then loses it in a little while, the case is m!ch worse% (o find wor& anew, especially in winter, is often diffic!lt and indeed sometimes impossible% For the first few wee&s life is still bearable 1e receives his o!t-of-wor& money from his trade !nion and is th!s enabled to carry on% 4!t when the last of his own money is gone and his trade !nion ceases to pay o!t beca!se of the prolonged !nemployment, then comes the real distress% 1e now loiters abo!t and is h!ngry% Often he pawns or sells the last of his belongings% 1is clothes begin to get shabby and with the increasing poverty of his o!tward appearance he descends to a lower social level and mi3es !p with a class of h!man beings thro!gh whom his mind is now poisoned, in addition to his physical misery% (hen he has nowhere to sleep and if that happens in winter, which is very often the case, he is in dire distress% Finally he gets wor&% 4!t the old story repeats itself% A second time the same thing happens% (hen a third time> and now it is probably m!ch worse% Little by little he becomes indifferent to this everlasting insec!rity% Finally he grows !sed to the repetition% (h!s even a man who is normally of ind!strio!s habits grows careless in his whole attit!de towards life and grad!ally becomes an instr!ment in the hands of !nscr!p!lo!s people who e3ploit him for the sa&e of their own ignoble aims% 1e has been so often thrown o!t of employment thro!gh no fa!lt of his own that he is now more or less indifferent whether the stri&e in which he ta&es part be for the p!rpose of sec!ring his economic rights or be aimed at the destr!ction of the 'tate, the whole social

order and even civili9ation itself% (ho!gh the idea of going on stri&e may not be to his nat!ral li&ing, yet he ,oins in it o!t of sheer indifference% I saw this process e3emplified before my eyes in tho!sands of cases% And the longer I observed it the greater became my disli&e for that mammoth city which greedily attracts men to its bosom, in order to brea& them mercilessly in the end% /hen they came they still felt themselves in comm!nion with their own people at home> if they remained that tie was bro&en% I was thrown abo!t so m!ch in the life of the metropolis that I e3perienced the wor&ings of this fate in my own person and felt the effects of it in my own so!l% One thing stood o!t clearly before my eyes0 It was the s!dden changes from wor& to idleness and vice versa> so that the constant fl!ct!ations th!s ca!sed by earnings and e3pendit!re finally destroyed the Isense of thrift for many people and also the habit of reg!lating e3pendit!re in an intelligent way% (he body appeared to grow acc!stomed to the vicissit!des of food and h!nger, eating heartily in good times and going h!ngry in bad% Indeed h!nger shatters all plans for rationing e3pendit!re on a reg!lar scale in better times when employment is again fo!nd% (he reason for this is that the deprivations which the !nemployed wor&er has to end!re m!st be compensated for psychologically by a persistent mental mirage in which he imagines himself eating heartily once again% And this dream develops into s!ch a longing that it t!rns into a morbid imp!lse to cast off all self-restraint when wor& and wages t!rn !p again% (herefore the moment wor& is fo!nd anew he forgets to reg!late the e3pendit!re of his earnings b!t spends them to the f!ll witho!t thin&ing of to-morrow% (his leads to conf!sion in the little wee&ly ho!se&eeping b!dget, beca!se the e3pendit!re is not rationally planned% /hen the phenomenon which I have mentioned first happens, the earnings will last perhaps for five days instead of seven> on s!bse+!ent occasions they will last only for three days> as the habit rec!rs, the earnings will last scarcely for a day> and finally they will disappear in one night of feasting% Often there are wife and children at home% And in many cases it happens that these become infected by s!ch a way of living, especially if the h!sband is good to them and wants to do the best he can for them and loves them in his own way and according to his own lights% (hen the wee&#s earnings are spent in common at home within two or three days% (he family eat and drin& together as long as the money lasts and at the end of the wee& they h!nger together% (hen the wife wanders abo!t f!rtively in the neighbo!rhood, borrows a little, and r!ns !p small debts with the shop&eepers in an effort to p!ll thro!gh the lean days towards the end of the wee&% (hey sit down together to the midday meal with only meagre fare on the table, and often even nothing to eat% (hey wait for the coming payday, tal&ing of it and ma&ing plans> and while they are th!s h!ngry they dream of the plenty that is to come% And so the little children become ac+!ainted with misery in their early years% 4!t the evil c!lminates when the h!sband goes his own way from the beginning of the wee& and the wife protests, simply o!t of love for the children% (hen there are +!arrels and bad feeling and the h!sband ta&es to drin& according as he becomes estranged from his wife% 1e now becomes dr!n& every 'at!rday% Fighting for her own e3istence and that of the children, the wife has to ho!nd him along the road from the factory to the tavern in order to get a few shillings from him on payday% (hen when he finally comes home, maybe on the '!nday or the onday, having parted with his last shillings and pence, pitiable scenes follow, scenes that cry o!t for 6od#s mercy% I have had act!al e3perience of all this in h!ndreds of cases% At first I was disg!sted and indignant> b!t later on I came to recogni9e the whole tragedy of their misfort!ne and to !nderstand the profo!nd ca!ses of it% (hey were the !nhappy victims of evil circ!mstances% 1o!sing conditions were very bad at that time% (he :ienna man!al labo!rers lived in s!rro!ndings of appalling misery% I sh!dder even to-day when I thin& of the woef!l dens in which people dwelt, the night shelters and the sl!ms, and all the tenebro!s spectacles of ord!re, loathsome filth and wic&edness% /hat will happen one day when hordes of emancipated slaves come forth from these dens of misery to swoop down on their !ns!specting fellow men5 For this other world does not thin& abo!t s!ch a possibility% (hey have allowed these things to go on witho!t caring and even witho!t s!specting - in their total lac& of instinctive !nderstanding that sooner or later destiny will ta&e its vengeance !nless it will have been appeased in time% (o-day I fervidly than& "rovidence for having sent me to s!ch a school% (here I co!ld not ref!se to ta&e an interest in matters that did not please me% (his school soon ta!ght me a profo!nd lesson% In order not to despair completely of the people among whom I then lived I had to set on one side the o!tward appearances of their lives and on the other the reasons why they had developed in that way% (hen I co!ld hear everything witho!t disco!ragement> for those who emerged from all this misfort!ne and misery, from this filth and o!tward degradation, were not h!man beings as s!ch b!t rather lamentable res!lts of lamentable laws% In my own life similar hardships prevented me from giving way to a pitying sentimentality at the sight of these degraded prod!cts which had finally res!lted from the press!re of circ!mstances% *o, the sentimental attit!de wo!ld be the wrong one to adopt% 7ven in those days I already saw that there was a two-fold method by which alone it wo!ld be possible to bring abo!t an amelioration of these conditions% (his method is0 first, to create better f!ndamental conditions of social development by establishing a profo!nd feeling for social responsibilities among the p!blic> second, to combine this

feeling for social responsibilities with a r!thless determination to pr!ne away all e3crescences which are incapable of being improved% )!st as *at!re concentrates its greatest attention, not to the maintenance of what already e3ists b!t on the selective breeding of offspring in order to carry on the species, so in h!man life also it is less a matter of artificially improving the e3isting generation - which, owing to h!man characteristics, is impossible in ninety-nine cases o!t of a h!ndred - and more a matter of sec!ring from the very start a better road for f!t!re development% ?!ring my str!ggle for e3istence in :ienna I perceived very clearly that the aim of all social activity m!st never be merely charitable relief, which is ridic!lo!s and !seless, b!t it m!st rather be a means to find a way of eliminating the f!ndamental deficiencies in o!r economic and c!lt!ral life - deficiencies which necessarily bring abo!t the degradation of the individ!al or at least lead him towards s!ch degradation% (he diffic!lty of employing every means, even the most drastic, to eradicate the hostility prevailing among the wor&ing classes towards the 'tate is largely d!e to an attit!de of !ncertainty in deciding !pon the inner motives and ca!ses of this contemporary phenomenon% (he gro!nds of this !ncertainty are to be fo!nd e3cl!sively in the sense of g!ilt which each individ!al feels for having permitted this tragedy of degradation% For that feeling paralyses every effort at ma&ing a serio!s and firm decision to act% And th!s beca!se the people whom it concerns are vacillating they are timid and halfhearted in p!tting into effect even the meas!res which are indispensable for self-preservation% /hen the individ!al is no longer b!rdened with his own conscio!sness of blame in this regard, then and only then will he have that inner tran+!illity and o!ter force to c!t off drastically and r!thlessly all the parasite growth and root o!t the weeds% 4!t beca!se the A!strian 'tate had almost no sense of social rights or social legislation its inability to abolish those evil e3crescences was manifest% I do not &now what it was that appalled me most at that time0 the economic misery of those who were then my companions, their cr!de c!stoms and morals, or the low level of their intellect!al c!lt!re% 1ow often o!r bo!rgeoisie rises !p in moral indignation on hearing from the mo!th of some pitiable tramp that it is all the same to him whether he be a 6erman or not and that he will find himself at home wherever he can get eno!gh to &eep body and so!l together% (hey protest sternly against s!ch a lac& of Inational pride# and strongly e3press their horror at s!ch sentiments% 4!t how many people really as& themselves why it is that their own sentiments are better5 1ow many of them !nderstand that their nat!ral pride in being members of so favo!red a nation arises from the inn!merable s!ccession of instances they have enco!ntered which remind them of the greatness of the Fatherland and the *ation in all spheres of artistic and c!lt!ral life5 1ow many of them reali9e that pride in the Fatherland is largely dependent on &nowledge of its greatness in all those spheres5 ?o o!r bo!rgeois circles ever thin& what a ridic!lo!sly meagre share the people have in that &nowledge which is a necessary prere+!isite for the feeling of pride in one#s fatherland5 It cannot be ob,ected here that in other co!ntries similar conditions e3ist and that nevertheless the wor&ing classes in those co!ntries have remained patriotic% 7ven if that were so, it wo!ld be no e3c!se for o!r negligent attit!de% 4!t it is not so% /hat we call cha!vinistic ed!cation - in the case of the French people, for e3ample - is only the e3cessive e3altation of the greatness of France in all spheres of c!lt!re or, as the French say, civili9ation% (he French boy is not ed!cated on p!rely ob,ective principles% /herever the importance of the political and c!lt!ral greatness of his co!ntry is concerned he is ta!ght in the most s!b,ective way that one can imagine% (his ed!cation will always have to be confined to general ideas in a large perspective and these o!ght to be deeply engraven, by constant repetition if necessary, on the memories and feelings of the people% In o!r case, however, we are not merely g!ilty of negative sins of omission b!t also of positively perverting the little which some individ!als had the l!c& to learn at school% (he rats that poison o!r body-politic gnaw from the hearts and memories of the broad masses even that little which distress and misery have left% Let the reader try to pict!re the following0 (here is a lodging in a cellar and this lodging consists of two damp rooms% In these rooms a wor&man and his family live - seven people in all% Let !s ass!me that one of the children is a boy of three years% (hat is the age at which children first become conscio!s of the impressions which they receive% In the case of highly gifted people traces of the impressions received in those early years last in the memory !p to an advanced age% *ow the narrowness and congestion of those living +!arters do not cond!ce to pleasant inter-relations% (h!s +!arrels and fits of m!t!al anger arise% (hese people can hardly be said to live with one another, b!t rather down on top of one another% (he small mis!nderstandings which disappear of themselves in a home where there is eno!gh space for people to go apart from one another for a while, here become the so!rce of chronic disp!tes% As far as the children are concerned the sit!ation is tolerable from this point of view% In s!ch conditions they are constantly +!arrelling with one another, b!t the +!arrels are +!ic&ly and entirely forgotten% 4!t when the parents fall o!t with one another these daily bic&erings often descend to r!deness s!ch as cannot be ade+!ately imagined% (he res!lts of s!ch e3periences m!st become apparent later on in the children% One m!st have practical e3perience of s!ch a milie! so as to be able to pict!re the state of affairs that arises from these m!t!al recriminations when the father physically

assa!lts the mother and maltreats her in a fit of dr!n&en rage% At the age of si3 the child can no longer ignore those sordid details which even an ad!lt wo!ld find revolting% Infected with moral poison, bodily !nderno!rished, and the poor little head filled with vermin, the yo!ng Iciti9en# goes to the primary school% /ith diffic!lty he barely learns to read and write% (here is no possibility of learning any lessons at home% L!ite the contrary% (he father and mother themselves tal& before the children in the most disparaging way abo!t the teacher and the school and they are m!ch more inclined to ins!lt the teachers than to p!t their offspring across the &nee and &noc& so!nd reason into him% /hat the little fellow hears at home does not tend to increase respect for his h!man s!rro!ndings% 1ere nothing good is said of h!man nat!re as a whole and every instit!tion, from the school to the government, is reviled% /hether religion and morals are concerned or the 'tate and the social order, it is all the same> they are all scoffed at% /hen the yo!ng lad leaves school, at the age of fo!rteen, it wo!ld be diffic!lt to say what are the most stri&ing feat!res of his character, incredible ignorance in so far as real &nowledge is concerned or cynical imp!dence combined with an attit!de towards morality which is really startling at so yo!ng an age% /hat station in life can s!ch a person fill, to whom nothing is sacred, who has never e3perienced anything noble b!t, on the contrary, has been intimately ac+!ainted with the lowest &ind of h!man e3istence5 (his child of three has got into the habit of reviling all a!thority by the time he is fifteen% 1e has been ac+!ainted only with moral filth and vileness, everything being e3cl!ded that might stim!late his tho!ght towards higher things% And now this yo!ng specimen of h!manity enters the school of life% 1e leads the same &ind of life which was e3emplified for him by his father d!ring his childhood% 1e loiters abo!t and comes home at all ho!rs% 1e now even blac&-g!ards that bro&en-hearted being who gave him birth% 1e c!rses 6od and the world and finally ends !p in a 1o!se of $orrection for yo!ng people% (here he gets the final polish% And his bo!rgeois contemporaries are astonished at the lac& of Ipatriotic enth!siasm# which this yo!ng Iciti9en# manifests% ?ay after day the bo!rgeois world are witnesses to the phenomenon of spreading poison among the people thro!gh the instr!mentality of the theatre and the cinema, g!tter ,o!rnalism and obscene boo&s> and yet they are astonished at the deplorable Imoral standards# and Inational indifference# of the masses% As if the cinema bilge and the g!tter press and s!chli&e co!ld inc!lcate &nowledge of the greatness of one#s co!ntry, apart entirely from the earlier ed!cation of the individ!al% I then came to !nderstand, +!ic&ly and thoro!ghly, what I had never been aware of before% It was the following0 (he +!estion of Inationali9ing# a people is first and foremost one of establishing healthy social conditions which will f!rnish the gro!nds that are necessary for the ed!cation of the individ!al% For only when family !pbringing and school ed!cation have inc!lcated in the individ!al a &nowledge of the c!lt!ral and economic and, above all, the political greatness of his own co!ntry - then, and then only, will it be possible for him to feel pro!d of being a citi9en of s!ch a co!ntry% I can fight only for something that I love% I can love only what I respect% And in order to respect a thing I m!st at least have some &nowledge of it% As soon as my interest in social +!estions was once awa&ened I began to st!dy them in a f!ndamental way% A new and hitherto !n&nown world was th!s revealed to me% In the years 19<9-1< I had so far improved my, position that I no longer had to earn my daily bread as a man!al labo!rer% I was now wor&ing independently as dra!ghtsman, and painter in water colo!rs% (his mOtier was a poor one indeed as far as earnings were concerned> for these were only s!fficient to meet the bare e3igencies of life% Net it had an interest for me in view of the profession to which I aspired% oreover, when I came home in the evenings I was now no longer dead-tired as formerly, when I !sed to be !nable to loo& into a boo& witho!t falling asleep almost immediately% y present occ!pation therefore was in line with the profession I aimed at for the f!t!re% oreover, I was master of my own time and co!ld distrib!te my wor&ing-ho!rs now better than formerly% I painted in order to earn my bread, and I st!died beca!se I li&ed it% (h!s I was able to ac+!ire that theoretical &nowledge of the social problem which was a necessary complement to what I was learning thro!gh act!al e3perience% I st!died all the boo&s which I co!ld find that dealt with this +!estion and I tho!ght deeply on what I read% I thin& that the milie! in which I then lived considered me an eccentric person% 4esides my interest in the social +!estion I nat!rally devoted myself with enth!siasm to the st!dy of architect!re% 'ide by side with m!sic, I considered it +!een of the arts% (o st!dy it was for me not wor& b!t pleas!re% I co!ld read or draw !ntil the small ho!rs of the morning witho!t ever getting tired% And I became more and more confident that my dream of a brilliant f!t!re wo!ld become tr!e, even tho!gh I sho!ld have to wait long years for its f!lfilment% I was firmly convinced that one day I sho!ld ma&e a name for myself as an architect% (he fact that, side by side with my professional st!dies, I too& the greatest interest in everything that had to do with politics did not seem to me to signify anything of great importance% On the contrary0 I loo&ed !pon this practical interest in politics merely as part of an elementary obligation that devolves on every thin&ing man% (hose who have no !nderstanding of the political world aro!nd them have no right to critici9e or complain% On political +!estions therefore I still contin!ed to read and st!dy a great deal% 4!t reading had probably a different significance for me

from that which it has for the average r!n of o!r so-called Iintellect!als#% I &now people who read interminably, boo& after boo&, from page to page, and yet I sho!ld not call them Iwell-read people#% Of co!rse they I&now# an immense amo!nt> b!t their brain seems incapable of assorting and classifying the material which they have gathered from boo&s% (hey have not the fac!lty of disting!ishing between what is !sef!l and !seless in a boo&> so that they may retain the former in their minds and if possible s&ip over the latter while reading it, if that be not possible, then - when once read - throw it overboard as !seless ballast% 8eading is not an end in itself, b!t a means to an end% Its chief p!rpose is to help towards filling in the framewor& which is made !p of the talents and capabilities that each individ!al possesses% (h!s each one proc!res for himself the implements and materials necessary for the f!lfilment of his calling in life, no matter whether this be the elementary tas& of earning one#s daily bread or a calling that responds to higher h!man aspirations% '!ch is the first p!rpose of reading% And the second p!rpose is to give a general &nowledge of the world in which we live% In both cases, however, the material which one has ac+!ired thro!gh reading m!st not be stored !p in the memory on a plan that corresponds to the s!ccessive chapters of the boo&> b!t each little piece of &nowledge th!s gained m!st be treated as if it were a little stone to be inserted into a mosaic, so that it finds its proper place among all the other pieces and particles that help to form a general world-pict!re in the brain of the reader% Otherwise only a conf!sed ,!mble of chaotic notions will res!lt from all this reading% (hat ,!mble is not merely !seless, b!t it also tends to ma&e the !nfort!nate possessor of it conceited% For he serio!sly considers himself a well-ed!cated person and thin&s that he !nderstands something of life% 1e believes that he has ac+!ired &nowledge, whereas the tr!th is that every increase in s!ch I&nowledge# draws him more and more away from real life, !ntil he finally ends !p in some sanatori!m or ta&es to politics and becomes a parliamentary dep!ty% '!ch a person never s!cceeds in t!rning his &nowledge to practical acco!nt when the opport!ne moment arrives> for his mental e+!ipment is not ordered with a view to meeting the demands of everyday life% 1is &nowledge is stored in his brain as a literal transcript of the boo&s he has read and the order of s!ccession in which he has read them% And if Fate sho!ld one day call !pon him to !se some of his boo&-&nowledge for certain practical ends in life that very call will have to name the boo& and give the n!mber of the page> for the poor noodle himself wo!ld never be able to find the spot where he gathered the information now called for% 4!t if the page is not mentioned at the critical moment the widely-read intellect!al will find himself in a state of hopeless embarrassment% In a high state of agitation he searches for analogo!s cases and it is almost a dead certainty that he will finally deliver the wrong prescription% If that is not a correct description, then how can we e3plain the political achievements of o!r "arliamentary heroes who hold the highest positions in the government of the co!ntry5 Otherwise we sho!ld have to attrib!te the doings of s!ch political leaders, not to pathological conditions b!t simply to malice and chicanery% On the other hand, one who has c!ltivated the art of reading will instantly discern, in a boo& or ,o!rnal or pamphlet, what o!ght to be remembered beca!se it meets one#s personal needs or is of val!e as general &nowledge% /hat he th!s learns is incorporated in his mental analog!e of this or that problem or thing, f!rther correcting the mental pict!re or enlarging it so that it becomes more e3act and precise% 'ho!ld some practical problem s!ddenly demand e3amination or sol!tion, memory will immediately select the opport!ne information from the mass that has been ac+!ired thro!gh years of reading and will place this information at the service of one#s powers of ,!dgment so as to get a new and clearer view of the problem in +!estion or prod!ce a definitive sol!tion% Only th!s can reading have any meaning or be worth while% (he spea&er, for e3ample, who has not the so!rces of information ready to hand which are necessary to a proper treatment of his s!b,ect is !nable to defend his opinions against an opponent, even tho!gh those opinions be perfectly so!nd and tr!e% In every disc!ssion his memory will leave him shamef!lly in the l!rch% 1e cannot s!mmon !p arg!ments to s!pport his statements or to ref!te his opponent% 'o long as the spea&er has only to defend himself on his own personal acco!nt, the sit!ation is not serio!s> b!t the evil comes when $hance places at the head of p!blic affairs s!ch a soi-disant &now-it-all, who in reality &nows nothing% From early yo!th I endeavo!red to read boo&s in the right way and I was fort!nate in having a good memory and intelligence to assist me% From that point of view my so,o!rn in :ienna was partic!larly !sef!l and profitable% y e3periences of everyday life there were a constant stim!l!s to st!dy the most diverse problems from new angles% Inasm!ch as I was in a position to p!t theory to the test of reality and reality to the test of theory, I was safe from the danger of pedantic theori9ing on the one hand and, on the other, from being too impressed by the s!perficial aspects of reality% (he e3perience of everyday life at that time determined me to ma&e a f!ndamental theoretical st!dy of two most important +!estions o!tside of the social +!estion% It is impossible to say when I might have started to ma&e a thoro!gh st!dy of the doctrine and characteristics of ar3ism were it not for the fact that I then literally ran head foremost into the problem% /hat I &new of 'ocial ?emocracy in my yo!th was precio!s little and that little was for the most part wrong% (he fact that it led the str!ggle for !niversal s!ffrage and the secret ballot gave me an inner satisfaction> for my reason

then told me that this wo!ld wea&en the 1absb!rg regime, which I so thoro!ghly detested% I was convinced that even if it sho!ld sacrifice the 6erman element the ?an!bian 'tate co!ld not contin!e to e3ist% 7ven at the price of a long and slow 'lavi9-ation of the A!strian 6ermans the 'tate wo!ld sec!re no g!arantee of a really d!rable 7mpire> beca!se it was very +!estionable if and how far the 'lavs possessed the necessary capacity for constr!ctive politics% (herefore I welcomed every movement that might lead towards the final disr!ption of that impossible 'tate which had decreed that it wo!ld stamp o!t the 6erman character in ten millions of people% (he more this babel of tong!es wro!ght discord and disr!ption, even in the "arliament, the nearer the ho!r approached for the dissol!tion of this 4abylonian 7mpire% (hat wo!ld mean the liberation of my 6erman A!strian people, and only then wo!ld it become possible for them to be re-!nited to the otherland% Accordingly I had no feelings of antipathy towards the act!al policy of the 'ocial ?emocrats% (hat its avowed p!rpose was to raise the level of the wor&ing classes - which in my ignorance I then foolishly believed - was a f!rther reason why I sho!ld spea& in favo!r of 'ocial ?emocracy rather than against it% 4!t the feat!res that contrib!ted most to estrange me from the 'ocial ?emocratic movement was its hostile attit!de towards the str!ggle for the conservation of 6ermanism in A!stria, its lamentable cocotting with the 'lav Icomrades#, who received these approaches favo!rably as long as any practical advantages were forthcoming b!t otherwise maintained a ha!ghty reserve, th!s giving the import!nate mendicants the sort of answer their behavio!r deserved% And so at the age of seventeen the word I ar3ism# was very little &nown to me, while I loo&ed on I'ocial ?emocracy# and I'ocialism# as synonymo!s e3pressions% It was only as the res!lt of a s!dden blow from the ro!gh hand of Fate that my eyes were opened to the nat!re of this !nparalleled system for d!ping the p!blic% 1itherto my ac+!aintance with the 'ocial ?emocratic "arty was only that of a mere spectator at some of their mass meetings% I had not the slightest idea of the social-democratic teaching or the mentality of its partisans% All of a s!dden I was bro!ght face to face with the prod!cts of their teaching and what they called their Weltanschhauung% In this way a few months s!fficed for me to learn something which !nder other circ!mstances might have necessitated decades of st!dy - namely, that !nder the cloa& of social virt!e and love of one#s neighbo!r a veritable pestilence was spreading abroad and that if this pestilence be not stamped o!t of the world witho!t delay it may event!ally s!cceed in e3terminating the h!man race% I first came into contact with the 'ocial ?emocrats while wor&ing in the b!ilding trade% From the very time that I started wor& the sit!ation was not very pleasant for me% y clothes were still rather decent% I was caref!l of my speech and I was reserved in manner% I was so occ!pied with thin&ing of my own present lot and f!t!re possibilities that I did not ta&e m!ch of an interest in my immediate s!rro!ndings% I had so!ght wor& so that I sho!ldn#t starve and at the same time so as to be able to ma&e f!rther headway with my st!dies, tho!gh this headway might be slow% "ossibly I sho!ld not have bothered to be interested in my companions were it not that on the third or fo!rth day an event occ!rred which forced me to ta&e a definite stand% I was ordered to ,oin the trade !nion% At that time I &new nothing abo!t the trades !nions% I had had no opport!nity of forming an opinion on their !tility or in!tility, as the case might be% 4!t when I was told that I m!st ,oin the !nion I ref!sed% (he gro!nds which I gave for my ref!sal were simply that I &new nothing abo!t the matter and that anyhow I wo!ld not allow myself to be forced into anything% "robably the former reason saved me from being thrown o!t right away% (hey probably tho!ght that within a few days I might be converted# and become more docile% 4!t if they tho!ght that they were profo!ndly mista&en% After two wee&s I fo!nd it !tterly impossible for me to ta&e s!ch a step, even if I had been willing to ta&e it at first% ?!ring those fo!rteen days I came to &now my fellow wor&men better, and no power in the world co!ld have moved me to ,oin an organi9ation whose representatives had meanwhile shown themselves in a light which I fo!nd so !nfavo!rable% ?!ring the first days my resentment was aro!sed% At midday some of my fellow wor&ers !sed to ad,o!rn to the nearest tavern, while the others remained on the b!ilding premises and there ate their midday meal, which in most cases was a very scanty one% (hese were married men% (heir wives bro!ght them the midday so!p in dilapidated vessels% (owards the end of the wee& there was a grad!al increase in the n!mber of those who remained to eat their midday meal on the b!ilding premises% I !nderstood the reason for this afterwards% (hey now tal&ed politics% I dran& my bottle of mil& and ate my morsel of bread somewhere on the o!ts&irts, while I circ!mspectly st!died my environment or else fell to meditating on my own harsh lot% Net I heard more than eno!gh% And I often tho!ght that some of what they said was meant for my ears, in the hope of bringing me to a decision% 4!t all that I heard had the effect of aro!sing the strongest antagonism in me% 7verything was disparaged - the nation, beca!se it was held to be an invention of the Icapitalist# class Bhow often I had to listen to that phraseJC> the Fatherland, beca!se it was held to be an instr!ment in the hands of the bo!rgeoisie for the e3ploitation of# the wor&ing masses> the a!thority of the law, beca!se that was a means of holding down the proletariat> religion, as a means of doping the people, so as to e3ploit them afterwards> morality, as a badge of st!pid and sheepish docility% (here was nothing that they did not drag in the m!d%

At first I remained silent> b!t that co!ld not last very long% (hen I began to ta&e part in the disc!ssion and to reply to their statements% I had to recogni9e, however, that this was bo!nd to be entirely fr!itless, as long as I did not have at least a certain amo!nt of definite information abo!t the +!estions that were disc!ssed% 'o I decided to cons!lt the so!rce from which my interloc!tors claimed to have drawn their so-called wisdom% I devo!red boo& after boo&, pamphlet after pamphlet% eanwhile, we arg!ed with one another on the b!ilding premises% From day to day I was becoming better informed than my companions in the s!b,ects on which they claimed to be e3perts% (hen a day came when the more redo!btable of my adversaries resorted to the most effective weapon they had to replace the force of reason% (his was intimidation and physical force% 'ome of the leaders among my adversaries ordered me to leave the b!ilding or else get fl!ng down from the scaffolding% As I was +!ite alone I co!ld not p!t !p any physical resistance> so I chose the first alternative and departed, richer however by an e3perience% I went away f!ll of disg!st> b!t at the same time so deeply moved that it was +!ite impossible for me to t!rn my bac& on the whole sit!ation and thin& no more abo!t it% /hen my anger began to calm down the spirit of obstinacy got the !pper hand and I decided that at all costs I wo!ld get bac& to wor& again in the b!ilding trade% (his decision became all the stronger a few wee&s later, when my little savings had entirely r!n o!t and h!nger cl!tched me once again in its merciless arms% *o alternative was left to me% I got wor& again and had to leave it for the same reasons as before% (hen I as&ed myself0 Are these men worthy of belonging to a great people5 (he +!estion was profo!ndly dist!rbing> for if the answer were INes#, then the str!ggle to defend one#s nationality is no longer worth all the tro!ble and sacrifice we demand of o!r best elements if it be in the interests of s!ch a rabble% On the other hand, if the answer had to be I*o - these men are not worthy of the nation#, then o!r nation is poor indeed in men% ?!ring those days of mental ang!ish and deep meditation I saw before my mind the ever-increasing and menacing army of people who co!ld no longer be rec&oned as belonging to their own nation% It was with +!ite a different feeling, some days later, that I ga9ed on the interminable ran&s, fo!r abreast, of :iennese wor&men parading at a mass demonstration% I stood d!mbfo!nded for almost two ho!rs, watching that enormo!s h!man dragon which slowly !ncoiled itself there before me% /hen I finally left the s+!are and wandered in the direction of my lodgings I felt dismayed and depressed% On my way I noticed the Arbeiter9eit!ng B(he /or&man#s )o!rnalC in a tobacco shop% (his was the chief press-organ of the old A!strian 'ocial ?emocracy% In a cheap cafO, where the common people !sed to foregather and where I often went to read the papers, the Arbeiter9eit!ng was also displayed% 4!t hitherto I co!ld not bring myself to do more than glance at the wretched thing for a co!ple of min!tes0 for its whole tone was a sort of mental vitriol to me% Mnder the depressing infl!ence of the demonstration I had witnessed, some interior voice !rged me to b!y the paper in that tobacco shop and read it thro!gh% 'o I bro!ght it home with me and spent the whole evening reading it, despite the steadily mo!nting rage provo&ed by this ceaseless o!tpo!ring of falsehoods% I now fo!nd that in the social democratic daily papers I co!ld st!dy the inner character of this politico-philosophic system m!ch better than in all their theoretical literat!re% For there was a stri&ing discrepancy between the two% In the literary eff!sions which dealt with the theory of 'ocial ?emocracy there was a display of high-so!nding phraseology abo!t liberty and h!man dignity and bea!ty, all prom!lgated with an air of profo!nd wisdom and serene prophetic ass!rance> a metic!lo!sly-woven glitter of words to da99le and mislead the reader% On the other hand, the daily "ress inc!lcated this new doctrine of h!man redemption in the most br!tal fashion% *o means were too base, provided they co!ld be e3ploited in the campaign of slander% (hese ,o!rnalists were real virt!osos in the art of twisting facts and presenting them in a deceptive form% (he theoretical literat!re was intended for the simpletons of the soi-disant intellect!als belonging to the middle and, nat!rally, the !pper classes% (he newspaper propaganda was intended for the masses% (his probing into boo&s and newspapers and st!dying the teachings of 'ocial ?emocracy reawa&ened my love for my own people% And th!s what at first seemed an impassable chasm became the occasion of a closer affection% 1aving once !nderstood the wor&ing of the colossal system for poisoning the pop!lar mind, only a fool co!ld blame the victims of it% ?!ring the years that followed I became more independent and, as I did so, I became better able to !nderstand the inner ca!se of the s!ccess achieved by this 'ocial ?emocratic gospel% I now reali9ed the meaning and p!rpose of those br!tal orders which prohibited the reading of all boo&s and newspapers that were not Ired# and at the same time demanded that only the Ired# meetings sho!ld be attended% In the clear light of br!tal reality I was able to see what m!st have been the inevitable conse+!ences of that intolerant teaching% (he psyche of the broad masses is accessible only to what is strong and !ncompromising% Li&e a woman whose inner sensibilities are not so m!ch !nder the sway of abstract reasoning b!t are always s!b,ect to the infl!ence of a vag!e emotional longing for the strength that completes her being, and who wo!ld rather bow to the strong man than dominate the wea&ling - in li&e manner the masses of the people prefer the r!ler to the s!ppliant and are filled with a stronger sense of mental sec!rity by a teaching that broo&s no rival than by a teaching which offers them a liberal choice% (hey have very little idea of how to ma&e s!ch a choice and th!s they are prone to feel that they have

been abandoned% (hey feel very little shame at being terrori9ed intellect!ally and they are scarcely conscio!s of the fact that their freedom as h!man beings is imp!dently ab!sed> and th!s they have not the slightest s!spicion of the intrinsic fallacy of the whole doctrine% (hey see only the r!thless force and br!tality of its determined !tterances, to which they always s!bmit% If 'ocial ?emocracy sho!ld be opposed by a more tr!thf!l teaching, then even, tho!gh the str!ggle be of the bitterest &ind, this tr!thf!l teaching will finally prevail provided it be enforced with e+!al r!thlessness% /ithin less than two years I had gained a clear !nderstanding of 'ocial ?emocracy, in its teaching and the techni+!e of its operations% I recogni9ed the infamy of that techni+!e whereby the movement carried on a campaign of mental terrorism against the bo!rgeoisie, who are neither morally nor spirit!ally e+!ipped to withstand s!ch attac&s% (he tactics of 'ocial ?emocracy consisted in opening, at a given signal, a veritable dr!m-fire of lies and cal!mnies against the man whom they believed to be the most redo!btable of their adversaries, !ntil the nerves of the latter gave way and they sacrificed the man who was attac&ed, simply in the hope of being allowed to live in peace% 4!t the hope proved always to be a foolish one, for they were never left in peace% (he same tactics are repeated again and again, !ntil fear of these mad dogs e3ercises, thro!gh s!ggestion, a paralysing effect on their :ictims% (hro!gh its own e3perience 'ocial ?emocracy learned the val!e of strength, and for that reason it attac&s mostly those in whom it scents st!ff of the more stalwart &ind, which is indeed a very rare possession% On the other hand it praises every wea&ling among its adversaries, more or less ca!tio!sly, according to the meas!re of his mental +!alities &nown or pres!med% (hey have less fear of a man of geni!s who lac&s will-power than of a vigoro!s character with mediocre intelligence and at the same time they highly commend those who are devoid of intelligence and will-power% (he 'ocial ?emocrats &now how to create the impression that they alone are the protectors of peace% In this way, acting very circ!mspectly b!t never losing sight of their !ltimate goal, they con+!er one position after another, at one time by methods of +!iet intimidation and at another time by sheer daylight robbery, employing these latter tactics at those moments when p!blic attention is t!rned towards other matters from which it does not wish to be diverted, or when the p!blic considers an incident too trivial to create a scandal abo!t it and th!s provo&e the anger of a malignant opponent% (hese tactics are based on an acc!rate estimation of h!man frailties and m!st lead to s!ccess, with almost mathematical certainty, !nless the other side also learns how to fight poison gas with poison gas% (he wea&er nat!res m!st be told that here it is a case of to be or not to be% I also came to !nderstand that physical intimidation has its significance for the mass as well as for the individ!al% 1ere again the 'ocialists had calc!lated acc!rately on the psychological effect% Intimidation in wor&shops and in factories, in assembly halls and at mass demonstrations, will always meet with s!ccess as long as it does not have to enco!nter the same &ind of terror in a stronger form% (hen of co!rse the "arty will raise a horrified o!tcry, yelling bl!e m!rder and appealing to the a!thority of the 'tate, which they have ,!st rep!diated% In doing this their aim generally is to add to the general conf!sion, so that they may have a better opport!nity of reaching their own goal !nobserved% (heir idea is to find among the higher government officials some bovine creat!re who, in the st!pid hope that he may win the good graces of these aweinspiring opponents so that they may remember him in case of f!t!re event!alities, will help them now to brea& all those who may oppose this world pest% (he impression which s!ch s!ccessf!l tactics ma&e on the minds of the broad masses, whether they be adherents or opponents, can be estimated only by one who &nows the pop!lar mind, not from boo&s b!t from practical life% For the s!ccesses which are th!s obtained are ta&en by the adherents of 'ocial ?emocracy as a tri!mphant symbol of the righteo!sness of their own ca!se> on the other hand the beaten opponent very often loses faith in the effectiveness of any f!rther resistance% (he more I !nderstood the methods of physical intimidation that were employed, the more sympathy I had for the m!ltit!de that had s!cc!mbed to it% I am than&f!l now for the ordeal which I had to go thro!gh at that time> for it was the means of bringing me to thin& &indly again of my own people, inasm!ch as the e3perience enabled me to disting!ish between the false leaders and the victims who have been led astray% /e m!st loo& !pon the latter simply as victims% I have ,!st now tried to depict a few traits which e3press the mentality of those on the lowest r!ng of the social ladder> b!t my pict!re wo!ld be disproportionate if I do not add that amid the social depths I still fo!nd light> for I e3perienced a rare spirit of self-sacrifice and loyal comradeship among those men, who demanded little from life and were content amid their modest s!rro!ndings% (his was tr!e especially of the older generation of wor&men% And altho!gh these +!alities were disappearing more and more in the yo!nger generation, owing to the all-pervading infl!ence of the big city, yet among the yo!nger generation also there were many who were so!nd at the core and who were able to maintain themselves !ncontaminated amid the

sordid s!rro!ndings of their everyday e3istence% If these men, who in many cases meant well and were !pright in themselves, gave the s!pport to the political activities carried on by the common enemies of o!r people, that was beca!se those decent wor&people did not and co!ld not grasp the downright infamy of the doctrine ta!ght by the socialist agitators% F!rthermore, it was beca!se no other section of the comm!nity bothered itself abo!t the lot of the wor&ing classes% Finally, the social conditions became s!ch that men who otherwise wo!ld have acted differently were forced to s!bmit to them, even tho!gh !nwillingly at first% A day came when poverty gained the !pper hand and drove those wor&men into the 'ocial ?emocratic ran&s% On inn!merable occasions the bo!rgeoisie too& a definite stand against even the most legitimate h!man demands of the wor&ing classes% (hat cond!ct was ill-,!dged and indeed immoral and co!ld bring no gain whatsoever to the bo!rgeois class% (he res!lt was that the honest wor&man abandoned the original concept of the trades !nion organi9ation and was dragged into politics% (here were millions and millions of wor&men who began by being hostile to the 'ocial ?emocratic "arty> b!t their defences were repeatedly stormed and finally they had to s!rrender% Net this defeat was d!e to the st!pidity of the bo!rgeois parties, who had opposed every social demand p!t forward by the wor&ing class% (he short-sighted ref!sal to ma&e an effort towards improving labo!r conditions, the ref!sal to adopt meas!res which wo!ld ins!re the wor&man in case of accidents in the factories, the ref!sal to forbid child labo!r, the ref!sal to consider protective meas!res for female wor&ers, especially e3pectant mothers - all this was of assistance to the 'ocial ?emocratic leaders, who were than&f!l for every opport!nity which they co!ld e3ploit for forcing the masses into their net% O!r bo!rgeois parties can never repair the damage that res!lted from the mista&e they then made% For they sowed the seeds of hatred when they opposed all efforts at social reform% And th!s they gave, at least, apparent gro!nds to ,!stify the claim p!t forward by the 'ocial ?emocrats - namely, that they alone stand !p for the interests of the wor&ing class% And this became the principal gro!nd for the moral ,!stification of the act!al e3istence of the (rades Mnions, so that the labo!r organi9ation became from that time onwards the chief political recr!iting gro!nd to swell the ran&s of the 'ocial ?emocratic "arty% /hile th!s st!dying the social conditions aro!nd me I was forced, whether I li&ed it or not, to decide on the attit!de I sho!ld ta&e towards the (rades Mnions% 4eca!se I loo&ed !pon them as inseparable from the 'ocial ?emocratic "arty, my decision was hasty - and mista&en% I rep!diated them as a matter of co!rse% 4!t on this essential +!estion also Fate intervened and gave me a lesson, with the res!lt that I changed the opinion which I had first formed% /hen I was twenty years old I had learned to disting!ish between the (rades Mnion as a means of defending the social rights of the employees and fighting for better living conditions for them and, on the other hand, the (rades Mnion as a political instr!ment !sed by the "arty in the class str!ggle% (he 'ocial ?emocrats !nderstood the enormo!s importance of the (rades Mnion movement% (hey appropriated it as an instr!ment and !sed it with s!ccess, while the bo!rgeois parties failed to !nderstand it and th!s lost their political prestige% (hey tho!ght that their own arrogant :eto wo!ld arrest the logical development of the movement and force it into an illogical position% 4!t it is abs!rd and also !ntr!e to say that the (rades Mnion movement is in itself hostile to the nation% (he opposite is the more correct view% If the activities of the (rades Mnion are directed towards improving the condition of a class, and s!cceed in doing so, s!ch activities are not against the Fatherland or the 'tate b!t are, in the tr!est sense of the word, national% In that way the trades !nion organi9ation helps to create the social conditions which are indispensable in a general system of national ed!cation% It deserves high recognition when it destroys the psychological and physical germs of social disease and th!s fosters the general welfare of the nation% It is s!perfl!o!s to as& whether the (rades Mnion is indispensable% 'o long as there are employers who attac& social !nderstanding and have wrong ideas of ,!stice and fair play it is not only the right b!t also the d!ty of their employees - who are, after all, an integral part of o!r people - to protect the general interests against the greed and !nreason of the individ!al% For to safeg!ard the loyalty and confidence of the people is as m!ch in the interests of the nation as to safeg!ard p!blic health% 4oth are serio!sly menaced by dishono!rable employers who are not conscio!s of their d!ty as members of the national comm!nity% (heir personal avidity or irresponsibility sows the seeds of f!t!re tro!ble% (o eliminate the ca!ses of s!ch a development is an action that s!rely deserves well of the co!ntry% It m!st not be answered here that the individ!al wor&man is free at any time to escape from the conse+!ences of an in,!stice which he has act!ally s!ffered at the hands of an employer, or which he thin&s he has s!ffered - in other words, he can leave% *o% (hat arg!ment is only a r!se to detract attention from the +!estion at iss!e% Is it, or is it not, in the interests of the nation to remove the ca!ses of social !nrest5 If it is, then the fight m!st be carried on with the only weapons that promise s!ccess% 4!t the individ!al wor&man is never in a position to stand !p against the might of the big employer> for the +!estion here is not one that concerns the tri!mph of right% If in s!ch a relation right had been recogni9ed as the g!iding principle, then the conflict co!ld not have arisen at all% 4!t here it is a +!estion of who is the stronger% If the case were otherwise, the sentiment of ,!stice alone wo!ld solve the

disp!te in an hono!rable way> or, to p!t the case more correctly, matters wo!ld not have come to s!ch a disp!te at all% *o% If !nsocial and dishono!rable treatment of men provo&es resistance, then the stronger party can impose its decision in the conflict !ntil the constit!tional legislative a!thorities do away with the evil thro!gh legislation% (herefore it is evident that if the individ!al wor&man is to have any chance at all of winning thro!gh in the str!ggle he m!st be gro!ped with his fellow wor&men and present a !nited front before the individ!al employer, who incorporates in his own person the massed strength of the vested interests in the ind!strial or commercial !nderta&ing which he cond!cts% (h!s the trades !nions can hope to inc!lcate and strengthen a sense of social responsibility in wor&aday life and open the road to practical res!lts% In doing this they tend to remove those ca!ses of friction which are a contin!al so!rce of discontent and complaint% 4lame for the fact that the trades !nions do not f!lfil this m!ch-desired f!nction m!st be laid at the doors of those who barred the road to legislative social reform, or rendered s!ch a reform ineffective by sabotaging it thro!gh their political infl!ence% (he political bo!rgeoisie failed to !nderstand - or, rather, they did not wish to !nderstand - the importance of the trades !nion movement% (he 'ocial ?emocrats accordingly sei9ed the advantage offered them by this mista&en policy and too& the labo!r movement !nder their e3cl!sive protection, witho!t any protest from the other side% In this way they established for themselves a solid b!lwar& behind which they co!ld safely retire whenever the str!ggle ass!med a critical aspect% (h!s the gen!ine p!rpose of the movement grad!ally fell into oblivion, and was replaced by new ob,ectives% For the 'ocial ?emocrats never tro!bled themselves to respect and !phold the original p!rpose for which the trade !nionist movement was fo!nded% (hey simply too& over the ovement, loc&, stoc& and barrel, to serve their own political ends% /ithin a few decades the (rades Mnion ovement was transformed, by the e3pert hand of 'ocial ?emocracy, from an instr!ment which had been originally fashioned for the defence of h!man rights into an instr!ment for the destr!ction of the national economic str!ct!re% (he interests of the wor&ing class were not allowed for a moment to cross the path of this p!rpose> for in politics the application of economic press!re is always possible if the one side be s!fficiently !nscr!p!lo!s and the other s!fficiently inert and docile% In this case both conditions were f!lfilled% 4y the beginning of the present cent!ry the (rades Mnionist ovement had already ceased to recogni9e the p!rpose for which it had been fo!nded% From year to year it fell more and more !nder the political control of the 'ocial ?emocrats, !ntil it finally came to be !sed as a battering-ram in the class str!ggle% (he plan was to shatter, by means of constantly repeated blows, the economic edifice in the b!ilding of which so m!ch time and care had been e3pended% Once this ob,ective had been reached, the destr!ction of the 'tate wo!ld become a matter of co!rse, beca!se the 'tate wo!ld already have been deprived of its economic fo!ndations% Attention to the real interests of the wor&ing-classes, on the part of the 'ocial ?emocrats, steadily decreased !ntil the c!nning leaders saw that it wo!ld be in their immediate political interests if the social and c!lt!ral demands of the broad masses remained !nheeded> for there was a danger that if these masses once felt content they co!ld no longer be employed as mere passive material in the political str!ggle% (he gloomy prospect which presented itself to the eyes of the condottieri of the class warfare, if the discontent of the masses were no longer available as a war weapon, created so m!ch an3iety among them that they s!ppressed and opposed even the most elementary meas!res of social reform% And conditions were s!ch that those leaders did not have to tro!ble abo!t attempting to ,!stify s!ch an illogical policy% As the masses were ta!ght to increase and heighten their demands the possibility of satisfying them dwindled and whatever ameliorative meas!res were ta&en became less and less significant> so that it was at that time possible to pers!ade the masses that this ridic!lo!s meas!re in which the most sacred claims of the wor&ing-classes were being granted represented a diabolical plan to wea&en their fighting power in this easy way and, if possible, to paralyse it% One will not be astonished at the s!ccess of these allegations if one remembers what a small meas!re of thin&ing power the broad masses possess% In the bo!rgeois camp there was high indignation over the bad faith of the 'ocial ?emocratic tactics> b!t nothing was done to draw a practical concl!sion and organi9e a co!nter attac& from the bo!rgeois side% (he fear of the 'ocial ?emocrats, to improve the miserable conditions of the wor&ing-classes o!ght to have ind!ced the bo!rgeois parties to ma&e the most energetic efforts in this direction and th!s snatch from the hands of the class-warfare leaders their most important weapon> b!t nothing of this &ind happened% Instead of attac&ing the position of their adversaries the bo!rgeoisie allowed itself to be pressed and harried% Finally it adopted means that were so tardy and so insignificant that they were ineffective and were rep!diated% 'o the whole sit!ation remained ,!st as it had been before the bo!rgeois intervention> b!t the discontent had thereby become more serio!s% Li&e a threatening storm, the IFree (rades Mnion# hovered above the political hori9on and above the life of each individ!al% It was one of the most frightf!l instr!ments of terror that threatened the sec!rity and independence of

the national economic str!ct!re, the fo!ndations of the 'tate and the liberty of the individ!al% Above all, it was the IFree (rades Mnion# that t!rned democracy into a ridic!lo!s and scorned phrase, ins!lted the ideal of liberty and stigmati9ed that of fraternity with the slogan IIf yo! will not become o!r comrade we shall crac& yo!r s&!ll#% It was th!s that I then came to &now this friend of h!manity% ?!ring the years that followed my &nowledge of it became wider and deeper> b!t I have never changed anything in that regard% (he more I became ac+!ainted with the e3ternal forms of 'ocial ?emocracy, the greater became my desire to !nderstand the inner nat!re of its doctrines% For this p!rpose the official literat!re of the "arty co!ld not help very m!ch% In disc!ssing economic +!estions its statements were false and its proofs !nso!nd% In treating of political aims its attit!de was insincere% F!rthermore, its modern methods of chicanery in the presentation of its arg!ments were profo!ndly rep!gnant to me% Its flamboyant sentences, its obsc!re and incomprehensible phrases, pretended to contain great tho!ghts, b!t they were devoid of tho!ght, and meaningless% One wo!ld have to be a decadent 4ohemian in one of o!r modern cities in order to feel at home in that labyrinth of mental aberration, so that he might discover Iintimate e3periences# amid the stin&ing f!mes of this literary ?adism% (hese writers were obvio!sly co!nting on the proverbial h!mility of a certain section of o!r people, who believe that a person who is incomprehensible m!st be profo!ndly wise% In confronting the theoretical falsity and abs!rdity of that doctrine with the reality of its e3ternal manifestations, I grad!ally came to have a clear idea of the ends at which it aimed% ?!ring s!ch moments I had dar& presentiments and feared something evil% I had before me a teaching inspired by egoism and hatred, mathematically calc!lated to win its victory, b!t the tri!mph of which wo!ld be a mortal blow to h!manity% eanwhile I had discovered the relations e3isting between this destr!ctive teaching and the specific character of a people, who !p to that time had been to me almost !n&nown% 2nowledge of the )ews is the only &ey whereby one may !nderstand the inner nat!re and therefore the real aims of 'ocial ?emocracy% (he man who has come to &now this race has s!cceeded in removing from his eyes the veil thro!gh which he had seen the aims and meaning of his "arty in a false light> and then, o!t of the m!r& and fog of social phrases rises the grimacing fig!re of ar3ism% (o-day it is hard and almost impossible for me to say when the word I)ew# first began to raise any partic!lar tho!ght in my mind% I do not remember even having heard the word at home d!ring my father#s lifetime% If this name were mentioned in a derogatory sense I thin& the old gentleman wo!ld ,!st have considered those who !sed it in this way as being !ned!cated reactionaries% In the co!rse of his career he had come to be more or less a cosmopolitan, with strong views on nationalism, which had its effect on me as well% In school, too, I fo!nd no reason to alter the pict!re of things I had formed at home% At the 8ealsch!le I &new one )ewish boy% /e were all on o!r g!ard in o!r relations with him, b!t only beca!se his reticence and certain actions of his warned !s to be discreet% 4eyond that my companions and myself formed no partic!lar opinions in regard to him% It was not !ntil I was fo!rteen or fifteen years old that I fre+!ently ran !p against the word I)ew#, partly in connection with political controversies% (hese references aro!sed a slight aversion in me, and I co!ld not avoid an !ncomfortable feeling which always came over me when I had to listen to religio!s disp!tes% 4!t at that time I had no other feelings abo!t the )ewish +!estion% (here were very few )ews in Lin9% In the co!rse of cent!ries the )ews who lived there had become 7!ropeani9ed in e3ternal appearance and were so m!ch li&e other h!man beings that I even loo&ed !pon them as 6ermans% (he reason why I did not then perceive the abs!rdity of s!ch an ill!sion was that the only e3ternal mar& which I recogni9ed as disting!ishing them from !s was the practice of their strange religion% As I tho!ght that they were persec!ted on acco!nt of their Faith my aversion to hearing remar&s against them grew almost into a feeling of abhorrence% I did not in the least s!spect that there co!ld be s!ch a thing as a systematic anti-'emitism% (hen I came to :ienna% $onf!sed by the mass of impressions I received from the architect!ral s!rro!ndings and depressed by my own tro!bles, I did not at first disting!ish between the different social strata of which the pop!lation of that mammoth city was composed% Altho!gh :ienna then had abo!t two h!ndred tho!sand )ews among its pop!lation of two millions, I did not notice them% ?!ring the first wee&s of my so,o!rn my eyes and my mind were !nable to cope with the onr!sh of new ideas and val!es% *ot !ntil I grad!ally settled down to my s!rro!ndings, and the conf!sed pict!re began to grow clearer, did I ac+!ire a more discriminating view of my new world% And with that I came !p against the )ewish problem% I will not say that the manner in which I first became ac+!ainted with it was partic!larly !npleasant for me% In the )ew I still saw only a man who was of a different religion, and therefore, on gro!nds of h!man tolerance, I was against the idea that he sho!ld be attac&ed beca!se he had a different faith% And so I considered that the tone adopted by the anti-'emitic "ress in :ienna was !nworthy of the c!lt!ral traditions of a great people% (he memory

of certain events which happened in the middle ages came into my mind, and I felt that I sho!ld not li&e to see them repeated% 6enerally spea&ing, these anti-'emitic newspapers did not belong to the first ran& - b!t I did not then !nderstand the reason of this - and so I regarded them more as the prod!cts of ,ealo!sy and envy rather than the e3pression of a sincere, tho!gh wrong-headed, feeling% y own opinions were confirmed by what I considered to be the infinitely more dignified manner in which the really great "ress replied to those attac&s or simply ignored them, which latter seemed to me the most respectable way% I diligently read what was generally called the /orld "ress - *e!e Freie "resse, /iener (ageblatt, etc%- and I was astonished by the ab!ndance of information they gave their readers and the impartial way in which they presented partic!lar problems% I appreciated their dignified tone> b!t sometimes the flamboyancy of the style was !nconvincing, and I did not li&e it% 4!t I attrib!ted all this to the overpowering infl!ence of the world metropolis% 'ince I considered :ienna at that time as s!ch a world metropolis, I tho!ght this constit!ted s!fficient gro!nds to e3c!se these shortcomings of the "ress% 4!t I was fre+!ently disg!sted by the grovelling way in which the :ienna "ress played lac&ey to the $o!rt% 'carcely a move too& place at the 1ofb!rg which was not presented in glorified colo!rs to the readers% It was a foolish practice, which, especially when it had to do with I(he /isest onarch of all (imes#, reminded one almost of the dance which the mo!ntain coc& performs at pairing time to woo his mate% It was all empty nonsense% And I tho!ght that s!ch a policy was a stain on the ideal of liberal democracy% I tho!ght that this way of c!rrying favo!r at the $o!rt was !nworthy of the people% And that was the first blot that fell on my appreciation of the great :ienna "ress% /hile in :ienna I contin!ed to follow with a vivid interest all the events that were ta&ing place in 6ermany, whether connected with political or c!lt!ral +!estion% I had a feeling of pride and admiration when I compared the rise of the yo!ng 6erman 7mpire with the decline of the A!strian 'tate% 4!t, altho!gh the foreign policy of that 7mpire was a so!rce of real pleas!re on the whole, the internal political happenings were not always so satisfactory% I did not approve of the campaign which at that time was being carried on against /illiam II% I loo&ed !pon him not only as the 6erman 7mperor b!t, above all, as the creator of the 6erman *avy% (he fact that the 7mperor was prohibited from spea&ing in the 8eichstag made me very angry, beca!se the prohibition came from a side which in my eyes had no a!thority to ma&e it% For at a single sitting those same parliamentary ganders did more cac&ling together than the whole dynasty of 7mperors, comprising even the wea&est, had done in the co!rse of cent!ries% It annoyed me to have to ac&nowledge that in a nation where any half-witted fellow co!ld claim for himself the right to critici9e and might even be let loose on the people as a ILegislator# in the 8eichstag, the bearer of the Imperial $rown co!ld be the s!b,ect of a Ireprimand# on the part of the most miserable assembly of drivellers that had ever e3isted% I was even more disg!sted at the way in which this same :ienna "ress salaamed obse+!io!sly before the meanest steed belonging to the 1absb!rg royal e+!ipage and went off into wild ecstacies of delight if the nag wagged its tail in response% And at the same time these newspapers too& !p an attit!de of an3iety in matters that concerned the 6erman 7mperor, trying to cloa& their enmity by the serio!s air they gave themselves% 4!t in my eyes that enmity appeared to be only poorly cloa&ed% *at!rally they protested that they had no intention of mi3ing in 6ermany#s internal affairs - 6od forbidJ (hey pretended that by to!ching a delicate spot in s!ch a friendly way they were f!lfilling a d!ty that devolved !pon them by reason of the m!t!al alliance between the two co!ntries and at the same time discharging their obligations of ,o!rnalistic tr!thf!lness% 1aving th!s e3c!sed themselves abo!t tenderly to!ching a sore spot, they bored with the finger r!thlessly into the wo!nd% (hat sort of thing made my blood boil% And now I began to be more and more on my g!ard when reading the great :ienna "ress% I had to ac&nowledge, however, that on s!ch s!b,ects one of the anti-'emitic papers - the ?e!tsche :ol&sblatt acted more decently% /hat got still more on my nerves was the rep!gnant manner in which the big newspapers c!ltivated admiration for France% One really had to feel ashamed of being a 6erman when confronted by those mellifl!o!s hymns of praise for Ithe great c!lt!re-nation#% (his wretched 6allomania more often than once made me throw away one of those Iworld newspapers#% I now often t!rned to the :ol&sblatt, which was m!ch smaller in si9e b!t which treated s!ch s!b,ects more decently% I was not in accord with its sharp anti-'emitic tone> b!t again and again I fo!nd that its arg!ments gave me gro!nds for serio!s tho!ght% Anyhow, it was as a res!lt of s!ch reading that I came to &now the man and the movement which then determined the fate of :ienna% (hese were ?r% 2arl L!eger and the $hristian 'ocialist ovement% At the time I came to :ienna I felt opposed to both% I loo&ed on the man and the movement as Ireactionary#% 4!t even an elementary sense of ,!stice enforced me to change my opinion when I had the opport!nity of &nowing the man and his wor&, and slowly that opinion grew into o!tspo&en admiration when I had better gro!nds for forming a ,!dgment% (o-day, as well as then, I hold ?r% 2arl L!eger as the most eminent type of 6erman 4!rgermeister% 1ow many pre,!dices were thrown over thro!gh s!ch a change in my attit!de towards the

$hristian-'ocialist ovementJ y ideas abo!t anti-'emitism changed also in the co!rse of time, b!t that was the change which I fo!nd most diffic!lt% It cost me a greater internal conflict with myself, and it was only after a str!ggle between reason and sentiment that victory began to be decided in favo!r of the former% (wo years later sentiment rallied to the side of reasons and became a faithf!l g!ardian and co!nsellor% At the time of this bitter str!ggle, between calm reason and the sentiments in which I had been bro!ght !p, the lessons that I learned on the streets of :ienna rendered me inval!able assistance% A time came when I no longer passed blindly along the street of the mighty city, as I had done in the early days, b!t now with my eyes open not only to st!dy the b!ildings b!t also the h!man beings% Once, when passing thro!gh the inner $ity, I s!ddenly enco!ntered a phenomenon in a long caftan and wearing blac& side-loc&s% y first tho!ght was0 Is this a )ew5 (hey certainly did not have this appearance in Lin9% I watched the man stealthily and ca!tio!sly> b!t the longer I ga9ed at the strange co!ntenance and e3amined it feat!re by feat!re, the more the +!estion shaped itself in my brain0 Is this a 6erman5 As was always my habit with s!ch e3periences, I t!rned to boo&s for help in removing my do!bts% For the first time in my life I bo!ght myself some anti-'emitic pamphlets for a few pence% 4!t !nfort!nately they all began with the ass!mption that in principle the reader had at least a certain degree of information on the )ewish +!estion or was even familiar with it% oreover, the tone of most of these pamphlets was s!ch that I became do!btf!l again, beca!se the statements made were partly s!perficial and the proofs e3traordinarily !nscientific% For wee&s, and indeed for months, I ret!rned to my old way of thin&ing% (he s!b,ect appeared so enormo!s and the acc!sations were so farreaching that I was afraid of dealing with it !n,!stly and so I became again an3io!s and !ncertain% *at!rally I co!ld no longer do!bt that here there was not a +!estion of 6ermans who happened to be of a different religion b!t rather that there was +!estion of an entirely different people% For as soon as I began to investigate the matter and observe the )ews, then :ienna appeared to me in a different light% /herever I now went I saw )ews, and the more I saw of them the more stri&ingly and clearly they stood o!t as a different people from the other citi9ens% 7specially the Inner $ity and the district northwards from the ?an!be $anal swarmed with a people who, even in o!ter appearance, bore no similarity to the 6ermans% 4!t any indecision which I may still have felt abo!t that point was finally removed by the activities of a certain section of the )ews themselves% A great movement, called Kionism, arose among them% Its aim was to assert the national character of )!daism, and the movement was strongly represented in :ienna% (o o!tward appearances it seemed as if only one gro!p of )ews championed this movement, while the great ma,ority disapproved of it, or even rep!diated it% 4!t an investigation of the sit!ation showed that those o!tward appearances were p!rposely misleading% (hese o!tward appearances emerged from a mist of theories which had been prod!ced for reasons of e3pediency, if not for p!rposes of downright deception% For that part of )ewry which was styled Liberal did not disown the Kionists as if they were not members of their race b!t rather as brother )ews who p!blicly professed their faith in an !npractical way, so as to create a danger for )ewry itself% (h!s there was no real rift in their internal solidarity% (his fictitio!s conflict between the Kionists and the Liberal )ews soon disg!sted me> for it was false thro!gh and thro!gh and in direct contradiction to the moral dignity and immac!late character on which that race had always prided itself% $leanliness, whether moral or of another &ind, had its own pec!liar meaning for these people% (hat they were water-shy was obvio!s on loo&ing at them and, !nfort!nately, very often also when not loo&ing at them at all% (he odo!r of those people in caftans often !sed to ma&e me feel ill% 4eyond that there were the !n&empt clothes and the ignoble e3terior% All these details were certainly not attractive> b!t the revolting feat!re was that beneath their !nclean e3terior one s!ddenly perceived the moral mildew of the chosen race% /hat soon gave me ca!se for very serio!s consideration were the activities of the )ews in certain branches of life, into the mystery of which I penetrated little by little% /as there any shady !nderta&ing, any form of fo!lness, especially in c!lt!ral life, in which at least one )ew did not participate5 On p!tting the probing &nife caref!lly to that &ind of abscess one immediately discovered, li&e a maggot in a p!trescent body, a little )ew who was often blinded by the s!dden light% In my eyes the charge against )!daism became a grave one the moment I discovered the )ewish activities in the "ress, in art, in literat!re and the theatre% All !nct!o!s protests were now more or less f!tile% One needed only to loo& at the posters anno!ncing the hideo!s prod!ctions of the cinema and theatre, and st!dy the names of the a!thors who were highly la!ded there in order to become permanently adamant on )ewish +!estions% 1ere was a pestilence, a moral pestilence, with which the p!blic was being infected% It was worse than the 4lac& "lag!e of long ago% And in what mighty doses this poison was man!fact!red and distrib!ted% *at!rally, the lower the moral and intellect!al level of s!ch an a!thor of artistic prod!cts the more ine3ha!stible his fec!ndity% 'ometimes it went so far that one of these fellows, acting li&e a sewage p!mp, wo!ld shoot his filth directly in the face of other members

of the h!man race% In this connection we m!st remember there is no limit to the n!mber of s!ch people% One o!ght to reali9e that for one, 6oethe, *at!re may bring into e3istence ten tho!sand s!ch despoilers who act as the worst &ind of germ-carriers in poisoning h!man so!ls% It was a terrible tho!ght, and yet it co!ld not be avoided, that the greater n!mber of the )ews seemed specially destined by *at!re to play this shamef!l part% And is it for this reason that they can be called the chosen people5 I began then to investigate caref!lly the names of all the fabricators of these !nclean prod!cts in p!blic c!lt!ral life% (he res!lt of that in+!iry was still more disfavo!rable to the attit!de which I had hitherto held in regard to the )ews% (ho!gh my feelings might rebel a tho!sand time, reason now had to draw its own concl!sions% (he fact that nine-tenths of all the sm!tty literat!re, artistic tripe and theatrical banalities, had to be charged to the acco!nt of people who formed scarcely one per cent% of the nation - that fact co!ld not be gainsaid% It was there, and had to be admitted% (hen I began to e3amine my favo!rite I/orld "ress#, with that fact before my mind% (he deeper my so!ndings went the lesser grew my respect for that "ress which I formerly admired% Its style became still more repellent and I was forced to re,ect its ideas as entirely shallow and s!perficial% (o claim that in the presentation of facts and views its attit!de was impartial seemed to me to contain more falsehood than tr!th% (he writers were - )ews% (ho!sands of details that I had scarcely noticed before seemed to me now to deserve attention% I began to grasp and !nderstand things which I had formerly loo&ed at in a different light% I saw the Liberal policy of that "ress in another light% Its dignified tone in replying to the attac&s of its adversaries and its dead silence in other cases now became clear to me as part of a c!nning and despicable way of deceiving the readers% Its brilliant theatrical criticisms always praised the )ewish a!thors and its adverse, criticism was reserved e3cl!sively for the 6ermans% (he light pin-pric&s against /illiam II showed the persistency of its policy, ,!st as did its systematic commendation of French c!lt!re and civili9ation% (he s!b,ect matter of the fe!illetons was trivial and often pornographic% (he lang!age of this "ress as a whole had the accent of a foreign people% (he general tone was openly derogatory to the 6ermans and this m!st have been definitely intentional% /hat were the interests that !rged the :ienna "ress to adopt s!ch a policy5 Or did they do so merely by chance5 In attempting to find an answer to those +!estions I grad!ally became more and more d!bio!s% (hen something happened which helped me to come to an early decision% I began to see thro!gh the meaning of a whole series of events that were ta&ing place in other branches of :iennese life% All these were inspired by a general concept of manners and morals which was openly p!t into practice by a large section of the )ews and co!ld be established as attrib!table to them% 1ere, again, the life which I observed on the streets ta!ght me what evil really is% (he part which the )ews played in the social phenomenon of prostit!tion, and more especially in the white slave traffic, co!ld be st!died here better than in any other /est-7!ropean city, with the possible e3ception of certain ports in 'o!thern France% /al&ing by night along the streets of the Leopoldstadt, almost at every t!rn whether one wished it or not, one witnessed certain happenings of whose e3istence the 6ermans &new nothing !ntil the /ar made it possible and indeed inevitable for the soldiers to see s!ch things on the 7astern front% A cold shiver ran down my spine when I first ascertained that it was the same &ind of cold-blooded, thic&-s&inned and shameless )ew who showed his cons!mmate s&ill in cond!cting that revolting e3ploitation of the dregs of the big city% (hen I became fired with wrath% I had now no more hesitation abo!t bringing the )ewish problem to light in all its details% *o% 1enceforth I was determined to do so% 4!t as I learned to trac& down the )ew in all the different spheres of c!lt!ral and artistic life, and in the vario!s manifestations of this life everywhere, I s!ddenly came !pon him in a position where I had least e3pected to find him% I now reali9ed that the )ews were the leaders of 'ocial ?emocracy% In face of that revelation the scales fell from my eyes% y long inner str!ggle was at an end% In my relations with my fellow wor&men I was often astonished to find how easily and often they changed their opinions on the same +!estions, sometimes within a few days and sometimes even within the co!rse of a few ho!rs% I fo!nd it diffic!lt to !nderstand how men who always had reasonable ideas when they spo&e as individ!als with one another s!ddenly lost this reasonableness the moment they acted in the mass% (hat phenomenon often tempted one almost to despair% I !sed to disp!te with them for ho!rs and when I s!cceeded in bringing them to what I considered a reasonable way of thin&ing I re,oiced at my s!ccess% 4!t ne3t day I wo!ld find that it had been all in vain% It was saddening to thin& I had to begin it all over again% Li&e a pend!l!m in its eternal sway, they wo!ld fall bac& into their abs!rd opinions% I was able to !nderstand their position f!lly% (hey were dissatisfied with their lot and c!rsed the fate which had hit them so hard% (hey hated their employers, whom they loo&ed !pon as the heartless administrators of their cr!el destiny% Often they !sed ab!sive lang!age against the p!blic officials, whom they acc!sed of having no sympathy with the sit!ation of the wor&ing people% (hey made p!blic protests against the cost of living and paraded thro!gh the streets in defence of their claims% At least all this co!ld be e3plained on reasonable gro!nds% 4!t what was

impossible to !nderstand was the bo!ndless hatred they e3pressed against their own fellow citi9ens, how they disparaged their own nation, moc&ed at its greatness, reviled its history and dragged the names of its most ill!strio!s men in the g!tter% (his hostility towards their own &ith and &in, their own native land and home was as irrational as it was incomprehensible% It was against *at!re% One co!ld c!re that malady temporarily, b!t only for some days or at least some wee&s% 4!t on meeting those whom one believed to have been converted one fo!nd that they had become as they were before% (hat malady against *at!re held them once again in its cl!tches% I grad!ally discovered that the 'ocial ?emocratic "ress was predominantly controlled by )ews% 4!t I did not attach special importance to this circ!mstance, for the same state of affairs e3isted also in other newspapers% 4!t there was one stri&ing fact in this connection% It was that there was not a single newspaper with which )ews were connected that co!ld be spo&en of as *ational, in the meaning that my ed!cation and convictions attached to that word% a&ing an effort to overcome my nat!ral rel!ctance, I tried to read articles of this nat!re p!blished in the ar3ist "ress> b!t in doing so my aversion increased all the more% And then I set abo!t learning something of the people who wrote and p!blished this mischievo!s st!ff% From the p!blisher downwards, all of them were )ews% I recalled to mind the names of the p!blic leaders of ar3ism, and then I reali9ed that most of them belonged to the $hosen 8ace - the 'ocial ?emocratic representatives in the Imperial $abinet as well as the secretaries of the (rades Mnions and the street agitators% 7verywhere the same sinister pict!re presented itself% I shall never forget the row of names - A!sterlit9, ?avid, Adler, 7llenbogen, and others% One fact became +!ite evident to me% It was that this alien race held in its hands the leadership of that 'ocial ?emocratic "arty with whose minor representatives I had been disp!ting for months past% I was happy at last to &now for certain that the )ew is not a 6erman% (h!s I finally discovered who were the evil spirits leading o!r people astray% (he so,o!rn in :ienna for one year had proved long eno!gh to convince me that no wor&er is so rooted in his preconceived notions that he will not s!rrender them in face of better and clearer arg!ments and e3planations% 6rad!ally I became an e3pert in the doctrine of the ar3ists and !sed this &nowledge as an instr!ment to drive home my own firm convictions% I was s!ccessf!l in nearly every case% (he great masses can be resc!ed, b!t a lot of time and a large share of h!man patience m!st be devoted to s!ch wor&% 4!t a )ew can never be resc!ed from his fi3ed notions% It was then simple eno!gh to attempt to show them the abs!rdity of their teaching% /ithin my small circle I tal&ed to them !ntil my throat ached and my voice grew hoarse% I believed that I co!ld finally convince them of the danger inherent in the ar3ist follies% 4!t I only achieved the contrary res!lt% It seemed to me that immediately the disastro!s effects of the ar3ist (heory and its application in practice became evident, the stronger became their obstinacy% (he more I debated with them the more familiar I became with their arg!mentative tactics% At the o!tset they co!nted !pon the st!pidity of their opponents, b!t when they got so entangled that they co!ld not find a way o!t they played the tric& of acting as innocent simpletons% 'ho!ld they fail, in spite of their tric&s of logic, they acted as if they co!ld not !nderstand the co!nter arg!ments and bolted away to another field of disc!ssion% (hey wo!ld lay down tr!isms and platit!des> and, if yo! accepted these, then they were applied to other problems and matters of an essentially different nat!re from the original theme% If yo! faced them with this point they wo!ld escape again, and yo! co!ld not bring them to ma&e any precise statement% /henever one tried to get a firm grip on any of these apostles one#s hand grasped only ,elly and slime which slipped thro!gh the fingers and combined again into a solid mass a moment afterwards% If yo!r adversary felt forced to give in to yo!r arg!ment, on acco!nt of the observers present, and if yo! then tho!ght that at last yo! had gained gro!nd, a s!rprise was in store for yo! on the following day% (he )ew wo!ld be !tterly oblivio!s to what had happened the day before, and he wo!ld start once again by repeating his former abs!rdities, as if nothing had happened% 'ho!ld yo! become indignant and remind him of yesterday#s defeat, he pretended astonishment and co!ld not remember anything, e3cept that on the previo!s day he had proved that his statements were correct% 'ometimes I was d!mbfo!nded% I do not &now what ama9ed me the more - the ab!ndance of their verbiage or the artf!l way in which they dressed !p their falsehoods% I grad!ally came to hate them% Net all this had its good side> beca!se the more I came to &now the individ!al leaders, or at least the propagandists, of 'ocial ?emocracy, my love for my own people increased correspondingly% $onsidering the 'atanic s&ill which these evil co!nsellors displayed, how co!ld their !nfort!nate victims be blamed5 Indeed, I fo!nd it e3tremely diffic!lt myself to be a match for the dialectical perfidy of that race% 1ow f!tile it was to try to win over s!ch people with arg!ment, seeing that their very mo!ths distorted the tr!th, disowning the very words they had ,!st !sed and adopting them again a few moments afterwards to serve their own ends in the arg!mentJ *o% (he more I came to &now the )ew, the easier it was to e3c!se the wor&ers% In my opinion the most c!lpable were not to be fo!nd among the wor&ers b!t rather among those who did not thin& it worth while to ta&e the tro!ble to sympathi9e with their own &insfol& and give to the hard-wor&ing son of the

national family what was his by the iron logic of ,!stice, while at the same time placing his sed!cer and corr!pter against the wall% Mrged by my own daily e3periences, I now began to investigate more thoro!ghly the so!rces of the ar3ist teaching itself% Its effects were well &nown to me in detail% As a res!lt of caref!l observation, its daily progress had become obvio!s to me% And one needed only a little imagination in order to be able to forecast the conse+!ences which m!st res!lt from it% (he only +!estion now was0 ?id the fo!nders foresee the effects of their wor& in the form which those effects have shown themselves to-day, or were the fo!nders themselves the victims of an error5 (o my mind both alternatives were possible% If the second +!estion m!st be answered in the affirmative, then it was the d!ty of every thin&ing person to oppose this sinister movement with a view to preventing it from prod!cing its worst res!lts% 4!t if the first +!estion m!st be answered in the affirmative, then it m!st be admitted that the original a!thors of this evil which has infected the nations were devils incarnate% For only in the brain of a monster, and not that of a man, co!ld the plan of this organi9ation ta&e shape whose wor&ings m!st finally bring abo!t the collapse of h!man civili9ation and t!rn this world into a desert waste% '!ch being the case the only alternative left was to fight, and in that fight to employ all the weapons which the h!man spirit and intellect and will co!ld f!rnish leaving it to Fate to decide in whose favo!r the balance sho!ld fall% And so I began to gather information abo!t the a!thors of this teaching, with a view to st!dying the principles of the movement% (he fact that I attained my ob,ect sooner than I co!ld have anticipated was d!e to the deeper insight into the )ewish +!estion which I then gained, my &nowledge of this +!estion being hitherto rather s!perficial% (his newly ac+!ired &nowledge alone enabled me to ma&e a practical comparison between the real content and the theoretical pretentio!sness of the teaching laid down by the apostolic fo!nders of 'ocial ?emocracy> beca!se I now !nderstood the lang!age of the )ew% I reali9ed that the )ew !ses lang!age for the p!rpose of dissim!lating his tho!ght or at least veiling it, so that his real aim cannot be discovered by what he says b!t rather by reading between the lines% (his &nowledge was the occasion of the greatest inner revol!tion that I had yet e3perienced% From being a soft-hearted cosmopolitan I became an o!t-and-o!t anti-'emite% Only on one f!rther occasion, and that for the last time, did I give way to oppressing tho!ghts which ca!sed me some moments of profo!nd an3iety% As I critically reviewed the activities of the )ewish people thro!gho!t long periods of history I became an3io!s and as&ed myself whether for some inscr!table reasons beyond the comprehension of poor mortals s!ch as o!rselves, ?estiny may not have irrevocably decreed that the final victory m!st go to this small nation5 ay it not be that this people which has lived only for the earth has been promised the earth as a recompense5 is o!r right to str!ggle for o!r own self-preservation based on reality, or is it a merely s!b,ective thing5 Fate answered the +!estion for me inasm!ch as it led me to ma&e a detached and e3ha!stive in+!iry into the ar3ist teaching and the activities of the )ewish people in connection with it% (he )ewish doctrine of ar3ism rep!diates the aristocratic principle of *at!re and s!bstit!tes for it the eternal privilege of force and energy, n!merical mass and its dead weight% (h!s it denies the individ!al worth of the h!man personality, imp!gns the teaching that nationhood and race have a primary significance, and by doing this it ta&es away the very fo!ndations of h!man e3istence and h!man civili9ation% If the ar3ist teaching were to be accepted as the fo!ndation of the life of the !niverse, it wo!ld lead to the disappearance of all order that is conceivable to the h!man mind% And th!s the adoption of s!ch a law wo!ld provo&e chaos in the str!ct!re of the greatest organism that we &now, with the res!lt that the inhabitants of this earthly planet wo!ld finally disappear% 'ho!ld the )ew, with the aid of his ar3ist creed, tri!mph over the people of this world, his $rown will be the f!neral wreath of man&ind, and this planet will once again follow its orbit thro!gh ether, witho!t any h!man life on its s!rface, as it did millions of years ago% And so I believe to-day that my cond!ct is in accordance with the will of the Almighty $reator% In standing g!ard against the )ew I am defending the handiwor& of the Lord% $hapter (hree 6enerally spea&ing a man sho!ld not p!blicly ta&e part in politics before he has reached the age of thirty, tho!gh, of co!rse, e3ceptions m!st be made in the case of those who are nat!rally gifted with e3traordinary political abilities% (hat at least is my opinion to-day% And the reason for it is that !ntil he reaches his thirtieth year or thereabo!ts a man#s mental development will mostly consist in ac+!iring and sifting s!ch &nowledge as is necessary for the gro!ndwor& of a general platform from which he can e3amine the different political problems that arise from day to day and be able to adopt a definite attit!de towards each% A man m!st first ac+!ire a f!nd of general ideas and fit them together so as to form an organic str!ct!re of personal tho!ght or o!tloo& on life - a Weltanschhauung% (hen he will have that mental e+!ipment witho!t which he cannot form his own ,!dgments on partic!lar +!estions of the day, and he will have ac+!ired those +!alities that are necessary for consistency and

steadfastness in the formation of political opinions% '!ch a man is now +!alified, at least s!b,ectively, to ta&e his part in the political cond!ct of p!blic affairs% If these pre-re+!isite conditions are not f!lfilled, and if a man sho!ld enter political life witho!t this e+!ipment, he will r!n a twofold ris&% In the first place, he may find d!ring the co!rse of events that the stand which he originally too& in regard to some essential +!estion was wrong% 1e will now have to abandon his former position or else stic& to it against his better &nowledge and riper wisdom and after his reason and convictions have already proved it !ntenable% If he adopt the former line of action he will find himself in a diffic!lt personal sit!ation> beca!se in giving !p a position hitherto maintained he will appear inconsistent and will have no right to e3pect his followers to remain as loyal to his leadership as they were before% And, as regards the followers themselves, they may easily loo& !pon their leader#s change of policy as showing a lac& of ,!dgment inherent in his character% oreover, the change m!st ca!se in them a certain feeling of discomfit!re vis-P-vis those whom the leader formerly opposed% If he adopts the second alternative - which so very fre+!ently happens to-day - then p!blic prono!ncements of the leader have no longer his personal pers!asion to s!pport them% And the more that is the case the defence of his ca!se will be all the more hollow and s!perficial% 1e now descends to the adoption of v!lgar means in his defence% /hile he himself no longer dreams serio!sly of standing by his political protestations to the last - for no man will die in defence of something in which he does not believe - he ma&es increasing demands on his followers% Indeed, the greater be the meas!re of his own insincerity, the more !nfort!nate and inconsiderate become his claims on his party adherents% Finally, he throws aside the last vestiges of tr!e leadership and begins to play politics% (his means that he becomes one of those whose only consistency is their inconsistency, associated with overbearing insolence and oftentimes an artf!l mendacity developed to a shamelessly high degree% 'ho!ld s!ch a person, to the misfort!ne of all decent people, s!cceed in becoming a parliamentary dep!ty it will be clear from the o!tset that for him the essence of political activity consists in a heroic str!ggle to &eep permanent hold on this mil&-bottle as a so!rce of livelihood for himself and his family% (he more his wife and children are dependent on him, the more st!bbornly will he fight to maintain for himself the representation of his parliamentary constit!ency% For that reason any other person who gives evidence of political capacity is his personal enemy% In every new movement he will apprehend the possible beginning of his own downfall% And everyone who is a better man than himself will appear to him in the light of a menace% I shall s!bse+!ently deal more f!lly with the problem to which this &ind of parliamentary vermin give rise% /hen a man has reached his thirtieth year he has still a great deal to learn% (hat is obvio!s% 4!t henceforward what he learns will principally be an amplification of his basic ideas> it will be fitted in with them organically so as to fill !p the framewor& of the f!ndamental Weltanschhauung which he already possesses% /hat he learns anew will not imply the abandonment of principles already held, b!t rather a deeper &nowledge of those principles% And th!s his colleag!es will never have the discomforting feeling that they have been hitherto falsely led by him% On the contrary, their confidence is increased when they perceive that their leader#s +!alities are steadily developing along the lines of an organic growth which res!lts from the constant assimilation of new ideas> so that the followers loo& !pon this process as signifying an enrichment of the doctrines in which they themselves believe, in their eyes every s!ch development is a new witness to the correctness of that whole body of opinion which has hitherto been held% A leader who has to abandon the platform fo!nded on his general principles, beca!se he recogni9es the fo!ndation as false, can act with hono!r only when he declares his readiness to accept the final conse+!ences of his erroneo!s views% In s!ch a case he o!ght to refrain from ta&ing p!blic part in any f!rther political activity% 1aving once gone astray on essential things he may possibly go astray a second time% 4!t, anyhow, he has no right whatsoever to e3pect or demand that his fellow citi9ens sho!ld contin!e to give him their s!pport% 1ow little s!ch a line of cond!ct commends itself to o!r p!blic leaders nowadays is proved by the general corr!ption prevalent among the cabal which at the present moment feels itself called to political leadership% In the whole cabal there is scarcely one who is properly e+!ipped for this tas&% Altho!gh in those days I !sed to give more time than most others to the consideration of political +!estion, yet I caref!lly refrained from ta&ing an open part in politics% Only to a small circle did I spea& of those things which agitated my mind or were the ca!se of constant preocc!pation for me% (he habit of disc!ssing matters within s!ch a restricted gro!p had many advantages in itself% 8ather than tal& at them, I learned to feel my way into the modes of tho!ght and views of those men aro!nd me% Oftentimes s!ch ways of thin&ing and s!ch views were +!ite primitive% (h!s I too& every possible occasion to increase my &nowledge of men% *owhere among the 6erman people was the opport!nity for ma&ing s!ch a st!dy so favo!rable as in :ienna% In the old ?an!bian onarchy political tho!ght was wider in its range and had a richer variety of interests than in the 6ermany of that epoch - e3cepting certain parts of "r!ssia, 1amb!rg and the districts bordering on the *orth 'ea% /hen I spea& of A!stria here I mean that part of the great 1absb!rg 7mpire which, by reason of its 6erman pop!lation, f!rnished not only the historic basis for the formation of this 'tate b!t whose pop!lation was for several cent!ries also the e3cl!sive so!rce of c!lt!ral life in that political system whose str!ct!re was so artificial% As time went on the stability of the A!strian 'tate and the g!arantee of its contin!ed e3istence depended more and more on

the maintenance of this germ-cell of that 1absb!rg 7mpire% (he hereditary imperial provinces constit!ted the heart of the 7mpire% And it was this heart that constantly sent the blood of life p!lsating thro!gh the whole political and c!lt!ral system% $orresponding to the heart of the 7mpire, :ienna signified the brain and the will% At that time :ienna presented an appearance which made one thin& of her as an enthroned +!een whose a!thoritative sway !nited the conglomeration of heterogeno!s nationalities that lived !nder the 1absb!rg sceptre% (he radiant bea!ty of the capital city made one forget the sad symptoms of senile decay which the 'tate manifested as a whole% (ho!gh the 7mpire was internally ric&ety beca!se of the terrific conflict going on between the vario!s nationalities, the o!tside world - and 6ermany in partic!lar - saw only that lovely pict!re of the city% (he ill!sion was all the greater beca!se at that time :ienna seemed to have risen to its highest pitch of splendo!r% Mnder a ayor, who had the tr!e stamp of administrative geni!s, the venerable residential $ity of the 7mperors of the old 7mpire seemed to have the glory of its yo!th renewed% (he last great 6erman who sprang from the ran&s of the people that had coloni9ed the 7ast ar& was not a Istatesman#, in the official sense% (his ?r% L!egar, however, in his rQle as ayor of Ithe Imperial $apital and 8esidential $ity#, had achieved so m!ch in almost all spheres of m!nicipal activity, whether economic or c!lt!ral, that the heart of the whole 7mpire throbbed with renewed vigo!r% 1e th!s proved himself a m!ch greater statesman than the so-called Idiplomats# of that period% (he fact that this political system of heterogeneo!s races called A!stria, finally bro&e down is no evidence whatsoever of political incapacity on the part of the 6erman element in the old 7ast ar&% (he collapse was the inevitable res!lt of an impossible sit!ation% (en million people cannot permanently hold together a 'tate of fifty millions, composed of different and convicting nationalities, !nless certain definite pre-re+!isite conditions are at hand while there is still time to avail of them% (he 6erman-A!strian had very big ways of thin&ing% Acc!stomed to live in a great 7mpire, he had a &een sense of the obligations inc!mbent on him in s!ch a sit!ation% 1e was the only member of the A!strian 'tate who loo&ed beyond the borders of the narrow lands belonging to the $rown and too& in all the frontiers of the 7mpire in the sweep of his mind% Indeed when destiny severed him from the common Fatherland he tried to master the tremendo!s tas& which was set before him as a conse+!ence% (his tas& was to maintain for the 6erman-A!strians that patrimony which, thro!gh inn!merable str!ggles, their ancestors had originally wrested from the 7ast% It m!st be remembered that the 6erman-A!strians co!ld not p!t their !ndivided strength into this effort, beca!se the hearts and minds of the best among them were constantly t!rning bac& towards their &insfol& in the otherland, so that only a fraction of their energy remained to be employed at home% (he mental hori9on of the 6erman-A!strian was comparatively broad% 1is commercial interests comprised almost every section of the heterogeneo!s 7mpire% (he cond!ct of almost all important !nderta&ings was in his hands% 1e provided the 'tate, for the most part, with its leading technical e3perts and civil servants% 1e was responsible for carrying on the foreign trade of the co!ntry, as far as that sphere of activity was not !nder )ewish control, (he 6erman-A!strian e3cl!sively represented the political cement that held the 'tate together% 1is military d!ties carried him far beyond the narrow frontiers of his homeland% (ho!gh the recr!it might ,oin a regiment made !p of the 6erman element, the regiment itself might be stationed in 1er9egovina as well as in :ienna or 6alicia% (he officers in the 1absb!rg armies were still 6ermans and so was the predominating element in the higher branches of the civil service% Art and science were in 6erman hands% Apart from the new artistic trash, which might easily have been prod!ced by a negro tribe, all gen!ine artistic inspiration came from the 6erman section of the pop!lation% In m!sic, architect!re, sc!lpt!re and painting, :ienna ab!ndantly s!pplied the entire ?!al onarchy% And the so!rce never seemed to show signs of a possible e3ha!stion% Finally, it was the 6erman element that determined the cond!ct of foreign policy, tho!gh a small n!mber of 1!ngarians were also active in that field% All efforts, however, to save the !nity of the 'tate were doomed to end in fail!re, beca!se the essential prere+!isites were missing% (here was only one possible way to control and hold in chec& the centrif!gal forces of the different and differing nationalities% (his way was0 to govern the A!strian 'tate and organi9e it internally on the principle of centrali9ation% In no other way imaginable co!ld the e3istence of that 'tate be ass!red% *ow and again there were l!cid intervals in the higher r!ling +!arters when this tr!th was recogni9ed% 4!t it was soon forgotten again, or else deliberately ignored, beca!se of the diffic!lties to be overcome in p!tting it into practice% 7very pro,ect which aimed at giving the 7mpire a more federal shape was bo!nd to be ineffective beca!se there was no strong central a!thority which co!ld e3ercise s!fficient power within the 'tate to hold the federal elements together% It m!st be remembered in this connection that conditions in A!stria were +!ite different from those which characteri9ed the 6erman 'tate as fo!nded by 4ismarc&% 6ermany was faced with only one diffic!lty, which was that of transforming the p!rely political traditions, beca!se thro!gho!t the whole of 4ismarc&#s 6ermany there was a common c!lt!ral basis% (he 6erman 7mpire contained only members of one and the same racial or national stoc&, with the e3ception of a few minor foreign fragments% ?emographic conditions in A!stria were +!ite the reverse% /ith the e3ception of 1!ngary there was no political

tradition, coming down from a great past, in any of the vario!s affiliated co!ntries% If there had been, time had either wiped o!t all traces of it, or at least, rendered them obsc!re% oreover, this was the epoch when the principle of nationality began to be in ascendant> and that phenomenon awa&ened the national instincts in the vario!s co!ntries affiliated !nder the 1absb!rg sceptre% It was diffic!lt to control the action of these newly awa&ened national forces> beca!se, ad,acent to the frontiers of the ?!al onarchy, new national 'tates were springing !p whose people were of the same or &indred racial stoc& as the respective nationalities that constit!ted the 1absb!rg 7mpire% (hese new 'tates were able to e3ercise a greater infl!ence than the 6erman element% 7ven :ienna co!ld not hold o!t for a lengthy period in this conflict% /hen 4!dapest had developed into a metropolis a rival had grown !p whose mission was, not to help in holding together the vario!s divergent parts of the 7mpire, b!t rather to strengthen one part% /ithin a short time "rag!e followed the e3ample of 4!dapest> and later on came Lemberg, Laibach and others% 4y raising these places which had formerly been provincial towns to the ran& of national cities, rallying centres were provided for an independent c!lt!ral life% (hro!gh this the local national instincts ac+!ired a spirit!al fo!ndation and therewith gained a more profo!nd hold on the people% (he time was bo!nd to come when the partic!larist interests of those vario!s co!ntries wo!ld become stronger than their common imperial interests% Once that stage had been reached, A!stria#s doom was sealed% (he co!rse of this development was clearly perceptible since the death of )oseph II% Its rapidity depended on a n!mber of factors, some of which had their so!rce in the onarchy itself> while others res!lted from the position which the 7mpire had ta&en in foreign politics% It was impossible to ma&e anything li&e a s!ccessf!l effort for the permanent consolidation of the A!strian 'tate !nless a firm and persistent policy of centrali9ation were p!t into force% 4efore everything else the principle sho!ld have been adopted that only one common lang!age co!ld be !sed as the official lang!age of the 'tate% (h!s it wo!ld be possible to emphasi9e the formal !nity of that imperial commonwealth% And th!s the administration wo!ld have in its hands a technical instr!ment witho!t which the 'tate co!ld not end!re as a political !nity% In the same way the school and other forms of ed!cation sho!ld have been !sed to inc!lcate a feeling of common citi9enship% '!ch an ob,ective co!ld not be reached within ten or twenty years% (he effort wo!ld have to be envisaged in terms of cent!ries> ,!st as in all problems of coloni9ation, steady perseverance is a far more important element than the o!tp!t of energetic effort at the moment% It goes witho!t saying that in s!ch circ!mstances the co!ntry m!st be governed and administered by strictly adhering to the principle of !niformity% For me it was +!ite instr!ctive to discover why this did not ta&e place, or rather why it was not done% (hose who were g!ilty of the omission m!st be held responsible for the brea&-!p of the 1absb!rg 7mpire% ore than any other 'tate, the e3istence of the old A!stria depended on a strong and capable 6overnment% (he 1absb!rg 7mpire lac&ed ethnical !niformity, which constit!tes the f!ndamental basis of a national 'tate and will preserve the e3istence of s!ch a 'tate even tho!gh the r!ling power sho!ld be grossly inefficient% /hen a 'tate is composed of a homogeneo!s pop!lation, the nat!ral inertia of s!ch a pop!lation will hold the 'tage together and maintain its e3istence thro!gh astonishingly long periods of misgovernment and maladministration% It may often seem as if the principle of life had died o!t in s!ch a body-politic> b!t a time comes when the apparent corpse rises !p and displays before the world an astonishing manifestation of its indestr!ctible vitality% 4!t the sit!ation is !tterly different in a co!ntry where the pop!lation is not homogeneo!s, where there is no bond of common blood b!t only that of one r!ling hand% 'ho!ld the r!ling hand show signs of wea&ness in s!ch a 'tate the res!lt will not be to ca!se a &ind of hibernation of the 'tate b!t rather to awa&en the individ!alist instincts which are sl!mbering in the ethnological gro!ps% (hese instincts do not ma&e themselves felt as long as these gro!ps are dominated by a strong central will-to-govern% (he danger which e3ists in these sl!mbering separatist instincts can be rendered more or less innoc!o!s only thro!gh cent!ries of common ed!cation, common traditions and common interests% (he yo!nger s!ch 'tates are, the more their e3istence will depend on the ability and strength of the central government% If their fo!ndation was d!e only to the wor& of a strong personality or a leader who is a man of geni!s, in many cases they will brea& !p as soon as the fo!nder disappears> beca!se, tho!gh great, he stood alone% 4!t even after cent!ries of a common ed!cation and e3periences these separatist instincts I have spo&en of are not always completely overcome% (hey may be only dormant and may s!ddenly awa&en when the central government shows wea&ness and the force of a common ed!cation as well as the prestige of a common tradition prove !nable to withstand the vital energies of separatist nationalities forging ahead towards the shaping of their own individ!al e3istence% (he fail!re to see the tr!th of all this constit!ted what may be called the tragic crime of the 1absb!rg r!lers% Only before the eyes of one 1absb!rg r!ler, and that for the last time, did the hand of ?estiny hold aloft the torch that threw light on the f!t!re of his co!ntry% 4!t the torch was then e3ting!ished for ever% )oseph II, 8oman 7mperor of the 6erman nation, was filled with a growing an3iety when he reali9ed the fact that his 1o!se was removed to an o!tlying frontier of his 7mpire and that the time wo!ld soon be at hand when it wo!ld be overt!rned and eng!lfed in the whirlpool ca!sed by that 4abylon of nationalities, !nless something was done at

the eleventh ho!r to overcome the dire conse+!ences res!lting from the negligence of his ancestors% /ith s!perh!man energy this IFriend of an&ind# made every possible effort to co!nteract the effects of the carelessness and tho!ghtlessness of his predecessors% /ithin one decade he strove to repair the damage that had been done thro!gh cent!ries% If ?estiny had only granted him forty years for his labo!rs, and if only two generations had carried on the wor& which he had started, the miracle might have been performed% 4!t when he died, bro&en in body and spirit after ten years of r!lership, his wor& san& with him into the grave and rests with him there in the $ap!cin $rypt, sleeping its eternal sleep, having never again showed signs of awa&ening% 1is s!ccessors had neither the ability nor the will-power necessary for the tas& they had to face% /hen the first signs of a new revol!tionary epoch appeared in 7!rope they grad!ally scattered the fire thro!gho!t A!stria% And when the fire began to glow steadily it was fed and fanned not by the social or political conditions b!t by forces that had their origin in the nationalist yearnings of the vario!s ethnic gro!ps% (he 7!ropean revol!tionary movement of 1;4; primarily too& the form of a class conflict in almost every other co!ntry, b!t in A!stria it too& the form of a new racial str!ggle% In so far as the 6erman-A!strians there forgot the origins of the movement, or perhaps had failed to recogni9e them at the start and conse+!ently too& part in the revol!tionary !prising, they sealed their own fate% For they th!s helped to awa&en the spirit of /estern ?emocracy which, within a short while, shattered the fo!ndations of their own e3istence% (he setting !p of a representative parliamentary body, witho!t insisting on the preliminary that only one lang!age sho!ld be !sed in all p!blic interco!rse !nder the 'tate, was the first great blow to the predominance of the 6erman element in the ?!al onarchy% From that moment the 'tate was also doomed to collapse sooner or later% All that followed was nothing b!t the historical li+!idation of an 7mpire% (o watch that process of progressive disintegration was a tragic and at the same time an instr!ctive e3perience% (he e3ec!tion of history#s decree was carried o!t in tho!sands of details% (he fact that great n!mbers of people went abo!t blindfolded amid the manifest signs of dissol!tion only proves that the gods had decreed the destr!ction of A!stria% I do not wish to dwell on details beca!se that wo!ld lie o!tside the scope of this boo&% I want to treat in detail only those events which are typical among the ca!ses that lead to the decline of nations and 'tates and which are therefore of importance to o!r present age% oreover, the st!dy of these events helped to f!rnish the basis of my own political o!tloo&% Among the instit!tions which most clearly manifested !nmista&able signs of decay, even to the wea&-sighted "hilistine, was that which, of all the instit!tions of 'tate, o!ght to have been the most firmly fo!nded - I mean the "arliament, or the 8eichsrat BImperial $o!ncilC as it was called in A!stria% (he pattern for this corporate body was obvio!sly that which e3isted in 7ngland, the land of classic democracy% (he whole of that e3cellent organi9ation was bodily transferred to A!stria with as little alteration as possible% As the A!strian co!nterpart to the 4ritish two-chamber system a $hamber of ?ep!ties and a 1o!se of Lords B1errenha!sC were established in :ienna% (he 1o!ses themselves, considered as b!ildings were somewhat different% /hen 4arry b!ilt his palaces, or, as we say the 1o!ses of "arliament, on the shore of the (hames, he co!ld loo& to the history of the 4ritish 7mpire for the inspiration of his wor&% In that history he fo!nd s!fficient material to fill and decorate the 1,2<< niches, brac&ets, and pillars of his magnificent edifice% 1is stat!es and paintings made the 1o!se of Lords and the 1o!se of $ommons temples dedicated to the glory of the nation% (here it was that :ienna enco!ntered the first diffic!lty% /hen 1ansen, the ?anish architect, had completed the last gable of the marble palace in which the new body of pop!lar representatives was to be ho!sed he had to t!rn to the ancient classical world for s!b,ects to fill o!t his decorative plan% (his theatrical shrine of I/estern ?emocracy# was adorned with the stat!es and portraits of 6ree& and 8oman statesmen and philosophers% As if it were meant for a symbol of irony, the horses of the +!adriga that s!rmo!nts the two 1o!ses are p!lling apart from one another towards all fo!r +!arters of the globe% (here co!ld be no better symbol for the &ind of activity going on within the walls of that same b!ilding% (he Inationalities# were opposed to any &ind of glorification of A!strian history in the decoration of this b!ilding, insisting that s!ch wo!ld constit!te an offence to them and a provocation% !ch the same happened in 6ermany, where the 8eich-stag, b!ilt by /allot, was not dedicated to the 6erman people !ntil the cannons were th!ndering in the /orld /ar% And then it was dedicated by an inscription% I was not yet twenty years of age when I first entered the "alace on the Fran9ens-ring to watch and listen in the $hamber of ?ep!ties% (hat first e3perience aro!sed in me a profo!nd feeling of rep!gnance% I had always hated the "arliament, b!t not as an instit!tion in itself% L!ite the contrary% As one who cherished ideals of political freedom I co!ld not even imagine any other form of government% In the light of my attit!de towards the 1o!se of 1absb!rg I sho!ld then have considered it a crime against liberty and reason to thin& of any &ind of dictatorship as a possible form of government% A certain admiration which I had for the 4ritish "arliament contrib!ted towards the formation of this opinion% I became imb!ed with that feeling of admiration almost witho!t my being conscio!s of the effect of it thro!gh so

m!ch reading of newspapers while I was yet +!ite yo!ng% I co!ld not discard that admiration all in a moment% (he dignified way in which the 4ritish 1o!se of $ommons f!lfilled its f!nction impressed me greatly, than&s largely to the glowing terms in which the A!strian "ress reported these events% I !sed to as& myself whether there co!ld be any nobler form of government than self-government by the people% 4!t these considerations f!rnished the very motives of my hostility to the A!strian "arliament% (he form in which parliamentary government was here represented seemed !nworthy of its great prototype% (he following considerations also infl!enced my attit!de0 (he fate of the 6erman element in the A!strian 'tate depended on its position in "arliament% Mp to the time that !niversal s!ffrage by secret ballot was introd!ced the 6erman representatives had a ma,ority in the "arliament, tho!gh that ma,ority was not a very s!bstantial one% (his sit!ation gave ca!se for an3iety beca!se the 'ocial?emocratic fraction of the 6erman element co!ld not be relied !pon when national +!estions were at sta&e% In matters that were of critical concern for the 6erman element, the 'ocial-?emocrats always too& !p an anti-6erman stand beca!se they were afraid of losing their followers among the other national gro!ps% Already at that time before the introd!ction of !niversal s!ffrage - the 'ocial-?emocratic "arty co!ld no longer be considered as a 6erman "arty% (he introd!ction of !niversal s!ffrage p!t an end even to the p!rely n!merical predominance of the 6erman element% (he way was now clear for the f!rther Ide-6ermani9ation# of the A!strian 'tate% (he national instinct of self-preservation made it impossible for me to welcome a representative system in which the 6erman element was not really represented as s!ch, b!t always betrayed by the 'ocial-?emocratic fraction% Net all these, and many others, were defects which co!ld not be attrib!ted to the parliamentary system as s!ch, b!t rather to the A!strian 'tate in partic!lar% I still believed that if the 6erman ma,ority co!ld be restored in the representative body there wo!ld be no occasion to oppose s!ch a system as long as the old A!strian 'tate contin!ed to e3ist% '!ch was my general attit!de at the time when I first entered those sacred and contentio!s halls% For me they were sacred only beca!se of the radiant bea!ty of that ma,estic edifice% A 6ree& wonder on 6erman soil% 4!t I soon became enraged by the hideo!s spectacle that met my eyes% 'everal h!ndred representatives were there to disc!ss a problem of great economical importance and each representative had the right to have his say% (hat e3perience of a day was eno!gh to s!pply me with food for tho!ght d!ring several wee&s afterwards% (he intellect!al level of the debate was +!ite low% 'ome times the debaters did not ma&e themselves intelligible at all% 'everal of those present did not spea& 6erman b!t only their 'lav vernac!lars or dialects% (h!s I had the opport!nity of hearing with my own ears what I had been hitherto ac+!ainted with only thro!gh reading the newspapers% A t!rb!lent mass of people, all gestic!lating and bawling against one another, with a pathetic old man sha&ing his bell and ma&ing frantic efforts to call the 1o!se to a sense of its dignity by friendly appeals, e3hortations, and grave warnings% I co!ld not refrain from la!ghing% 'everal wee&s later I paid a second visit% (his time the 1o!se presented an entirely different pict!re, so m!ch so that one co!ld hardly recogni9e it as the same place% (he hall was practically empty% (hey were sleeping in the other rooms below% Only a few dep!ties were in their places, yawning in each other#s faces% One was speechifying% A dep!ty spea&er was in the chair% /hen he loo&ed ro!nd it was +!ite plain that he felt bored% (hen I began to reflect serio!sly on the whole thing% I went to the "arliament whenever I had any time to spare and watched the spectacle silently b!t attentively% I listened to the debates, as far as they co!ld be !nderstood, and I st!died the more or less intelligent feat!res of those Ielect# representatives of the vario!s nationalities which composed that motley 'tate% 6rad!ally I formed my own ideas abo!t what I saw% A year of s!ch +!iet observation was s!fficient to transform or completely destroy my former convictions as to the character of this parliamentary instit!tion% I no longer opposed merely the perverted form which the principle of parliamentary representation had ass!med in A!stria% *o% It had become impossible for me to accept the system in itself% Mp to that time I had believed that the disastro!s deficiencies of the A!strian "arliament were d!e to the lac& of a 6erman ma,ority, b!t now I recogni9ed that the instit!tion itself was wrong in its very essence and form% A n!mber of problems presented themselves before my mind% I st!died more closely the democratic principle of Idecision by the ma,ority vote#, and I scr!tini9ed no less caref!lly the intellect!al and moral worth of the gentlemen who, as the chosen representatives of the nation, were entr!sted with the tas& of ma&ing this instit!tion f!nction% (h!s it happened that at one and the same time I came to &now the instit!tion itself and those of whom it was composed% And it was th!s that, within the co!rse of a few years, I came to form a clear and vivid pict!re of the average type of that most lightly worshipped phenomenon of o!r time - the parliamentary dep!ty% (he pict!re of him which I then formed became deeply engraved on my mind and I have never altered it since, at least as far as essentials go% Once again these ob,ect-lessons ta&en from real life saved me from getting firmly entangled by a theory which at first sight seems so all!ring to many people, tho!gh that theory itself is a symptom of h!man decadence% ?emocracy, as practised in /estern 7!rope to-day, is the fore-r!nner of ar3ism% In fact, the latter wo!ld not be

conceivable witho!t the former% ?emocracy is the breeding-gro!nd in which the bacilli of the ar3ist world pest can grow and spread% 4y the introd!ction of parliamentarianism, democracy prod!ced an abortion of filth and fire FC, the creative fire of which, however, seems to have died o!t% I am more than gratef!l to Fate that this problem came to my notice when I was still in :ienna> for if I had been in 6ermany at that time I might easily have fo!nd only a s!perficial sol!tion% If I had been in 4erlin when I first discovered what an illogical thing this instit!tion is which we call "arliament, I might easily have gone to the other e3treme and believed - as many people believed, and apparently not witho!t good reason - that the salvation of the people and the 7mpire co!ld be sec!red only by restrengthening the principle of imperial a!thority% (hose who had this belief did not discern the tendencies of their time and were blind to the aspirations of the people% In A!stria one co!ld not be so easily misled% (here it was impossible to fall from one error into another% If the "arliament were worthless, the 1absb!rgs were worse> or at least not in the slightest degree better% (he problem was not solved by re,ecting the parliamentary system% Immediately the +!estion arose0 /hat then5 (o rep!diate and abolish the :ienna "arliament wo!ld have res!lted in leaving all power in the hands of the 1absb!rgs% For me, especially, that idea was impossible% 'ince this problem was specially diffic!lt in regard to A!stria, I was forced while still +!ite yo!ng to go into the essentials of the whole +!estion more thoro!ghly than I otherwise sho!ld have done% (he aspect of the sit!ation that first made the most stri&ing impression on me and gave me gro!nds for serio!s reflection was the manifest lac& of any individ!al responsibility in the representative body% (he parliament passes some acts or decree which may have the most devastating conse+!ences, yet nobody bears the responsibility for it% *obody can be called to acco!nt% For s!rely one cannot say that a $abinet discharges its responsibility when it retires after having bro!ght abo!t a catastrophe% Or can we say that the responsibility is f!lly discharged when a new coalition is formed or parliament dissolved5 $an the principle of responsibility mean anything else than the responsibility of a definite person5 Is it at all possible act!ally to call to acco!nt the leaders of a parliamentary government for any &ind of action which originated in the wishes of the whole m!ltit!de of dep!ties and was carried o!t !nder their orders or sanction5 Instead of developing constr!ctive ideas and plans, does the b!siness of a statesman consist in the art of ma&ing a whole pac& of bloc&heads !nderstand his pro,ects5 Is it his b!siness to entreat and coach them so that they will grant him their genero!s consent5 Is it an indispensable +!ality in a statesman that he sho!ld possess a gift of pers!asion commens!rate with the statesman#s ability to conceive great political meas!res and carry them thro!gh into practice5 ?oes it really prove that a statesman is incompetent if he sho!ld fail to win over a ma,ority of votes to s!pport his policy in an assembly which has been called together as the chance res!lt of an electoral system that is not always honestly administered% 1as there ever been a case where s!ch an assembly has worthily appraised a great political concept before that concept was p!t into practice and its greatness openly demonstrated thro!gh its s!ccess5 In this world is not the creative act of the geni!s always a protest against the inertia of the mass5 /hat shall the statesman do if he does not s!cceed in coa3ing the parliamentary m!ltit!de to give its consent to his policy5 'hall he p!rchase that consent for some sort of consideration5 Or, when confronted with the obstinate st!pidity of his fellow citi9ens, sho!ld he then refrain from p!shing forward the meas!res which he deems to be of vital necessity to the life of the nation5 'ho!ld he retire or remain in power5 In s!ch circ!mstances does not a man of character find himself face to face with an insol!ble contradiction between his own political insight on the one hand and, on the other, his moral integrity, or, better still, his sense of honesty5 /here can we draw the line between p!blic d!ty and personal hono!r5 !st not every gen!ine leader reno!nce the idea of degrading himself to the level of a political ,obber5 And, on the other hand, does not every ,obber feel the itch to Iplay politics#, seeing that the final responsibility will never rest with him personally b!t with an anonymo!s mass which can never be called to acco!nt for their deeds5 !st not o!r parliamentary principle of government by n!merical ma,ority necessarily lead to the destr!ction of the principle of leadership5 ?oes anybody honestly believe that h!man progress originates in the composite brain of the ma,ority and not in the brain of the individ!al personality5 Or may it be pres!med that for the f!t!re h!man civili9ation will be able to dispense with this as a condition of its e3istence5 4!t may it not be that, to-day, more than ever before, the creative brain of the individ!al is indispensable5 (he parliamentary principle of vesting legislative power in the decision of the ma,ority re,ects the a!thority of the individ!al and p!ts a n!merical +!ota of anonymo!s heads in its place% In doing so it contradicts the aristrocratic principle, which is a f!ndamental law of nat!re> b!t, of co!rse, we m!st remember that in this decadent era of o!rs the aristrocratic principle need not be tho!ght of as incorporated in the !pper ten tho!sand% (he devastating infl!ence of this parliamentary instit!tion might not easily be recogni9ed by those who read the

)ewish "ress, !nless the reader has learned how to thin& independently and e3amine the facts for himself% (his instit!tion is primarily responsible for the crowded inr!sh of mediocre people into the field of politics% $onfronted with s!ch a phenomenon, a man who is endowed with real +!alities of leadership will be tempted to refrain from ta&ing part in political life> beca!se !nder these circ!mstances the sit!ation does not call for a man who has a capacity for constr!ctive statesmanship b!t rather for a man who is capable of bargaining for the favo!r of the ma,ority% (h!s the sit!ation will appeal to small minds and will attract them accordingly% (he narrower the mental o!tloo& and the more meagre the amo!nt of &nowledge in a political ,obber, the more acc!rate is his estimate of his own political stoc&, and th!s he will be all the more inclined to appreciate a system which does not demand creative geni!s or even high-class talent> b!t rather that crafty &ind of sagacity which ma&es an efficient town cler&% Indeed, he val!es this &ind of small craftiness more than the political geni!s of a "ericles% '!ch a mediocrity does not even have to worry abo!t responsibility for what he does% From the beginning he &nows that whatever be the res!lts of his Istatesmanship# his end is already prescribed by the stars> he will one day have to clear o!t and ma&e room for another who is of similar mental calibre% For it is another sign of o!r decadent times that the n!mber of eminent statesmen grows according as the calibre of individ!al personality dwindles% (hat calibre will become smaller and smaller the more the individ!al politician has to depend !pon parliamentary ma,orities% A man of real political ability will ref!se to be the beadle for a bevy of footling cac&lers> and they in their t!rn, being the representatives of the ma,ority - which means the d!nder-headed m!ltit!de - hate nothing so m!ch as a s!perior brain% For footling dep!ties it is always +!ite a consolation to be led by a person whose intellect!al stat!re is on a level with their own% (h!s each one may have the opport!nity to shine in debate among s!ch compeers and, above all, each one feels that he may one day rise to the top% If "eter be boss to-day, then why not "a!l tomorrow 5 (his new invention of democracy is very closely connected with a pec!liar phenomenon which has recently spread to a pernicio!s e3tent, namely the cowardice of a large section of o!r so-called political leaders% /henever important decisions have to be made they always find themselves fort!nate in being able to hide behind the bac&s of what they call the ma,ority% In observing one of these political manip!lators one notices how he wheedles the ma,ority in order to get their sanction for whatever action he ta&es% 1e has to have accomplices in order to be able to shift responsibility to other sho!lders whenever it is opport!ne to do so% (hat is the main reason why this &ind of political activity is abhorrent to men of character and co!rage, while at the same time it attracts inferior types> for a person who is not willing to accept responsibility for his own actions, b!t is always see&ing to be covered by something, m!st be classed among the &naves and the rascals% If a national leader sho!ld come from that lower class of politicians the evil conse+!ences will soon manifest themselves% *obody will then have the co!rage to ta&e a decisive step% (hey will s!bmit to ab!se and defamation rather than pl!c& !p co!rage to ta&e a definite stand% And th!s nobody is left who is willing to ris& his position and his career, if needs be, in s!pport of a determined line of policy% One tr!th which m!st always be borne in mind is that the ma,ority can never replace the man% (he ma,ority represents not only ignorance b!t also cowardice% And ,!st as a h!ndred bloc&heads do not e+!al one man of wisdom, so a h!ndred poltroons are incapable of any political line of action that re+!ires moral strength and fortit!de% (he lighter the b!rden of responsibility on each individ!al leader, the greater will be the n!mber of those who, in spite of their sorry mediocrity, will feel the call to place their immortal energies at the disposal of the nation% (hey are so m!ch on the tip-toe of e3pectation that they find it hard to wait their t!rn% (hey stand in a long +!e!e, painf!lly and sadly co!nting the n!mber of those ahead of them and calc!lating the ho!rs !ntil they may event!ally come forward% (hey watch every change that ta&es place in the personnel of the office towards which their hopes are directed, and they are gratef!l for every scandal which removes one of the aspirants waiting ahead of them in the +!e!e% If somebody stic&s too long to his office stool they consider this as almost a breach of a sacred !nderstanding based on their m!t!al solidarity% (hey grow f!rio!s and give no peace !ntil that inconsiderate person is finally driven o!t and forced to hand over his cosy berth for p!blic disposal% After that he will have little chance of getting another opport!nity% Ms!ally those placemen who have been forced to give !p their posts p!sh themselves again into the waiting +!e!e !nless they are ho!nded away by the protestations of the other aspirants% (he res!lt of all this is that, in s!ch a 'tate, the s!ccession of s!dden changes in p!blic positions and p!blic offices has a very dis+!ieting effect in general, which may easily lead to disaster when an adverse crisis arises% It is not only the ignorant and the incompetent person who may fall victim to those parliamentary conditions, for the gen!ine leader may be affected ,!st as m!ch as the others, if not more so, whenever Fate has chanced to place a capable man in the position of leader% Let the s!perior +!ality of s!ch a leader be once recogni9ed and the res!lt will be that a ,oint front will be organi9ed against him, partic!larly if that leader, tho!gh not coming from their ran&s, sho!ld fall into the habit of intermingling with these ill!strio!s nincompoops on their own level% (hey want to have only their own company and will +!ic&ly ta&e a hostile attit!de towards any man who might show himself obvio!sly above and beyond them when he mingles in their ran&s% (heir instinct, which is so blind in other

directions, is very sharp in this partic!lar% (he inevitable res!lt is that the intellect!al level of the r!ling class sin&s steadily% One can easily forecast how m!ch the nation and 'tate are bo!nd to s!ffer from s!ch a condition of affairs, provided one does not belong to that same class of Ileaders#% (he parliamentary rOgime in the old A!stria was the very archetype of the instit!tion as I have described it% (ho!gh the A!strian "rime inister was appointed by the 2ing-7mperor, this act of appointment merely gave practical effect to the will of the parliament% (he h!c&stering and bargaining that went on in regard to every ministerial position showed all the typical mar&s of /estern ?emocracy% (he res!lts that followed were in &eeping with the principles applied% (he intervals between the replacement of one person by another grad!ally became shorter, finally ending !p in a wild relay chase% /ith each change the +!ality of the Istatesman# in +!estion deteriorated, !ntil finally only the petty type of political h!c&ster remained% In s!ch people the +!alities of statesmanship were meas!red and val!ed according to the adroitness with which they pieced together one coalition after another> in other words, their craftiness in manip!lating the pettiest political transactions, which is the only &ind of practical activity s!ited to the aptit!des of these representatives% In this sphere :ienna was the school which offered the most impressive e3amples% Another feat!re that engaged my attention +!ite as m!ch as the feat!res I have already spo&en of was the contrast between the talents and &nowledge of these representatives of the people on the one hand and, on the other, the nat!re of the tas&s they had to face% /illingly or !nwillingly, one co!ld not help thin&ing serio!sly of the narrow intellect!al o!tloo& of these chosen representatives of the vario!s constit!ent nationalities, and one co!ld not avoid pondering on the methods thro!gh which these noble fig!res in o!r p!blic life were first discovered% It was worth while to ma&e a thoro!gh st!dy and e3amination of the way in which the real talents of these gentlemen were devoted to the service of their co!ntry> in other words, to analyse thoro!ghly the technical proced!re of their activities% (he whole spectacle of parliamentary life became more and more desolate the more one penetrated into its intimate str!ct!re and st!died the persons and principles of the system in a spirit of r!thless ob,ectivity% Indeed, it is very necessary to be strictly ob,ective in the st!dy of the instit!tion whose sponsors tal& of Iob,ectivity# in every other sentence as the only fair basis of e3amination and ,!dgment% If one st!died these gentlemen and the laws of their stren!o!s e3istence the res!lts were s!rprising% (here is no other principle which t!rns o!t to be +!ite so ill-conceived as the parliamentary principle, if we e3amine it ob,ectively% In o!r e3amination of it we may pass over the methods according to which the election of the representatives ta&es place, as well as the ways which bring them into office and bestow new titles on them% It is +!ite evident that only to a tiny degree are p!blic wishes or p!blic necessities satisfied by the manner in which an election ta&es place> for everybody who properly estimates the political intelligence of the masses can easily see that this is not s!fficiently developed to enable them to form general political ,!dgments on their own acco!nt, or to select the men who might be competent to carry o!t their ideas in practice% /hatever definition we may give of the term Ip!blic opinion#, only a very small part of it originates from personal e3perience or individ!al insight% (he greater portion of it res!lts from the manner in which p!blic matters have been presented to the people thro!gh an overwhelmingly impressive and persistent system of Iinformation#% In the religio!s sphere the profession of a denominational belief is largely the res!lt of ed!cation, while the religio!s yearning itself sl!mbers in the so!l> so too the political opinions of the masses are the final res!lt of infl!ences systematically operating on h!man sentiment and intelligence in virt!e of a method which is applied sometimes with almost-incredible thoro!ghness and perseverance% 4y far the most effective branch of political ed!cation, which in this connection is best e3pressed by the word Ipropaganda#, is carried on by the "ress% (he "ress is the chief means employed in the process of political Ienlightenment#% It represents a &ind of school for ad!lts% (his ed!cational activity, however, is not in the hands of the 'tate b!t in the cl!tches of powers which are partly of a very inferior character% /hile still a yo!ng man in :ienna I had e3cellent opport!nities for coming to &now the men who owned this machine for mass instr!ction, as well as those who s!pplied it with the ideas it distrib!ted% At first I was +!ite s!rprised when I reali9ed how little time was necessary for this dangero!s 6reat "ower within the 'tate to prod!ce a certain belief among the p!blic> and in doing so the gen!ine will and convictions of the p!blic were often completely misconstr!ed% It too& the "ress only a few days to transform some ridic!lo!sly trivial matter into an iss!e of national importance, while vital problems were completely ignored or filched and hidden away from p!blic attention% (he "ress s!cceeded in the magical art of prod!cing names from nowhere within the co!rse of a few wee&s% (hey made it appear that the great hopes of the masses were bo!nd !p with those names% And so they made those names more pop!lar than any man of real ability co!ld ever hope to be in a long lifetime% All this was done, despite the fact that s!ch names were !tterly !n&nown and indeed had never been heard of even !p to a month before the "ress p!blicly embla9oned them% At the same time old and tried fig!res in the political and other spheres of life +!ic&ly

faded from the p!blic memory and were forgotten as if they were dead, tho!gh still healthy and in the en,oyment of their f!ll vig!o!r% Or sometimes s!ch men were so vilely ab!sed that it loo&ed as if their names wo!ld soon stand as permanent symbols of the worst &ind of baseness% In order to estimate properly the really pernicio!s infl!ence which the "ress can e3ercise one had to st!dy this infamo!s )ewish method whereby hono!rable and decent people were besmirched with m!d and filth, in the form of low ab!se and slander, from h!ndreds and h!ndreds of +!arters sim!ltaneo!sly, as if commanded by some magic form!la% (hese highway robbers wo!ld grab at anything which might serve their evil ends% (hey wo!ld po&e their noses into the most intimate family affairs and wo!ld not rest !ntil they had sniffed o!t some petty item which co!ld be !sed to destroy the rep!tation of their victim% 4!t if the res!lt of all this sniffing sho!ld be that nothing derogatory was discovered in the private or p!blic life of the victim, they contin!ed to h!rl ab!se at him, in the belief that some of their animadversions wo!ld stic& even tho!gh ref!ted a tho!sand times% In most cases it finally t!rned o!t impossible for the victim to contin!e his defence, beca!se the acc!ser wor&ed together with so many accomplices that his slanders were re-echoed interminably% 4!t these slanderers wo!ld never own that they were acting from motives which infl!ence the common r!n of h!manity or are !nderstood by them% Oh, no% (he sco!ndrel who defamed his contemporaries in this villaino!s way wo!ld crown himself with a halo of heroic probity fashioned of !nct!o!s phraseology and twaddle abo!t his Id!ties as a ,o!rnalist# and other mo!ldy nonsense of that &ind% /hen these c!ttle-fishes gathered together in large shoals at meetings and congresses they wo!ld give o!t a lot of slimy tal& abo!t a special &ind of hono!r which they called the professional hono!r of the ,o!rnalist% (hen the assembled species wo!ld bow their respects to one another% (hese are the &ind of beings that fabricate more than two-thirds of what is called p!blic opinion, from the foam of which the parliamentary Aphrodite event!ally arises% 'everal vol!mes wo!ld be needed if one were to give an ade+!ate acco!nt of the whole proced!re and f!lly describe all its hollow fallacies% 4!t if we pass over the details and loo& at the prod!ct itself while it is in operation I thin& this alone will be s!fficient to open the eyes of even the most innocent and cred!lo!s person, so that he may recogni9e the abs!rdity of this instit!tion by loo&ing at it ob,ectively% In order to reali9e how this h!man aberration is as harmf!l as it is abs!rd, the test and easiest method is to compare democratic parliamentarianism with a gen!ine 6erman democracy% (he remar&able characteristic of the parliamentary form of democracy is the fact that a n!mber of persons, let !s say five h!ndred - incl!ding, in recent time, women also - are elected to parliament and invested with a!thority to give final ,!dgment on anything and everything% In practice they alone are the governing body> for altho!gh they may appoint a $abinet, which seems o!twardly to direct the affairs of state, this $abinet has not a real e3istence of its own% In reality the so-called 6overnment cannot do anything against the will of the assembly% It can never be called to acco!nt for anything, since the right of decision is not vested in the $abinet b!t in the parliamentary ma,ority% (he $abinet always f!nctions only as the e3ec!tor of the will of the ma,ority% Its political ability can be ,!dged only according to how far it s!cceeds in ad,!sting itself to the will of the ma,ority or in pers!ading the ma,ority to agree to its proposals% 4!t this means that it m!st descend from the level of a real governing power to that of a mendicant who has to beg the approval of a ma,ority that may be got together for the time being% Indeed, the chief preocc!pation of the $abinet m!st be to sec!re for itself, in the case of# each individ!al meas!re, the favo!r of the ma,ority then in power or, failing that, to form a new ma,ority that will be more favo!rably disposed% If it sho!ld s!cceed in either of these efforts it may go on Igoverning# for a little while% If it sho!ld fail to win or form a ma,ority it m!st retire% (he +!estion whether its policy as s!ch has been right or wrong does not matter at all% (hereby all responsibility is abolished in practice% (o what conse+!ences s!ch a state of affairs can lead may easily be !nderstood from the following simple considerations0 (hose five h!ndred dep!ties who have been elected by the people come from vario!s dissimilar callings in life and show very varying degrees of political capacity, with the res!lt that the whole combination is dis,ointed and sometimes presents +!ite a sorry pict!re% '!rely nobody believes that these chosen representatives of the nation are the choice spirits or first-class intellects% *obody, I hope, is foolish eno!gh to pretend that h!ndreds of statesmen can emerge from papers placed in the ballot bo3 by electors who are anything else b!t averagely intelligent% (he abs!rd notion that men of geni!s are born o!t of !niversal s!ffrage cannot be too strongly rep!diated% In the first place, those times may be really called blessed when one gen!ine statesman ma&es his appearance among a people% '!ch statesmen do not appear all at once in h!ndreds or more% 'econdly, among the broad masses there is instinctively a definite antipathy towards every o!tstanding geni!s% (here is a better chance of seeing a camel pass thro!gh the eye of a needle than of seeing a really great man Idiscovered# thro!gh an election% /hatever has happened in history above the level of the average of the broad p!blic has mostly been d!e to the driving force of an individ!al personality% 4!t here five h!ndred persons of less than modest intellect!al +!alities pass ,!dgment on the most important problems affecting the nation% (hey form governments which in t!rn learn to win the approval of the ill!strio!s

assembly for every legislative step that may be ta&en, which means that the policy to be carried o!t is act!ally the policy of the five h!ndred% And indeed, generally spea&ing, the policy bears the stamp of its origin% 4!t let !s pass over the intellect!al +!alities of these representatives and as& what is the nat!re of the tas& set before them% If we consider the fact that the problems which have to be disc!ssed and solved belong to the most varied and diverse fields we can very well reali9e how inefficient a governing system m!st be which entr!sts the right of decision to a mass assembly in which only very few possess the &nowledge and e3perience s!ch as wo!ld +!alify them to deal with the matters that have to be settled% (he most important economic meas!res are s!bmitted to a trib!nal in which not more than one-tenth of the members have st!died the elements of economics% (his means that final a!thority is vested in men who are !tterly devoid of any preparatory training which might ma&e them competent to decide on the +!estions at iss!e% (he same holds tr!e of every other problem% It is always a ma,ority of ignorant and incompetent people who decide on each meas!re> for the composition of the instit!tion does not vary, while the problems to be dealt with come from the most varied spheres of p!blic life% An intelligent ,!dgment wo!ld be possible only if different dep!ties had the a!thority to deal with different iss!es% It is o!t of the +!estion to thin& that the same people are fitted to decide on transport +!estions as well as, let !s say, on +!estions of foreign policy, !nless each of them be a !niversal geni!s% 4!t scarcely more than one geni!s appears in a cent!ry% 1ere we are scarcely ever dealing with real brains, b!t only with dilettanti who are as narrow-minded as they are conceited and arrogant, intellect!al demi-mondes of the worst &ind% (his is why these hono!rable gentlemen show s!ch astonishing levity in disc!ssing and deciding on matters that wo!ld demand the most painsta&ing consideration even from great minds% eas!res of momento!s importance for the f!t!re e3istence of the 'tate are framed and disc!ssed in an atmosphere more s!ited to the cardtable% Indeed the latter s!ggests a m!ch more fitting occ!pation for these gentlemen than that of deciding the destinies of a people% Of co!rse it wo!ld be !nfair to ass!me that each member in s!ch a parliament was endowed by nat!re with s!ch a small sense of responsibility% (hat is o!t of the +!estion% 4!t this system, by forcing the individ!al to pass ,!dgment on +!estions for which he is not competent grad!ally debases his moral character% *obody will have the co!rage to say0 H6entlemen, I am afraid we &now nothing abo!t what we are tal&ing abo!t% I for one have no competency in the matter at all%H Anyhow if s!ch a declaration were made it wo!ld not change matters very m!ch> for s!ch o!tspo&en honesty wo!ld not be !nderstood% (he person who made the declaration wo!ld be deemed an hono!rable ass who o!ght not to be allowed to spoil the game% (hose who have a &nowledge of h!man nat!re &now that nobody li&es to be considered a fool among his associates> and in certain circles honesty is ta&en as an inde3 of st!pidity% (h!s it happens that a nat!rally !pright man, once he finds himself elected to parliament, may event!ally be ind!ced by the force of circ!mstances to ac+!iesce in a general line of cond!ct which is base in itself and amo!nts to a betrayal of the p!blic tr!st% (hat feeling that if the individ!al refrained from ta&ing part in a certain decision his attit!de wo!ld not alter the sit!ation in the least, destroys every real sense of hono!r which might occasionally aro!se the conscience of one person or another% Finally, the otherwise !pright dep!ty will s!cceed in pers!ading himself that he is by no means the worst of the lot and that by ta&ing part in a certain line of action he may prevent something worse from happening% A co!nter arg!ment may be p!t forward here% It may be said that of co!rse the individ!al member may not have the &nowledge which is re+!isite for the treatment of this or that +!estion, yet his attit!de towards it is ta&en on the advice of his "arty as the g!iding a!thority in each political matter> and it may f!rther be said that the "arty sets !p special committees of e3perts who have even more than the re+!isite &nowledge for dealing with the +!estions placed before them% At first sight, that arg!ment seems so!nd% 4!t then another +!estion arises - namely, why are five h!ndred persons elected if only a few have the wisdom which is re+!ired to deal with the more important problems5 It is not the aim of o!r modern democratic parliamentary system to bring together an assembly of intelligent and well-informed dep!ties% *ot at all% (he aim rather is to bring together a gro!p of nonentities who are dependent on others for their views and who can be all the more easily led, the narrower the mental o!tloo& of each individ!al is% (hat is the only way in which a party policy, according to the evil meaning it has to-day, can be p!t into effect% And by this method alone it is possible for the wirep!ller, who e3ercises the real control, to remain in the dar&, so that personally he can never be bro!ght to acco!nt for his actions% For !nder s!ch circ!mstances none of the decisions ta&en, no matter how disastro!s they may t!rn o!t for the nation as a whole, can be laid at the door of the individ!al whom everybody &nows to be the evil geni!s responsible for the whole affair% All responsibility is shifted to the sho!lders of the "arty as a whole% In practice no act!al responsibility remains% For responsibility arises only from personal d!ty and not from the obligations that rest with a parliamentary assembly of empty tal&ers% (he parliamentary instit!tion attracts people of the badger type, who do not li&e the open light% *o !pright man,

who is ready to accept personal responsibility for his acts, will be attracted to s!ch an instit!tion% (hat is the reason why this brand of democracy has become a tool in the hand of that race which, beca!se of the inner p!rposes it wishes to attain, m!st sh!n the open light, as it has always done and always will do% Only a )ew can praise an instit!tion which is as corr!pt and false as himself% As a contrast to this &ind of democracy we have the 6erman democracy, which is a tr!e democracy> for here the leader is freely chosen and is obliged to accept f!ll responsibility for all his actions and omissions% (he problems to be dealt with are not p!t to the vote of the ma,ority> b!t they are decided !pon by the individ!al, and as a g!arantee of responsibility for those decisions he pledges all he has in the world and even his life% (he ob,ection may be raised here that !nder s!ch conditions it wo!ld be very diffic!lt to find a man who wo!ld be ready to devote himself to so fatef!l a tas&% (he answer to that ob,ection is as follows0 /e than& 6od that the inner spirit of o!r 6erman democracy will of itself prevent the chance careerist, who may be intellect!ally worthless and a moral twister, from coming by devio!s ways to a position in which he may govern his fellow-citi9ens% (he fear of !nderta&ing s!ch far-reaching responsibilities, !nder 6erman democracy, will scare off the ignorant and the fec&less% 4!t sho!ld it happen that s!ch a person might creep in s!rreptitio!sly it will be easy eno!gh to identify him and apostrophi9e him r!thlessly% somewhat th!s0 H4e off, yo! sco!ndrel% ?on#t soil these steps with yo!r feet> beca!se these are the steps that lead to the portals of the "antheon of 1istory, and they are not meant for place-h!nters b!t for men of noble character%H '!ch were the views I formed after two years of attendance at the sessions of the :iennese "arliament% (hen I went there no more% (he parliamentary regime became one of the ca!ses why the strength of the 1absb!rg 'tate steadily declined d!ring the last years of its e3istence% (he more the predominance of the 6erman element was whittled away thro!gh parliamentary proced!re, the more prominent became the system of playing off one of the vario!s constit!ent nationalities against the other% In the Imperial "arliament it was always the 6erman element that s!ffered thro!gh the system, which meant that the res!lts were detrimental to the 7mpire as a whole> for at the close of the cent!ry even the most simple-minded people co!ld recogni9e that the cohesive forces within the ?!al onarchy no longer s!fficed to co!nterbalance the separatist tendencies of the provincial nationalities% On the contraryJ (he meas!res which the 'tate adopted for its own maintenance became more and more mean spirited and in a li&e degree the general disrespect for the 'tate increased% *ot only 1!ngary b!t also the vario!s 'lav provinces grad!ally ceased to identify themselves with the monarchy which embraced them all, and accordingly they did not feel its wea&ness as in any way detrimental to themselves% (hey rather welcomed those manifestations of senile decay% (hey loo&ed forward to the final dissol!tion of the 'tate, and not to its recovery% (he complete collapse was still forestalled in "arliament by the h!miliating concessions that were made to every &ind of import!nate demands, at the cost of the 6erman element% (hro!gho!t the co!ntry the defence of the 'tate rested on playing off the vario!s nationalities against one another% 4!t the general trend of this development was directed against the 6ermans% 7specially since the right of s!ccession to the throne conferred certain infl!ence on the Archd!&e Fran9 Ferdinand, the policy of increasing the power of the $9echs was carried o!t systematically from the !pper grades of the administration down to the lower% /ith all the means at his command the heir to the ?!al onarchy personally f!rthered the policy that aimed at eliminating the infl!ence of the 6erman element, or at least he acted as protector of that policy% 4y the !se of 'tate officials as tools, p!rely 6erman districts were grad!ally b!t decisively bro!ght within the danger 9one of the mi3ed lang!ages% 7ven in Lower A!stria this process began to ma&e headway with a constantly increasing tempo and :ienna was loo&ed !pon by the $9echs as their biggest city% In the family circle of this new 1absb!rger the $9ech lang!age was favo!red% (he wife of the Archd!&e had formerly been a $9ech $o!ntess and was wedded to the "rince by a morganatic marriage% 'he came from an environment where hostility to the 6ermans had been traditional% (he leading idea in the mind of the Archd!&e was to establish a 'lav 'tate in $entral 7!rope, which was to be constr!cted on a p!rely $atholic basis, so as to serve as a b!lwar& against Orthodo3 8!ssia% As had happened often in 1absb!rg history, religion was th!s e3ploited to serve a p!rely political policy, and in this case a fatal policy, at least as far as 6erman interests were concerned% (he res!lt was lamentable in many respects% *either the 1o!se of 1absb!rg nor the $atholic $h!rch received the reward which they e3pected% 1absb!rg lost the throne and the $h!rch lost a great 'tate% 4y employing religio!s motives in the service of politics, a spirit was aro!sed which the instigators of that policy had never tho!ght possible% From the attempt to e3terminate 6ermanism in the old monarchy by every available means arose the "an-6erman ovement in A!stria, as a response% In the #eighties of the last cent!ry anchester Liberalism, which was )ewish in its f!ndamental ideas, had reached the 9enith of its infl!ence in the ?!al onarchy, or had already passed that point% (he reaction which set in did not

arise from social b!t from nationalistic tendencies, as was always the case in the old A!stria% (he instinct of selfpreservation drove the 6erman element to defend itself energetically% 7conomic considerations only slowly began to gain an important infl!ence> b!t they were of secondary concern% 4!t of the general political chaos two party organi9ations emerged% (he one was more of a national, and the other more of a social, character> b!t both were highly interesting and instr!ctive for the f!t!re% After the war of 1;FF, which had res!lted in the h!miliation of A!stria, the 1o!se of 1absb!rg contemplated a revanche on the battlefield% Only the tragic end of the 7mperor a3imilian of e3ico prevented a still closer collaboration with France% (he chief blame for a3imilian#s disastro!s e3pedition was attrib!ted to *apoleon III and the fact that the Frenchman left him in the l!rch aro!sed a general feeling of indignation% Net the 1absb!rgs were still lying in wait for their opport!nity% If the war of 1;G<-G1 had not been s!ch a sing!lar tri!mph, the :iennese $o!rt might have chanced the game of blood in order to get its revenge for 'adowa% 4!t when the first reports arrived from the Franco-6erman battlefield, which, tho!gh tr!e, seemed mirac!lo!s and almost incredible, the Imost wise# of all monarchs recogni9ed that the moment was inopport!ne and tried to accept the !nfavo!rable sit!ation with as good a grace as possible% (he heroic conflict of those two years B1;G<-G1C prod!ced a still greater miracle> for with the 1absb!rgs the change of attit!de never came from an inner heartfelt !rge b!t only from the press!re of circ!mstances% (he 6erman people of the 7ast ar&, however, were entranced by the tri!mphant glory of the newly established 6erman 7mpire and were profo!ndly moved when they saw the dream of their fathers res!rgent in a magnificent reality% For - let !s ma&e no mista&e abo!t it - the tr!e 6erman-A!strian reali9ed from this time onward, that 2RniggrEt9 was the tragic, tho!gh necessary, pre-condition for the re-establishment of an 7mpire which sho!ld no longer be b!rdened with the palsy of the old alliance and which indeed had no share in that morbid decay% Above all, the 6erman-A!strian had come to feel in the very depths of his own being that the historical mission of the 1o!se of 1absb!rg had come to an end and that the new 7mpire co!ld choose only an 7mperor who was of heroic mo!ld and was therefore worthy to wear the I$rown of the 8hine#% It was right and ,!st that ?estiny sho!ld be praised for having chosen a scion of that 1o!se of which Frederic& the 6reat had in past times given the nation an elevated and resplendent symbol for all time to come% After the great war of 1;G<-G1 the 1o!se of 1absb!rg set to wor& with all its determination to e3terminate the dangero!s 6erman element - abo!t whose inner feelings and attit!de there co!ld be no do!bt - slowly b!t deliberately% I !se the word e3terminate, beca!se that alone e3presses what m!st have been the final res!lt of the 'lavophile policy% (hen it was that the fire of rebellion bla9ed !p among the people whose e3termination had been decreed% (hat fire was s!ch as had never been witnessed in modern 6erman history% For the first time nationalists and patriots were transformed into rebels% *ot rebels against the nation or the 'tate as s!ch b!t rebels against that form of government which they were convinced, wo!ld inevitably bring abo!t the r!in of their own people% For the first time in modern history the traditional dynastic patriotism and national love of fatherland and people were in open conflict% It was to the merit of the "an-6erman movement in A!stria d!ring the closing decade of the last cent!ry that it pointed o!t clearly and !ne+!ivocally that a 'tate is entitled to demand respect and protection for its a!thority only when s!ch a!thority is administered in accordance with the interests of the nation, or at least not in a manner detrimental to those interests% (he a!thority of the 'tate can never be an end in itself> for, if that were so, any &ind of tyranny wo!ld be inviolable and sacred% If a government !ses the instr!ments of power in its hands for the p!rpose of leading a people to r!in, then rebellion is not only the right b!t also the d!ty of every individ!al citi9en% (he +!estion of whether and when s!ch a sit!ation e3ists cannot be answered by theoretical dissertations b!t only by the e3ercise of force, and it is s!ccess that decides the iss!e% 7very government, even tho!gh it may be the worst possible and even tho!gh it may have betrayed the nation#s tr!st in tho!sands of ways, will claim that its d!ty is to !phold the a!thority of the 'tate% Its adversaries, who are fighting for national self-preservation, m!st !se the same weapons which the government !ses if they are to prevail against s!ch a r!le and sec!re their own freedom and independence% (herefore the conflict will be fo!ght o!t with Ilegal# means as long as the power which is to be overthrown !ses them> b!t the ins!rgents will not hesitate to apply illegal means if the oppressor himself employs them% 6enerally spea&ing, we m!st not forget that the highest aim of h!man e3istence is not the maintenance of a 'tate of 6overnment b!t rather the conservation of the race% If the race is in danger of being oppressed or even e3terminated the +!estion of legality is only of secondary importance% (he established power may in s!ch a case employ only those means which are recogni9ed as Ilegal#% yet the instinct of self-preservation on the part of the oppressed will always ,!stify, to the highest degree, the employment of all possible reso!rces% Only on the recognition of this principle was it possible for those str!ggles to be carried thro!gh, of which history

f!rnishes magnificent e3amples in ab!ndance, against foreign bondage or oppression at home% 1!man rights are above the rights of the 'tate% 4!t if a people be defeated in the str!ggle for its h!man rights this means that its weight has proved too light in the scale of ?estiny to have the l!c& of being able to end!re in this terrestrial world% (he world is not there to be possessed by the faint-hearted races% A!stria affords a very clear and stri&ing e3ample of how easy it is for tyranny to hide its head !nder the cloa& of what is called Ilegality#% (he legal e3ercise of power in the 1absb!rg 'tate was then based on the anti-6erman attit!de of the parliament, with its non-6erman ma,orities, and on the dynastic 1o!se, which was also hostile to the 6erman element% (he whole a!thority of the 'tate was incorporated in these two factors% (o attempt to alter the lot of the 6erman element thro!gh these two factors wo!ld have been senseless% (hose who advised the Ilegal# way as the only possible way, and also obedience to the 'tate a!thority, co!ld offer no resistance> beca!se a policy of resistance co!ld not have been p!t into effect thro!gh legal meas!res% (o follow the advice of the legalist co!nsellors wo!ld have meant the inevitable r!in of the 6erman element within the onarchy, and this disaster wo!ld not have ta&en long to come% (he 6erman element has act!ally been saved only beca!se the 'tate as s!ch collapsed% (he spectacled theorist wo!ld have given his life for his doctrine rather than for his people% 4eca!se man has made laws he s!bse+!ently comes to thin& that he e3ists for the sa&e of the laws% A great service rendered by the pan-6erman movement then was that it abolished all s!ch nonsense, tho!gh the doctrinaire theorists and other fetish worshippers were shoc&ed% /hen the 1absb!rgs attempted to come to close +!arters with the 6erman element, by the employment of all the means of attac& which they had at their command, the "an-6erman "arty hit o!t r!thlessly against the Iill!strio!s# dynasty% (his "arty was the first to probe into and e3pose the corr!pt condition of the 'tate> and in doing so they opened the eyes of h!ndreds of tho!sands% (o have liberated the high ideal of love for one#s co!ntry from the embrace of this deplorable dynasty was one of the great services rendered by the "an-6erman movement% /hen that "arty first made its appearance it sec!red a large following - indeed, the movement threatened to become almost an avalanche% 4!t the first s!ccesses were not maintained% At the time I came to :ienna the pan-6erman "arty had been eclipsed by the $hristian-'ocialist "arty, which had come into power in the meantime% Indeed, the "an-6erman "arty had s!n& to a level of almost complete insignificance% (he rise and decline of the "an-6erman movement on the one hand and the marvello!s progress of the $hristian'ocialist "arty on the other, became a classic ob,ect of st!dy for me, and as s!ch they played an important part in the development of my own views% /hen I came to :ienna all my sympathies were e3cl!sively with the "an-6erman ovement% I was ,!st as m!ch impressed by the fact that they had the co!rage to sho!t 1eil 1ohen9ollern as I re,oiced at their determination to consider themselves an integral part of the 6erman 7mpire, from which they were separated only provisionally% (hey never missed an opport!nity to e3plain their attit!de in p!blic, which raised my enth!siasm and confidence% (o avow one#s principles p!blicly on every problem that concerned 6ermanism, and never to ma&e any compromises, seemed to me the only way of saving o!r people% /hat I co!ld not !nderstand was how this movement bro&e down so soon after s!ch a magnificent start> and it was no less incomprehensible that the $hristian-'ocialists sho!ld gain s!ch tremendo!s power within s!ch a short time% (hey had ,!st reached the pinnacle of their pop!larity% /hen I began to compare those two movements Fate placed before me the best means of !nderstanding the ca!ses of this p!99ling problem% (he action of Fate in this case was hastened by my own straitened circ!mstances% I shall begin my analysis with an acco!nt of the two men who m!st be regarded as the fo!nders and leaders of the two movements% (hese were 6eorge von 'chRnerer and ?r% 2arl L!eger% As far as personality goes, both were far above the level and stat!re of the so-called parliamentary fig!res% (hey lived lives of immac!late and irreproachable probity amidst the miasma of all-ro!nd political corr!ption% "ersonally I first li&ed the "an-6erman representative, 'chRnerer, and it was only afterwards and grad!ally that I felt an e+!al li&ing for the $hristian-'ocialist leader% /hen I compared their respective abilities 'chRnerer seemed to me a better and more profo!nd thin&er on f!ndamental problems% 1e foresaw the inevitable downfall of the A!strian 'tate more clearly and acc!rately than anyone else% If this warning in regard to the 1absb!rg 7mpire had been heeded in 6ermany the disastro!s world war, which involved 6ermany against the whole of 7!rope, wo!ld never have ta&en place% 4!t tho!gh 'chRnerer s!cceeded in penetrating to the essentials of a problem he was very often m!ch mista&en in his ,!dgment of men% And herein lay ?r% L!eger#s special talent% 1e had a rare gift of insight into h!man nat!re and he was very caref!l not to ta&e men as something better than they were in reality% 1e based his plans on the practical possibilities which h!man life offered him, whereas 'chRnerer had only little discrimination in that respect% All ideas that this "an6erman had were right in the abstract, b!t he did not have the forcef!lness or !nderstanding necessary to p!t his

ideas across to the broad masses% 1e was not able to form!late them so that they co!ld be easily grasped by the masses, whose powers of comprehension are limited and will always remain so% (herefore all 'chRnerer#s &nowledge was only the wisdom of a prophet and he never co!ld s!cceed in having it p!t into practice% (his lac& of insight into h!man nat!re led him to form a wrong estimate of the forces behind certain movements and the inherent strength of old instit!tions% 'chRnerer indeed reali9ed that the problems he had to deal with were in the nat!re of a Weltanschhauung> b!t he did not !nderstand that only the broad masses of a nation can ma&e s!ch convictions prevail, which are almost of a religio!s nat!re% Mnfort!nately he !nderstood only very imperfectly how feeble is the fighting spirit of the so-called bo!rgeoisie% (hat wea&ness is d!e to their b!siness interests, which individ!als are too m!ch afraid of ris&ing and which therefore deter them from ta&ing action% And, generally spea&ing, a Weltanschhauung can have no prospect of s!ccess !nless the broad masses declare themselves ready to act as its standard-bearers and to fight on its behalf wherever and to whatever e3tent that may be necessary% (his fail!re to !nderstand the importance of the lower strata of the pop!lation res!lted in a very inade+!ate concept of the social problem% In all this ?r% L!eger was the opposite of 'chRnerer% 1is profo!nd &nowledge of h!man nat!re enabled him to form a correct estimate of the vario!s social forces and it saved him from !nder-rating the power of e3isting instit!tions% And it was perhaps this very +!ality which enabled him to !tili9e those instit!tions as a means to serve the p!rposes of his policy% 1e saw only too clearly that, in o!r epoch, the political fighting power of the !pper classes is +!ite insignificant and not at all capable of fighting for a great new movement !ntil the tri!mph of that movement be sec!red% (h!s he devoted the greatest part of his political activity to the tas& of winning over those sections of the pop!lation whose e3istence was in danger and fostering the militant spirit in them rather than attempting to paralyse it% 1e was also +!ic& to adopt all available means for winning the s!pport of long-established instit!tions, so as to be able to derive the greatest possible advantage for his movement from those old so!rces of power% (h!s it was that, first of all, he chose as the social basis of his new "arty that middle class which was threatened with e3tinction% In this way he sec!red a solid following which was willing to ma&e great sacrifices and had good fighting stamina% 1is e3tremely wise attit!de towards the $atholic $h!rch rapidly won over the yo!nger clergy in s!ch large n!mbers that the old $lerical "arty was forced to retire from the field of action or else, which was the wiser co!rse, ,oin the new "arty, in the hope of grad!ally winning bac& one position after another% 4!t it wo!ld be a serio!s in,!stice to the man if we were to regard this as his essential characteristic% For he possessed the +!alities of an able tactician, and had the tr!e geni!s of a great reformer> b!t all these were limited by his e3act perception of the possibilities at hand and also of his own capabilities% (he aims which this really eminent man decided to p!rs!e were intensely practical% 1e wished to con+!er :ienna, the heart of the onarchy% It was from :ienna that the last p!lses of life beat thro!gh the diseased and worn-o!t body of the decrepit 7mpire% If the heart co!ld be made healthier the others parts of the body were bo!nd to revive% (hat idea was correct in principle> b!t the time within which it co!ld be applied in practice was strictly limited% And that was the man#s wea& point% 1is achievements as 4!rgomaster of the $ity of :ienna are immortal, in the best sense of the word% 4!t all that co!ld not save the onarchy% It came too late% 1is rival, 'chRnerer, saw this more clearly% /hat ?r% L!eger !ndertoo& to p!t into practice t!rned o!t marvello!sly s!ccessf!l% 4!t the res!lts which he e3pected to follow these achievements did not come% 'chRnerer did not attain the ends he had proposed to himself> b!t his fears were reali9ed, alas, in a terrible fashion% (h!s both these men failed to attain their f!rther ob,ectives% L!eger co!ld not save A!stria and 'chRnerer co!ld not prevent the downfall of the 6erman people in A!stria% (o st!dy the ca!ses of fail!re in the case of these two parties is to learn a lesson that is highly instr!ctive for o!r own epoch% (his is specially !sef!l for my friends, beca!se in many points the circ!mstances of o!r own day are similar to those of that time% (herefore s!ch a lesson may help !s to g!ard against the mista&es which bro!ght one of those movements to an end and rendered the other barren of res!lts% In my opinion, the wrec& of the "an-6erman ovement in A!stria m!st be attrib!ted to three ca!ses% (he first of these consisted in the fact that the leaders did not have a clear concept of the importance of the social problem, partic!larly for a new movement which had an essentially revol!tionary character% 'chRnerer and his followers directed their attention principally to the bo!rgeois classes% For that reason their movement was bo!nd to t!rn o!t mediocre and tame% (he 6erman bo!rgeoisie, especially in its !pper circles, is pacifist even to the point of complete self-abnegation - tho!gh the individ!al may not be aware of this - wherever the internal affairs of the nation or 'tate are concerned% In good times, which in this case means times of good government, s!ch a psychological attit!de ma&es this social layer e3traordinarily val!able to the 'tate% 4!t when there is a bad government, s!ch a +!ality has a destr!ctive effect% In order to ass!re the possibility of carrying thro!gh a really

stren!o!s str!ggle, the "an-6erman ovement sho!ld have devoted its efforts to winning over the masses% (he fail!re to do this left the movement from the very beginning witho!t the elementary imp!lse which s!ch a wave needs if it is not to ebb within a short while% In failing to see the tr!th of this principle clearly at the very o!tset of the movement and in neglecting to p!t it into practice the new "arty made an initial mista&e which co!ld not possibly be rectified afterwards% For the n!mero!s moderate bo!rgeois elements admitted into the movements increasingly determined its internal orientation and th!s forestalled all f!rther prospects of gaining any appreciable s!pport among the masses of the people% Mnder s!ch conditions s!ch a movement co!ld not get beyond mere disc!ssion and criticism% L!asi-religio!s faith and the spirit of sacrifice were not to be fo!nd in the movement any more% (heir place was ta&en by the effort towards Ipositive# collaboration, which in this case meant the ac&nowledgment of the e3isting state of affairs, grad!ally whittling away the ro!gh corners of the +!estions in disp!te, and ending !p with the ma&ing of a dishono!rable peace% '!ch was the fate of the "an-6erman ovement, beca!se at the start the leaders did not reali9e that the most important condition of s!ccess was that they sho!ld recr!it their following from the broad masses of the people% (he ovement th!s became bo!rgeois and respectable and radical only in moderation% From this fail!re res!lted the second ca!se of its rapid decline% (he position of the 6ermans in A!stria was already desperate when "an-6ermanism arose% Near after year "arliament was being !sed more and more as an instr!ment for the grad!al e3tinction of the 6erman-A!strian pop!lation% (he only hope for any eleventh-ho!r effort to save it lay in the overthrow of the parliamentary system> b!t there was very little prospect of this happening% (herewith the "an-6erman ovement was confronted with a +!estion of primary importance% (o overthrow the "arliament, sho!ld the "an-6ermanists have entered it Ito !ndermine it from within#, as the c!rrent phrase was5 Or sho!ld they have assailed the instit!tion as s!ch from the o!tside5 (hey entered the "arliament and came o!t defeated% 4!t they had fo!nd themselves obliged to enter% For in order to wage an effective war against s!ch a power from the o!tside, indomitable co!rage and a ready spirit of sacrifice were necessary weapons% In s!ch cases the b!ll m!st be sei9ed by the horns% F!rio!s drives may bring the assailant to the gro!nd again and again> b!t if he has a sto!t heart he will stand !p, even tho!gh some bones may be bro&en, and only after a long and to!gh str!ggle will he achieve his tri!mph% *ew champions are attracted to a ca!se by the appeal of great sacrifices made for its sa&e, !ntil that indomitable spirit is finally crowned with s!ccess% For s!ch a res!lt, however, the children of the people from the great masses are necessary% (hey alone have the re+!isite determination and tenacity to fight a sang!inary iss!e thro!gh to the end% 4!t the "an-6erman ovement did not have these broad masses as its champions, and so no other means of sol!tion co!ld be tried o!t e3cept that of entering "arliamcnt% It wo!ld be a mista&e to thin& that this decision res!lted from a long series of internal hesitations of a moral &ind, or that it was the o!tcome of caref!l calc!lation% *o% (hey did not even thin& of another sol!tion% (hose who participated in this bl!nder were act!ated by general considerations and vag!e notions as to what wo!ld be the significance and effect of ta&ing part in s!ch a special way in that instit!tion which they had condemned on principle% In general they hoped that they wo!ld th!s have the means of e3po!nding their ca!se to the great masses of the people, beca!se they wo!ld be able to spea& before Ithe for!m of the whole nation#% Also, it seemed reasonable to believe that by attac&ing the evil in the root they wo!ld be more effective than if the attac& came from o!tside% (hey believed that, if protected by the imm!nity of "arliament, the position of the individ!al protagonists wo!ld be strengthened and that th!s the force of their attac&s wo!ld be enhanced% In reality everything t!rned o!t +!ite otherwise% (he For!m before which the "an-6erman representatives spo&e had not grown greater, b!t had act!ally become smaller> for each spo&e only to the circle that was ready to listen to him or co!ld read the report of his speech in the newspapers% 4!t the greater for!m of immediate listeners is not the parliamentary a!ditori!m0 it is the large p!blic meeting% For here alone will there be tho!sands of men who have come simply to hear what a spea&er has to say, whereas in the parliamentary sittings only a few h!ndred are present> and for the most part these are there only to earn their daily allowance for attendance and not to be enlightened by the wisdom of one or other of the Irepresentatives of the people#% (he most important consideration is that the same p!blic is always present and that this p!blic does not wish to learn anything new> beca!se, setting aside the +!estion of its intelligence, it lac&s even that modest +!ant!m of will-power which is necessary for the effort of learning% *ot one of the representatives of the people will pay homage to a s!perior tr!th and devote himself to its service% *o% *ot one of these gentry will act th!s, e3cept he has gro!nds for hoping that by s!ch a conversion he may be able to retain the representation of his constit!ency in the coming legislat!re% (herefore, only when it becomes +!ite clear that the old party is li&ely to have a bad time of it at the forthcoming elections - only then will those

models of manly virt!e set o!t in search of a new party or a new policy which may have better electoral prospects> b!t of co!rse this change of position will be accompanied by a veritable del!ge of high moral motives to ,!stify it% And th!s it always happens that when an e3isting "arty has inc!rred s!ch general disfavo!r among the p!blic that it is threatened with the probability of a cr!shing defeat, then a great migration commences% (he parliamentary rats leave the "arty ship% All this happens not beca!se the individ!als in the case have become better informed on the +!estions at iss!e and have resolved to act accordingly% (hese changes of front are evidence only of that gift of clairvoyance which warns the parliamentary flea at the right moment and enables him to hop into another warm "arty bed% (o spea& before s!ch a for!m signifies casting pearls before certain animals% :erily it does not repay the pains ta&en> for the res!lt m!st always be negative% And that is act!ally what happened% (he "an-6erman representatives might have tal&ed themselves hoarse, b!t to no effect whatsoever% (he "ress either ignored them totally or so m!tilated their speeches that the logical consistency was destroyed or the meaning twisted ro!nd in s!ch a way that the p!blic got only a very wrong impression regarding the aims of the new movement% /hat the individ!al members said was not of importance% (he important matter was what people read as coming from them% (his consisted of mere e3tracts which had been torn o!t of the conte3t of the speeches and gave an impression of incoherent nonsense, which indeed was p!rposely meant% (h!s the only p!blic before which they really spo&e consisted merely of five h!ndred parliamentarians> and that says eno!gh% (he worst was the following0 (he "an-6erman ovement co!ld hope for s!ccess only if the leaders reali9ed from the very first moment that here there was no +!estion so m!ch of a new "arty as of a new Weltanschhauung% (his alone co!ld aro!se the inner moral forces that were necessary for s!ch a gigantic str!ggle% And for this str!ggle the leaders m!st be men of firstclass brains and indomitable co!rage% If the str!ggle on behalf of a Weltanschhauung is not cond!cted by men of heroic spirit who are ready to sacrifice, everything, within a short while it will become impossible to find real fighting followers who are ready to lay down their lives for the ca!se% A man who fights only for his own e3istence has not m!ch left over for the service of the comm!nity% In order to sec!re the conditions that are necessary for s!ccess, everybody concerned m!st be made to !nderstand that the new movement loo&s to posterity for its hono!r and glory b!t that it has no recompense to offer to the present-day members% If a movement sho!ld offer a large n!mber of positions and offices that are easily accessible the n!mber of !nworthy candidates admitted to membership will be constantly on the increase and event!ally a day will come when there will be s!ch a preponderance of political profiteers among the membership of a s!ccessf!l "arty that the combatants who bore the br!nt of the battle in the earlier stages of the movement can now scarcely recogni9e their own "arty and may be e,ected by the later arrivals as !nwanted ballast% (herewith the movement will no longer have a mission to f!lfil% Once the "an-6ermanists decided to collaborate with "arliament they were no longer leaders and combatants in a pop!lar movement, b!t merely parliamentarians% (h!s the ovement san& to the common political party level of the day and no longer had the strength to face a hostile fate and defy the ris& of martyrdom% Instead of fighting, the "an-6erman leaders fell into the habit of tal&ing and negotiating% (he new parliamentarians soon fo!nd that it was a more satisfactory, beca!se less ris&y, way of f!lfilling their tas& if they wo!ld defend the new Weltanschhauung with the spirit!al weapon of parliamentary rhetoric rather than ta&e !p a fight in which they placed their lives in danger, the o!tcome of which also was !ncertain and even at the best co!ld offer no prospect of personal gain for themselves% /hen they had ta&en their seats in "arliament their adherents o!tside hoped and waited for miracles to happen% *at!rally no s!ch miracles happened or co!ld happen% /here!pon the adherents of the movement soon grew impatient, beca!se reports they read abo!t their own dep!ties did not in the least come !p to what had been e3pected when they voted for these dep!ties at the elections% (he reason for this was not far to see&% It was d!e to the fact that an !nfriendly "ress refrained from giving a tr!e acco!nt of what the "an-6erman representatives of the people were act!ally doing% According as the new dep!ties got to li&e this mild form of Irevol!tionary# str!ggle in "arliament and in the provincial diets they grad!ally became rel!ctant to res!me the more ha9ardo!s wor& of e3po!nding the principles of the movement before the broad masses of the people% ass meetings in p!blic became more and more rare, tho!gh these are the only means of e3ercising a really effective infl!ence on the people> beca!se here the infl!ence comes from direct personal contact and in this way the s!pport of large sections of the people can be obtained% /hen the tables on which the spea&ers !sed to stand in the great beer-halls, addressing an assembly of tho!sands, were deserted for the parliamentary trib!ne and the speeches were no longer addressed to the people directly b!t to the so-called Ichosen# representatives, the "an-6erman ovement lost its pop!lar character and in a little while degenerated to the level of a more or less serio!s cl!b where problems of the day are disc!ssed academically%

(he wrong impression created by the "ress was no longer corrected by personal contact with the people thro!gh p!blic meetings, whereby the individ!al representatives might have given a tr!e acco!nt of their activities% (he final res!lt of this neglect was that the word I"an-6erman# came to have an !npleasant so!nd in the ears of the masses% (he &nights of the pen and the literary snobs of to-day sho!ld be made to reali9e that the great transformations which have ta&en place in this world were never cond!cted by a goose+!ill% *o% (he tas& of the pen m!st always be that of presenting the theoretical concepts which motivate s!ch changes% (he force which has ever and always set in motion great historical avalanches of religio!s and political movements is the magic power of the spo&en word% (he broad masses of a pop!lation are more amenable to the appeal of rhetoric than to any other force% All great movements are pop!lar movements% (hey are the volcanic er!ptions of h!man passions and emotions, stirred into activity by the r!thless 6oddess of ?istress or by the torch of the spo&en word cast into the midst of the people% In no case have great movements been set afoot by the syr!py eff!sions of Ssthetic littOrate!rs and drawing-room heroes% (he doom of a nation can be averted only by a storm of glowing passion> b!t only those who are passionate themselves can aro!se passion in others% It is only thro!gh the capacity for passionate feeling that chosen leaders can wield the power of the word which, li&e hammer blows, will open the door to the hearts of the people% 1e who is not capable of passionate feeling and speech was never chosen by "rovidence to be the herald of its will% (herefore a writer sho!ld stic& to his in&-bottle and b!sy himself with theoretical +!estions if he has the re+!isite ability and &nowledge% 1e has not been born or chosen to be a leader% A movement which has great ends to achieve m!st caref!lly g!ard against the danger of losing contact with the masses of the people% 7very problem enco!ntered m!st be e3amined from this viewpoint first of all and the decision to be made m!st always be in harmony with this principle% (he movement m!st avoid everything which might lessen or wea&en its power of infl!encing the masses> not from demagogical motives b!t beca!se of the simple fact that no great idea, no matter how s!blime and e3alted it may appear, can be reali9ed in practice witho!t the effective power which resides in the pop!lar masses% 'tern reality alone m!st mar& the way to the goal% (o be !nwilling to wal& the road of hardship means, only too often in this world, the total ren!nciation of o!r aims and p!rposes, whether that ren!nciation be conscio!sly willed or not% (he moment the "an-6erman leaders, in virt!e of their acceptance of the parliamentary principle, moved the centre of their activities away from the people and into "arliament, in that moment they sacrificed the f!t!re for the sa&e of a cheap momentary s!ccess% (hey chose the easier way in the str!ggle and in doing so rendered themselves !nworthy of the final victory% /hile in :ienna I !sed to ponder serio!sly over these two +!estions, and I saw that the main reason for the collapse of the "an-6erman ovement lay in the fact that these very +!estions were not rightly appreciated% (o my mind at that time the ovement seemed chosen to ta&e in its hands the leadership of the 6erman element in A!stria% (hese first two bl!nders which led to the downfall of the "an-6erman ovement were very closely connected with one another% Fa!lty recognition of the inner driving forces that !rge great movements forward led to an inade+!ate appreciation of the part which the broad masses play in bringing abo!t s!ch changes% (he res!lt was that too little attention was given to the social problem and that the attempts made by the movement to capt!re the minds of the lower classes were too few and too wea&% Another res!lt was the acceptance of the parliamentary policy, which had a similar effect in regard to the importance of the masses% If there had been a proper appreciation of the tremendo!s powers of end!rance always shown by the masses in revol!tionary movements a different attit!de towards the social problem wo!ld have been ta&en, and also a different policy in the matter of propaganda% (hen the centre of gravity of the movement wo!ld not have been transferred to the "arliament b!t wo!ld have remained in the wor&shops and in the streets% (here was a third mista&e, which also had its roots in the fail!re to !nderstand the worth of the masses% (he masses are first set in motion, along a definite direction, by men of s!perior talents> b!t then these masses once in motion are li&e a flywheel inasm!ch as they s!stain the moment!m and steady balance of the offensive% (he policy of the "an-6erman leaders in deciding to carry thro!gh a diffic!lt fight against the $atholic $h!rch can be e3plained only by attrib!ting it to an inade+!ate !nderstanding of the spirit!al character of the people% (he reasons why the new "arty engaged in a violent campaign against 8ome were as follows0 As soon as the 1o!se of 1absb!rg had definitely decided to transform A!stria into a 'lav 'tate all sorts of means were adopted which seemed in any way serviceable for that p!rpose% (he 1absb!rg r!lers had no scr!ples of conscience abo!t e3ploiting even religio!s instit!tions in the service of this new I'tate Idea#% One of the many methods th!s employed was the !se of $9ech parishes and their clergy as instr!ments for spreading 'lav hegemony thro!gho!t A!stria% (his proceeding was carried o!t as follows0 "arish priests of $9ech nationality were appointed in p!rely 6erman districts% 6rad!ally b!t steadily p!shing forward the interests of the $9ech people before those of the $h!rch, the parishes and their priests became generative cells in the process of de-6ermani9ation%

Mnfort!nately the 6erman-A!strian clergy completely failed to co!nter this proced!re% *ot only were they incapable of ta&ing a similar initiative on the 6erman side, b!t they showed themselves !nable to meet the $9ech offensive with ade+!ate resistance% (he 6erman element was accordingly p!shed bac&wards, slowly b!t steadily, thro!gh the perversion of religio!s belief for political ends on the one side, and the )ac& of proper resistance on the other side% '!ch were the tactics !sed in dealing with the smaller problems> b!t those !sed in dealing with the larger problems were not very different% (he anti-6erman aims p!rs!ed by the 1absb!rgs, especially thro!gh the instr!mentality of the higher clergy, did not meet with any vigoro!s resistance, while the clerical representatives of the 6erman interests withdrew completely to the rear% (he general impression created co!ld not be other than that the $atholic clergy as s!ch were grossly neglecting the rights of the 6erman pop!lation% (herefore it loo&ed as if the $atholic $h!rch was not in sympathy with the 6erman people b!t that it !n,!stly s!pported their adversaries% (he root of the whole evil, especially according to 'chRnerer#s opinion, lay in the fact that the leadership of the $atholic $h!rch was not in 6ermany, and that this fact alone was s!fficient reason for the hostile attit!de of the $h!rch towards the demands of o!r people% (he so-called c!lt!ral problem receded almost completely into the bac&gro!nd, as was generally the case everywhere thro!gho!t A!stria at that time% In ass!ming a hostile attit!de towards the $atholic $h!rch, the "an6erman leaders were infl!enced not so m!ch by the $h!rch#s position in +!estions of science b!t principally by the fact that the $h!rch did not defend 6erman rights, as it sho!ld have done, b!t always s!pported those who encroached on these rights, especially then 'lavs% 6eorge 'chRnerer was not a man who did things by halves% 1e went into battle against the $h!rch beca!se he was convinced that this was the only way in which the 6erman people co!ld be saved% (he Los-von-8om BAway from 8omeC ovement seemed the most formidable, b!t at the same time most diffic!lt, method of attac&ing and destroying the adversary#s citadel% 'chRnerer believed that if this movement co!ld be carried thro!gh s!ccessf!lly the !nfort!nate division between the two great religio!s denominations in 6ermany wo!ld be wiped o!t and that the inner forces of the 6erman 7mpire and *ation wo!ld be enormo!sly enhanced by s!ch a victory% 4!t the premises as well as the concl!sions in this case were both erroneo!s% It was !ndo!btedly tr!e that the national powers of resistance, in everything concerning 6ermanism as s!ch, were m!ch wea&er among the 6erman $atholic clergy than among their non-6erman confrTres, especially the $9echs% And only an ignorant person co!ld be !naware of the fact that it scarcely ever entered the mind of the 6erman clergy to ta&e the offensive on behalf of 6erman interests% 4!t at the same time everybody who is not blind to facts m!st admit that all this sho!ld be attrib!ted to a characteristic !nder which we 6ermans have all been doomed to s!ffer% (his characteristic shows itself in o!r ob,ective way of regarding o!r own nationality, as if it were something that lay o!tside of !s% /hile the $9ech priest adopted a s!b,ective attit!de towards his own people and only an ob,ective attit!de towards the $h!rch, the 6erman parish priest showed a s!b,ective devotion to his $h!rch and remained ob,ective in regard to his nation% It is a phenomenon which, !nfort!nately for !s, can be observed occ!rring in e3actly the same way in tho!sands of other cases% It is by no means a pec!liar inheritance from $atholicism> b!t it is something in !s which does not ta&e long to gnaw the vitals of almost every instit!tion, especially instit!tions of 'tate and those which have ideal aims% (a&e, for e3ample, the attit!de of o!r 'tate officials in regard to the efforts made for bringing abo!t a national res!rgence and compare that attit!de with the stand which the p!blic officials of any other nation wo!ld have ta&en in s!ch a case% Or is it to be believed that the military officers of any other co!ntry in the world wo!ld ref!se to come forward on behalf of the national aspirations, b!t wo!ld rather hide behind the phrase IA!thority of the 'tate#, as has been the case in o!r co!ntry d!ring the last five years and has even been deemed a meritorio!s attit!de5 Or let !s ta&e another e3ample% In regard to the )ewish problem, do not the two $hristian denominations ta&e !p a standpoint today which does not respond to the national e3igencies or even the interests of religion5 $onsider the attit!de of a )ewish 8abbi towards any +!estion, even one of +!ite insignificant importance, concerning the )ews as a race, and compare his attit!de with that of the ma,ority of o!r clergy, whether $atholic or "rotestant% /e observe the same phenomenon wherever it is a matter of standing !p for some abstract idea% IA!thority of the 'tate#, I?emocracy#, I"acifism#, IInternational 'olidarity#, etc%, all s!ch notions become rigid, dogmatic concepts with !s> and the more vital the general necessities of the nation, the more will they be ,!dged e3cl!sively in the light of those concepts% (his !nfort!nate habit of loo&ing at all national demands from the viewpoint of a pre-conceived notion ma&es it impossible for !s to see the s!b,ective side of a thing which ob,ectively contradicts one#s own doctrine% It finally leads to a complete reversion in the relation of means to an end% Any attempt at a national revival will be opposed if the preliminary condition of s!ch a revival be that a bad and pernicio!s regime m!st first of all be overthrown> beca!se s!ch an action will be considered as a violation of the IA!thority of the 'tate#% In the eyes of those who ta&e that standpoint, the IA!thority of the 'tate# is not a means which is there to serve an end b!t rather, to the mind of

the dogmatic believer in ob,ectivity, it is an end in itself> and he loo&s !pon that as s!fficient apology for his own miserable e3istence% '!ch people wo!ld raise an o!tcry, if, for instance, anyone sho!ld attempt to set !p a dictatorship, even tho!gh the man responsible for it were Frederic& the 6reat and even tho!gh the politicians for the time being, who constit!ted the parliamentary ma,ority, were small and incompetent men or maybe even on a lower grade of inferiority> beca!se to s!ch stic&lers for abstract principles the law of democracy is more sacred than the welfare of the nation% In accordance with his principles, one of these gentry will defend the worst &ind of tyranny, tho!gh it may be leading a people to r!in, beca!se it is the fleeting embodiment of the IA!thority of the 'tate#, and another will re,ect even a highly beneficent government if it sho!ld happen not to be in accord with his notion of Idemocracy#% In the same way o!r 6erman pacifist will remain silent while the nation is groaning !nder an oppression which is being e3ercised by a sang!inary military power, when this state of affairs gives rise to active resistance> beca!se s!ch resistance means the employment of physical force, which is against the spirit of the pacifist associations% (he 6erman International 'ocialist may be roo&ed and pl!ndered by his comrades in all the other co!ntries of the world in the name of Isolidarity#, b!t he responds with fraternal &indness and never thin&s of trying to get his own bac&, or even of defending himself% And why5 4eca!se he is a - 6erman% It may be !npleasant to dwell on s!ch tr!ths, b!t if something is to be changed we m!st start by diagnosing the disease% (he phenomenon which I have ,!st described also acco!nts for the feeble manner in which 6erman interests are promoted and defended by a section of the clergy% '!ch cond!ct is not the manifestation of a malicio!s intent, nor is it the o!tcome of orders given from Iabove#, as we say> b!t s!ch a lac& of national grit and determination is d!e to defects in o!r ed!cational system% For, instead of inc!lcating in the yo!th a lively sense of their 6erman nationality, the aim of the ed!cational system is to ma&e the yo!th prostrate themselves in homage to the idea, as if the idea were an idol% (he ed!cation which ma&es them the devotees of s!ch abstract notions as I?emocracy#, IInternational 'ocialism#, I"acifism#, etc%, is so hard-and-fast and e3cl!sive and, operating as it does from within o!twards, is so p!rely s!b,ective that in forming their general pict!re of o!tside life as a whole they are f!ndamentally infl!enced by these a priori notions% 4!t, on the other hand, the attit!de towards their own 6erman nationality has been very ob,ective from yo!th !pwards% (he "acifist - in so far as he is a 6erman - who s!rrenders himself s!b,ectively, body and so!l, to the dictates of his dogmatic principles, will always first consider the ob,ective right or wrong of a sit!ation when danger threatens his own people, even tho!gh that danger be grave and !n,!stly wro!ght from o!tside% 4!t he will never ta&e his stand in the ran&s of his own people and fight for and with them from the sheer instinct of selfpreservation% Another e3ample may f!rther ill!strate how far this applies to the different religio!s denominations% In so far as its origin and tradition are based on 6erman ideals, "rotestantism of itself defends those ideals better% 4!t it fails the moment it is called !pon to defend national interests which do not belong to the sphere of its ideals and traditional development, or which, for some reason or other, may be re,ected by that sphere% (herefore "rotestantism will always ta&e its part in promoting 6erman ideals as far as concerns moral integrity or national ed!cation, when the 6erman spirit!al being or lang!age or spirit!al freedom are to be defended0 beca!se these represent the principles on which "rotestantism itself is gro!nded% 4!t this same "rotestantism violently opposes every attempt to resc!e the nation from the cl!tches of its mortal enemy> beca!se the "rotestant attit!de towards the )ews is more or less rigidly and dogmatically fi3ed% And yet this is the first problem which has to be solved, !nless all attempts to bring abo!t a 6erman res!rgence or to raise the level of the nation#s standing are doomed to t!rn o!t nonsensical and impossible% ?!ring my so,o!rn in :ienna I had ample leis!re and opport!nity to st!dy this problem witho!t allowing any pre,!dices to intervene> and in my daily interco!rse with people I was able to establish the correctness of the opinion I formed by the test of tho!sands of instances% In this foc!s where the greatest varieties of nationality had converged it was +!ite clear and open to everybody to see that the 6erman pacifist was always and e3cl!sively the one who tried to consider the interests of his own nation ob,ectively> b!t yo! co!ld never find a )ew who too& a similar attit!de towards his own race% F!rthermore, I fo!nd that only the 6erman 'ocialist is Iinternational# in the sense that he feels himself obliged not to demand ,!stice for his own people in any other manner than by whining and wailing to his international comrades% *obody co!ld ever reproach $9echs or "oles or other nations with s!ch cond!ct% In short, even at that time, already I recogni9ed that this evil is only partly a res!lt of the doctrines ta!ght by 'ocialism, "acifism, etc%, b!t mainly the res!lt of o!r totally inade+!ate system of ed!cation, the defects of which are responsible for the lac& of devotion to o!r own national ideals% (herefore the first theoretical arg!ment advanced by the "an-6erman leaders as the basis of their offensive against $atholicism was +!ite entenable% (he only way to remedy the evil I have been spea&ing of is to train the 6ermans from yo!th !pwards to an absol!te

recognition of the rights of their own people, instead of poisoning their minds, while they are still only children, with the vir!s of this c!rbed Iob,ectivity#, even in matters concerning the very maintenance of o!r own e3istence% (he res!lt of this wo!ld be that the $atholic in 6ermany, ,!st as in Ireland, "oland or France, will be a 6erman first and foremost% 4!t all this pres!pposes a radical change in the national government% (he strongest proof in s!pport of my contention is f!rnished by what too& place at that historical ,!nct!re when o!r people were called for the last time before the trib!nal of 1istory to defend their own e3istence, in a life-or-death str!ggle% As long as there was no lac& of leadership in the higher circles, the people f!lfilled their d!ty and obligations to an overwhelming e3tent% /hether "rotestant pastor or $atholic priest, each did his very !tmost in helping o!r powers of resistance to hold o!t, not only in the trenches b!t also, and even more so, at home% ?!ring those years, and especially d!ring the first o!tb!rst of enth!siasm, in both religio!s camps there was one !ndivided and sacred 6erman 7mpire for whose preservation and f!t!re e3istence they all prayed to 1eaven% (he "an-6erman ovement in A!stria o!ght to have as&ed itself this one +!estion0 Is the maintenance of the 6erman element in A!stria possible or not, as long as that element remains within the fold of the $atholic Faith5 If that +!estion sho!ld have been answered in the affirmative, then the political "arty sho!ld not have meddled in religio!s and denominational +!estions% 4!t if the +!estion had to be answered in the negative, then a religio!s reformation sho!ld have been started and not a political party movement% Anyone who believes that a religio!s reformation can be achieved thro!gh the agency of a political organi9ation shows that he has no idea of the development of religio!s conceptions and doctrines of faith and how these are given practical effect by the $h!rch% *o man can serve two masters% And I hold that the fo!ndation or overthrow of a religion has far greater conse+!ences than the fo!ndation or overthrow of a 'tate, to say nothing of a "arty% It is no arg!ment to the contrary to say that the attac&s were only defensive meas!res against attac&s from the other side% Mndo!btedly there have always been !nscr!p!lo!s rog!es who did not hesitate to degrade religion to the base !ses of politics% *early always s!ch a people had nothing else in their minds e3cept to ma&e a b!siness of religions and politics% 4!t on the other hand it wo!ld be wrong to hold religion itself, or a religio!s denomination, responsible for a n!mber of rascals who e3ploit the $h!rch for their own base interests ,!st as they wo!ld e3ploit anything else in which they had a part% *othing co!ld be more to the taste of one of these parliamentary lo!ngers and tric&sters than to be able to find a scapegoat for his political sharp-practice - after the event, of co!rse% (he moment religion or a religio!s denomination is attac&ed and made responsible for his personal misdeeds this shrewd fellow will raise a row at once and call the world to witness how ,!stified he was in acting as he did, proclaiming that he and his elo+!ence alone have saved religion and the $h!rch% (he p!blic, which is mostly st!pid and has a very short memory, is not capable of recogni9ing the real instigator of the +!arrel in the midst of the t!rmoil that has been raised% Fre+!ently it does not remember the beginning of the fight and so the rog!e gets by with his st!nt% A c!nning fellow of that sort is +!ite well aware that his misdeeds have nothing to do with religion% And so he will la!gh !p his sleeve all the more heartily when his honest b!t artless adversary loses the game and, one day losing all faith in h!manity, retires from the activities of p!blic life% 4!t from another viewpoint also it wo!ld be wrong to ma&e religion, or the $h!rch as s!ch, responsible for the misdeeds of individ!als% If one compares the magnit!de of the organi9ation, as it stands visible to every eye, with the average wea&ness of h!man nat!re we shall have to admit that the proportion of good to bad is more favo!rable here than anywhere else% Among the priests there may, of co!rse, be some who !se their sacred calling to f!rther their political ambitions% (here are clergy who !nfort!nately forget that in the political mUlOe they o!ght to be the paladins of the more s!blime tr!ths and not the abettors of falsehood and slander% 4!t for each one of these !nworthy specimens we can find a tho!sand or more who f!lfil their mission nobly as the tr!stworthy g!ardians of so!ls and who tower above the level of o!r corr!pt epoch, as little islands above the seaswamp% I cannot condemn the $h!rch as s!ch, and I sho!ld feel +!ite as little ,!stified in doing so if some depraved person in the robe of a priest commits some offence against the moral law% *or sho!ld I for a moment thin& of blaming the $h!rch if one of its inn!merable members betrays and besmirches his compatriots, especially not in epochs when s!ch cond!ct is +!ite common% /e m!st not forget, partic!larly in o!r day, that for one s!ch 7phialtes GC there are a tho!sand whose hearts bleed in sympathy with their people d!ring these years of misfort!ne and who, together with the best of o!r nation, yearn for the ho!r when fort!ne will smile on !s again% If it be ob,ected that here we are concerned not with the petty problems of everyday life b!t principally with f!ndamental tr!ths and +!estions of dogma, the only way of answering that ob,ection is to as& a +!estion0 ?o yo! feel that "rovidence has called yo! to proclaim the (r!th to the world5 If so, then go and do it% 4!t yo! o!ght to have the co!rage to do it directly and not !se some political party as yo!r mo!thpiece> for in this way yo! shir& yo!r vocation% In the place of something that now e3ists and is bad p!t something else that is better and will

last into the f!t!re% If yo! lac& the re+!isite co!rage or if yo! yo!rself do not &now clearly what yo!r better s!bstit!te o!ght to be, leave the whole thing alone% 4!t, whatever happens, do not try to reach the goal by the ro!ndabo!t way of a political party if yo! are not brave eno!gh to fight with yo!r visor lifted% "olitical parties have no right to meddle in religio!s +!estions e3cept when these relate to something that is alien to the national well-being and th!s calc!lated to !ndermine racial c!stoms and morals% If some ecclesiastical dignitaries sho!ld mis!se religio!s ceremonies or religio!s teaching to in,!re their own nation their opponents o!ght never to ta&e the same road and fight them with the same weapons% (o a political leader the religio!s teachings and practices of his people sho!ld be sacred and inviolable% Otherwise he sho!ld not be a statesman b!t a reformer, if he has the necessary +!alities for s!ch a mission% Any other line of cond!ct will lead to disaster, especially in 6ermany% In st!dying the "an-6erman ovement and its conflict with 8ome I was then firmly pers!aded, and especially in the co!rse of later years, that by their fail!re to !nderstand the importance of the social problem the "an6ermanists lost the s!pport of the broad masses, who are the indispensable combatants in s!ch a movement% 4y entering "arliament the "an-6erman leaders deprived themselves of the great driving force which resides in the masses and at the same time they laid on their own sho!lders all the defects of the parliamentary instit!tion% (heir str!ggle against the $h!rch made their position impossible in n!mero!s circles of the lower and middle class, while at the same time it robbed them of inn!merable high-class elements - some of the best indeed that the nation possessed% (he practical o!tcome of the A!strian 2!lt!r&ampf was negative% Altho!gh they s!cceeded in winning 1<<,<<< members away from the $h!rch, that did not do m!ch harm to the latter% (he $h!rch did not really need to shed any tears over these lost sheep, for it lost only those who had for a long time ceased to belong to it in their inner hearts% (he difference between this new reformation and the great 8eformation was that in the historic epoch of the great 8eformation some of the best members left the $h!rch beca!se of religio!s convictions, whereas in this new reformation only those left who had been indifferent before and who were now infl!enced by political considerations% From the political point of view alone the res!lt was as ridic!lo!s as it was deplorable% Once again a political movement which had promised so m!ch for the 6erman nation collapsed, beca!se it was not cond!cted in a spirit of !nflinching adherence to na&ed reality, b!t lost itself in fields where it was bo!nd to get bro&en !p% (he "an-6erman ovement wo!ld never have made this mista&e if it had properly !nderstood the psyche of the broad masses% If the leaders had &nown that, for psychological reasons alone, it is not e3pedient to place two or more sets of adversaries before the masses - since that leads to a complete splitting !p of their fighting strength they wo!ld have concentrated the f!ll and !ndivided force of their attac& against a single adversary% *othing in the policy of a political party is so fra!ght with danger as to allow its decisions to be directed by people who want to have their fingers in every pie tho!gh they do not &now how to coo& the simplest dish% 4!t even tho!gh there is m!ch that can really be said against the vario!s religio!s denominations, political leaders m!st not forget that the e3perience of history teaches !s that no p!rely political party in similar circ!mstances ever s!cceeded in bringing abo!t a religio!s reformation% One does not st!dy history for the p!rpose of forgetting or mistr!sting its lessons afterwards, when the time comes to apply these lessons in practice% It wo!ld be a mista&e to believe that in this partic!lar case things were different, so that the eternal tr!ths of history were no longer applicable% One learns history in order to be able to apply its lessons to the present time and whoever fails to do this cannot pretend to be a political leader% In reality he is +!ite a s!perficial person or, as is mostly the case, a conceited simpleton whose good intentions cannot ma&e !p for his incompetence in practical affairs% (he art of leadership, as displayed by really great pop!lar leaders in all ages, consists in consolidating the attention of the people against a single adversary and ta&ing care that nothing will split !p that attention into sections% (he more the militant energies of the people are directed towards one ob,ective the more will new recr!its ,oin the movement, attracted by the magnetism of its !nified action, and th!s the stri&ing power will be all the more enhanced% (he leader of geni!s m!st have the ability to ma&e different opponents appear as if they belonged to the one category> for wea& and wavering nat!res among a leader#s following may easily begin to be d!bio!s abo!t the ,!stice of their own ca!se if they have to face different enemies% As soon as the vacillating masses find themselves facing an opposition that is made !p of different gro!ps of enemies their sense of ob,ectivity will be aro!sed and they will as& how is it that all the others can be in the wrong and they themselves, and their movement, alone in the right% '!ch a feeling wo!ld be the first step towards a paralysis of their fighting vigo!r% /here there are vario!s enemies who are split !p into divergent gro!ps it will be necessary to bloc& them all together as forming one solid front, so that the mass of followers in a pop!lar movement may see only one common enemy against whom they have to fight% '!ch !niformity intensifies their belief in the ,!stice of their own ca!se and strengthens their feeling of hostility towards the opponent%

(he "an-6erman ovement was !ns!ccessf!l beca!se the leaders did not grasp the significance of that tr!th% (hey saw the goal clearly and their intentions were right> b!t they too& the wrong road% (heir action may be compared to that of an Alpine climber who never loses sight of the pea& he wants to reach, who has set o!t with the greatest determination and energy, b!t pays no attention to the road beneath his feet% /ith his eye always fi3ed firmly on the goal he does not thin& over or notice the nat!re of the ascent and finally he fails% (he manner in which the great rival of the "an-6erman "arty set o!t to attain its goal was +!ite different% (he way it too& was well and shrewdly chosen> b!t it did not have a clear vision of the goal% In almost all the +!estions where the "an-6erman ovement failed, the policy of the $hristian-'ocialist "arty was correct and systematic% (hey assessed the importance of the masses correctly, and th!s they gained the s!pport of large n!mbers of the pop!lar masses by emphasi9ing the social character of the ovement from the very start% 4y directing their appeal especially to the lower middle class and the artisans, they gained adherents who were faithf!l, persevering and selfsacrificing% (he $hristian-'ocialist leaders too& care to avoid all controversy with the instit!tions of religion and th!s they sec!red the s!pport of that mighty organi9ation, the $atholic $h!rch% (hose leaders recogni9ed the val!e of propaganda on a large scale and they were veritable virt!osos in wor&ing !p the spirit!al instincts of the broad masses of their adherents% (he fail!re of this "arty to carry into effect the dream of saving A!stria from dissol!tion m!st be attrib!ted to two main defects in the means they employed and also the lac& of a clear perception of the ends they wished to reach% (he anti-'emitism of the $hristian-'ocialists was based on religio!s instead of racial principles% (he reason for this mista&e gave rise to the second error also% (he fo!nders of the $hristian-'ocialist "arty were of the opinion that they co!ld not base their position on the racial principle if they wished to save A!stria, beca!se they felt that a general disintegration of the 'tate might +!ic&ly res!lt from the adoption of s!ch a policy% In the opinion of the "arty chiefs the sit!ation in :ienna demanded that all factors which tended to estrange the nationalities from one another sho!ld be caref!lly avoided and that all factors ma&ing for !nity sho!ld be enco!raged% At that time :ienna was so honeycombed with foreign elements, especially the $9echs, that the greatest amo!nt of tolerance was necessary if these elements were to be enlisted in the ran&s of any party that was not anti-6erman on principle% If A!stria was to be saved those elements were indispensable% And so attempts were made to win the s!pport of the small traders, a great n!mber of whom were $9echs, by combating the liberalism of the anchester 'chool> and they believed that by adopting this attit!de they had fo!nd a slogan against )ewry which, beca!se of its religio!s implications, wo!ld !nite all the different nationalities which made !p the pop!lation of the old A!stria% It was obvio!s, however, that this &ind of anti-'emitism did not !pset the )ews very m!ch, simply beca!se it had a p!rely religio!s fo!ndation% If the worst came to the worst a few drops of baptismal water wo!ld settle the matter, here!pon the )ew co!ld still carry on his b!siness safely and at the same time retain his )ewish nationality% On s!ch s!perficial gro!nds it was impossible to deal with the whole problem in an earnest and rational way% (he conse+!ence was that many people co!ld not !nderstand this &ind of anti-'emitism and therefore ref!sed to ta&e part in it% (he attractive force of the idea was th!s restricted e3cl!sively to narrow-minded circles, beca!se the leaders failed to go beyond the mere emotional appeal and did not gro!nd their position on a tr!ly rational basis% (he intellect!als were opposed to s!ch a policy on principle% It loo&ed more and more as if the whole movement was a new attempt to proselyti9e the )ews, or, on the other hand, as if it were merely organi9ed from the wish to compete with other contemporary movements% (h!s the str!ggle lost all traces of having been organi9ed for a spirit!al and s!blime mission% Indeed, it seemed to some people - and these were by no means worthless elements - to be immoral and reprehensible% (he movement failed to awa&en a belief that here there was a problem of vital importance for the whole of h!manity and on the sol!tion of which the destiny of the whole 6entile world depended% (hro!gh this shilly-shally way of dealing with the problem the anti-'emitism of the $hristian-'ocialists t!rned o!t to be +!ite ineffective% It was anti-'emitic only in o!tward appearance% And this was worse than if it had made no pretences at all to anti'emitism> for the pretence gave rise to a false sense of sec!rity among people who believed that the enemy had been ta&en by the ears> b!t, as a matter of fact, the people themselves were being led by the nose% (he )ew readily ad,!sted himself to this form of anti-'emitism and fo!nd its contin!ance more profitable to him than its abolition wo!ld be% (his whole movement led to great sacrifices being made for the sa&e of that 'tate which was composed of many heterogeneo!s nationalities> b!t m!ch greater sacrifices had to be made by the tr!stees of the 6erman element% One did not dare to be Inationalist#, even in :ienna, lest the gro!nd sho!ld fall away from !nder one#s feet% It was hoped that the 1absb!rg 'tate might be saved by a silent evasion of the nationalist +!estion> b!t this policy led that 'tate to r!in% (he same policy also led to the collapse of $hristian 'ocialism, for th!s the ovement was deprived of the only so!rce of energy from which a political party can draw the necessary driving force% ?!ring those years I caref!lly followed the two movements and observed how they developed, one beca!se my heart

was with it and the other beca!se of my admiration for that remar&able man who then appeared to me as a bitter symbol of the whole 6erman pop!lation in A!stria% /hen the imposing f!neral cortTge of the dead 4!rgomaster wo!nd its way from the $ity 1all towards the 8ing 'trasse I stood among the h!ndreds of tho!sands who watched the solemn procession pass by% As I stood there I felt deeply moved, and my instinct clearly told me that the wor& of this man was all in vain, beca!se a sinister Fate was ine3orably leading this 'tate to its downfall% If ?r% 2arl L!eger had lived in 6ermany he wo!ld have been ran&ed among the great leaders of o!r people% It was a misfort!ne for his wor& and for himseif that he had to live in this impossible 'tate% /hen he died the fire had already been en&indled in the 4al&ans and was spreading month by month% Fate had been mercif!l in sparing him the sight of what, even to the last, he had hoped to prevent% I endeavo!red to analyse the ca!se which rendered one of those movements f!tile and wrec&ed the progress of the other% (he res!lt of this investigation was the profo!nd conviction that, apart from the inherent impossibility of consolidating the position of the 'tate in the old A!stria, the two parties made the following fatal mista&e0 (he "an-6erman "arty was perfectly right in its f!ndamental ideas regarding the aim of the ovement, which was to bring abo!t a 6erman restoration, b!t it was !nfort!nate in its choice of means% It was nationalist, b!t !nfort!nately it paid too little heed to the social problem, and th!s it failed to gain the s!pport of the masses% Its anti-)ewish policy, however, was gro!nded on a correct perception of the significance of the racial problem and not on religio!s principles% 4!t it was mista&en in its assessment of facts and adopted the wrong tactics when it made war against one of the religio!s denominations% (he $hristian-'ocialist ovement had only a vag!e concept of a 6erman revival as part of its ob,ect, b!t it was intelligent and fort!nate in the choice of means to carry o!t its policy as a "arty% (he $hristian-'ocialists grasped the significance of the social +!estion> b!t they adopted the wrong principles in their str!ggle against )ewry, and they !tterly failed to appreciate the val!e of the national idea as a so!rce of political energy% If the $hristian-'ocialist "arty, together with its shrewd ,!dgment in regard to the worth of the pop!lar masses, had only ,!dged rightly also on the importance of the racial problem - which was properly grasped by the "an-6erman ovement - and if this party had been really nationalist> or if the "an-6erman leaders, on the other hand, in addition to their correct ,!dgment of the )ewish problem and of the national idea, had adopted the practical wisdom of the $hristian-'ocialist "arty, and partic!larly their attit!de towards 'ocialism - then a movement wo!ld have developed which, in my opinion, might at that time have s!ccessf!lly altered the co!rse of 6erman destiny% If things did not t!rn o!t th!s, the fa!lt lay for the most part in the inherent nat!re of the A!strian 'tate% I did not find my own convictions !pheld by any party then in e3istence, and so I co!ld not bring myself to enlist as a member in any of the e3isting organi9ations or even lend a hand in their str!ggle% 7ven at that time all those organi9ations seemed to me to be already ,aded in their energies and were therefore incapable of bringing abo!t a national revival of the 6erman people in a really profo!nd way, not merely o!twardly% y inner aversion to the 1absb!rg 'tate was increasing daily% (he more I paid special attention to +!estions of foreign policy, the more the conviction grew !pon me that this phantom 'tate wo!ld s!rely bring misfort!ne on the 6ermans% I reali9ed more and more that the destiny of the 6erman nation co!ld not be decisively infl!enced from here b!t only in the 6erman 7mpire itself% And this was tr!e not only in regard to general political +!estions b!t also - and in no less a degree - in regard to the whole sphere of c!lt!ral life% 1ere, also, in all matters affecting the national c!lt!re and art, the A!strian 'tate showed all the signs of senile decrepit!de, or at least it was ceasing to be of any conse+!ence to the 6erman nation, as far as these matters were concerned% (his was especially tr!e of its architect!re% odern architect!re co!ld not prod!ce any great res!lts in A!stria beca!se, since the b!ilding of the 8ing 'trasse - at least in :ienna - architect!ral activities had become insignificant when compared with the progressive plans which were being tho!ght o!t in 6ermany% And so I came more and more to lead what may be called a twofold e3istence% 8eason and reality forced me to contin!e my harsh apprenticeship in A!stria, tho!gh I m!st now say that this apprenticeship t!rned o!t fort!nate in the end% 4!t my heart was elsewhere% A feeling of discontent grew !pon me and made me depressed the more I came to reali9e the inside hollowness of this 'tate and the impossibility of saving it from collapse% At the same time I felt perfectly certain that it wo!ld bring all &inds of misfort!ne to the 6erman people% I was convinced that the 1absb!rg 'tate wo!ld bal& and hinder every 6erman who might show signs of real greatness, while at the same time it wo!ld aid and abet every non-6erman activity% (his conglomerate spectacle of heterogeneo!s races which the capital of the ?!al onarchy presented, this motley of $9echs, "oles, 1!ngarians, 8!thenians, 'erbs and $roats, etc%, and always that bacill!s which is the solvent of h!man society, the )ew, here and there and everywhere - the whole spectacle was rep!gnant to me% (he gigantic city seemed to be the incarnation of mongrel depravity% (he 6erman lang!age, which I had spo&en from the time of my boyhood, was the vernac!lar idiom of Lower

4avaria% I never forgot that partic!lar style of speech, and I co!ld never learn the :iennese dialect% (he longer I lived in that city the stronger became my hatred for the promisc!o!s swarm of foreign peoples which had beg!n to batten on that old n!rsery gro!nd of 6erman c!lt!re% (he idea that this 'tate co!ld maintain its f!rther e3istence for any considerable time was +!ite abs!rd% A!stria was then li&e a piece of ancient mosaic in which the cohesive cement had dried !p and become old and friable% As long as s!ch a wor& of art remains !nto!ched it may hold together and contin!e to e3ist> b!t the moment some blow is str!c& on it then it brea&s !p into tho!sands of fragments% (herefore it was now only a +!estion of when the blow wo!ld come% 4eca!se my heart was always with the 6erman 7mpire and not with the A!strian onarchy, the ho!r of A!stria#s dissol!tion as a 'tate appeared to me only as the first step towards the emancipation of the 6erman nation% All these considerations intensified my yearning to depart for that co!ntry for which my heart had been secretly longing since the days of my yo!th% I hoped that one day I might be able to ma&e my mar& as an architect and that I co!ld devote my talents to the service of my co!ntry on a large or small scale, according to the will of Fate% A final reason was that I longed to be among those who lived and wor&ed in that land from which the movement sho!ld be la!nched, the ob,ect of which wo!ld be the f!lfilment of what my heart had always longed for, namely, the !nion of the co!ntry in which I was born with o!r common fatherland, the 6erman 7mpire% (here are many who may not !nderstand how s!ch a yearning can be so strong> b!t I appeal especially to two gro!ps of people% (he first incl!des all those who are still denied the happiness I have spo&en of, and the second embraces those who once en,oyed that happiness b!t had it torn from them by a harsh fate% I t!rn to all those who have been torn from their motherland and who have to str!ggle for the preservation of their most sacred patrimony, their native lang!age, persec!ted and harried beca!se of their loyalty and love for the homeland, yearning sadly for the ho!r when they will be allowed to ret!rn to the bosom of their father#s ho!sehold% (o these I address my words, and I &now that they will !nderstand% Only he who has e3perienced in his own inner life what it means to be 6erman and yet to be denied the right of belonging to his fatherland can appreciate the profo!nd nostalgia which that enforced e3ile ca!ses% It is a perpet!al heartache, and there is no place for ,oy and contentment !ntil the doors of paternal home are thrown open and all those thro!gh whose veins &indred blood is flowing will find peace and rest in their common 8eich% :ienna was a hard school for me> b!t it ta!ght me the most profo!nd lessons of my life% I was scarcely more than a boy when I came to live there, and when I left it I had grown to be a man of a grave and pensive nat!re% In :ienna I ac+!ired the fo!ndations of a Weltanschhauung in general and developed a fac!lty for analysing political +!estions in partic!lar% (hat Weltanschhauung and the political ideas then formed have never been abandoned, tho!gh they were e3panded later on in some directions% It is only now that I can f!lly appreciate how val!able those years of apprenticeship were for me% (hat is why I have given a detailed acco!nt of this period% (here, in :ienna, star& reality ta!ght me the tr!ths that now form the f!ndamental principles of the "arty which within the co!rse of five years has grown from modest beginnings to a great mass movement% I do not &now what my attit!de towards )ewry, 'ocial-?emocracy, or rather ar3ism in general, to the social problem, etc%, wo!ld be to-day if I had not ac+!ired a stoc& of personal beliefs at s!ch an early age, by dint of hard st!dy and !nder the d!ress of Fate% For, altho!gh the misfort!nes of the Fatherland may have stim!lated tho!sands and tho!sands to ponder over the inner ca!ses of the collapse, that co!ld not lead to s!ch a thoro!gh &nowledge and deep insight as a man may develop who has fo!ght a hard str!ggle for many years so that he might be master of his own fate% $hapter Fo!r At last I came to !nich, in the spring of 1912% (he city itself was as familiar to me as if I had lived for years within its walls% (his was beca!se my st!dies in architect!re had been constantly t!rning my attention to the metropolis of 6erman art% One m!st &now !nich if one wo!ld &now 6ermany, and it is impossible to ac+!ire a &nowledge of 6erman art witho!t seeing !nich% All things considered, this pre-war so,o!rn was by far the happiest and most contented time of my life% y earnings were very slender> b!t after all I did not live for the sa&e of painting% I painted in order to get the bare necessities of e3istence while I contin!ed my st!dies% I was firmly convinced that I sho!ld finally s!cceed in reaching the goal I had mar&ed o!t for myself% And this conviction alone was strong eno!gh to enable me to bear the petty hardships of everyday life witho!t worrying very m!ch abo!t them% oreover, almost from the very first moment of my so,o!rn there I came to love that city more than any other place &nown to me% A 6erman cityJ I said to myself% 1ow different to :ienna% It was with a feeling of disg!st that my imagination reverted to that 4abylon of races% Another pleasant feat!re here was the way the people spo&e 6erman,

which was m!ch nearer my own way of spea&ing than the :iennese idiom% (he !nich idiom recalled the days of my yo!th, especially when I spo&e with those who had come to !nich from Lower 4avaria% (here were a tho!sand or more things which I inwardly loved or which I came to love d!ring the co!rse of my stay% 4!t what attracted me most was the marvello!s wedloc& of native fol&-energy with the fine artistic spirit of the city, that !ni+!e harmony from the 1ofbrE!ha!s to the Odeon, from the October Festival to the "ina&othe&, etc% (he reason why my heart#s strings are entwined aro!nd this city as aro!nd no other spot in this world is probably beca!se !nich is and will remain inseparably connected with the development of my own career> and the fact that from the beginning of my visit I felt inwardly happy and contented is to be attrib!ted to the charm of the marvello!s /ittelsbach $apital, which has attracted probably everybody who is blessed with a feeling for bea!ty instead of commercial instincts% Apart from my professional wor&, I was most interested in the st!dy of c!rrent political events, partic!larly those which were connected with foreign relations% I approached these by way of the 6erman policy of alliances which, ever since my A!strian days, I had considered to be an !tterly mista&en one% 4!t in :ienna I had not yet seen +!ite clearly how far the 6erman 7mpire had gone in the process of# self-del!sion% In :ienna I was inclined to ass!me, or probably I pers!aded myself to do so in order to e3c!se the 6erman mista&e, that possibly the a!thorities in 4erlin &new how wea& and !nreliable their ally wo!ld prove to be when bro!ght face to face with realities, b!t that, for more or less mysterio!s reasons, they refrained from allowing their opinions on this point to be &nown in p!blic% (heir idea was that they sho!ld s!pport the policy of alliances which 4ismarc& had initiated and the s!dden discontin!ance of which might be !ndesirable, if for no other reason than that it might aro!se those foreign co!ntries which were lying in wait for their chance or might alarm the "hilistines at home% 4!t my contact with the people soon ta!ght me, to my horror, that my ass!mptions were wrong% I was ama9ed to find everywhere, even in circles otherwise well informed, that nobody had the slightest intimation of the real character of the 1absb!rg onarchy% Among the common people in partic!lar there was a prevalent ill!sion that the A!strian ally was a "ower which wo!ld have to be serio!sly rec&oned with and wo!ld rally its man-power in the ho!r of need% (he mass of the people contin!ed to loo& !pon the ?!al onarchy as a I6erman 'tate# and believed that it co!ld be relied !pon% (hey ass!med that its strength co!ld be meas!red by the millions of its s!b,ects, as was the case in 6ermany% First of all, they did not reali9e that A!stria had ceased to be a 6erman 'tate and, secondly, that the conditions prevailing within the A!strian 7mpire were steadily p!shing it headlong to the brin& of disaster% At that time I &new the condition of affairs in the A!strian 'tate better than the professional diplomats% 4lindfolded, as nearly always, these diplomats st!mbled along on their way to disaster% (he opinions prevailing among the b!l& of the people reflected only what had been dr!mmed into them from official +!arters above% And these higher a!thorities grovelled before the IAlly#, as the people of old bowed down before the 6olden $alf% (hey probably tho!ght that by being polite and amiable they might balance the lac& of honesty on the other side% (h!s they too& every declaration at its f!ll face val!e% 7ven while in :ienna I !sed to be annoyed again and again by the discrepancy between the speeches of the official statesmen and the contents of the :iennese "ress% And yet :ienna was still a 6erman city, at least as far as appearances went% 4!t one enco!ntered an !tterly different state of things on leaving :ienna, or rather 6ermanA!stria, and coming into the 'lav provinces% It needed only a glance at the "rag!e newspapers in order to see how the whole e3alted hoc!s-poc!s of the (riple Alliance was ,!dged from there% In "rag!e there was nothing b!t gibes and sneers for that masterpiece of statesmanship% 7ven in the piping times of peace, when the two emperors &issed each other on the brow in to&en of friendship, those papers did not cloa& their belief that the alliance wo!ld be li+!idated the moment a first attempt was made to bring it down from the shimmering glory of a *ibel!ngen ideal to the plane of practical affairs% 6reat indignation was aro!sed a few years later, when the alliances were p!t to the first practical test% Italy not only withdrew from the (riple Alliance, leaving the other two members to march by themselves% b!t she even ,oined their enemies% (hat anybody sho!ld believe even for a moment in the possibility of s!ch a miracle as that of Italy fighting on the same side as A!stria wo!ld be simply incredible to anyone who did not s!ffer from the blindness of official diplomacy% And that was ,!st how people felt in A!stria also% In A!stria only the 1absb!rgs and the 6erman-A!strians s!pported the alliance% (he 1absb!rgs did so from shrewd calc!lation of their own interests and from necessity% (he 6ermans did it o!t of good faith and political ignorance% (hey acted in good faith inasm!ch as they believed that by establishing the (riple Alliance they were doing a great service to the 6erman 7mpire and were th!s helping to strengthen it and consolidate its defence% (hey showed their political ignorance, however, in holding s!ch ideas, beca!se, instead of helping the 6erman 7mpire they really chained it to a morib!nd 'tate which might bring its associate into the grave with itself> and, above all, by championing this alliance they fell more and more a prey to the 1absb!rg policy of de-6ermani9ation% For the alliance gave the 1absb!rgs good gro!nds for believing that the 6erman 7mpire wo!ld not interfere in their domestic affairs and th!s they were in a position to carry into effect, with more ease and less ris&, their

domestic policy of grad!ally eliminating the 6erman element% *ot only co!ld the Iob,ectiveness# of the 6erman 6overnment be co!nted !pon, and th!s there need be no fear of protest from that +!arter, b!t one co!ld always remind the 6erman-A!strians of the alliance and th!s silence them in case they sho!ld ever ob,ect to the reprehensible means that were being employed to establish a 'lav hegemony in the ?!al onarchy% /hat co!ld the 6erman-A!strians do, when the people of the 6erman 7mpire itself had openly proclaimed their tr!st and confidence in the 1absb!rg rOgime5 'ho!ld they resist, and th!s be branded openly before their &insfol& in the 8eich as traitors to their own national interests5 (hey, who for so many decades had sacrificed so m!ch for the sa&e of their 6erman traditionJ Once the infl!ence of the 6ermans in A!stria had been wiped o!t, what then wo!ld be the val!e of the alliance5 If the (riple Alliance were to be advantageo!s to 6ermany, was it not a necessary condition that the predominance of the 6erman element in A!stria sho!ld be maintained5 Or did anyone really believe that 6ermany co!ld contin!e to be the ally of a 1absb!rg 7mpire !nder the hegemony of the 'lavs5 (he official attit!de of 6erman diplomacy, as well as that of the general p!blic towards internal problems affecting the A!strian nationalities was not merely st!pid, it was insane% On the alliance, as on a solid fo!ndation, they gro!nded the sec!rity and f!t!re e3istence of a nation of seventy millions, while at the same time they allowed their partner to contin!e his policy of !ndermining the sole fo!ndation of that alliance methodically and resol!tely, from year to year% A day m!st come when nothing b!t a formal contract with :iennese diplomats wo!ld be left% (he alliance itself, as an effective s!pport, wo!ld be lost to 6ermany% As far as concerned Italy, s!ch had been the case from the o!tset% If people in 6ermany had st!died history and the psychology of nations a little more caref!lly not one of them co!ld have believed for a single ho!r that the L!irinal and the :iennese 1ofb!rg co!ld ever stand sho!lder to sho!lder on a common battle front% Italy wo!ld have e3ploded li&e a volcano if any Italian government had dared to send a single Italian soldier to fight for the 1absb!rg 'tate% 'o fanatically hated was this 'tate that the Italians co!ld stand in no other relation to it on a battle front e3cept as enemies% ore than once in :ienna I have witnessed e3plosions of the contempt and profo!nd hatred which Iallied# the Italian to the A!strian 'tate% (he crimes which the 1o!se of 1absb!rg committed against Italian freedom and independence d!ring several cent!ries were too grave to be forgiven, even with the best of goodwill% 4!t this goodwill did not e3ist, either among the ran& and file of the pop!lation or in the government% (herefore for Italy there were only two ways of co-e3isting with A!stria - alliance or war% 4y choosing the first it was possible to prepare leis!rely for the second% 7specially since relations between 8!ssia and A!stria tended more and more towards the arbitrament of war, the 6erman policy of alliances was as senseless as it was dangero!s% 1ere was a classical instance which demonstrated the lac& of any broad or logical lines of tho!ght% 4!t what was the reason for forming the alliance at all5 It co!ld not have been other than the wish to sec!re the f!t!re of the 8eich better than if it were to depend e3cl!sively on its own reso!rces% 4!t the f!t!re of the 8eich co!ld not have meant anything else than the problem of sec!ring the means of e3istence for the 6erman people% (he only +!estions therefore were the following0 /hat form shall the life of the nation ass!me in the near f!t!re that is to say within s!ch a period as we can forecast5 And by what means can the necessary fo!ndation and sec!rity be g!aranteed for this development within the framewor& of the general distrib!tion of power among the 7!ropean nations5 A clear analysis of the principles on which the foreign policy of 6erman statecraft were to be based sho!ld have led to the following concl!sions0 (he ann!al increase of pop!lation in 6ermany amo!nts to almost 9<<,<<< so!ls% (he diffic!lties of providing for this army of new citi9ens m!st grow from year to year and m!st finally lead to a catastrophe, !nless ways and means are fo!nd which will forestall the danger of misery and h!nger% (here were fo!r ways of providing against this terrible calamity0 B1C It was possible to adopt the French e3ample and artificially restrict the n!mber of births, th!s avoiding an e3cess of pop!lation% Mnder certain circ!mstances, in periods of distress or !nder bad climatic condition, or if the soil yields too poor a ret!rn, *at!re herself tends to chec& the increase of pop!lation in some co!ntries and among some races, b!t by a method which is +!ite as r!thless as it is wise% It does not impede the procreative fac!lty as s!ch> b!t it does impede the f!rther e3istence of the offspring by s!bmitting it to s!ch tests and privations that everything which is less strong or less healthy is forced to retreat into the bosom of tile !n&nown% /hatever s!rvives these hardships of e3istence has been tested and tried a tho!sandfold, hardened and renders fit to contin!e the process of procreation> so that the same thoro!gh selection will begin all over again% 4y th!s dealing br!tally with the individ!al and recalling him the very moment he shows that he is not fitted for the trials of life, *at!re preserves the strength of the race and the species and raises it to the highest degree of efficiency% (he decrease in n!mbers therefore implies an increase of strength, as far as the individ!al is concerned, and this finally means the invigoration of the species% 4!t the case is different when man himself starts the process of n!merical restriction% an is not carved from

*at!re#s wood% 1e is made of Ih!man# material% 1e &nows more than the r!thless L!een of /isdom% 1e does not impede the preservation of the individ!al b!t prevents procreation itself% (o the individ!al, who always sees only himself and not the race, this line of action seems more h!mane and ,!st than the opposite way% 4!t, !nfort!nately, the conse+!ences are also the opposite% 4y leaving the process of procreation !nchec&ed and by s!bmitting the individ!al to the hardest preparatory tests in life, *at!re selects the best from an ab!ndance of single elements and stamps them as fit to live and carry on the conservation of the species% 4!t man restricts the procreative fac!lty and strives obstinately to &eep alive at any cost whatever has once been born% (his correction of the ?ivine /ill seems to him to be wise and h!mane, and he re,oices at having tr!mped *at!re#s card in one game at least and th!s proved that she is not entirely reliable% (he dear little ape of an all-mighty father is delighted to see and hear that he has s!cceeded in effecting a n!merical restriction> b!t he wo!ld be very displeased if told that this, his system, brings abo!t a degeneration in personal +!ality% For as soon as the procreative fac!lty is thwarted and the n!mber of births diminished, the nat!ral str!ggle for e3istence which allows only healthy and strong individ!als to s!rvive is replaced by a sheer cra9e to Isave# feeble and even diseased creat!res at any cost% And th!s the seeds are sown for a h!man progeny which will become more and more miserable from one generation to another, as long as *at!re#s will is scorned% 4!t if that policy be carried o!t the final res!lts m!st be that s!ch a nation will event!ally terminate its own e3istence on this earth> for tho!gh man may defy the eternal laws of procreation d!ring a certain period, vengeance will follow sooner or later% A stronger race will o!st that which has grown wea&> for the vital !rge, in its !ltimate form, will b!rst as!nder all the abs!rd chains of this so-called h!mane consideration for the individ!al and will replace it with the h!manity of *at!re, which wipes o!t what is wea& in order to give place to the strong% Any policy which aims at sec!ring the e3istence of a nation by restricting the birth-rate robs that nation of its f!t!re% B2C A second sol!tion is that of internal coloni9ation% (his is a proposal which is fre+!ently made in o!r own time and one hears it la!ded a good deal% It is a s!ggestion that is well-meant b!t it is mis!nderstood by most people, so that it is the so!rce of more mischief than can be imagined% It is certainly tr!e that the prod!ctivity of the soil can be increased within certain limits> b!t only within defined limits and not indefinitely% 4y increasing the prod!ctive powers of the soil it will be possible to balance the effect of a s!rpl!s birth-rate in 6ermany for a certain period of time, witho!t r!nning any danger of h!nger% 4!t we have to face the fact that the general standard of living is rising more +!ic&ly than even the birth rate% (he re+!irements of food and clothing are becoming greater from year to year and are o!t of proportion to those of o!r ancestors of, let !s say, a h!ndred years ago% It wo!ld, therefore, be a mista&en view that every increase in the prod!ctive powers of the soil will s!pply the re+!isite conditions for an increase in the pop!lation% *o% (hat is tr!e !p to a certain point only, for at least a portion of the increased prod!ce of the soil will be cons!med by the margin of increased demands ca!sed by the steady rise in the standard of living% 4!t even if these demands were to be c!rtailed to the narrowest limits possible and if at the same time we were to !se all o!r available energies in the intenser c!ltivation, we sho!ld here reach a definite limit which is conditioned by the inherent nat!re of the soil itself% *o matter how ind!strio!sly we may labo!r we cannot increase agric!lt!ral prod!ction beyond this limit% (herefore, tho!gh we may postpone the evil ho!r of distress for a certain time, it will arrive at last% (he first phenomenon will be the rec!rrence of famine periods from time to time, after bad harvests, etc% (he intervals between these famines will become shorter and shorter the more the pop!lation increases> and, finally, the famine times will disappear only in those rare years of plenty when the granaries are f!ll% And a time will !ltimately come when even in those years of plenty there will not be eno!gh to go ro!nd> so that h!nger will dog the footsteps of the nation% *at!re m!st now step in once more and select those who are to s!rvive, or else man will help himself by artificially preventing his own increase, with all the fatal conse+!ences for the race and the species which have been already mentioned% It may be ob,ected here that, in one form or another, this f!t!re is in store for all man&ind and that the individ!al nation or race cannot escape the general fate% At first glance, that ob,ection seems logical eno!gh> b!t we have to ta&e the following into acco!nt0 (he day will certainly come when the whole of man&ind will be forced to chec& the a!gmentation of the h!man species, beca!se there will be no f!rther possibility of ad,!sting the prod!ctivity of the soil to the perpet!al increase in the pop!lation% *at!re m!st then be allowed to !se her own methods or man may possibly ta&e the tas& of reg!lation into his own hands and establish the necessary e+!ilibri!m by the application of better means than we have at o!r disposal to-day% 4!t then it will be a problem for man&ind as a whole, whereas now only those races have to s!ffer from want which no longer have the strength and daring to ac+!ire s!fficient soil to f!lfil their needs% For, as things stand to-day, vast spaces still lie !nc!ltivated all over the s!rface of the globe% (hose spaces are only waiting for the plo!ghshare% And it is +!ite certain that *at!re did not set those territories apart as the e3cl!sive past!res of any one nation or race to be held !n!tili9ed in reserve for the f!t!re% '!ch land awaits the people who

have the strength to ac+!ire it and the diligence to c!ltivate it% *at!re &nows no political frontiers% 'he begins by establishing life on this globe and then watches the free play of forces% (hose who show the greatest co!rage and ind!stry are the children nearest to her heart and they will be granted the sovereign right of e3istence% If a nation confines itself to Iinternal coloni9ation# while other races are perpet!ally increasing their territorial anne3ations all over the globe, that nation will be forced to restrict the n!merical growth of its pop!lation at a time when the other nations are increasing theirs% (his sit!ation m!st event!ally arrive% It will arrive soon if the territory which the nation has at its disposal be small% *ow it is !nfort!nately tr!e that only too often the best nations - or, to spea& more e3actly, the only really c!lt!red nations, who at the same time are the chief bearers of h!man progress have decided, in their blind pacifism, to refrain from the ac+!isition of new territory and to be content with Iinternal coloni9ation%# 4!t at the same time nations of inferior +!ality s!cceed in getting hold of large spaces for coloni9ation all over the globe% (he state of affairs which m!st res!lt from this contrast is the following0 8aces which are c!lt!rally s!perior b!t less r!thless wo!ld be forced to restrict their increase, beca!se of ins!fficient territory to s!pport the pop!lation, while less civili9ed races co!ld increase indefinitely, owing to the vast territories at their disposal% In other words0 sho!ld that state of affairs contin!e, then the world will one day be possessed by that portion of man&ind which is c!lt!rally inferior b!t more active and energetic% A time will come, even tho!gh in the distant f!t!re, when there can be only two alternatives0 7ither the world will be r!led according to o!r modern concept of democracy, and then every decision will be in favo!r of the n!merically stronger races> or the world will be governed by the law of nat!ral distrib!tion of power, and then those nations will be victorio!s who are of more br!tal will and are not the nations who have practised self-denial% *obody can do!bt that this world will one day be the scene of dreadf!l str!ggles for e3istence on the part of man&ind% In the end the instinct of self-preservation alone will tri!mph% 4efore its cons!ming fire this so-called h!manitarianism, which connotes only a mi3t!re of fat!o!s timidity and self-conceit, will melt away as !nder the arch s!nshine% an has become great thro!gh perpet!al str!ggle% In perpet!al peace his greatness m!st decline% For !s 6ermans, the slogan of Iinternal coloni9ation# is fatal, beca!se it enco!rages the belief that we have discovered a means which is in accordance with o!r innate pacifism and which will enable !s to wor& for o!r livelihood in a half sl!mbering e3istence% '!ch a teaching, once it were ta&en serio!sly by o!r people, wo!ld mean the end of all effort to ac+!ire for o!rselves that place in the world which we deserve% If% the average 6erman were once convinced that by this meas!re he has the chance of ens!ring his livelihood and g!aranteeing his f!t!re, any attempt to ta&e an active and profitable part in s!staining the vital demands of his co!ntry wo!ld be o!t of the +!estion% 'ho!ld the nation agree to s!ch an attit!de then any really !sef!l foreign policy might be loo&ed !pon as dead and b!ried, together with all hope for the f!t!re of the 6erman people% Once we &now what the conse+!ences of this Iinternal coloni9ation# theory wo!ld be we can no longer consider as a mere accident the fact that among those who inc!lcate this +!ite pernicio!s mentality among o!r people the )ew is always in the first line% 1e &nows his softies only too well not to &now that they are ready to be the gratef!l victims of every swindle which promises them a gold-bloc& in the shape of a discovery that will enable them to o!twit *at!re and th!s render s!perfl!o!s the hard and ine3orable str!ggle for e3istence> so that finally they may become lords of the planet partly by sheer dolce far niente and partly by wor&ing when a pleasing opport!nity arises% It cannot be too strongly emphasised that any 6erman Iinternal coloni9ation# m!st first of all be considered as s!ited only for the relief of social grievances% (o carry o!t a system of internal coloni9ation, the most important preliminary meas!re wo!ld be to free the soil from the grip of the spec!lator and ass!re that freedom% 4!t s!ch a system co!ld never s!ffice to ass!re the f!t!re of the nation witho!t the ac+!isition of new territory% If we adopt a different plan we shall soon reach a point beyond which the reso!rces of o!r soil can no longer be e3ploited, and at the same time we shall reach a point beyond which o!r man-power cannot develop% In concl!sion, the following m!st be said0 (he fact that only !p to a limited e3tent can internal coloni9ation be practised in a national territory which is of definitely small area and the restriction of the procreative fac!lty which follows as a res!lt of s!ch conditions these two factors have a very !nfavo!rable effect on the military and political standing of a nation% (he e3tent of the national territory is a determining factor in the e3ternal sec!rity of the nation% (he larger the territory which a people has at its disposal the stronger are the national defences of that people% ilitary decisions are more +!ic&ly, more easily, more completely and more effectively gained against a people occ!pying a national territory which is restricted in area, than against 'tates which have e3tensive territories% oreover, the magnit!de of a national territory is in itself a certain ass!rance that an o!tside "ower will not hastily ris& the advent!re of an invasion> for in that case the str!ggle wo!ld have to be long and e3ha!sting before victory co!ld be hoped for% (he ris& being so great% there wo!ld have to be e3traordinary reasons for s!ch an aggressive advent!re% 1ence it is that the territorial magnit!de of a 'tate f!rnishes a basis whereon national liberty and independence can be maintained with relative ease> while, on the contrary, a 'tate whose territory is small offers a nat!ral temptation to the invader%

As a matter of fact, so-called national circles in the 6erman 8eich re,ected those first two possibilities of establishing a balance between the constant n!merical increase in the pop!lation and a national territory which co!ld not e3pand proportionately% 4!t the reasons given for that re,ection were different from those which I have ,!st e3po!nded% It was mainly on the basis of certain moral sentiments that restriction of the birth-rate was ob,ected to% "roposals for internal coloni9ation were re,ected indignantly beca!se it was s!spected that s!ch a policy might mean an attac& on the big landowners, and that this attac& might be the forer!nner of a general assa!lt against the principle of private property as a whole% (he form in which the latter sol!tion - internal coloni9ation - was recommended ,!stified the misgivings of the big landowners% 4!t the form in which the coloni9ation proposal was re,ected was not very clever, as regards the impression which s!ch re,ection might be calc!lated to ma&e on the mass of the people, and anyhow it did not go to the root of the problem at all% Only two f!rther ways were left open in which wor& and bread co!ld be sec!red for the increasing pop!lation% B.C It was possible to thin& of ac+!iring new territory on which a certain portion of# the increasing pop!lation co!ld be settled each year> or else B4C O!r ind!stry and commerce had to be organi9ed in s!ch a manner as to sec!re an increase in the e3ports and th!s be able to s!pport o!r people by the increased p!rchasing power accr!ing from the profits made on foreign mar&ets% (herefore the problem was0 A policy of territorial e3pansion or a colonial and commercial policy% 4oth policies were ta&en into consideration, e3amined, recommended and re,ected, from vario!s standpoints, with the res!lt that the second alternative was finally adopted% (he so!nder alternative, however, was !ndo!btedly the first% (he principle of ac+!iring new territory, on which the s!rpl!s pop!lation co!ld be settled, has many advantages to recommend it, especially if we ta&e the f!t!re as well as the present into acco!nt% In the first place, too m!ch importance cannot be placed on the necessity for adopting a policy which will ma&e it possible to maintain a healthy peasant class as the basis of the national comm!nity% any of o!r present evils have their origin e3cl!sively in the disproportion between the !rban and r!ral portions of the pop!lation% A solid stoc& of small and medi!m farmers has at all times been the best protection which a nation co!ld have against the social diseases that are prevalent to-day% oreover, that is the only sol!tion which g!arantees the daily bread of a nation within the framewor& of its domestic national economy% /ith this condition once g!aranteed, ind!stry and commerce wo!ld retire from the !nhealthy position of foremost importance which they hold to-day and wo!ld ta&e their d!e place within the general scheme of national economy, ad,!sting the balance between demand and s!pply% (h!s ind!stry and commerce wo!ld no longer constit!te the basis of the national s!bsistence, b!t wo!ld be a!3iliary instit!tions% 4y f!lfilling their proper f!nction, which is to ad,!st the balance between national prod!ction and national cons!mption, they render the national s!bsistence more or less independent of foreign co!ntries and th!s ass!re the freedom and independence of the nation, especially at critical ,!nct!res in its history% '!ch a territorial policy, however, cannot find its f!lfilment in the $ameroons b!t almost e3cl!sively here in 7!rope% One m!st calmly and s+!arely face the tr!th that it certainly cannot be part of the dispensation of ?ivine "rovidence to give a fifty times larger share of the soil of this world to one nation than to another% In considering this state of affairs to-day, one m!st not allow e3isting political frontiers to distract attention from what o!ght to e3ist on principles of strict ,!stice% If this earth has s!fficient room for all, then we o!ght to have that share of the soil which is absol!tely necessary for o!r e3istence% Of co!rse people will not vol!ntarily ma&e that accommodation% At this point the right of self-preservation comes into effect% And when attempts to settle the diffic!lty in an amicable way are re,ected the clenched hand m!st ta&e by force that which was ref!sed to the open hand of friendship% If in the past o!r ancestors had based their political decisions on similar pacifist nonsense as o!r present generation does, we sho!ld not possess more than one-third of the national territory that we possess to-day and probably there wo!ld be no 6erman nation to worry abo!t its f!t!re in 7!rope% *o% /e owe the two 7astern ar&s ;C of the 7mpire to the nat!ral determination of o!r forefathers in their str!ggle for e3istence, and th!s it is to the same determined policy that we owe the inner strength which is based on the e3tent of o!r political and racial territories and which alone has made it possible for !s to e3ist !p to now% And there is still another reason why that sol!tion wo!ld have been the correct one0 any contemporary 7!ropean 'tates are li&e pyramids standing on their ape3es% (he 7!ropean territory which these 'tates possess is ridic!lo!sly small when compared with the enormo!s overhead weight of their colonies, foreign trade, etc% It may be said that they have the ape3 in 7!rope and the base of the pyramid all over the world> +!ite different from the Mnited 'tates of America, which has its base on the American $ontinent and is in contact with the rest of the world only thro!gh its ape3% O!t of that sit!ation arises the incomparable inner strength of the M%'%A% and the contrary sit!ation is responsible for the wea&ness of most of the colonial 7!ropean "owers% 7ngland cannot be s!ggested as an arg!ment against this assertion, tho!gh in glancing cas!ally over the map of the 4ritish 7mpire one is inclined easily to overloo& the e3istence of a whole Anglo-'a3on world% 7ngland#s position

cannot be compared with that of any other 'tate in 7!rope, since it forms a vast comm!nity of lang!age and c!lt!re together with the M%'%A% (herefore the only possibility which 6ermany had of carrying a so!nd territorial policy into effect was that of ac+!iring new territory in 7!rope itself% $olonies cannot serve this p!rpose as long as they are not s!ited for settlement by 7!ropeans on a large scale% In the nineteenth cent!ry it was no longer possible to ac+!ire s!ch colonies by peacef!l means% (herefore any attempt at s!ch a colonial e3pansion wo!ld have meant an enormo!s military str!ggle% $onse+!ently it wo!ld have been more practical to !nderta&e that military str!ggle for new territory in 7!rope rather than to wage war for the ac+!isition of possessions abroad% '!ch a decision nat!rally demanded that the nation#s !ndivided energies sho!ld be devoted to it% A policy of that &ind which re+!ires for its f!lfilment every o!nce of available energy on the part of everybody concerned, cannot be carried into effect by half-meas!res or in a hesitating manner% (he political leadership of the 6erman 7mpire sho!ld then have been directed e3cl!sively to this goal% *o political step sho!ld have been ta&en in response to other considerations than this tas& and the means of accomplishing it% 6ermany sho!ld have been alive to the fact that s!ch a goal co!ld have been reached only by war, and the prospect of war sho!ld have been faced with calm and collected determination% (he whole system of alliances sho!ld have been envisaged and val!ed from that standpoint% If new territory were to be ac+!ired in 7!rope it m!st have been mainly at 8!ssia#s cost, and once again the new 6erman 7mpire sho!ld have set o!t on its march along the same road as was formerly trodden by the (e!tonic 2nights, this time to ac+!ire soil for the 6erman plo!gh by means of the 6erman sword and th!s provide the nation with its daily bread% For s!ch a policy, however, there was only one possible ally in 7!rope% (hat was 7ngland% Only by alliance with 7ngland was it possible to safeg!ard the rear of the new 6erman cr!sade% (he ,!stification for !nderta&ing s!ch an e3pedition was stronger than the ,!stification which o!r forefathers had for setting o!t on theirs% *ot one of o!r pacifists ref!ses to eat the bread made from the grain grown in the 7ast> and yet the first plo!gh here was that called the I'word#% *o sacrifice sho!ld have been considered too great if it was a necessary means of gaining 7ngland#s friendship% $olonial and naval ambitions sho!ld have been abandoned and attempts sho!ld not have been made to compete against 4ritish ind!stries% Only a clear and definite policy co!ld lead to s!ch an achievement% '!ch a policy wo!ld have demanded a ren!nciation of the endeavo!r to con+!er the world#s mar&ets, also a ren!nciation of colonial intentions and naval power% All the means of power at the disposal of the 'tate sho!ld have been concentrated in the military forces on land% (his policy wo!ld have involved a period of temporary self-denial, for the sa&e of a great and powerf!l f!t!re% (here was a time when 7ngland might have entered into negotiations with !s, on the gro!nds of that proposal% For 7ngland wo!ld have well !nderstood that the problems arising from the steady increase in pop!lation were forcing 6ermany to loo& for a sol!tion either in 7!rope with the help of 7ngland or, witho!t 7ngland, in some other part of the world% (his o!tloo& was probably the chief reason why London tried to draw nearer to 6ermany abo!t the t!rn of the cent!ry% For the first time in 6ermany an attit!de was then manifested which afterwards displayed itself in a most tragic way% "eople then gave e3pression to an !npleasant feeling that we might th!s find o!rselves obliged to p!ll 7ngland#s chestn!ts o!t of the fire% As if an alliance co!ld be based on anything else than m!t!al give-and-ta&eJ And 7ngland wo!ld have become a party to s!ch a m!t!al bargain% 4ritish diplomats were still wise eno!gh to &now that an e+!ivalent m!st be forthcoming as a consideration for any services rendered% Let !s s!ppose that in 19<4 o!r 6erman foreign policy was managed ast!tely eno!gh to enable !s to ta&e the part which )apan played% It is not easy to meas!re the greatness of the res!lts that might have accr!ed to 6ermany from s!ch a policy% (here wo!ld have been no world war% (he blood which wo!ld have been shed in 19<4 wo!ld not have been a tenth of that shed from 1914 to 191;% And what a position 6ermany wo!ld hold in the world to-day5 In any case the alliance with A!stria was then an abs!rdity% For this m!mmy of a 'tate did not attach itself to 6ermany for the p!rpose of carrying thro!gh a war, b!t rather to maintain a perpet!al state of peace which was meant to be e3ploited for the p!rpose of slowly b!t persistently e3terminating the 6erman element in the ?!al onarchy% Another reason for the impossible character of this alliance was that nobody co!ld e3pect s!ch a 'tate to ta&e an active part in defending 6erman national interests, seeing that it did not have s!fficient strength and determination to p!t an end to the policy of de-6ermani9ation within its own frontiers% If 6ermany herself was not moved by a s!fficiently powerf!l national sentiment and was not s!fficiently r!thless to ta&e away from that abs!rd 1absb!rg 'tate the right to decide the destinies of ten million inhabitants who were of the same nationality as the 6ermans themselves, s!rely it was o!t of the +!estion to e3pect the 1absb!rg 'tate to be a collaborating party in any great and co!rageo!s 6erman !nderta&ing% (he attit!de of the old 8eich towards the A!strian +!estion might have been ta&en as a test of its stamina for the str!ggle where the destinies of the whole nation were at sta&e%

In any case, the policy of oppression against the 6erman pop!lation in A!stria sho!ld not have been allowed to be carried on and to grow stronger from year to year> for the val!e of A!stria as an ally co!ld be ass!red only by !pholding the 6erman element there% 4!t that co!rse was not followed% *othing was dreaded so m!ch as the possibility of an armed conflict> b!t finally, and at a most !nfavo!rable moment, the conflict had to be faced and accepted% (hey tho!ght to c!t loose from the cords of destiny, b!t destiny held them fast% (hey dreamt of maintaining a world peace and wo&e !p to find themselves in a world war% And that dream of peace was a most significant reason why the above-mentioned third alternative for the f!t!re development of 6ermany was not even ta&en into consideration% (he fact was recogni9ed that new territory co!ld be gained only in the 7ast> b!t this meant that there wo!ld be fighting ahead, whereas they wanted peace at any cost% (he slogan of 6erman foreign policy at one time !sed to be0 (he !se of all possible means for the maintenance of the 6erman nation% *ow it was changed to0 aintenance of world peace by all possible means% /e &now what the res!lt was% I shall res!me the disc!ssion of this point in detail later on% (here remained still another alternative, which we may call the fo!rth% (his was0 Ind!stry and world trade, naval power and colonies% '!ch a development might certainly have been attained more easily and more rapidly% (o coloni9e a territory is a slow process, often e3tending over cent!ries% Net this fact is the so!rce of its inner strength, for it is not thro!gh a s!dden b!rst of enth!siasm that it can be p!t into effect, b!t rather thro!gh a grad!al and end!ring process of growth +!ite different from ind!strial progress, which can be !rged on by advertisement within a few years% (he res!lt th!s achieved, however, is not of lasting +!ality b!t something frail, li&e a soap-b!bble% It is m!ch easier to b!ild +!ic&ly than to carry thro!gh the to!gh tas& of settling a territory with farmers and establishing farmsteads% 4!t the former is more +!ic&ly destroyed than the latter% In adopting s!ch a co!rse 6ermany m!st have &nown that to follow it o!t wo!ld necessarily mean war sooner or later% Only children co!ld believe that sweet and !nct!o!s e3pressions of goodness and persistent avowals of peacef!l intentions co!ld get them their bananas thro!gh this Ifriendly competition between the nations#, with the prospect of never having to fight for them% *o% Once we had ta&en this road, 7ngland was bo!nd to be o!r enemy at some time or other to come% Of co!rse it fitted in nicely with o!r innocent ass!mptions, b!t still it was abs!rd to grow indignant at the fact that a day came when the 7nglish too& the liberty of opposing o!r peacef!l penetration with the br!tality of violent egoists% *at!rally, we on o!r side wo!ld never have done s!ch a thing% If a 7!ropean territorial policy against 8!ssia co!ld have been p!t into practice only in case we had 7ngland as o!r ally, on the other hand a colonial and world-trade policy co!ld have been carried into effect only against 7nglish interests and with the s!pport of 8!ssia% 4!t then this policy sho!ld have been adopted in f!ll conscio!sness of all the conse+!ences it involved and, above all things, A!stria sho!ld have been discarded as +!ic&ly as possible% At the t!rn of the cent!ry the alliance with A!stria had become a veritable abs!rdity from all points of view% 4!t nobody tho!ght of forming an alliance with 8!ssia against 7ngland, ,!st as nobody tho!ght of ma&ing 7ngland an ally against 8!ssia> for in either case the final res!lt wo!ld inevitably have meant war% And to avoid war was the very reason why a commercial and ind!strial policy was decided !pon% It was believed that the peacef!l con+!est of the world by commercial means provided a method which wo!ld permanently s!pplant the policy of force% Occasionally, however, there were do!bts abo!t the efficiency of this principle, especially when some +!ite incomprehensible warnings came from 7ngland now and again% (hat was the reason why the fleet was b!ilt% It was not for the p!rpose of attac&ing or annihilating 7ngland b!t merely to defend the concept of world-peace, mentioned above, and also to protect the principle of con+!ering the world by Ipeacef!l# means% (herefore this fleet was &ept within modest limits, not only as regards the n!mber and tonnage of the vessels b!t also in regard to their armament, the idea being to f!rnish new proofs of peacef!l intentions% (he chatter abo!t the peacef!l con+!est of the world by commercial means was probably the most completely nonsensical st!ff ever raised to the dignity of a g!iding principle in the policy of a 'tate, (his nonsense became even more foolish when 7ngland was pointed o!t as a typical e3ample to prove how the thing co!ld be p!t into practice% O!r doctrinal way of regarding history and o!r professorial ideas in that domain have done irreparable harm and offer a stri&ing Iproof# of how people Ilearn# history witho!t !nderstanding anything of it% As a matter of fact, 7ngland o!ght to have been loo&ed !pon as a convincing arg!ment against the theory of the pacific con+!est of the world by commercial means% *o nation prepared the way for its commercial con+!ests more br!tally than 7ngland did by means of the sword, and no other nation has defended s!ch con+!ests more r!thlessly% Is it not a characteristic +!ality of 4ritish statecraft that it &nows how to !se political power in order to gain economic advantages and, inversely, to t!rn economic con+!ests into political power5 /hat an asto!nding error it was to believe that 7ngland wo!ld not have the co!rage to give its own blood for the p!rposes of its own economic e3pansionJ (he fact that 7ngland did not possess a national army proved nothing> for it is not the act!al military str!ct!re of the moment that matters b!t rather the will and determination to !se whatever military strength is

available% 7ngland has always had the armament which she needed% 'he always fo!ght with those weapons which were necessary for s!ccess% 'he sent mercenary troops, to fight as long as mercenaries s!fficed> b!t she never hesitated to draw heavily and deeply from the best blood of the whole nation when victory co!ld be obtained only by s!ch a sacrifice% And in every case the fighting spirit, dogged determination, and !se of br!tal means in cond!cting military operations have always remained the same% 4!t in 6ermany, thro!gh the medi!m of the schools, the "ress and the comic papers, an idea of the 7nglishman was grad!ally formed which was bo!nd event!ally to lead to the worst &ind of self-deception% (his abs!rdity slowly b!t persistently spread into every +!arter of 6erman life% (he res!lt was an !nderval!ation for which we have had to pay a heavy penalty% (he del!sion was so profo!nd that the 7nglishman was loo&ed !pon as a shrewd b!siness man, b!t personally a coward even to an incredible degree% Mnfort!nately o!r lofty teachers of professorial history did not bring home to the minds of their p!pils the tr!th that it is not possible to b!ild !p s!ch a mighty organi9ation as the 4ritish 7mpire by mere swindle and fra!d% (he few who called attention to that tr!th were either ignored or silenced% I can vividly recall to mind the astonished loo&s of my comrades when they fo!nd themselves personally face to face for the first time with the (ommies in Flanders% After a few days of fighting the conscio!sness slowly dawned on o!r soldiers that those 'cotsmen were not li&e the ones we had seen described and caricat!red in the comic papers and mentioned in the comm!ni+!Os% It was then that I formed my first ideas of the efficiency of vario!s forms of propaganda% '!ch a falsification, however, served the p!rpose of those who had fabricated it% (his caricat!re of the 7nglishman, tho!gh false, co!ld be !sed to prove the possibility of con+!ering the world peacef!lly by commercial means% /here the 7nglishman s!cceeded we sho!ld also s!cceed% O!r far greater honesty and o!r freedom from that specifically 7nglish Iperfidy# wo!ld be assets on o!r side% (hereby it was hoped that the sympathy of the smaller nations and the confidence of the greater nations co!ld be gained more easily% /e did not reali9e that o!r honesty was an ob,ect of profo!nd aversion for other people beca!se we o!rselves believed in it% (he rest of the world loo&ed on o!r behavio!r as the manifestation of a shrewd deceitf!lness> b!t when the revol!tion came, then they were ama9ed at the deeper insight it gave them into o!r mentality, sincere even beyond the limits of st!pidity% Once we !nderstand the part played by that abs!rd notion of con+!ering the world by peacef!l commercial means we can clearly !nderstand how that other abs!rdity, the (riple Alliance, came to e3ist% /ith what 'tate then co!ld an alliance have been made5 In alliance with A!stria we co!ld not ac+!ire new territory by military means, even in 7!rope% And this very fact was the real reason for the inner wea&ness of the (riple Alliance% A 4ismarc& co!ld permit himself s!ch a ma&eshift for the necessities of the moment, b!t certainly not any of his b!ngling s!ccessors, and least of all when the fo!ndations no longer e3isted on which 4ismarc& had formed the (riple Alliance% In 4ismarc&#s time A!stria co!ld still be loo&ed !pon as a 6erman 'tate> b!t the grad!al introd!ction of !niversal s!ffrage t!rned the co!ntry into a parliamentary 4abel, in which the 6erman voice was scarcely a!dible% From the viewpoint of racial policy, this alliance with A!stria was simply disastro!s% A new 'lavic 6reat "ower was allowed to grow !p close to the frontiers of the 6erman 7mpire% Later on this "ower was bo!nd to adopt towards 6ermany an attit!de different from that of 8!ssia, for e3ample% (he Alliance was th!s bo!nd to become more empty and more feeble, beca!se the only s!pporters of it were losing their infl!ence and were being systematically p!shed o!t of the more important p!blic offices% Abo!t the year 19<< the Alliance with A!stria had already entered the same phase as the Alliance between A!stria and Italy% 1ere also only one alternative was possible0 7ither to ta&e the side of the 1absb!rg onarchy or to raise a protest against the oppression of the 6erman element in A!stria% 4!t, generally spea&ing, when one ta&es s!ch a co!rse it is bo!nd event!ally to lead to open conflict% From the psychological point of view also, the (riple decreases according as s!ch an alliance limits its ob,ect to the defence of the stat!s +!o% 4!t, on the other hand, an alliance will increase its cohesive strength the more the parties concerned in it may hope to !se it as a means of reaching some practical goal of e3pansion% 1ere, as everywhere else, strength does not lie in defence b!t in attac&% (his tr!th was recogni9ed in vario!s +!arters b!t, !nfort!nately, not by the so-called elected representatives of the people% As early as 1912 L!dendorff, who was then $olonel and an Officer of the 6eneral 'taff, pointed o!t these wea& feat!res of the Alliance in a memorand!m which he then drew !p% 4!t of co!rse the Istatesmen# did not attach any importance or val!e to that doc!ment% In general it wo!ld seem as if reason were a fac!lty that is active only in the case of ordinary mortals b!t that it is entirely absent when we come to deal with that branch of the species &nown as Idiplomats#% It was l!c&y for 6ermany that the war of 1914 bro&e o!t with A!stria as its direct ca!se, for th!s the 1absb!rgs were compelled to participate% 1ad the origin of the /ar been otherwise, 6ermany wo!ld have been left to her own reso!rces% (he 1absb!rg 'tate wo!ld never have been ready or willing to ta&e part in a war for the origin of which 6ermany was responsible% /hat was the ob,ect of so m!ch oblo+!y later in the case of Italy#s decision wo!ld have

ta&en place, only earlier, in the case of A!stria% In other words, if 6ermany had been forced to go to war for some reason of its own, A!stria wo!ld have remained Ine!tral# in order to safeg!ard the 'tate against a revol!tion which might begin immediately after the war had started% (he 'lav element wo!ld have preferred to smash !p the ?!al onarchy in 1914 rather than permit it to come to the assistance of 6ermany% 4!t at that time there were only a few who !nderstood all the dangers and aggravations which res!lted from the alliance with the ?an!bian onarchy% In the first place, A!stria had too many enemies who were eagerly loo&ing forward to obtain the heritage of that decrepit 'tate, so that these people grad!ally developed a certain animosity against 6ermany, beca!se 6ermany was an obstacle to their desires inasm!ch as it &ept the ?!al onarchy from falling to pieces, a cons!mmation that was hoped for and yearned for on all sides% (he conviction developed that :ienna co!ld be reached only by passing thro!gh 4erlin% In the second place, by adopting this policy 6ermany lost its best and most promising chances of other alliances% In place of these possibilities one now observed a growing tension in the relations with 8!ssia and even with Italy% And this in spite of the fact that the general attit!de in 8ome was ,!st as favo!rable to 6ermany as it was hostile to A!stria, a hostility which lay dormant in the individ!al Italian and bro&e o!t violently on occasion% 'ince a commercial and ind!strial policy had been adopted, no motive was left for waging war against 8!ssia% Only the enemies of the two co!ntries, 6ermany and 8!ssia, co!ld have an active interest in s!ch a war !nder these circ!mstances% As a matter of fact, it was only the )ews and the ar3ists who tried to stir !p bad blood between the two 'tates% In the third place, the Alliance constit!ted a permanent danger to 6erman sec!rity> for any great "ower that was hostile to 4ismarc&#s 7mpire co!ld mobili9e a whole lot of other 'tates in a war against 6ermany by promising them tempting spoils at the e3pense of the A!strian ally% It was possible to aro!se the whole of 7astern 7!rope against A!stria, especially 8!ssia, and Italy also% (he world coalition which had developed !nder the leadership of 2ing 7dward co!ld never have become a reality if 6ermany#s ally, A!stria, had not offered s!ch an all!ring prospect of booty% It was this fact alone which made it possible to combine so many heterogeneo!s 'tates with divergent interests into one common phalan3 of attac&% 7very member co!ld hope to enrich himself at the e3pense of A!stria if he ,oined in the general attac& against 6ermany% (he fact that (!r&ey was also a tacit party to the !nfort!nate alliance with A!stria a!gmented 6ermany#s peril to an e3traordinary degree% )ewish international finance needed this bait of the A!strian heritage in order to carry o!t its plans of r!ining 6ermany> for 6ermany had not yet s!rrendered to the general control which the international captains of finance and trade e3ercised over the other 'tates% (h!s it was possible to consolidate that coalition and ma&e it strong eno!gh and brave eno!gh, thro!gh the sheer weight of n!mbers, to ,oin in bodily conflict with the Ihorned# 'iegfried%9C (he alliance with the 1absb!rg onarchy, which I loathed while still in A!stria, was the s!b,ect of grave concern on my part and ca!sed me to meditate on it so persistently that finally I came to the concl!sions which I have mentioned above% In the small circles which I fre+!ented at that time I did not conceal my conviction that this sinister agreement with a 'tate doomed to collapse wo!ld also bring catastrophe to 6ermany if she did not free herself from it in time% I never for a moment wavered in that firm conviction, even when the tempest of the /orld /ar seemed to have made shipwrec& of the reasoning fac!lty itself and had p!t blind enth!siasm in its place, even among those circles where the coolest and hardest ob,ective thin&ing o!ght to have held sway% In the trenches I voiced and !pheld my own opinion whenever these problems came !nder disc!ssion% I held that to abandon the 1absb!rg onarchy wo!ld involve no sacrifice if 6ermany co!ld thereby red!ce the n!mber of her own enemies> for the millions of 6ermans who had donned the steel helmet had done so not to fight for the maintenance of a corr!pt dynasty b!t rather for the salvation of the 6erman people% 4efore the /ar there were occasions on which it seemed that at least one section of the 6erman p!blic had some slight misgivings abo!t the political wisdom of the alliance with A!stria% From time to time 6erman conservative circles iss!ed warnings against being over-confident abo!t the worth of that alliance> b!t, li&e every other reasonable s!ggestion made at that time, it was thrown to the winds% (he general conviction was that the right meas!res had been adopted to Icon+!er# the world, that the s!ccess of these meas!res wo!ld be enormo!s and the sacrifices negligible% Once again the I!ninitiated# layman co!ld do nothing b!t observe how the Ielect# were marching straight ahead towards disaster and enticing their beloved people to follow them, as the rats followed the "ied "iper of 1amelin% If we wo!ld loo& for the deeper gro!nds which made it possible to foist on the people this abs!rd notion of peacef!lly con+!ering the world thro!gh commercial penetration, and how it was possible to p!t forward the maintenance of world-peace as a national aim, we shall find that these gro!nds lay in a general morbid condition that had pervaded the whole body of 6erman political tho!ght%

(he tri!mphant progress of technical science in 6ermany and the marvello!s development of 6erman ind!stries and commerce led !s to forget that a powerf!l 'tate had been the necessary pre-re+!isite of that s!ccess% On the contrary, certain circles went even so far as to give vent to the theory that the 'tate owed its very e3istence to these phenomena> that it was, above all, an economic instit!tion and sho!ld be constit!ted in accordance with economic interests% (herefore, it was held, the 'tate was dependent on the economic str!ct!re% (his condition of things was loo&ed !pon and glorified as the so!ndest and most normal arrangement% *ow, the tr!th is that the 'tate in itself has nothing whatsoever to do with any definite economic concept or a definite economic development% It does not arise from a compact made between contracting parties, within a certain delimited territory, for the p!rpose of serving economic ends% (he 'tate is a comm!nity of living beings who have &indred physical and spirit!al nat!res, organi9ed for the p!rpose of ass!ring the conservation of their own &ind and to help towards f!lfilling those ends which "rovidence has assigned to that partic!lar race or racial branch% (herein, and therein alone, lie the p!rpose and meaning of a 'tate% 7conomic activity is one of the many a!3iliary means which are necessary for the attainment of those aims% 4!t economic activity is never the origin or p!rpose of a 'tate, e3cept where a 'tate has been originally fo!nded on a false and !nnat!ral basis% And this alone e3plains why a 'tate as s!ch does not necessarily need a certain delimited territory as a condition of its establishment% (his condition becomes a necessary pre-re+!isite only among those people who wo!ld provide and ass!re s!bsistence for their &insfol& thro!gh their own ind!stry, which means that they are ready to carry on the str!ggle for e3istence by means of their own wor&% "eople who can snea& their way, li&e parasites, into the h!man body politic and ma&e others wor& for them !nder vario!s pretences can form a 'tate witho!t possessing any definite delimited territory% (his is chiefly applicable to that parasitic nation which, partic!larly at the present time preys !pon the honest portion of man&ind> I mean the )ews% (he )ewish 'tate has never been delimited in space% It has been spread all over the world, witho!t any frontiers whatsoever, and has always been constit!ted from the membership of one race e3cl!sively% (hat is why the )ews have always formed a 'tate within the 'tate% One of the most ingenio!s tric&s ever devised has been that of sailing the )ewish ship-of-state !nder the flag of 8eligion and th!s sec!ring that tolerance which Aryans are always ready to grant to different religio!s faiths% 4!t the osaic Law is really nothing else than the doctrine of the preservation of the )ewish race% (herefore this Law ta&es in all spheres of sociological, political and economic science which have a bearing on the main end in view% (he instinct for the preservation of one#s own species is the primary ca!se that leads to the formation of h!man comm!nities% 1ence the 'tate is a racial organism, and not an economic organi9ation% (he difference between the two is so great as to be incomprehensible to o!r contemporary so-called Istatesmen#% (hat is why they li&e to believe that the 'tate may be constit!ted as an economic str!ct!re, whereas the tr!th is that it has always res!lted from the e3ercise of those +!alities which are part of the will to preserve the species and the race% 4!t these +!alities always e3ist and operate thro!gh the heroic virt!es and have nothing to do with commercial egoism> for the conservation of the species always pres!pposes that the individ!al is ready to sacrifice himself% '!ch is the meaning of the poet#s lines0 nd set!et ihr nicht das "e#en ein$ %ie wird euch das "e#en gewonnen sein& B'nd if (ou do not stake (our life$ )ou will never win life for (ourself %C 1<C (he sacrifice of the individ!al e3istence is necessary in order to ass!re the conservation of the race% 1ence it is that the most essential condition for the establishment and maintenance of a 'tate is a certain feeling of solidarity, wo!nded in an identity of character and race and in a resol!te readiness to defend these at all costs% /ith people who live on their own territory this will res!lt in a development of the heroic virt!es> with a parasitic people it will develop the arts of s!bterf!ge and gross perfidy !nless we admit that these characteristics are innate and that the varying political forms thro!gh which the parasitic race e3presses itself are only the o!tward manifestations of innate characteristics% At least in the beginning, the formation of a 'tate can res!lt only from a manifestation of the heroic +!alities I have spo&en of% And the people who fail in the str!ggle for e3istence, that is to say those, who become vassals and are thereby condemned to disappear entirely sooner or later, are those who do not display the heroic virt!es in the str!ggle, or those who fall victims to the perfidy of the parasites% And even in this latter case the fail!re is not so m!ch d!e to lac& of intellect!al powers, b!t rather to a lac& of co!rage and determination% An attempt is made to conceal the real nat!re of this failing by saying that it is the h!mane feeling% (he +!alities which are employed for the fo!ndation and preservation of a 'tate have accordingly little or nothing to do with the economic sit!ation% And this is conspic!o!sly demonstrated by the fact that the inner strength of a 'tate only very rarely coincides with what is called its economic e3pansion% On the contrary, there are n!mero!s e3amples to show that a period of economic prosperity indicates the approaching decline of a 'tate% If it were correct to attrib!te the fo!ndation of h!man comm!nities to economic forces, then the power of the 'tate as s!ch wo!ld be at its highest pitch d!ring periods of economic prosperity, and not vice versa%

It is specially diffic!lt to !nderstand how the belief that the 'tate is bro!ght into being and preserved by economic forces co!ld gain c!rrency in a co!ntry which has given proof of the opposite in every phase of its history% (he history of "r!ssia shows in a manner partic!larly clear and distinct, that it is o!t of the moral virt!es of the people and not from their economic circ!mstances that a 'tate is formed% It is only !nder the protection of those virt!es that economic activities can be developed and the latter will contin!e to flo!rish !ntil a time comes when the creative political capacity declines% (herewith the economic str!ct!re will also brea& down, a phenomenon which is now happening in an alarming manner before o!r eyes% (he material interest of man&ind can prosper only in the shade of the heroic virt!es% (he moment they become the primary considerations of life they wrec& the basis of their own e3istence% /henever the political power of 6ermany was specially strong the economic sit!ation also improved% 4!t whenever economic interests alone occ!pied the foremost place in the life of the people, and thr!st transcendent ideals into the bac&%-gro!nd, the 'tate collapsed and economic r!in followed readily% If we consider the +!estion of what those forces act!ally are which are necessary to the creation and preservation of a 'tate, we shall find that they are0 (he capacity and readiness to sacrifice the individ!al to the common welfare% (hat these +!alities have nothing at all to do with economics can be proved by referring to the simple fact that man does not sacrifice himself for material interests% In other words, he will die for an ideal b!t not for a b!siness% (he marvello!s gift for p!blic psychology which the 7nglish have was never shown better than the way in which they presented their case in the /orld /ar% /e were fighting for o!r bread> b!t the 7nglish declared that they were fighting for Ifreedom#, and not at all for their own freedom% Oh, no, b!t for the freedom of the small nations% 6erman people la!ghed at that effrontery and were angered by it> b!t in doing so they showed how political tho!ght had declined among o!r so-called diplomats in 6ermany even before the /ar% (hese diplomatists did not have the slightest notion of what that force was which bro!ght men to face death of their own free will and determination% As long as the 6erman people, in the /ar of 1914, contin!ed to believe that they were fighting for ideals they stood firm% As soon as they were told that they were fighting only for their daily bread they began to give !p the str!ggle% O!r clever Istatesmen# were greatly ama9ed at this change of feeling% (hey never !nderstood that as soon as man is called !pon to str!ggle for p!rely material ca!ses he will avoid death as best he can> for death and the en,oyment of the material fr!its of a victory are +!ite incompatible concepts% (he frailest woman will become a heroine when the life of her own child is at sta&e% And only the will to save the race and native land or the 'tate, which offers protection to the race, has in all ages been the !rge which has forced men to face the weapons of their enemies% (he following may be proclaimed as a tr!th that always holds good0 A 'tate has never arisen from commercial ca!ses for the p!rpose of peacef!lly serving commercial ends> b!t 'tates have always arisen from the instinct to maintain the racial gro!p, whether this instinct manifest itself in the heroic sphere or in the sphere of c!nning and chicanery% In the first case we have the Aryan 'tates, based on the principles of wor& and c!lt!ral development% In the second case we have the )ewish parasitic colonies% 4!t as soon as economic interests begin to predominate over the racial and c!lt!ral instincts in a people or a 'tate, these economic interests !nloose the ca!ses that lead to s!b,!gation and oppression% (he belief, which prevailed in 6ermany before the /ar, that the world co!ld be opened !p and even con+!ered for 6ermany thro!gh a system of peacef!l commercial penetration and a colonial policy was a typical symptom which indicated the decline of those real +!alities whereby 'tates are created and preserved, and indicated also the decline of that insight, will-power and practical determination which belong to those +!alities% (he /orld /ar with its conse+!ences, was the nat!ral li+!idation of that decline% (o anyone who had not tho!ght over the matter deeply, this attit!de of the 6erman people - which was +!ite general - m!st have seemed an insol!ble enigma% After all, 6ermany herself was a magnificent e3ample of an empire that had been b!ilt !p p!rely by a policy of power% "r!ssia, which was the generative cell of the 6erman 7mpire, had been created by brilliant heroic deeds and not by a financial or commercial compact% And the 7mpire itself was b!t the magnificent recompense for a leadership that had been cond!cted on a policy of power and military valo!r% 1ow then did it happen that the political instincts of this very same 6erman people became so degenerate5 For it was not merely one isolated phenomenon which pointed to this decadence, b!t morbid symptoms which appeared in alarming n!mbers, now all over the body politic, or eating into the body of the nation li&e a gangreno!s !lcer% It seemed as if some all-pervading poisono!s fl!id had been in,ected by some mysterio!s hand into the bloodstream of this once heroic body, bringing abo!t a creeping paralysis that affected the reason and the elementary instinct of self-preservation% ?!ring the years 1912-1914 I !sed to ponder perpet!ally on those problems which related to the policy of the (riple Alliance and the economic policy then being p!rs!ed by the 6erman 7mpire% Once again I came to the concl!sion that the only e3planation of this enigma lay in the operation of that force which I had already become ac+!ainted with in :ienna, tho!gh from a different angle of vision% (he force to which I refer was the ar3ist teaching and Weltanschhauung and its organi9ed action thro!gho!t the nation%

For the second time in my life I pl!nged deep into the st!dy of that destr!ctive teaching% (his time, however, I was not !rged by the st!dy of the +!estion by the impressions and infl!ences of my daily environment, b!t directed rather by the observation of general phenomena in the political life of 6ermany% In delving again into the theoretical literat!re of this new world and endeavo!ring to get a clear view of the possible conse+!ences of its teaching, I compared the theoretical principles of ar3ism with the phenomena and happenings bro!ght abo!t by its activities in the political, c!lt!ral, and economic spheres% For the first time in my life I now t!rned my attention to the efforts that were being made to s!bd!e this !niversal pest% I st!died 4ismarc&#s e3ceptional legislation in its original concept, its operation and its res!lts% 6rad!ally I formed a basis for my own opinions, which has proved as solid as a roc&, so that never since have I had to change my attit!de towards the general problem% I also made a f!rther and more thoro!gh analysis of the relations between ar3ism and )ewry% ?!ring my so,o!rn in :ienna I !sed to loo& !pon 6ermany as an impert!rbable coloss!s> b!t even then serio!s do!bts and misgivings wo!ld often dist!rb me% In my own mind and in my conversation with my small circle of ac+!aintances I !sed to critici9e 6ermany#s foreign policy and the incredibly s!perficial way, according to my thin&ing, in which ar3ism was dealt with, tho!gh it was then the most important problem in 6ermany% I co!ld not !nderstand how they co!ld st!mble blindfolded into the midst of this peril, the effects of which wo!ld be momento!s if the openly declared aims of ar3ism co!ld be p!t into practice% 7ven as early as that time I warned people aro!nd me, ,!st as I am warning a wider a!dience now, against that soothing slogan of all indolent and fec&less nat!re0 *othing can happen to !s% A similar mental contagion had already destroyed a mighty empire% $an 6ermany escape the operation of those laws to which all other h!man comm!nities are s!b,ect5 In the years 191. and 1914 I e3pressed my opinion for the first time in vario!s circles, some of which are now members of the *ational 'ocialist ovement, that the problem of how the f!t!re of the 6erman nation can be sec!red is the problem of how ar3ism can be e3terminated% I considered the disastro!s policy of the (riple Alliance as one of the conse+!ences res!lting from the disintegrating effects of the ar3ist teaching> for the alarming feat!re was that this teaching was invisibly corr!pting the fo!ndations of a healthy political and economic o!tloo&% (hose who had been themselves contaminated fre+!ently did not realise that their aims and actions sprang from this Weltanschhauung, which they otherwise openly rep!diated% Long before then the spirit!al and moral decline of the 6erman people had set in, tho!gh those who were affected by the morbid decadence were fre+!ently !naware - as often happens - of the forces which were brea&ing !p their very e3istence% 'ometimes they tried to c!re the disease by doctoring the symptoms, which were ta&en as the ca!se% 4!t since nobody recogni9ed, or wanted to recogni9e, the real ca!se of the disease this way of combating ar3ism was no more effective than the application of some +!ac&#s ointment% $hapter Five0 ?!ring the boistero!s years of my yo!th nothing !sed to damp my wild spirits so m!ch as to thin& that I was born at a time when the world had manifestly decided not to erect any more temples of fame e3cept in hono!r of b!siness people and 'tate officials% (he tempest of historical achievements seemed to have permanently s!bsided, so m!ch so that the f!t!re appeared to be irrevocably delivered over to what was called peacef!l competition between the nations% (his simply meant a system of m!t!al e3ploitation by fra!d!lent means, the principle of resorting to the !se of force in self-defence being formally e3cl!ded% Individ!al co!ntries increasingly ass!med the appearance of commercial !nderta&ings, grabbing territory and clients and concessions from each other !nder any and every &ind of prete3t% And it was all staged to an accompaniment of lo!d b!t innoc!o!s sho!ting% (his trend of affairs seemed destined to develop steadily and permanently% 1aving the s!pport of p!blic approbation, it seemed bo!nd event!ally to transform the world into a mammoth department store% In the vestib!le of this empori!m there wo!ld be rows of mon!mental b!sts which wo!ld confer immortality on those profiteers who had proved themselves the shrewdest at their trade and those administrative officials who had shown themselves the most innoc!o!s% (he salesmen co!ld be represented by the 7nglish and the administrative f!nctionaries by the 6ermans> whereas the )ews wo!ld be sacrificed to the !nprofitable calling of proprietorship, for they are constantly avowing that they ma&e no profits and are always being called !pon to Ipay o!t#% oreover they have the advantage of being versed in the foreign lang!ages% /hy co!ld I not have been born a h!ndred years ago5 I !sed to as& myself% 'omewhere abo!t the time of the /ars of Liberation, when a man was still of some val!e even tho!gh he had no Ib!siness#% (h!s I !sed to thin& it an ill-deserved stro&e of bad l!c& that I had arrived too late on this terrestrial globe, and I felt chagrined at the idea that my life wo!ld have to r!n its co!rse along peacef!l and orderly lines% As a boy I was anything b!t a pacifist and all attempts to ma&e me so t!rned o!t f!tile%

(hen the 4oer /ar came, li&e a glow of lightning on the far hori9on% ?ay after day I !sed to ga9e intently at the newspapers and I almost Idevo!red# the telegrams and comm!ni+!es, over,oyed to thin& that I co!ld witness that heroic str!ggle, even tho!gh from so great a distance% /hen the 8!sso-)apanese /ar came I was older and better able to ,!dge for myself% For national reasons I then too& the side of the )apanese in o!r disc!ssions% I loo&ed !pon the defeat of the 8!ssians as a blow to A!strian 'lavism% any years had passed between that time and my arrival in !nich% I now reali9ed that what I formerly believed to be a morbid decadence was only the l!ll before the storm% ?!ring my :ienna days the 4al&ans were already in the grip of that s!ltry pa!se which presages the violent storm% 1ere and there a flash of lightning co!ld be occasionally seen> b!t it rapidly disappeared in sinister gloom% (hen the 4al&an /ar bro&e o!t> and therewith the first g!sts of the forthcoming tornado swept across a highly-str!ng 7!rope% In the s!pervening calm men felt the atmosphere oppressive and foreboding, so m!ch so that the sense of an impending catastrophe became transformed into a feeling of impatient e3pectance% (hey wished that 1eaven wo!ld give free rein to the fate which co!ld now no longer be c!rbed% (hen the first great bolt of lightning str!c& the earth% (he storm bro&e and the th!nder of the heavens intermingled with the roar of the cannons in the /orld /ar% /hen the news came to !nich that the Archd!&e Fran9 Ferdinand had been m!rdered, I had been at home all day and did not get the partic!lars of how it happened% At first I feared that the shots may have been fired by some 6erman-A!strian st!dents who had been aro!sed to a state of f!rio!s indignation by the persistent pro-'lav activities of the 1eir to the 1absb!rg (hrone and therefore wished to liberate the 6erman pop!lation from this internal enemy% It was +!ite easy to imagine what the res!lt of s!ch a mista&e wo!ld have been% It wo!ld have bro!ght on a new wave of persec!tion, the motives of which wo!ld have been I,!stified# before the whole world% 4!t soon afterwards I heard the names of the pres!med assassins and also that they were &nown to be 'erbs% I felt somewhat d!mbfo!nded in face of the ine3orable vengeance which ?estiny had wro!ght% (he greatest friend of the 'lavs had fallen a victim to the b!llets of 'lav patriots% It is !n,!st to the :ienna government of that time to blame it now for the form and tenor of the !ltimat!m which was then presented% In a similar position and !nder similar circ!mstances, no other "ower in the world wo!ld have acted otherwise% On her so!thern frontiers A!stria had a relentless mortal foe who ind!lged in acts of provocation against the ?!al onarchy at intervals which were becoming more and more fre+!ent% (his persistent line of cond!ct wo!ld not have been rela3ed !ntil the arrival of the opport!ne moment for the destr!ction of the 7mpire% In A!stria there was good reason to fear that, at the latest, this moment wo!ld come with the death of the old 7mperor% Once that had ta&en place, it was +!ite possible that the onarchy wo!ld not be able to offer any serio!s resistance% For some years past the 'tate had been so completely identified with the personality of Francis )oseph that, in the eyes of the great mass of the people, the death of this venerable personification of the 7mpire wo!ld be tantamo!nt to the death of the 7mpire itself% Indeed it was one of the clever artifices of 'lav policy to foster the impression that the A!strian 'tate owed its very e3istence e3cl!sively to the prodigies and rare talents of that monarch% (his &ind of flattery was partic!larly welcomed at the 1ofb!rg, all the more beca!se it had no relation whatsoever to the services act!ally rendered by the 7mperor% *o effort whatsoever was made to locate the caref!lly prepared sting which lay hidden in this glorifying praise% One fact which was entirely overloo&ed, perhaps intentionally, was that the more the 7mpire remained dependent on the so-called administrative talents of Ithe wisest onarch of all times#, the more catastrophic wo!ld be the sit!ation when Fate came to &noc& at the door and demand its trib!te% /as it possible even to imagine the A!strian 7mpire witho!t its venerable r!ler5 /o!ld not the tragedy which befell aria (heresa be repeated at once5 It is really !n,!st to the :ienna governmental circles to reproach them with having instigated a war which might have been prevented% (he war was bo!nd to come% "erhaps it might have been postponed for a year or two at the most% 4!t it had always been the misfort!ne of 6erman, as well as A!strian, diplomats that they endeavo!red to p!t off the inevitable day of rec&oning, with the res!lt that they were finally compelled to deliver their blow at a most inopport!ne moment% *o% (hose who did not wish this war o!ght to have had the co!rage to ta&e the conse+!ences of the ref!sal !pon themselves% (hose conse+!ences m!st necessarily have meant the sacrifice of A!stria% And even then war wo!ld have come, not as a war in which all the nations wo!ld have been banded against !s b!t in the form of a dismemberment of the 1absb!rg onarchy% In that case we sho!ld have had to decide whether we sho!ld come to the assistance of the 1absb!rg or stand aside as spectators, with o!r arms folded, and th!s allow Fate to r!n its co!rse% )!st those who are lo!dest in their imprecations to-day and ma&e a great parade of wisdom in ,!dging the ca!ses of the war are the very same people whose collaboration was the most fatal factor in steering towards the war% For several decades previo!sly the 6erman 'ocial-?emocrats had been agitating in an !nderhand and &navish way for war against 8!ssia> whereas the 6erman $entre "arty, with religio!s ends in view, had wor&ed to ma&e the

A!strian 'tate the chief centre and t!rning-point of 6erman policy% (he conse+!ences of this folly had now to be borne% /hat came was bo!nd to come and !nder no circ!mstances co!ld it have been avoided% (he fa!lt of the 6erman 6overnment lay in the fact that, merely for the sa&e of preserving peace at all costs, it contin!ed to miss the occasions that were favo!rable for action, got entangled in an alliance for the p!rpose of preserving the peace of the world, and th!s finally became the victim of a world coalition which opposed the 6erman effort for the maintenance of peace and was determined to bring abo!t the world war% 1ad the :ienna 6overnment of that time form!lated its !ltimat!m in less drastic terms, that wo!ld not have altered the sit!ation at all0 b!t s!ch a co!rse might have aro!sed p!blic indignation% For, in the eyes of the great masses, the !ltimat!m was too moderate and certainly not e3cessive or br!tal% (hose who wo!ld deny this to-day are either simpletons with feeble memories or else deliberate falsehood-mongers% (he /ar of 1914 was certainly not forced on the masses> it was even desired by the whole people% (here was a desire to bring the general feeling of !ncertainty to an end once and for all% And it is only in the light of this fact that we can !nderstand how more than two million 6erman men and yo!ths vol!ntarily ,oined the colo!rs, ready to shed the last drop of their blood for the ca!se% For me these ho!rs came as a deliverance from the distress that had weighed !pon me d!ring the days of my yo!th% I am not ashamed to ac&nowledge to-day that I was carried away by the enth!siasm of the moment and that I san& down !pon my &nees and than&ed 1eaven o!t of the f!llness of my heart for the favo!r of having been permitted to live in s!ch a time% (he fight for freedom had bro&en o!t on an !nparalleled scale in the history of the world% From the moment that Fate too& the helm in hand the conviction grew among the mass of the people that now it was not a +!estion of deciding the destinies of A!stria or 'erbia b!t that the very e3istence of the 6erman nation itself was at sta&e% At last, after many years of blindness, the people saw clearly into the f!t!re% (herefore, almost immediately after the gigantic str!ggle had beg!n, an e3cessive enth!siasm was replaced by a more earnest and more fitting !ndertone, beca!se the e3altation of the pop!lar spirit was not a mere passing fren9y% It was only too necessary that the gravity of the sit!ation sho!ld be recogni9ed% At that time there was, generally spea&ing, not the slightest presentiment or conception of how long the war might last% "eople dreamed of the soldiers being home by $hristmas and that then they wo!ld res!me their daily wor& in peace% /hatever man&ind desires, that it will hope for and believe in% (he overwhelming ma,ority of the people had long since grown weary of the perpet!al insec!rity in the general condition of p!blic affairs% 1ence it was only nat!ral that no one believed that the A!stro-'erbian conflict co!ld be shelved% (herefore they loo&ed forward to a radical settlement of acco!nts% I also belonged to the millions that desired this% (he moment the news of the 'ara,evo o!trage reached !nich two ideas came into my mind0 First, that war was absol!tely inevitable and, second, that the 1absb!rg 'tate wo!ld now be forced to hono!r its signat!re to the alliance% For what I had feared most was that one day 6ermany herself, perhaps as a res!lt of the Alliance, wo!ld become involved in a conflict the first direct ca!se of which did not affect A!stria% In s!ch a contingency, I feared that the A!strian 'tate, for domestic political reasons, wo!ld find itself !nable to decide in favo!r of its ally% 4!t now this danger was removed% (he old 'tate was compelled to fight, whether it wished to do so or not% y own attit!de towards the conflict was e+!ally simple and clear% I believed that it was not a case of A!stria fighting to get satisfaction from 'erbia b!t rather a case of 6ermany fighting for her own e3istence - the 6erman nation for its own to-be-or-not-to-be, for its freedom and for its f!t!re% (he wor& of 4ismarc& m!st now be carried on% No!ng 6ermany m!st show itself worthy of the blood shed by o!r fathers on so many heroic fields of battle, from /eissenb!rg to 'edan and "aris% And if this str!ggle sho!ld bring !s victory o!r people will again ran& foremost among the great nations% Only then co!ld the 6erman 7mpire assert itself as the mighty champion of peace, witho!t the necessity of restricting the daily bread of its children for the sa&e of maintaining the peace% As a boy and as a yo!ng man, I often longed for the occasion to prove that my national enth!siasm was not mere vapo!ring% 1!rrahing sometimes seemed to me to be a &ind of sinf!l ind!lgence, tho!gh I co!ld not give any ,!stification for that feeling> for, after all, who has the right to sho!t that tri!mphant word if he has not won the right to it there where there is no play-acting and where the hand of the 6oddess of ?estiny p!ts the tr!th and sincerity of nations and men thro!gh her ine3orable test5 )!st as millions of others, I felt a pro!d ,oy in being permitted to go thro!gh this test% I had so often s!ng ?e!tschland Dber Alles and so often roared I1eil# that I now tho!ght it was as a &ind of retro-active grace that I was granted the right of appearing before the $o!rt of 7ternal )!stice to testify to the tr!th of those sentiments% One thing was clear to me from the very beginning, namely, that in the event of war, which now seemed inevitable, my boo&s wo!ld have to be thrown aside forthwith% I also reali9ed that my place wo!ld have to be there where the inner voice of conscience called me% I had left A!stria principally for political reasons% /hat therefore co!ld be more rational than that I sho!ld p!t into practice the logical conse+!ences of my political opinions, now that the war had beg!n% I had no desire to fight for the 1absb!rg ca!se, b!t I was prepared to die at any time for my own &insfol& and the 7mpire to which they really

belonged% On A!g!st .rd, 1914, I presented an !rgent petition to 1is a,esty, 2ing L!dwig III, re+!esting to be allowed to serve in a 4avarian regiment% In those days the $hancellery had its hands +!ite f!ll and therefore I was all the more pleased when I received the answer a day later, that my re+!est had been granted% I opened the doc!ment with trembling hands> and no words of mine co!ld now describe the satisfaction I felt on reading that I was instr!cted to report to a 4avarian regiment% /ithin a few days I was wearing that !niform which I was not to p!t oft again for nearly si3 years% For me, as for every 6erman, the most memorable period of my life now began% Face to face with that mighty str!ggle, all the past fell away into oblivion% /ith a wistf!l pride I loo& bac& on those days, especially beca!se we are now approaching the tenth anniversary of that memorable happening% I recall those early wee&s of war when &ind fort!ne permitted me to ta&e my place in that heroic str!ggle among the nations% As the scene !nfolds itself before my mind, it seems only li&e yesterday% I see myself among my yo!ng comrades on o!r first parade drill, and so on !ntil at last the day came on which we were to leave for the front% In common with the others, I had one worry d!ring those days% (his was a fear that we might arrive too late for the fighting at the front% (ime and again that tho!ght dist!rbed me and every anno!ncement of a victorio!s engagement left a bitter taste, which increased as the news of f!rther victories arrived% At long last the day came when we left !nich on war service% For the first time in my life I saw the 8hine, as we ,o!rneyed westwards to stand g!ard before that historic 6erman river against its traditional and grasping enemy% As the first soft rays of the morning s!n bro&e thro!gh the light mist and disclosed to !s the *iederwald 'tat!e, with one accord the whole troop train bro&e into the strains of ?ie /acht am 8hein% I then felt as if my heart co!ld not contain its spirit% And then followed a damp, cold night in Flanders% /e marched in silence thro!gho!t the night and as the morning s!n came thro!gh the mist an iron greeting s!ddenly b!rst above o!r heads% 'hrapnel e3ploded in o!r midst and spl!ttered in the damp gro!nd% 4!t before the smo&e of the e3plosion disappeared a wild I1!rrah# was sho!ted from two h!ndred throats, in response to this first greeting of ?eath% (hen began the whistling of b!llets and the booming of cannons, the sho!ting and singing of the combatants% /ith eyes straining feverishly, we pressed forward, +!ic&er and +!ic&er, !ntil we finally came to close-+!arter fighting, there beyond the beet-fields and the meadows% 'oon the strains of a song reached !s from afar% *earer and nearer, from company to company, it came% And while ?eath began to ma&e havoc in o!r ran&s we passed the song on to those beside !s0 ?e!tschland, ?e!tschland Dber Alles, Dber Alles in der /elt% After fo!r days in the trenches we came bac&% 7ven o!r step was no longer what it had been% 4oys of seventeen loo&ed now li&e grown men% (he ran& and file of the List 8egiment 11C had not been properly trained in the art of warfare, b!t they &new how to die li&e old soldiers% (hat was the beginning% And th!s we carried on from year to year% A feeling of horror replaced the romantic fighting spirit% 7nth!siasm cooled down grad!ally and e3!berant spirits were +!elled by the fear of the ever-present ?eath% A time came when there arose within each one of !s a conflict between the !rge to self-preservation and the call of d!ty% And I had to go thro!gh that conflict too% As ?eath so!ght its prey everywhere and !nrelentingly a nameless 'omething rebelled within the wea& body and tried to introd!ce itself !nder the name of $ommon 'ense> b!t in reality it was Fear, which had ta&en on this cloa& in order to impose itself on the individ!al% 4!t the more the voice which advised pr!dence increased its efforts and the more clear and pers!asive became its appeal, resistance became all the stronger> !ntil finally the internal strife was over and the call of d!ty was tri!mphant% Already in the winter of 191=-1F I had come thro!gh that inner str!ggle% (he will had asserted its incontestable mastery% /hereas in the early days I went into the fight with a cheer and a la!gh, I was now habit!ally calm and resol!te% And that frame of mind end!red% Fate might now p!t me thro!gh the final test witho!t my nerves or reason giving way% (he yo!ng vol!nteer had become an old soldier% (his same transformation too& place thro!gho!t the whole army% $onstant fighting had aged and to!ghened it and hardened it, so that it stood firm and da!ntless against every assa!lt% Only now was it possible to ,!dge that army% After two and three years of contin!o!s fighting, having been thrown into one battle after another, standing !p sto!tly against s!perior n!mbers and s!perior armament, s!ffering h!nger and privation, the time had come when one co!ld assess the val!e of that sing!lar fighting force% For a tho!sand years to come nobody will dare to spea& of heroism witho!t recalling the 6erman Army of the /orld /ar% And then from the dim past will emerge the immortal vision of those solid ran&s of steel helmets that never flinched and never faltered% And as long as 6ermans live they will be pro!d to remember that these men were the sons of their forefathers% I was then a soldier and did not wish to meddle in politics, all the more so beca!se the time was inopport!ne% I still believe that the most modest stable-boy of those days served his co!ntry better than the best of, let !s say, the Iparliamentary dep!ties#% y hatred for those footlers was never greater than in those days when all decent men who had anything to say said it point-blan& in the enemy#s face> or, failing this, &ept their mo!ths sh!t and did

their d!ty elsewhere% I despised those political fellows and if I had had my way I wo!ld have formed them into a Labo!r 4attalion and given them the opport!nity of babbling amongst themselves to their hearts# content, witho!t offence or harm to decent people% In those days I cared nothing for politics> b!t I co!ld not help forming an opinion on certain manifestations which affected not only the whole nation b!t also !s soldiers in partic!lar% (here were two things which ca!sed me the greatest an3iety at that time and which I had come to regard as detrimental to o!r interests% 'hortly after o!r first series of victories a certain section of the "ress already began to throw cold water, drip by drip, on the enth!siasm of the p!blic% At first this was not obvio!s to many people% It was done !nder the mas& of good intentions and a spirit of an3io!s care% (he p!blic was told that big celebrations of victories were somewhat o!t of place and were not worthy e3pressions of the spirit of a great nation% (he fortit!de and valo!r of 6erman soldiers were accepted facts which did not necessarily call for o!tb!rsts of celebration% F!rthermore, it was as&ed, what wo!ld foreign opinion have to say abo!t these manifestations5 /o!ld not foreign opinion react more favo!rably to a +!iet and sober form of celebration rather than to all this wild ,!bilation5 '!rely the time had come - so the "ress declared - for !s 6ermans to remember that this war was not o!r wor& and that hence there need be no feeling of shame in declaring o!r willingness to do o!r share towards effecting an !nderstanding among the nations% For this reason it wo!ld not be wise to s!lly the radiant deeds of o!r army with !nbecoming ,!bilation> for the rest of the world wo!ld never !nderstand this% F!rthermore, nothing is more appreciated than the modesty with which a tr!e hero +!ietly and !nass!mingly carries on and forgets% '!ch was the gist of their warning% Instead of catching these fellows by their long ears and dragging them to some ditch and looping a cord aro!nd their nec&s, so that the victorio!s enth!siasm of the nation sho!ld no longer offend the aesthetic sensibilities of these &nights of the pen, a general "ress campaign was now allowed to go on against what was called I!nbecoming# and I!ndignified# forms of victorio!s celebration% *o one seemed to have the faintest idea that when p!blic enth!siasm is once damped, nothing can en&indle it again, when the necessity arises% (his enth!siasm is an into3ication and m!st be &ept !p in that form% /itho!t the s!pport of this enth!siastic spirit how wo!ld it be possible to end!re in a str!ggle which, according to h!man standards, made s!ch immense demands on the spirit!al stamina of the nation5 I was only too well ac+!ainted with the psychology of the broad masses not to &now that in s!ch cases a magnamino!s Iaestheticism# cannot fan the fire which is needed to &eep the iron hot% In my eyes it was even a mista&e not to have tried to raise the pitch of p!blic enth!siasm still higher% (herefore I co!ld not at all !nderstand why the contrary policy was adopted, that is to say, the policy of damping the p!blic spirit% Another thing which irritated me was the manner in which ar3ism was regarded and accepted% I tho!ght that all this proved how little they &new abo!t the ar3ist plag!e% It was believed in all serio!sness that the abolition of party distinctions d!ring the /ar had made ar3ism a mild and moderate thing% 4!t here there was no +!estion of party% (here was +!estion of a doctrine which was being e3po!nded for the e3press p!rpose of leading h!manity to its destr!ction% (he p!rport of this doctrine was not !nderstood beca!se nothing was said abo!t that side of the +!estion in o!r )ew-ridden !niversities and beca!se o!r s!percilio!s b!rea!cratic officials did not thin& it worth while to read !p a s!b,ect which had not been prescribed in their !niversity co!rse% (his mighty revol!tionary trend was going on beside them> b!t those Iintellect!als# wo!ld not deign to give it their attention% (hat is why 'tate enterprise nearly always lags behind private enterprise% Of these gentry once can tr!ly say that their ma3im is0 /hat we don#t &now won#t bother !s% In the A!g!st of 1914 the 6erman wor&er was loo&ed !pon as an adherent of ar3ist socialism% (hat was a gross error% /hen those fatef!l ho!rs dawned the 6erman wor&er shoo& off the poisono!s cl!tches of that plag!e> otherwise he wo!ld not have been so willing and ready to fight% And people were st!pid eno!gh to imagine that ar3ism had now become Inational#, another apt ill!stration of the fact that those in a!thority had never ta&en the tro!ble to st!dy the real tenor of the ar3ist teaching% If they had done so, s!ch foolish errors wo!ld not have been committed% ar3ism, whose final ob,ective was and is and will contin!e to be the destr!ction of all non-)ewish national 'tates, had to witness in those days of )!ly 1914 how the 6erman wor&ing classes, which it had been inveigling, were aro!sed by the national spirit and rapidly ranged themselves on the side of the Fatherland% /ithin a few days the deceptive smo&e-screen of that infamo!s national betrayal had vanished into thin air and the )ewish bosses s!ddenly fo!nd themselves alone and deserted% It was as if not a vestige had been left of that folly and madness with which the masses of the 6erman people had been inoc!lated for si3ty years% (hat was indeed an evil day for the betrayers of 6erman Labo!r% (he moment, however, that the leaders reali9ed the danger which threatened them they p!lled the magic cap of deceit over their ears and, witho!t being identified, played the part of mimes in the national reawa&ening% (he time seemed to have arrived for proceeding against the whole )ewish gang of p!blic pests% (hen it was that action sho!ld have been ta&en regardless of any conse+!ent whining or protestation% At one stro&e, in the A!g!st of 1914, all the empty nonsense abo!t international solidarity was &noc&ed o!t of the heads of the 6erman wor&ing classes% A few wee&s later, instead of this st!pid tal& so!nding in their ears, they heard the noise of American-

man!fact!red shrapnel b!rsting above the heads of the marching col!mns, as a symbol of international comradeship% *ow that the 6erman wor&er had rediscovered the road to nationhood, it o!ght to have been the d!ty of any 6overnment which had the care of the people in its &eeping, to ta&e this opport!nity of mercilessly rooting o!t everything that was opposed to the national spirit% /hile the flower of the nation#s manhood was dying at the front, there was time eno!gh at home at least to e3terminate this vermin% 4!t, instead of doing so, 1is a,esty the 2aiser held o!t his hand to these hoary criminals, th!s ass!ring them his protection and allowing them to regain their mental compos!re% And so the viper co!ld begin his wor& again% (his time, however, more caref!lly than before, b!t still more destr!ctively% /hile honest people dreamt of reconciliation these per,!red criminals were ma&ing preparations for a revol!tion% *at!rally I was distressed at the half-meas!res which were adopted at that time> b!t I never tho!ght it possible that the final conse+!ences co!ld have been so disastro!s5 4!t what sho!ld have been done then5 (hrow the ringleaders into gaol, prosec!te them and rid the nation of them5 Mncompromising military meas!res sho!ld have been adopted to root o!t the evil% "arties sho!ld have been abolished and the 8eichstag bro!ght to its senses at the point of the bayonet, if necessary% It wo!ld have been still better if the 8eichstag had been dissolved immediately% )!st as the 8ep!blic to-day dissolves the parties when it wants to, so in those days there was even more ,!stification for applying that meas!re, seeing that the very e3istence of the nation was at sta&e% Of co!rse this s!ggestion wo!ld give rise to the +!estion0 Is it possible to eradicate ideas by force of arms5 $o!ld a Weltanschhauung be attac&ed by means of physical force5 At that time I t!rned these +!estions over and over again in my mind% 4y st!dying analogo!s cases, e3emplified in history, partic!larly those which had arisen from religio!s circ!mstances, I came to the following f!ndamental concl!sion0 Ideas and philosophical systems as well as movements gro!nded on a definite spirit!al fo!ndation, whether tr!e or not, can never be bro&en by the !se of force after a certain stage, e3cept on one condition0 namely, that this !se of force is in the service of a new idea or Weltanschhauung which b!rns with a new flame% (he application of force alone, witho!t moral s!pport based on a spirit!al concept, can never bring abo!t the destr!ction of an idea or arrest the propagation of it, !nless one is ready and able r!thlessly to e3terminate the last !pholders of that idea even to a man, and also wipe o!t any tradition which it may tend to leave behind% *ow in the ma,ority of cases the res!lt of s!ch a co!rse has been to e3cl!de s!ch a 'tate, either temporarily or for ever, from the comity of 'tates that are of political significance> b!t e3perience has also shown that s!ch a sang!inary method of e3tirpation aro!ses the better section of the pop!lation !nder the persec!ting power% As a matter of fact, every persec!tion which has no spirit!al motives to s!pport it is morally !n,!st and raises opposition among the best elements of the pop!lation> so m!ch so that these are driven more and more to champion the ideas that are !n,!stly persec!ted% /ith many individ!als this arises from the sheer spirit of opposition to every attempt at s!ppressing spirit!al things by br!te force% In this way the n!mber of convinced adherents of the persec!ted doctrine increases as the persec!tion progresses% 1ence the total destr!ction of a new doctrine can be accomplished only by a vast plan of e3termination> b!t this, in the final analysis, means the loss of some of the best blood in a nation or 'tate% And that blood is then avenged, beca!se s!ch an internal and total clean-!p brings abo!t the collapse of the nation#s strength% And s!ch a proced!re is always condemned to f!tility from the very start if the attac&ed doctrine sho!ld happen to have spread beyond a small circle% (hat is why in this case, as with all other growths, the doctrine can be e3terminated in its earliest stages% As time goes on its powers of resistance increase, !ntil at the approach of age it gives way to yo!nger elements, b!t !nder another form and from other motives% (he fact remains that nearly all attempts to e3terminate a doctrine, witho!t having some spirit!al basis of attac& against it, and also to wipe o!t all the organi9ations it has created, have led in many cases to the very opposite being achieved> and that for the following reasons0 /hen sheer force is !sed to combat the spread of a doctrine, then that force m!st be employed systematically and persistently% (his means that the chances of s!ccess in the s!ppression of a doctrine lie only in the persistent and !niform application of the methods chosen% (he moment hesitation is shown, and periods of tolerance alternate with the application of force, the doctrine against which these meas!res are directed will not only recover strength b!t every s!ccessive persec!tion will bring to its s!pport new adherents who have been shoc&ed by the oppressive methods employed% (he old adherents will become more embittered and their allegiance will thereby be strengthened% (herefore when force is employed s!ccess is dependent on the consistent manner in which it is !sed% (his persistence, however, is nothing less than the prod!ct of definite spirit!al convictions% 7very form of force that is not s!pported by a spirit!al bac&ing will be always indecisive and !ncertain% '!ch a force lac&s the stability that can be fo!nd only in a Weltanschhauung which has devoted champions% '!ch a force is the e3pression of the individ!al energies> therefore it is from time to time dependent on the change of persons in whose hands it is

employed and also on their characters and capacities% 4!t there is something else to be said0 7very Weltanschhauung, whether religio!s or political - and it is sometimes diffic!lt to say where the one ends and the other begins - fights not so m!ch for the negative destr!ction of the opposing world of ideas as for the positive reali9ation of its own ideas% (h!s its str!ggle lies in attac& rather than in defence% It has the advantage of &nowing where its ob,ective lies, as this ob,ective represents the reali9ation of its own ideas% Inversely, it is diffic!lt to say when the negative aim for the destr!ction of a hostile doctrine is reached and sec!red% For this reason alone a Weltanschhauung which is of an aggressive character is more definite in plan and more powerf!l and decisive in action than a Weltanschhauung which ta&es !p a merely defensive attit!de% If force be !sed to combat a spirit!al power, that force remains a defensive meas!re only so long as the wielders of it are not the standard-bearers and apostles of a new spirit!al doctrine% (o s!m !p, the following m!st be borne in mind0 (hat every attempt to combat a Weltanschhauung by means of force will t!rn o!t f!tile in the end if the str!ggle fails to ta&e the form of an offensive for the establishment of an entirely new spirit!al order of# things% It is only in the str!ggle between two /eltan-scha!!ngen that physical force, consistently and r!thlessly applied, will event!ally t!rn the scales in its own favo!r% It was here that the fight against ar3ism had hitherto failed% (his was also the reason why 4ismarc&#s anti-socialist legislation failed and was bo!nd to fail in the long r!n, despite everything% It lac&ed the basis of a new Weltanschhauung for whose development and e3tension the str!ggle might have been ta&en !p% (o say that the serving !p of drivel abo!t a so-called I'tate-A!thority# or ILaw-andOrder# was an ade+!ate fo!ndation for the spirit!al driving force in a life-or-death str!ggle is only what one wo!ld e3pect to hear from the wiseacres in high official positions% It was beca!se there were no ade+!ate spirit!al motives bac& of this offensive that 4ismarc& was compelled to hand over the administration of his socialist legislative meas!res to the ,!dgment and approval of those circles which were themselves the prod!ct of the ar3ist teaching% (h!s a very l!dicro!s state of affairs prevailed when the Iron $hancellor s!rrendered the fate of his str!ggle against ar3ism to the goodwill of the bo!rgeois democracy% 1e left the goat to ta&e care of the garden% 4!t this was only the necessary res!lt of the fail!re to find a f!ndamentally new Weltanschhauung which wo!ld attract devoted champions to its ca!se and co!ld be established on the gro!nd from which ar3ism had been driven o!t% And th!s the res!lt of the 4ismarc&ian campaign was deplorable% ?!ring the /orld /ar, or at the beginning of it, were the conditions any different5 Mnfort!nately, they were not% (he more I then pondered over the necessity for a change in the attit!de of the e3ec!tive government towards 'ocial-?emocracy, as the incorporation of contemporary ar3ism, the more I reali9ed the want of a practical s!bstit!te for this doctrine% '!pposing 'ocial-?emocracy were overthrown, what had one to offer the masses in its stead5 *ot a single movement e3isted which promised any s!ccess in attracting vast n!mbers of wor&ers who wo!ld be now more or less witho!t leaders, and holding these wor&ers in its train% It is nonsensical to imagine that the international fanatic who has ,!st severed his connection with a class party wo!ld forthwith ,oin a bo!rgeois party, or, in other words, another class organi9ation% For however !nsatisfactory these vario!s organi9ations may appear to be, it cannot be denied that bo!rgeois politicians loo& on the distinction between classes as a very important factor in social life, provided it does not t!rn o!t politically disadvantageo!s to them% If they deny this fact they show themselves not only imp!dent b!t also mendacio!s% 6enerally spea&ing, one sho!ld g!ard against considering the broad masses more st!pid than they really are% In political matters it fre+!ently happens that feeling ,!dges more correctly than intellect% 4!t the opinion that this feeling on the part of the masses is s!fficient proof of their st!pid international attit!de can be immediately and definitely ref!ted by the simple fact that pacifist democracy is no less fat!o!s, tho!gh it draws its s!pporters almost e3cl!sively from bo!rgeois circles% As long as millions of citi9ens daily g!lp down what the social-democratic "ress tells them, it ill becomes the I asters# to ,o&e at the e3pense of the I$omrades#> for in the long r!n they all swallow the same hash, even tho!gh it be dished !p with different spices% In both cases the coo& is one and the same - the )ew% One sho!ld be caref!l abo!t contradicting established facts% It is an !ndeniable fact that the class +!estion has nothing to do with +!estions concerning ideals, tho!gh that dope is administered at election time% $lass arrogance among a large section of o!r people, as well as a prevailing tendency to loo& down on the man!al labo!rer, are obvio!s facts and not the fancies of some day-dreamer% *evertheless it only ill!strates the mentality of o!r so-called intellect!al circles, that they have not yet grasped the fact that circ!mstances which are incapable of preventing the growth of s!ch a plag!e as ar3ism are certainly not capable of restoring what has been lost% (he bo!rgeois# parties - a name coined by themselves - will never again be able to win over and hold the proletarian masses in their train% (hat is beca!se two worlds stand opposed to one another here, in part nat!rally and in part artificially divided% (hese two camps have one leading tho!ght, and that is that they m!st fight one another% 4!t in s!ch a fight the yo!nger will come off victorio!s> and that is ar3ism% In 1914 a fight against 'ocial-?emocracy was indeed +!ite conceivable% 4!t the lac& of any practical s!bstit!te made it do!btf!l how long the fight co!ld be &ept !p% In this respect there was a gaping void%

Long before the /ar I was of the same opinion and that was the reason why I co!ld not decide to ,oin any of the parties then e3isting% ?!ring the co!rse of the /orld /ar my conviction was still f!rther confirmed by the manifest impossibility of fighting 'ocial-?emocracy in anything li&e a thoro!gh way0 beca!se for that p!rpose there sho!ld have been a movement that was something more than a mere Iparliamentary# party, and there was none s!ch% I fre+!ently disc!ssed that want with my intimate comrades% And it was then that I first conceived the idea of ta&ing !p political wor& later on% As I have often ass!red my friends, it was ,!st this that ind!ced me to become active on the p!blic h!stings after the /ar, in addition to my professional wor&% And I am s!re that this decision was arrived at after m!ch earnest tho!ght% $hapter 'i30 In watching the co!rse of political events I was always str!c& by the active part which propaganda played in them% I saw that it was an instr!ment, which the ar3ist 'ocialists &new how to handle in a masterly way and how to p!t it to practical !ses% (h!s I soon came to reali9e that the right !se of propaganda was an art in itself and that this art was practically !n&nown to o!r bo!rgeois parties% (he $hristian-'ocialist "arty alone, especially in L!eger#s time, showed a certain efficiency in the employment of this instr!ment and owed m!ch of their s!ccess to it% It was d!ring the /ar, however, that we had the best chance of estimating the tremendo!s res!lts which co!ld be obtained by a propagandist system properly carried o!t% 1ere again, !nfort!nately, everything was left to the other side, the wor& done on o!r side being worse than insignificant% It was the total fail!re of the whole 6erman system of information - a fail!re which was perfectly obvio!s to every soldier - that !rged me to consider the problem of propaganda in a comprehensive way% I had ample opport!nity to learn a practical lesson in this matter> for !nfort!nately it was only too well ta!ght !s by the enemy% (he lac& on o!r side was e3ploited by the enemy in s!ch an efficient manner that one co!ld say it showed itself as a real wor& of geni!s% In that propaganda carried on by the enemy I fo!nd admirable so!rces of instr!ction% (he lesson to be learned from this had !nfort!nately no attraction for the geni!ses on o!r own side% (hey were simply above all s!ch things, too clever to accept any teaching% Anyhow they did not honestly wish to learn anything% 1ad we any propaganda at all5 Alas, I can reply only in the negative% All that was !nderta&en in this direction was so !tterly inade+!ate and misconceived from the very beginning that not only did it prove !seless b!t at times harmf!l% In s!bstance it was ins!fficient% "sychologically it was all wrong% Anybody who had caref!lly investigated the 6erman propaganda m!st have formed that ,!dgment of it% O!r people did not seem to be clear even abo!t the primary +!estion itself0 /hether propaganda is a means or an end5 "ropaganda is a means and m!st, therefore, be ,!dged in relation to the end it is intended to serve% It m!st be organi9ed in s!ch a way as to be capable of attaining its ob,ective% And, as it is +!ite clear that the importance of the ob,ective may vary from the standpoint of general necessity, the essential internal character of the propaganda m!st vary accordingly% (he ca!se for which we fo!ght d!ring the /ar was the noblest and highest that man co!ld strive for% /e were fighting for the freedom and independence of o!r co!ntry, for the sec!rity of o!r f!t!re welfare and the hono!r of the nation% ?espite all views to the contrary, this hono!r does act!ally e3ist, or rather it will have to e3ist> for a nation witho!t hono!r will sooner or later lose its freedom and independence% (his is in accordance with the r!ling of a higher ,!stice, for a generation of poltroons is not entitled to freedom% 1e who wo!ld be a slave cannot have hono!r> for s!ch hono!r wo!ld soon become an ob,ect of general scorn% 6ermany was waging war for its very e3istence% (he p!rpose of its war propaganda sho!ld have been to strengthen the fighting spirit in that str!ggle and help it to victory% 4!t when nations are fighting for their e3istence on this earth, when the +!estion of Ito be or not to be# has to be answered, then all h!mane and Ssthetic considerations m!st be set aside> for these ideals do not e3ist of themselves somewhere in the air b!t are the prod!ct of man#s creative imagination and disappear when he disappears% *at!re &nows nothing of them% oreover, they are characteristic of only a small n!mber of nations, or rather of races, and their val!e depends on the meas!re in which they spring from the racial feeling of the latter% 1!mane and Ssthetic ideals will disappear from the inhabited earth when those races disappear which are the creators and standardbearers of them% All s!ch ideals are only of secondary importance when a nation is str!ggling for its e3istence% (hey m!st be prevented from entering into the str!ggle the moment they threaten to wea&en the stamina of the nation that is waging war% (hat is always the only visible effect whereby their place in the str!ggle is to be ,!dged% In regard to the part played by h!mane feeling, olt&e stated that in time of war the essential thing is to get a decision as +!ic&ly as possible and that the most r!thless methods of fighting are at the same time the most h!mane% /hen people attempt to answer this reasoning by highfal!tin tal& abo!t Ssthetics, etc%, only one answer can be given% It is that the vital +!estions involved in the str!ggle of a nation for its e3istence m!st not be s!bordinated to any Ssthetic considerations% (he yo&e of slavery is and always will remain the most !npleasant e3perience that man&ind can end!re% ?o the 'chwabing 12C decadents loo& !pon 6ermany#s lot to-day as

Iaesthetic#5 Of co!rse, one doesn#t disc!ss s!ch a +!estion with the )ews, beca!se they are the modern inventors of this c!lt!ral perf!me% (heir very e3istence is an incarnate denial of the bea!ty of 6od#s image in 1is creation% 'ince these ideas of what is bea!tif!l and h!mane have no place in warfare, they are not to be !sed as standards of war propaganda% ?!ring the /ar, propaganda was a means to an end% And this end was the str!ggle for e3istence of the 6erman nation% "ropaganda, therefore, sho!ld have been regarded from the standpoint of its !tility for that p!rpose% (he most cr!el weapons were then the most h!mane, provided they helped towards a speedier decision> and only those methods were good and bea!tif!l which helped towards sec!ring the dignity and freedom of the nation% '!ch was the only possible attit!de to adopt towards war propaganda in the life-or-death str!ggle% If those in what are called positions of a!thority had reali9ed this there wo!ld have been no !ncertainty abo!t the form and employment of war propaganda as a weapon> for it is nothing b!t a weapon, and indeed a most terrifying weapon in the hands of those who &now how to !se it% (he second +!estion of decisive importance is this0 (o whom sho!ld propaganda be made to appeal5 (o the ed!cated intellect!al classes5 Or to the less intellect!al5 "ropaganda m!st always address itself to the broad masses of the people% For the intellect!al classes, or what are called the intellect!al classes to-day, propaganda is not s!ited, b!t only scientific e3position% "ropaganda has as little to do with science as an advertisement poster has to do with art, as far as concerns the form in which it presents its message% (he art of the advertisement poster consists in the ability of the designer to attract the attention of the crowd thro!gh the form and colo!rs he chooses% (he advertisement poster anno!ncing an e3hibition of art has no other aim than to convince the p!blic of the importance of the e3hibition% (he better it does that, the better is the art of the poster as s!ch% 4eing meant accordingly to impress !pon the p!blic the meaning of the e3position, the poster can never ta&e the place of the artistic ob,ects displayed in the e3position hall% (hey are something entirely different% (herefore% those who wish to st!dy the artistic display m!st st!dy something that is +!ite different from the poster> indeed for that p!rpose a mere wandering thro!gh the e3hibition galleries is of no !se% (he st!dent of art m!st caref!lly and thoro!ghly st!dy each e3hibit in order slowly to form a ,!dicio!s opinion abo!t it% (he sit!ation is the same in regard to what we !nderstand by the word, propaganda% (he p!rpose of propaganda is not the personal instr!ction of the individ!al, b!t rather to attract p!blic attention to certain things, the importance of which can be bro!ght home to the masses only by this means% 1ere the art of propaganda consists in p!tting a matter so clearly and forcibly before the minds of the people as to create a general conviction regarding the reality of a certain fact, the necessity of certain things and the ,!st character of something that is essential% 4!t as this art is not an end in itself and beca!se its p!rpose m!st be e3actly that of the advertisement poster, to attract the attention of the masses and not by any means to dispense individ!al instr!ctions to those who already have an ed!cated opinion on things or who wish to form s!ch an opinion on gro!nds of ob,ective st!dy - beca!se that is not the p!rpose of propaganda, it m!st appeal to the feelings of the p!blic rather than to their reasoning powers% All propaganda m!st be presented in a pop!lar form and m!st fi3 its intellect!al level so as not to be above the heads of the least intellect!al of those to whom it is directed% (h!s its p!rely intellect!al level will have to be that of the lowest mental common denominator among the p!blic it is desired to reach% /hen there is +!estion of bringing a whole nation within the circle of its infl!ence, as happens in the case of war propaganda, then too m!ch attention cannot be paid to the necessity of avoiding a high level, which pres!pposes a relatively high degree of intelligence among the p!blic% (he more modest the scientific tenor of this propaganda and the more it is addressed e3cl!sively to p!blic sentiment, the more decisive will be its s!ccess% (his is the best test of the val!e of a propaganda, and not the approbation of a small gro!p of intellect!als or artistic people% (he art of propaganda consists precisely in being able to awa&en the imagination of the p!blic thro!gh an appeal to their feelings, in finding the appropriate psychological form that will arrest the attention and appeal to the hearts of the national masses% (hat this is not !nderstood by those among !s whose wits are s!pposed to have been sharpened to the highest pitch is only another proof of their vanity or mental inertia% Once we have !nderstood how necessary it is to concentrate the pers!asive forces of propaganda on the broad masses of the people, the following lessons res!lt therefrom0 (hat it is a mista&e to organi9e the direct propaganda as if it were a manifold system of scientific instr!ction% (he receptive powers of the masses are very restricted, and their !nderstanding is feeble% On the other hand, they +!ic&ly forget% '!ch being the case, all effective propaganda m!st be confined to a few bare essentials and those m!st be e3pressed as far as possible in stereotyped form!las% (hese slogans sho!ld be persistently repeated !ntil the very last individ!al has come to grasp the idea that has been p!t forward% If this principle be forgotten and if an attempt be made to be abstract and general, the propaganda will t!rn o!t ineffective> for the p!blic will not be able to digest or retain what is offered to them in this way% (herefore, the greater the scope of the message that has to be

presented, the more necessary it is for the propaganda to discover that plan of action which is psychologically the most efficient% It was, for e3ample, a f!ndamental mista&e to ridic!le the worth of the enemy as the A!strian and 6erman comic papers made a chief point of doing in their propaganda% (he very principle here is a mista&en one> for, when they came face to face with the enemy, o!r soldiers had +!ite a different impression% (herefore, the mista&e had disastro!s res!lts% Once the 6erman soldier realised what a to!gh enemy he had to fight he felt that he had been deceived by the man!fact!rers of the information which had been given him% (herefore, instead of strengthening and stim!lating his fighting spirit, this information had +!ite the contrary effect% Finally he lost heart% On the other hand, 4ritish and American war propaganda was psychologically efficient% 4y pict!ring the 6ermans to their own people as 4arbarians and 1!ns, they were preparing their soldiers for the horrors of war and safeg!arding them against ill!sions% (he most terrific weapons which those soldiers enco!ntered in the field merely confirmed the information that they had already received and their belief in the tr!th of the assertions made by their respective governments was accordingly reinforced% (h!s their rage and hatred against the infamo!s foe was increased% (he terrible havoc ca!sed by the 6erman weapons of war was only another ill!stration of the 1!nnish br!tality of those barbarians> whereas on the side of the 7ntente no time was left the soldiers to meditate on the similar havoc which their own weapons were capable of% (h!s the 4ritish soldier was never allowed to feel that the information which he received at home was !ntr!e% Mnfort!nately the opposite was the case with the 6ermans, who finally wo!nd !p by re,ecting everything from home as p!re swindle and h!mb!g% (his res!lt was made possible beca!se at home they tho!ght that the wor& of propaganda co!ld be entr!sted to the first ass that came along, braying of his own special talents, and they had no conception of the fact that propaganda demands the most s&illed brains that can be fo!nd% (h!s the 6erman war propaganda afforded !s an incomparable e3ample of how the wor& of Ienlightenment# sho!ld not be done and how s!ch an e3ample was the res!lt of an entire fail!re to ta&e any psychological considerations whatsoever into acco!nt% From the enemy, however, a f!nd of val!able &nowledge co!ld be gained by those who &ept their eyes open, whose powers of perception had not yet become sclerotic, and who d!ring fo!r-and-a-half years had to e3perience the perpet!al flood of enemy propaganda% (he worst of all was that o!r people did not !nderstand the very first condition which has to be f!lfilled in every &ind of propaganda> namely, a systematically one-sided attit!de towards every problem that has to be dealt with% In this regard so many errors were committed, even from the very beginning of the war, that it was ,!stifiable to do!bt whether so m!ch folly co!ld be attrib!ted solely to the st!pidity of people in higher +!arters% /hat, for e3ample, sho!ld we say of a poster which p!rported to advertise some new brand of soap by insisting on the e3cellent +!alities of the competitive brands5 /e sho!ld nat!rally sha&e o!r heads% And it o!ght to be ,!st the same in a similar &ind of political advertisement% (he aim of propaganda is not to try to pass ,!dgment on conflicting rights, giving each its d!e, b!t e3cl!sively to emphasi9e the right which we are asserting% "ropaganda m!st not investigate the tr!th ob,ectively and, in so far as it is favo!rable to the other side, present it according to the theoretical r!les of ,!stice> yet it m!st present only that aspect of the tr!th which is favo!rable to its own side% It was a f!ndamental mista&e to disc!ss the +!estion of who was responsible for the o!tbrea& of the war and declare that the sole responsibility co!ld not be attrib!ted to 6ermany% (he sole responsibility sho!ld have been laid on the sho!lders of the enemy, witho!t any disc!ssion whatsoever% And what was the conse+!ence of these half-meas!res5 (he broad masses of the people are not made !p of diplomats or professors of p!blic ,!rispr!dence nor simply of persons who are able to form reasoned ,!dgment in given cases, b!t a vacillating crowd of h!man children who are constantly wavering between one idea and another% As soon as o!r own propaganda made the slightest s!ggestion that the enemy had a certain amo!nt of ,!stice on his side, then we laid down the basis on which the ,!stice of o!r own ca!se co!ld be +!estioned% (he masses are not in a position to discern where the enemy#s fa!lt ends and where o!r own begins% In s!ch a case they become hesitant and distr!stf!l, especially when the enemy does not ma&e the same mista&e b!t heaps all the blame on his adversary% $o!ld there be any clearer proof of this than the fact that finally o!r own people believed what was said by the enemy#s propaganda, which was !niform and consistent in its assertions, rather than what o!r own propaganda said5 And that, of co!rse, was increased by the mania for ob,ectivity which addicts o!r people% 7verybody began to be caref!l abo!t doing an in,!stice to the enemy, even at the cost of serio!sly in,!ring, and even r!ining his own people and 'tate% *at!rally the masses were not conscio!s of the fact that those in a!thority had failed to st!dy the s!b,ect from this angle% (he great ma,ority of a nation is so feminine in its character and o!tloo& that its tho!ght and cond!ct are r!led by sentiment rather than by sober reasoning% (his sentiment, however, is not comple3, b!t simple and consistent% It is not highly differentiated, b!t has only the negative and positive notions of love and hatred, right and wrong, tr!th and falsehood% Its notions are never partly this and partly that% 7nglish propaganda especially !nderstood this in a

marvello!s way and p!t what they !nderstood into practice% (hey allowed no half-meas!res which might have given rise to some do!bt% "roof of how brilliantly they !nderstood that the feeling of the masses is something primitive was shown in their policy of p!blishing tales of horror and o!trages which fitted in with the real horrors of the time, thereby cleverly and r!thlessly preparing the gro!nd for moral solidarity at the front, even in times of great defeats% F!rther, the way in which they pilloried the 6erman enemy as solely responsible for the war - which was a br!tal and absol!te falsehood - and the way in which they proclaimed his g!ilt was e3cellently calc!lated to reach the masses, reali9ing that these are always e3tremist in their feelings% And th!s it was that this atrocio!s lie was positively believed% (he effectiveness of this &ind of propaganda is well ill!strated by the fact that after fo!r-and-a-half years, not only was the enemy still carrying on his propagandist wor&, b!t it was already !ndermining the stamina of o!r people at home% (hat o!r propaganda did not achieve similar res!lts is not to be wondered at, beca!se it had the germs of inefficiency lodged in its very being by reason of its ambig!ity% And beca!se of the very nat!re of its content one co!ld not e3pect it to ma&e the necessary impression on the masses% Only o!r fec&less Istatesmen# co!ld have imagined that on pacifists slops of s!ch a &ind the enth!siasm co!ld be no!rished which is necessary to en&indle that spirit which leads men to die for their co!ntry% And so this prod!ct of o!rs was not only worthless b!t detrimental% *o matter what an amo!nt of talent employed in the organi9ation of propaganda, it will have no res!lt if d!e acco!nt is not ta&en of these f!ndamental principles% "ropaganda m!st be limited to a few simple themes and these m!st be represented again and again% 1ere, as in inn!merable other cases, perseverance is the first and most important condition of s!ccess% "artic!larly in the field of propaganda, placid Ssthetes and blase intellect!als sho!ld never be allowed to ta&e the lead% (he former wo!ld readily transform the impressive character of real propaganda into something s!itable only for literary tea parties% As to the second class of people, one m!st always beware of this pest> for, in conse+!ence of their insensibility to normal impressions, they are constantly see&ing new e3citements% '!ch people grow sic& and tired of everything% (hey always long for change and will always be incapable of p!tting themselves in the position of pict!ring the wants of their less callo!s fellow-creat!res in their immediate neighbo!rhood, let alone trying to !nderstand them% (he blase intellect!als are always the first to critici9e propaganda, or rather its message, beca!se this appears to them to be o!tmoded and trivial% (hey are always loo&ing for something new, always yearning for change> and th!s they become the mortal enemies of every effort that may be made to infl!ence the masses in an effective way% (he moment the organi9ation and message of a propagandist movement begins to be orientated according to their tastes it becomes incoherent and scattered% It is not the p!rpose of propaganda to create a series of alterations in sentiment with a view to pleasing these blase gentry% Its chief f!nction is to convince the masses, whose slowness of !nderstanding needs to be given time in order that they may absorb information> and only constant repetition will finally s!cceed in imprinting an idea on the memory of the crowd% 7very change that is made in the s!b,ect of a propagandist message m!st always emphasi9e the same concl!sion% (he leading slogan m!st of co!rse be ill!strated in many ways and from several angles, b!t in the end one m!st always ret!rn to the assertion of the same form!la% In this way alone can propaganda be consistent and dynamic in its effects% Only by following these general lines and stic&ing to them steadfastly, with !niform and concise emphasis, can final s!ccess be reached% (hen one will be rewarded by the s!rprising and almost incredible res!lts that s!ch a persistent policy sec!res% (he s!ccess of any advertisement, whether of a b!siness or political nat!re, depends on the consistency and perseverance with which it is employed% In this respect also the propaganda organi9ed by o!r enemies set !s an e3cellent e3ample% It confined itself to a few themes, which were meant e3cl!sively for mass cons!mption, and it repeated these themes with !ntiring perseverance% Once these f!ndamental themes and the manner of placing them before the world were recogni9ed as effective, they adhered to them witho!t the slightest alteration for the whole d!ration of the /ar% At first all of it appeared to be idiotic in its imp!dent assertiveness% Later on it was loo&ed !pon as dist!rbing, b!t finally it was believed% 4!t in 7ngland they came to !nderstand something f!rther0 namely, that the possibility of s!ccess in the !se of this spirit!al weapon consists in the mass employment of it, and that when employed in this way it brings f!ll ret!rns for the large e3penses inc!rred% In 7ngland propaganda was regarded as a weapon of the first order, whereas with !s it represented the last hope of a livelihood for o!r !nemployed politicians and a sn!g ,ob for shir&ers of the modest hero type% (a&en all in all, its res!lts were negative%

$hapter 'even0 In 191= the enemy started his propaganda among o!r soldiers% From 191F onwards it steadily became more intensive, and at the beginning of 191; it had swollen into a storm flood% One co!ld now ,!dge the effects of this proselyti9ing movement step by step% 6rad!ally o!r soldiers began to thin& ,!st in the way the enemy wished them to thin&% On the 6erman side there was no co!nter-propaganda% At that time the army a!thorities, !nder o!r able and resol!te $ommander, were willing and ready to ta&e !p the fight in the propaganda domain also, b!t !nfort!nately they did not have the necessary means to carry that intention into effect% oreover, the army a!thorities wo!ld have made a psychological mista&e had they !nderta&en this tas& of mental training% (o be efficacio!s it had come from the home front% For only th!s co!ld it be s!ccessf!l among men who for nearly fo!r years now had been performing immortal deeds of heroism and !ndergoing all sorts of privations for the sa&e of that home% 4!t what were the people at home doing5 /as their fail!re to act merely d!e to !nintelligence or bad faith5 In the mids!mmer of 191;, after the evac!ation of the so!thern ban& of the hearne, the 6erman "ress adopted a policy which was so woef!lly inopport!ne, and even criminally st!pid, that I !sed to as& myself a +!estion which made me more and more f!rio!s day after day0 Is it really tr!e that we have nobody who will dare to p!t an end to this process of spirit!al sabotage which is being carried on among o!r heroic troops5 /hat happened in France d!ring those days of 1914, when o!r armies invaded that co!ntry and were marching in tri!mph from one victory to another5 /hat happened in Italy when their armies collapsed on the Ison9o front5 /hat happened in France again d!ring the spring of 191;, when 6erman divisions too& the main French positions by storm and heavy long-distance artillery bombarded "aris5 1ow they whipped !p the flagging co!rage of those troops who were retreating and fanned the fires of national enth!siasm among themJ 1ow their propaganda and their marvello!s aptit!de in the e3ercise of mass-infl!ence reawa&ened the fighting spirit in that bro&en front and hammered into the heads of the soldiers a, firm belief in final victoryJ eanwhile, what were o!r people doing in this sphere5 *othing, or even worse than nothing% Again and again I !sed to become enraged and indignant as I read the latest papers and reali9ed the nat!re of the mass-m!rder they were committing0 thro!gh their infl!ence on the minds of the people and the soldiers% ore than once I was tormented by the tho!ght that if "rovidence had p!t the cond!ct of 6erman propaganda into my hands, instead of into the hands of those incompetent and even criminal ignoram!ses and wea&lings, the o!tcome of the str!ggle might have been different% ?!ring those months I felt for the first time that Fate was dealing adversely with me in &eeping me on the fighting front and in a position where any chance b!llet from some nigger or other might finish me, whereas I co!ld have done the Fatherland a real service in another sphere% For I was then pres!mpt!o!s eno!gh to believe that I wo!ld have been s!ccessf!l in managing the propaganda b!siness% 4!t I was a being witho!t a name, one among eight millions% 1ence it was better for me to &eep my mo!th sh!t and do my d!ty as well as I co!ld in the position to which I had been assigned% In the s!mmer of 191= the first enemy leaflets were dropped on o!r trenches% (hey all told more or less the same story, with some variations in the form of it% (he story was that distress was steadily on the increase in 6ermany> that the /ar wo!ld last indefinitely> that the prospect of victory for !s was becoming fainter day after day> that the people at home were yearning for peace, b!t that I ilitarism# and the I2aiser# wo!ld not permit it> that the world which &new this very well - was not waging war against the 6erman people b!t only against the man who was e3cl!sively responsible, the 2aiser> that !ntil this enemy of world-peace was removed there co!ld be no end to the conflict> b!t that when the /ar was over the liberal and democratic nations wo!ld receive the 6ermans as colleag!es in the Leag!e for /orld "eace% (his wo!ld be done the moment I"r!ssian ilitarism# had been finally destroyed% (o ill!strate and s!bstantiate all these statements, the leaflets very often contained ILetters from 1ome#, the contents of which appeared to confirm the enemy#s propagandist message% 6enerally spea&ing, we only la!ghed at all these efforts% (he leaflets were read, sent to base head+!arters, then forgotten !ntil a favo!rable wind once again blew a fresh contingent into the trenches% (hese were mostly dropped from Sroplanes which were !sed specially for that p!rpose% One feat!re of this propaganda was very stri&ing% It was that in sections where 4avarian troops were stationed every effort was made by the enemy propagandists to stir !p feeling against the "r!ssians, ass!ring the soldiers that "r!ssia and "r!ssia alone was the g!ilty party who was responsible for bringing on and contin!ing the /ar, and that there was no hostility whatsoever towards the 4avarians> b!t that there co!ld be no possibility of coming to their assistance so long as they contin!ed to serve "r!ssian interests and helped to p!ll the "r!ssian chestn!ts o!t of the fire% (his persistent propaganda began to have a real infl!ence on o!r soldiers in 191=% (he feeling against "r!ssia grew

+!ite noticeable among the 4avarian troops, b!t those in a!thority did nothing to co!nteract it% (his was something more than a mere crime of omission> for sooner or later not only the "r!ssians were bo!nd to have to atone severely for it b!t the whole 6erman nation and conse+!ently the 4avarians themselves also% In this direction the enemy propaganda began to achieve !ndo!bted s!ccess from 191F onwards% In a similar way letters coming directly from home had long since been e3ercising their effect% (here was now no f!rther necessity for the enemy to broadcast s!ch letters in leaflet form% And also against this infl!ence from home nothing was done e3cept a few s!premely st!pid Iwarnings# !ttered by the e3ec!tive government% (he whole front was drenched in this poison which tho!ghtless women at home sent o!t, witho!t s!specting for a moment that the enemy#s chances of final victory were th!s strengthened or that the s!fferings of their own men at the front were th!s being prolonged and rendered more severe% (hese st!pid letters written by 6erman women event!ally cost the lives of h!ndreds of tho!sands of o!r men% (h!s in 191F several distressing phenomena were already manifest% (he whole front was complaining and gro!sing, discontented over many things and often ,!stifiably so% /hile they were h!ngry and yet patient, and their relatives at home were in distress, in other +!arters there was feasting and revelry% Nes> even on the front itself everything was not as it o!ght to have been in this regard% 7ven in the early stages of the war the soldiers were sometimes prone to complain> b!t s!ch criticism was confined to Iinternal affairs#% (he man who at one moment gro!sed and gr!mbled ceased his m!rm!r after a few moments and went abo!t his d!ty silently, as if everything were in order% (he company which had given signs of discontent a moment earlier h!ng on now to its bit of trench, defending it tooth and nail, as if 6ermany#s fate depended on these few h!ndred yards of m!d and shell-holes% (he glorio!s old army was still at its post% A s!dden change in my own fort!nes soon placed me in a position where I had first-hand e3perience of the contrast between this old army and the home front% At the end of 'eptember 191F my division was sent into the 4attle of the 'omme% For !s this was the first of a series of heavy engagements, and the impression created was that of a veritable inferno, rather than war% (hro!gh wee&s of incessant artillery bombardment we stood firm, at times ceding a little gro!nd b!t then ta&ing it bac& again, and never giving way% On October Gth, 191F, I was wo!nded b!t had the l!c& of being able to get bac& to o!r lines and was then ordered to be sent by amb!lance train to 6ermany% (wo years had passed since I had left home, an almost endless period in s!ch circ!mstances% I co!ld hardly imagine what 6ermans loo&ed li&e witho!t !niforms% In the clearing hospital at 1ermies I was startled when I s!ddenly heard the voice of a 6erman woman who was acting as n!rsing sister and tal&ing with one of the wo!nded men lying near me% (wo yearsJ And then this voice for the first timeJ (he nearer o!r amb!lance train approached the 6erman frontier the more restless each one of !s became% 7n ro!te we recognised all these places thro!gh which we passed two years before as yo!ng vol!nteers - 4r!ssels, Lo!vain, LiTge - and finally we tho!ght we recogni9ed the first 6erman homestead, with its familiar high gables and pict!res+!e window-sh!tters% 1omeJ /hat a changeJ From the m!d of the 'omme battlefields to the spotless white beds in this wonderf!l b!ilding% One hesitated at first before entering them% It was only by slow stages that one co!ld grow acc!stomed to this new world again% 4!t !nfort!nately there were certain other aspects also in which this new world was different% (he spirit of the army at the front appeared to be o!t of place here% For the first time I enco!ntered something which !p to then was !n&nown at the front0 namely, boasting of one#s own cowardice% For, tho!gh we certainly heard complaining and gro!sing at the front, this was never in the spirit of any agitation to ins!bordination and certainly not an attempt to glorify one#s fear% *o> there at the front a coward was a coward and nothing else, And the contempt which his wea&ness aro!sed in the others was +!ite general, ,!st as the real hero was admired all ro!nd% 4!t here in hospital the spirit was +!ite different in some respects% Lo!dmo!thed agitators were b!sy here in heaping ridic!le on the good soldier and painting the wea&-&need poltroon in glorio!s colo!rs% A co!ple of miserable h!man specimens were the ringleaders in this process of defamation% One of them boasted of having intentionally in,!red his hand in barbed-wire entanglements in order to get sent to hospital% Altho!gh his wo!nd was only a slight one, it appeared that he had been here for a very long time and wo!ld be here interminably% 'ome arrangement for him seemed to be wor&ed by some sort of swindle, ,!st as he got sent here in the amb!lance train thro!gh a swindle% (his pestilential specimen act!ally had the a!dacity to parade his &navery as the manifestation of a co!rage which was s!perior to that of the brave soldier who dies a hero#s death% (here were many who heard this tal& in silence> b!t there were others who e3pressed their assent to what the fellow said% "ersonally I was disg!sted at the tho!ght that a seditio!s agitator of this &ind sho!ld be allowed to remain in s!ch an instit!tion% /hat co!ld be done5 (he hospital a!thorities here m!st have &nown who and what he was> and act!ally they did &now% 4!t still they did nothing abo!t it% As soon as I was able to wal& once again I obtained leave to visit 4erlin% 4itter want was in evidence everywhere% (he metropolis, with its teeming millions, was s!ffering from h!nger% (he tal& that was c!rrent in the vario!s places of refreshment and hospices visited by the soldiers was m!ch the same as that in o!r hospital% (he impression given was that these agitators p!rposely singled o!t s!ch places in order to

spread their views% 4!t in !nich conditions were far worse% After my discharge from hospital, I was sent to a reserve battalion there% I felt as in some strange town% Anger, discontent, complaints met one#s ears wherever one went% (o a certain e3tent this was d!e to the infinitely maladroit manner in which the soldiers who had ret!rned from the front were treated by the non-commissioned officers who had never seen a day#s active service and who on that acco!nt were partly incapable of adopting the proper attit!de towards the old soldiers% *at!rally those old soldiers displayed certain characteristics which had been developed from the e3periences in the trenches% (he officers of the reserve !nits co!ld not !nderstand these pec!liarities, whereas the officer home from active service was at least in a position to !nderstand them for himself% As a res!lt he received more respect from the men than officers at the home head+!arters% 4!t, apart from all this, the general spirit was deplorable% (he art of shir&ing was loo&ed !pon as almost a proof of higher intelligence, and devotion to d!ty was considered a sign of wea&ness or bigotry% 6overnment offices were staffed by )ews% Almost every cler& was a )ew and every )ew was a cler&% I was ama9ed at this m!ltit!de of combatants who belonged to the chosen people and co!ld not help comparing it with their slender n!mbers in the fighting lines% In the b!siness world the sit!ation was even worse% 1ere the )ews had act!ally become Iindispensable#% Li&e leeches, they were slowly s!c&ing the blood from the pores of the national body% 4y means of newly floated /ar $ompanies an instr!ment had been discovered whereby all national trade was throttled so that no b!siness co!ld be carried on freely 'pecial emphasis was laid on the necessity for !nhampered centrali9ation% 1ence as early as 191F-1G practically all prod!ction was !nder the control of )ewish finance% 4!t against whom was the anger of the people directed5 It was then that I already saw the fatef!l day approaching which m!st finally bring the debacle, !nless timely preventive meas!res were ta&en% /hile )ewry was b!sy despoiling the nation and tightening the screws of its despotism, the wor& of inciting the people against the "r!ssians increased% And ,!st as nothing was done at the front to p!t a stop to the venomo!s propaganda, so here at home no official steps were ta&en against it% *obody seemed capable of !nderstanding that the collapse of "r!ssia co!ld never bring abo!t the rise of 4avaria% On the contrary, the collapse of the one m!st necessarily drag the other down with it% (his &ind of behavio!r affected me very deeply% In it I co!ld see only a clever )ewish tric& for diverting p!blic attention from themselves to others% /hile "r!ssians and 4avarians were s+!abbling, the )ews were ta&ing away the s!stenance of both from !nder their very noses% /hile "r!ssians were being ab!sed in 4avaria the )ews organi9ed the revol!tion and with one stro&e smashed both "r!ssia and 4avaria% I co!ld not tolerate this e3ecrable s+!abbling among people of the same 6erman stoc& and preferred to be at the front once again% (herefore, ,!st after my arrival in !nich I reported myself for service again% At the beginning of arch 191G I re,oined my old regiment at the front% (owards the end of 191G it seemed as if we had got over the worst phases of moral depression at the front% After the 8!ssian collapse the whole army recovered its co!rage and hope, and all were grad!ally becoming more and more convinced that the str!ggle wo!ld end in o!r favo!r% /e co!ld sing once again% (he ravens were ceasing to croa&% Faith in the f!t!re of the Fatherland was once more in the ascendant% (he Italian collapse in the a!t!mn of 191G had a wonderf!l effect> for this victory proved that it was possible to brea& thro!gh another front besides the 8!ssian% (his inspiring tho!ght now became dominant in the minds of millions at the front and enco!raged them to loo& forward with confidence to the spring of 191;% It was +!ite obvio!s that the enemy was in a state of depression% ?!ring this winter the front was somewhat +!ieter than !s!al% 4!t that was the calm before the storm% )!st when preparations were being made to la!nch a final offensive which wo!ld bring this seemingly eternal str!ggle to an end, while endless col!mns of transports were bringing men and m!nitions to the front, and while the men were being trained for that final onsla!ght, then it was that the greatest act of treachery d!ring the whole /ar was accomplished in 6ermany% 6ermany m!st not win the /ar% At that moment when victory seemed ready to alight on the 6erman standards, a conspiracy was arranged for the p!rpose of stri&ing at the heart of the 6erman spring offensive with one blow from the rear and th!s ma&ing victory impossible% A general stri&e in the m!nition factories was organi9ed% If this conspiracy co!ld achieve its p!rpose the 6erman front wo!ld have collapsed and the wishes of the :orwErts Bthe organ of the 'ocial-?emocratic "artyC that this time victory sho!ld not ta&e the side of the 6erman banners, wo!ld have been f!lfilled% For want of m!nitions the front wo!ld be bro&en thro!gh within a few wee&s, the offensive wo!ld be effectively stopped and the 7ntente saved% (hen International Finance wo!ld ass!me control over 6ermany and the internal ob,ective of the ar3ist national betrayal wo!ld be achieved% (hat ob,ective was the destr!ction of the national economic system and the establishment of international capitalistic domination in its stead% And this goal has really been reached, than&s to the st!pid cred!lity of the one side and the !nspea&able treachery of the other%

(he m!nition stri&e, however, did not bring the final s!ccess that had been hoped for0 namely, to starve the front of amm!nition% It lasted too short a time for the lac& of amm!nitions as s!ch to bring disaster to the army, as was originally planned% 4!t the moral damage was m!ch more terrible% In the first place% what was the army fighting for if the people at home did not wish it to be victorio!s5 For whom then were these enormo!s sacrifices and privations being made and end!red5 !st the soldiers fight for victory while the home front goes on stri&e against it5 In the second place, what effect did this move have on the enemy5 In the winter of 191G-1; dar& clo!ds hovered in the firmament of the 7ntente% For nearly fo!r years onsla!ght after onsla!ght has been made against the 6erman giant, b!t they failed to bring him to the gro!nd% 1e had to &eep them at bay with one arm that held the defensive shield beca!se his other arm had to be free to wield the sword against his enemies, now in the 7ast and now in the 'o!th% 4!t at last these enemies were overcome and his rear was now free for the conflict in the /est% 8ivers of blood had been shed for the accomplishment of that tas&> b!t now the sword was free to combine in battle with the shield on the /estern Front% And since the enemy had hitherto failed to brea& the 6erman defence here, the 6ermans themselves had now to la!nch the attac&% (he enemy feared and trembled before the prospect of this 6erman victory% At "aris and London conferences followed one another in !nending series% 7ven the enemy propaganda enco!ntered diffic!lties% It was no longer so easy to demonstrate that the prospect of a 6erman victory was hopeless% A pr!dent silence reigned at the front, even among the troops of the 7ntente% (he insolence of their masters had s!ddenly s!bsided% A dist!rbing tr!th began to dawn on them% (heir opinion of the 6erman soldier had changed% 1itherto they were able to pict!re him as a &ind of fool whose end wo!ld be destr!ction> b!t now they fo!nd themselves face to face with the soldier who had overcome their 8!ssian ally% (he policy of restricting the offensive to the 7ast, which had been imposed on the 6erman military a!thorities by the necessities of the sit!ation, now seemed to the 7ntente as a tactical stro&e of geni!s% For three years these 6ermans had been battering away at the 8!ssian front witho!t any apparent s!ccess at first% (hose fr!itless efforts were almost sneered at> for it was tho!ght that in the long r!n the 8!ssian giant wo!ld tri!mph thro!gh sheer force of n!mbers% 6ermany wo!ld be worn o!t thro!gh shedding so m!ch blood% And facts appeared to confirm this hope% 'ince the 'eptember days of 1914, when for the first time interminable col!mns of 8!ssian war prisoners po!red into 6ermany after the 4attle of (annenberg, it seemed as if the stream wo!ld never end b!t that as soon as one army was defeated and ro!ted another wo!ld ta&e its place% (he s!pply of soldiers which the gigantic 7mpire placed at the disposal of the $9ar seemed ine3ha!stible> new victims were always at hand for the holoca!st of war% 1ow long co!ld 6ermany hold o!t in this competition5 /o!ld not the day finally have to come when, after the last victory which the 6ermans wo!ld achieve, there wo!ld still remain reserve armies in 8!ssia to be m!stered for the final battle5 And what then5 According to h!man standards a 8!ssian victory over 6ermany might be delayed b!t it wo!ld have to come in the long r!n% All the hopes that had been based on 8!ssia were now lost% (he Ally who had sacrificed the most blood on the altar of their m!t!al interests had come to the end of his reso!rces and lay prostrate before his !nrelenting foe% A feeling of terror and dismay came over the 7ntente soldiers who had hitherto been b!oyed !p by blind faith% (hey feared the coming spring% For, seeing that hitherto they had failed to brea& the 6ermans when the latter co!ld concentrate only part of the fighting strength on the /estern Front, how co!ld they co!nt on victory now that the !ndivided forces of that ama9ing land of heroes appeared to be gathered for a massed attac& in the /est5 (he shadow of the events which had ta&en place in 'o!th (yrol, the spectre of 6eneral $adorna#s defeated armies, were reflected in the gloomy faces of the 7ntente troops in Flanders% Faith in victory gave way to fear of defeat to come% (hen, on those cold nights, when one almost heard the tread of the 6erman armies advancing to the great assa!lt, and the decision was being awaited in fear and trembling, s!ddenly a l!rid light was set aglow in 6ermany and sent its rays into the last shell-hole on the enemy#s front% At the very moment when the 6erman divisions were receiving their final orders for the great offensive a general stri&e bro&e o!t in 6ermany% At first the world was d!mbfo!nded% (hen the enemy propaganda began activities once again and po!nced on this theme at the eleventh ho!r% All of a s!dden a means had come which co!ld be !tili9ed to revive the sin&ing confidence of the 7ntente soldiers% (he probabilities of victory co!ld now be presented as certain, and the an3io!s foreboding in regard to coming events co!ld now be transformed into a feeling of resol!te ass!rance% (he regiments that had to bear the br!nt of the 6reatest 6erman onsla!ght in history co!ld now be inspired with the conviction that the final decision in this war wo!ld not be won by the a!dacity of the 6erman assa!lt b!t rather by the powers of end!rance on the side of the defence% Let the 6ermans now have whatever victories they li&ed, the revol!tion and not the victorio!s army was welcomed in the Fatherland% 4ritish, French and American newspapers began to spread this belief among their readers while a very ably managed propaganda enco!raged the morale of their troops at the front% I6ermany Facing 8evol!tionJ An Allied :ictory InevitableJ# (hat was the best medicine to set the staggering "oil!

and (ommy on their feet once again% O!r rifles and machine-g!ns co!ld now open fire once again> b!t instead of effecting a panic-stric&en retreat they were now met with a determined resistance that was f!ll of confidence% (hat was the res!lt of the stri&e in the m!nitions factories% (hro!gho!t the enemy co!ntries faith in victory was th!s revived and strengthened, and that paralysing feeling of despair which had hitherto made itself felt on the 7ntente front was banished% $onse+!ently the stri&e cost the lives of tho!sands of 6erman soldiers% 4!t the despicable instigators of that dastardly stri&e were candidates for the highest p!blic positions in the 6ermany of the 8evol!tion% At first it was apparently possible to overcome the reperc!ssion of these events on the 6erman soldiers, b!t on the enemy#s side they had a lasting effect% 1ere the resistance had lost all the character of an army fighting for a lost ca!se% In its place there was now a grim determination to str!ggle thro!gh to victory% For, according to all h!man r!les of ,!dgment, victory wo!ld now be ass!red if the /estern front co!ld hold o!t against the 6erman offensive even for only a few months% (he Allied parliaments recogni9ed the possibilities of a better f!t!re and voted h!ge s!ms of money for the contin!ation of the propaganda which was employed for the p!rpose of brea&ing !p the internal cohesion of 6ermany% It was my l!c& that I was able to ta&e part in the first two offensives and in the final offensive% (hese have left on me the most st!pendo!s impressions of my life - st!pendo!s, beca!se now for the last time the str!ggle lost its defensive character and ass!med the character of an offensive, ,!st as it was in 1914% A sigh of relief went !p from the 6erman trenches and d!g-o!ts when finally, after three years of end!rance in that inferno, the day for the settling of acco!nts had come% Once again the l!sty cheering of victorio!s battalions was heard, as they h!ng the last crowns of the immortal la!rel on the standards which they consecrated to :ictory% Once again the strains of patriotic songs soared !pwards to the heavens above the endless col!mns of marching troops, and for the last time the Lord smiled on his !ngratef!l children% In the mids!mmer of 191; a feeling of s!ltry oppression h!ng over the front% At home they were +!arrelling% Abo!t what5 /e heard a great deal among vario!s !nits at the front% (he /ar was now a hopeless affair, and only the foolhardy co!ld thin& of victory% It was not the people b!t the capitalists and the onarchy who were interested in carrying on% '!ch were the ideas that came from home and were disc!ssed at the front% At first this gave rise to only very slight reaction% /hat did !niversal s!ffrage matter to !s5 Is this what we had been fighting for d!ring fo!r years5 It was a dastardly piece of robbery th!s to filch from the graves of o!r heroes the ideals for which they had fallen% It was not to the slogan, ILong Live Mniversal '!ffrage,# that o!r troops in Flanders once faced certain death b!t with the cry, I?e!tschland Dber Alles in der /elt#% A small b!t by no means an !nimportant difference% And the ma,ority of those who were sho!ting for this s!ffrage were absent when it came to fighting for it% All this political rabble were strangers to !s at the front% ?!ring those days only a fraction of these parliamentarian gentry were to be seen where honest 6ermans foregathered% (he old soldiers who had fo!ght at the front had little li&ing for those new war aims of essrs% 7bert, 'cheidemann, 4arth, Lieb&necht and others% /e co!ld not !nderstand why, all of a s!dden, the shir&ers sho!ld abrogate all e3ec!tive powers to themselves, witho!t having any regard to the army% From the very beginning I had my own definite personal views% I intensely loathed the whole gang of miserable party politicians who had betrayed the people% I had long ago reali9ed that the interests of the nation played only a very small part with this disrep!table crew and that what co!nted with them was the possibility of filling their own empty poc&ets% y opinion was that those people thoro!ghly deserved to be hanged, beca!se they were ready to sacrifice the peace and if necessary allow 6ermany to be defeated ,!st to serve their own ends% (o consider their wishes wo!ld mean to sacrifice the interests of the wor&ing classes for the benefit of a gang of thieves% (o meet their wishes meant that one sho!ld agree to sacrifice 6ermany% '!ch, too, was the opinion still held by the ma,ority of the army% 4!t the reinforcements which came from home were fast becoming worse and worse> so m!ch so that their arrival was a so!rce of wea&ness rather than of strength to o!r fighting forces% (he yo!ng recr!its in partic!lar were for the most part !seless% 'ometimes it was hard to believe that they were sons of the same nation that sent its yo!th into the battles that were fo!ght ro!nd Npres% In A!g!st and 'eptember the symptoms of moral disintegration increased more and more rapidly, altho!gh the enemy#s offensive was not at all comparable to the frightf!lness of o!r own former defensive battles% In comparison with this offensive the battles fo!ght on the 'omme and in Flanders remained in o!r memories as the most terrible of all horrors% At the end of 'eptember my division occ!pied, for the third time, those positions which we had once ta&en by storm as yo!ng vol!nteers% /hat a memoryJ 1ere we had received o!r baptism of fire, in October and *ovember 1914% /ith a b!rning love of the homeland in their hearts and a song on their lips, o!r yo!ng regiment went into action as if going to a dance% (he dearest blood was given freely here in the belief that it was shed to protect the freedom and independence of the Fatherland% In )!ly 191G we set foot for the second time on what we regarded as sacred soil% /ere not o!r best comrades at rest here, some of them little more than boys - the soldiers who had r!shed into death for their co!ntry#s sa&e, their eyes

glowing with enth!siastic love% (he older ones among !s, who had been with the regiment from the beginning, were deeply moved as we stood on this sacred spot where we had sworn ILoyalty and ?!ty !nto ?eath#% (hree years ago the regiment had ta&en this position by storm> now it was called !pon to defend it in a gr!elling str!ggle% /ith an artillery bombardment that lasted three wee&s the 7nglish prepared for their great offensive in Flanders% (here the spirits of the dead seemed to live again% (he regiment d!g itself into the m!d, cl!ng to its shell-holes and craters, neither flinching nor wavering, b!t growing smaller in n!mbers day after day% Finally the 4ritish la!nched their attac& on )!ly .1st, 191G% /e were relieved in the beginning of A!g!st% (he regiment had dwindled down to a few companies, who staggered bac&, m!d-cr!sted, more li&e phantoms than h!man beings% 4esides a few h!ndred yards of shell-holes, death was the only reward which the 7nglish gained% *ow in the a!t!mn of 191; we stood for the third time on the gro!nd we had stormed in 1914% (he village of $omines, which formerly had served !s as a base, was now within the fighting 9one% Altho!gh little had changed in the s!rro!nding district itself, yet the men had become different, somehow or other% (hey now tal&ed politics% Li&e everywhere else, the poison from home was having its effect here also% (he yo!ng drafts s!cc!mbed to it completely% (hey had come directly from home% ?!ring the night of October, the 4ritish opened an attac& with gas on the front so!th of Npres% (hey !sed the yellow gas whose effect was !n&nown to !s, at least from personal e3perience% I was destined to e3perience it that very night% On a hill so!th of /erwic&, in the evening of October, we were s!b,ected for several ho!rs to a heavy bombardment with gas bombs, which contin!ed thro!gho!t the night with more or less intensity% Abo!t midnight a n!mber of !s were p!t o!t of action, some for ever% (owards morning I also began to feel pain% It increased with every +!arter of an ho!r> and abo!t seven o#cloc& my eyes were scorching as I staggered bac& and delivered the last dispatch I was destined to carry in this war% A few ho!rs later my eyes were li&e glowing coals and all was dar&ness aro!nd me% I was sent into hospital at "asewal& in "omerania, and there it was that I had to hear of the 8evol!tion% For a long time there had been something in the air which was indefinable and rep!lsive% "eople were saying that something was bo!nd to happen within the ne3t few wee&s, altho!gh I co!ld not imagine what this meant% In the first instance I tho!ght of a stri&e similar to the one which had ta&en place in spring% Mnfavo!rable r!mo!rs were constantly coming from the *avy, which was said to be in a state of ferment% 4!t this seemed to be a fancif!l creation of a few isolated yo!ng people% It is tr!e that at the hospital they were all tal&ing ab!t the end of the war and hoping that this was not far off, b!t nobody tho!ght that the decision wo!ld come immediately% I was not able to read the newspapers% In *ovember the general tension increased% (hen one day disaster bro&e in !pon !s s!ddenly and witho!t warning% 'ailors came in motor-lorries and called on !s to rise in revolt% A few )ew-boys were the leaders in that combat for the ILiberty, 4ea!ty, and ?ignity# of o!r *ational 4eing% *ot one of them had seen active service at the front% (hro!gh the medi!m of a hospital for venereal diseases these three Orientals had been sent bac& home% *ow their red rags were being hoisted here% ?!ring the last few days I had beg!n to feel somewhat better% (he b!rning pain in the eye-soc&ets had become less severe% 6rad!ally I was able to disting!ish the general o!tlines of my immediate s!rro!ndings% And it was permissible to hope that at least I wo!ld recover my sight s!fficiently to be able to ta&e !p some profession later on% (hat I wo!ld ever be able to draw or design once again was nat!rally o!t of the +!estion% (h!s I was on the way to recovery when the frightf!l ho!r came% y first tho!ght was that this o!tbrea& of high treason was only a local affair% I tried to enforce this belief among my comrades% y 4avarian hospital mates, in partic!lar, were readily responsive% (heir inclinations were anything b!t revol!tionary% I co!ld not imagine this madness brea&ing o!t in !nich> for it seemed to me that loyalty to the 1o!se of /ittelsbach was, after all, stronger than the will of a few )ews% And so I co!ld not help believing that this was merely a revolt in the *avy and that it wo!ld be s!ppressed within the ne3t few days% /ith the ne3t few days came the most asto!nding information of my life% (he r!mo!rs grew more and more persistent% I was told that what I had considered to be a local affair was in reality a general revol!tion% In addition to this, from the front came the shamef!l news that they wished to capit!lateJ /hatJ /as s!ch a thing possible5 On *ovember 1<th the local pastor visited the hospital for the p!rpose of delivering a short address% And that was how we came to &now the whole story% I was in a fever of e3citement as I listened to the address% (he reverend old gentleman seemed to be trembling when he informed !s that the 1o!se of 1ohen-9ollern sho!ld no longer wear the Imperial $rown, that the Fatherland had become a I8ep!blic#, that we sho!ld pray to the Almighty not to withhold 1is blessing from the new order of things and not to abandon o!r people in the days to come% In delivering this message he co!ld not do more than briefly e3press appreciation of the 8oyal 1o!se, its services to "omerania, to "r!ssia, indeed, to the whole of the 6erman Fatherland, and - here he began to weep% A feeling of profo!nd dismay fell on the people in that assembly, and I do

not thin& there was a single eye that withheld its tears% As for myself, I bro&e down completely when the old gentleman tried to res!me his story by informing !s that we m!st now end this long war, beca!se the war was lost, he said, and we were at the mercy of the victor% (he Fatherland wo!ld have to bear heavy b!rdens in the f!t!re% /e were to accept the terms of the Armistice and tr!st to the magnanimity of o!r former enemies% It was impossible for me to stay and listen any longer% ?ar&ness s!rro!nded me as I staggered and st!mbled bac& to my ward and b!ried my aching head between the blan&ets and pillow% I had not cried since the day that I stood beside my mother#s grave% /henever Fate dealt cr!elly with me in my yo!ng days the spirit of determination within me grew stronger and stronger% ?!ring all those long years of war, when ?eath claimed many a tr!e friend and comrade from o!r ran&s, to me it wo!ld have appeared sinf!l to have !ttered a word of complaint% ?id they not die for 6ermany5 And, finally, almost in the last few days of that titanic str!ggle, when the waves of poison gas enveloped me and began to penetrate my eyes, the tho!ght of becoming permanently blind !nnerved me> b!t the voice of conscience cried o!t immediately0 "oor miserable fellow, will yo! start howling when there are tho!sands of others whose lot is a h!ndred times worse than yo!rs5 And so I accepted my misfort!ne in silence, reali9ing that this was the only thing to be done and that personal s!ffering was nothing when compared with the misfort!ne of one#s co!ntry% 'o all had been in vain% In vain all the sacrifices and privations, in vain the h!nger and thirst for endless months, in vain those ho!rs that we st!c& to o!r posts tho!gh the fear of death gripped o!r so!ls, and in vain the deaths of two millions who fell in discharging this d!ty% (hin& of those h!ndreds of tho!sands who set o!t with hearts f!ll of faith in their fatherland, and never ret!rned> o!ght not their graves to open, so that the spirits of those heroes bespattered with m!d and blood sho!ld come home and ta&e vengeance on those who had so despicably betrayed the greatest sacrifice which a h!man being can ma&e for his co!ntry5 /as it for this that the soldiers died in A!g!st and 'eptember 1914, for this that the vol!nteer regiments followed the old comrades in the a!t!mn of the same year5 /as it for this that those boys of seventeen years of age were mingled with the earth of Flanders5 /as this meant to be the fr!its of the sacrifice which 6erman mothers made for their Fatherland when, with heavy hearts, they said good-bye to their sons who never ret!rned5 1as all this been done in order to enable a gang of despicable criminals to lay hands on the Fatherland5 /as this then what the 6erman soldier str!ggled for thro!gh sweltering heat and blinding snowstorm, end!ring h!nger and thirst and cold, fatig!ed from sleepless nights and endless marches5 /as it for this that he lived thro!gh an inferno of artillery bombardments, lay gasping and cho&ing d!ring gas attac&s, neither flinching nor faltering, b!t remaining sta!nch to the tho!ght of defending the Fatherland against the enemy5 $ertainly these heroes also deserved the epitaph0 (raveller, when yo! come to 6ermany, tell the 1omeland that we lie here, tr!e to the Fatherland and faithf!l to o!r d!ty% And at 1ome5 4!t - was this the only sacrifice that we had to consider5 /as the 6ermany of the past a co!ntry of little worth5 ?id she not owe a certain d!ty to her own history5 /ere we still worthy to parta&e in the glory of the past5 1ow co!ld we ,!stify this act to f!t!re generations5 /hat a gang of despicable and depraved criminalsJ (he more I tried then to glean some definite information of the terrible events that had happened the more my head became afire with rage and shame% /hat was all the pain I s!ffered in my eyes compared with this tragedy5 (he following days were terrible to bear, and the nights still worse% (o depend on the mercy of the enemy was a precept which only fools or criminal liars co!ld recommend% ?!ring those nights my hatred increased - hatred for the orignators of this dastardly crime% ?!ring the following days my own fate became clear to me% I was forced now to scoff at the tho!ght of my personal f!t!re, which hitherto had been the ca!se of so m!ch worry to me% /as it not l!dicro!s to thin& of b!ilding !p anything on s!ch a fo!ndation5 Finally, it also became clear to me that it was the inevitable that had happened, something which I had feared for a long time, tho!gh I really did not have the heart to believe it% 7mperor /illiam II was the first 6erman 7mperor to offer the hand of friendship to the ar3ist leaders, not s!specting that they were sco!ndrels witho!t any sense of hono!r% /hile they held the imperial hand in theirs, the other hand was already feeling for the dagger% (here is no s!ch thing as coming to an !nderstanding with the )ews% It m!st be the hard-and-fast I7ither-Or%# For my part I then decided that I wo!ld ta&e !p political wor&% $hapter 7ight0 (owards the end of *ovember I ret!rned to !nich% I went to the depot of my regiment, which was now in the hands of the I'oldiers# $o!ncils#% As the whole administration was +!ite rep!lsive to me, I decided to leave it as soon as I possibly co!ld% /ith my faithf!l war-comrade, 7rnst-'chmidt, I came to (ra!nstein and remained there !ntil the camp was bro&en !p% In arch 1919 we were bac& again in !nich% (he sit!ation there co!ld not last as it was% It tended irresistibly to a f!rther e3tension of the 8evol!tion% 7isner#s

death served only to hasten this development and finally led to the dictatorship of the $o!ncils - or, to p!t it more correctly, to a )ewish hegemony, which t!rned o!t to be transitory b!t which was the original aim of those who had contrived the 8evol!tion% At that ,!nct!re inn!merable plans too& shape in my mind% I spent whole days pondering on the problem of what co!ld be done, b!t !nfort!nately every pro,ect had to give way before the hard fact that I was +!ite !n&nown and therefore did not have even the first pre-re+!isite necessary for effective action% Later on I shall e3plain the reasons why I co!ld not decide to ,oin any of the parties then in e3istence% As the new 'oviet 8evol!tion began to r!n its co!rse in !nich my first activities drew !pon me the ill-will of the $entral $o!ncil% In the early morning of April 2Gth, 1919, I was to have been arrested> b!t the three fellows who came to arrest me did not have the co!rage to face my rifle and withdrew ,!st as they had arrived% A few days after the liberation of !nich I was ordered to appear before the In+!iry $ommission which had been set !p in the 2nd Infantry 8egiment for the p!rpose of watching revol!tionary activities% (hat was my first inc!rsion into the more or less political field% After another few wee&s I received orders to attend a co!rse of lect!res which were being given to members of the army% (his co!rse was meant to inc!lcate certain f!ndamental principles on which the soldier co!ld base his political ideas% For me the advantage of this organi9ation was that it gave me a chance of meeting fellow soldiers who were of the same way of thin&ing and with whom I co!ld disc!ss the act!al sit!ation% /e were all more or less firmly convinced that 6ermany co!ld not be saved from imminent disaster by those who had participated in the *ovember treachery - that is to say, the $entre and the 'ocial-?emocrats> and also that the so-called 4o!rgeois*ational gro!p co!ld not ma&e good the damage that had been done, even if they had the best intentions% (hey lac&ed a n!mber of re+!isites witho!t which s!ch a tas& co!ld never be s!ccessf!lly !nderta&en% (he years that followed have ,!stified the opinions which we held at that time% In o!r small circle we disc!ssed the pro,ect of forming a new party% (he leading ideas which we then proposed were the same as those which were carried into effect afterwards, when the 6erman Labo!r "arty was fo!nded% (he name of the new movement which was to be fo!nded sho!ld be s!ch that of itself, it wo!ld appeal to the mass of the people> for all o!r efforts wo!ld t!rn o!t vain and !seless if this condition were lac&ing% And that was the reason why we chose the name I'ocial-8evol!tionary "arty#, partic!larly beca!se the social principles of o!r new organi9ation were indeed revol!tionary% 4!t there was also a more f!ndamental reason% (he attention which I had given to economic problems d!ring my earlier years was more or less confined to considerations arising directly o!t of the social problem% '!bse+!ently this o!tloo& broadened as I came to st!dy the 6erman policy of the (riple Alliance% (his policy was very largely the res!lt of an erroneo!s val!ation of the economic sit!ation, together with a conf!sed notion as to the basis on which the f!t!re s!bsistence of the 6erman people co!ld be g!aranteed% All these ideas were based on the principle that capital is e3cl!sively the prod!ct of labo!r and that, ,!st li&e labo!r, it was s!b,ect to all the factors which can hinder or promote h!man activity% 1ence, from the national standpoint, the significance of capital depended on the greatness and freedom and power of the 'tate, that is to say, of the nation, and that it is this dependence alone which leads capital to promote the interests of the 'tate and the nation, from the instinct of self-preservation and for the sa&e of its own development% On s!ch principles the attit!de of the 'tate towards capital wo!ld be comparatively simple and clear% Its only ob,ect wo!ld be to ma&e s!re that capital remained s!bservient to the 'tate and did not allocate to itself the right to dominate national interests% (h!s it co!ld confine its activities within the two following limits0 on the one side, to ass!re a vital and independent system of national economy and, on the other, to safeg!ard the social rights of the wor&ers% "revio!sly I did not recogni9e with ade+!ate clearness the difference between capital which is p!rely the prod!ct of creative labo!r and the e3istence and nat!re of capital which is e3cl!sively the res!lt of financial spec!lation% 1ere I needed an imp!lse to set my mind thin&ing in this direction> b!t that imp!lse had hitherto been lac&ing% (he re+!isite imp!lse now came from one of the men who delivered lect!res in the co!rse I have already mentioned% (his was 6ottfried Feder% For the first time in my life I heard a disc!ssion which dealt with the principles of stoc&-e3change capital and capital which was !sed for loan activities% After hearing the first lect!re delivered by Feder, the idea immediately came into my head that I had now fo!nd a way to one of the most essential pre-re+!isites for the fo!nding of a new party% (o my mind, Feder#s merit consisted in the r!thless and trenchant way in which he described the do!ble character of the capital engaged in stoc&-e3change and loan transaction, laying bare the fact that this capital is ever and always dependent on the payment of interest% In f!ndamental +!estions his statements were so f!ll of common sense that those who critici9ed him did not deny that a! fond his ideas were so!nd b!t they do!bted whether it be possible to p!t these ideas into practice% (o me this seemed the strongest point in Feder#s teaching, tho!gh others considered it a wea& point%

It is not the b!siness of him who lays down a theoretical programme to e3plain the vario!s ways in which something can be p!t into practice% 1is tas& is to deal with the problem as s!ch> and, therefore, he has to loo& to the end rather than the means% (he important +!estion is whether an idea is f!ndamentally right or not% (he +!estion of whether or not it may be diffic!lt to carry it o!t in practice is +!ite another matter% /hen a man whose tas& it is to lay down the principles of a programme or policy begins to b!sy himself with the +!estion as to whether it is e3pedient and practical, instead of confining himself to the statement of the absol!te tr!th, his wor& will cease to be a g!iding star to those who are loo&ing abo!t for light and leading and will become merely a recipe for every-day iife% (he man who lays down the programme of a movement m!st consider only the goal% It is for the political leader to point o!t the way in which that goal may be reached% (he tho!ght of the former will, therefore, be determined by those tr!ths that are everlasting, whereas the activity of the latter m!st always be g!ided by ta&ing practical acco!nt of the circ!mstances !nder which those tr!ths have to be carried into effect% (he greatness of the one will depend on the absol!te tr!th of his idea, considered in the abstract> whereas that of the other will depend on whether or not he correctly ,!dges the given realities and how they may be !tili9ed !nder the g!idance of the tr!ths established by the former% (he test of greatness as applied to a political leader is the s!ccess of his plans and his enterprises, which means his ability to reach the goal for which he sets o!t> whereas the final goal set !p by the political philosopher can never be reached> for h!man tho!ght may grasp tr!ths and pict!re ends which it sees li&e clear crystal, tho!gh s!ch ends can never be completely f!lfilled beca!se h!man nat!re is wea& and imperfect% (he more an idea is correct in the abstract, and, therefore, all the more powerf!l, the smaller is the possibility of p!tting it into practice, at least as far as this latter depends on h!man beings% (he significance of a political philosopher does not depend on the practical s!ccess of the plans he lays down b!t rather on their absol!te tr!th and the infl!ence they e3ert on the progress of man&ind% If it were otherwise, the fo!nders of religions co!ld not be considered as the greatest men who have ever lived, beca!se their moral aims will never be completely or even appro3imately carried o!t in practice% 7ven that religion which is called the 8eligion of Love is really no more than a faint refle3 of the will of its s!blime Fo!nder% 4!t its significance lies in the orientation which it endeavo!red to give to h!man civili9ation, and h!man virt!e and morals% (his very wide difference between the f!nctions of a political philosopher and a practical political leader is the reason why the +!alifications necessary for both f!nctions are scarcely ever fo!nd associated in the same person% (his applies especially to the so-called s!ccessf!l politician of the smaller &ind, whose activity is indeed hardly more than practising the art of doing the possible, as 4ismarc& modestly defined the art of politics in general% If s!ch a politician resol!tely avoids great ideas his s!ccess will be all the easier to attain> it will be attained more e3peditely and fre+!ently will be more tangible% 4y reason of this very fact, however, s!ch s!ccess is doomed to f!tility and sometimes does not even s!rvive the death of its a!thor% 6enerally spea&ing, the wor& of politicians is witho!t significance for the following generation, beca!se their temporary s!ccess was based on the e3pediency of avoiding all really great decisive problems and ideas which wo!ld be valid also for f!t!re generations% (o p!rs!e ideals which will still be of val!e and significance for the f!t!re is generally not a very profitable !nderta&ing and he who follows s!ch a co!rse is only very rarely !nderstood by the mass of the people, who find beer and mil& a more pers!asive inde3 of political val!es than far-sighted plans for the f!t!re, the reali9ation of which can only ta&e place later on and the advantages of which can be reaped only by posterity% 4eca!se of a certain vanity, which is always one of the blood-relations of !nintelligence, the general r!n of politicians will always eschew those schemes for the f!t!re which are really diffic!lt to p!t into practice> and they will practise this avoidance so that they may not lose the immediate favo!r of the mob% (he importance and the s!ccess of s!ch politicians belong e3cl!sively to the present and will be of no conse+!ence for the f!t!re% 4!t that does not worry small-minded people> they are +!ite content with momentary res!lts% (he position of the constr!ctive political philosopher is +!ite different% (he importance of his wor& m!st always be ,!dged from the standpoint of the f!t!re> and he is fre+!ently described by the word /eltfremd, or dreamer% /hile the ability of the politician consists in mastering the art of the possible, the fo!nder of a political system belongs to those who are said to please the gods only beca!se they wish for and demand the impossible% (hey will always have to reno!nce contemporary fame> b!t if their ideas be immortal, posterity will grant them its ac&nowledgment% /ithin long spans of h!man progress it may occasionally happen that the practical politician and political philosopher are one% (he more intimate this !nion is, the greater will be the obstacles which the activity of the politician will have to enco!nter% '!ch a man does not labo!r for the p!rpose of satisfying demands that are obvio!s to every philistine, b!t he reaches o!t towards ends which can be !nderstood only by the few% 1is life is torn as!nder by hatred and love% (he protest of his contemporaries, who do not !nderstand the man, is in conflict with the recognition of posterity, for whom he also wor&s% For the greater the wor& which a man does for the f!t!re, the less will he be appreciated by his contemporaries% 1is str!ggle will accordingly be all the more severe, and his s!ccess all the rarer% /hen, in the co!rse of cent!ries, s!ch a man appears who is blessed with s!ccess then, towards the end of his days, he may have a faint prevision of his f!t!re fame% 4!t s!ch great men are only the arathon r!nners of history% (he la!rels of contemporary fame are

only for the brow of the dying hero% (he great protagonists are those who fight for their ideas and ideals despite the fact that they receive no recognition at the hands of their contemporaries% (hey are the men whose memories will be enshrined in the hearts of the f!t!re generations% It seems then as if each individ!al felt it his d!ty to ma&e retroactive atonement for the wrong which great men have s!ffered at the hands of their contemporaries% (heir lives and their wor& are then st!died with to!ching and gratef!l admiration% 7specially in dar& days of distress, s!ch men have the power of healing bro&en hearts and elevating the despairing spirit of a people% (o this gro!p belong not only the gen!inely great statesmen b!t all the great reformers as well% 4eside Frederic& the 6reat we have s!ch men as artin L!ther and 8ichard /agner% /hen I heard 6ottfried Feder#s first lect!re on I(he Abolition of the Interest-'ervit!de#, I !nderstood immediately that here was a tr!th of transcendental importance for the f!t!re of the 6erman people% (he absol!te separation of stoc&-e3change capital from the economic life of the nation wo!ld ma&e it possible to oppose the process of internationali9ation in 6erman b!siness witho!t at the same time attac&ing capital as s!ch, for to do this wo!ld ,eopardi9e the fo!ndations of o!r national independence% I clearly saw what was developing in 6ermany and I reali9ed then that the stiffest fight we wo!ld have to wage wo!ld not be against the enemy nations b!t against international capital% In Feder#s speech I fo!nd an effective rallying-cry for o!r coming str!ggle% 1ere, again, later events proved how correct was the impression we then had% (he fools among o!r bo!rgeois politicians do not moc& at !s on this point any more> for even those politicians now see - if they wo!ld spea& the tr!th - that international stoc&-e3change capital was not only the chief instigating factor in bringing on the /ar b!t that now when the /ar is over it t!rns the peace into a hell% (he str!ggle against international finance capital and loan-capital has become one of the most important points in the programme on which the 6erman nation has based its fight for economic freedom and independence% 8egarding the ob,ections raised by so-called practical people, the following answer m!st s!ffice0 All apprehensions concerning the fearf!l economic conse+!ences that wo!ld follow the abolition of the servit!de that res!lts from interest-capital are ill-timed> for, in the first place, the economic principles hitherto followed have proved +!ite fatal to the interests of the 6erman people% (he attit!de adopted when the +!estion of maintaining o!r national e3istence arose vividly recalls similar advice once given by e3perts - the 4avarian edical $ollege, for e3ample on the +!estion of introd!cing railroads% (he fears e3pressed by that a!g!st body of e3perts were not reali9ed% (hose who travelled in the coaches of the new I'team-horse# did not s!ffer from vertigo% (hose who loo&ed on did not become ill and the hoardings which had been erected to conceal the new invention were event!ally ta&en down% Only those blinds which obsc!re the vision of the wo!ld-be Ie3perts#, have remained% And that will be always so% In the second place, the following m!st be borne in mind0 Any idea may be a so!rce of danger if it be loo&ed !pon as an end in itself, when really it is only the means to an end% For me and for all gen!ine *ational-'ocialists there is only one doctrine% "eople and Fatherland% 4hat 9e ha7e t% f 3ht f%r - the #e"e--ar( -e"'r t( f%r the e! -te#"e a#, #"rea-e %f %'r ra"e a#, 6e%6le, the -'$- -te#"e %f t- "h l,re# a#, the .a #te#a#"e %f %'r ra" al -t%"/ '#. !e,, the free,%. a#, #,e6e#,e#"e %f the Fatherla#,A -% that %'r 6e%6le .a( $e e#a$le, t% f'lf l the . -- %# a-- 3#e, t% t $( the Creat%r: All ideas and ideals, all teaching and all &nowledge, m!st serve these ends% It is from this standpoint that everything m!st be e3amined and t!rned to practical !ses or else discarded% (h!s a theory can never become a mere dead dogma since everything will have to serve the practical ends of everyday life% (h!s the ,!dgment arrived at by 6ottfried Feder determined me to ma&e a f!ndamental st!dy of a +!estion with which I had hitherto not been very familiar% I began to st!dy again and th!s it was that I first came to !nderstand perfectly what was the s!bstance and p!rpose of the life-wor& of the )ew, 2arl ar3% 1is $apital became intelligible to me now for the first time% And in the light of it I now e3actly !nderstood the fight of the 'ocial-?emocrats against national economics, a fight which was to prepare the gro!nd for the hegemony of a real international and stoc&-e3change capital% In another direction also this co!rse of lect!res had important conse+!ences for me% One day I p!t my name down as wishing to ta&e part in the disc!ssion% Another of the participants tho!ght that he wo!ld brea& a lance for the )ews and entered into a lengthy defence of them% (his aro!sed my opposition% An overwhelming n!mber of those who attended the lect!re co!rse s!pported my views% (he conse+!ence of it all was that, a few days later, I was assigned to a regiment then stationed at !nich and given a position there as Iinstr!ction officer#% At that time the spirit of discipline was rather wea& among those troops% It was still s!ffering from the after-effects of the period when the 'oldiers# $o!ncils were in control% Only grad!ally and caref!lly co!ld a new spirit of military discipline and obedience be introd!ced in place of Ivol!ntary obedience#, a term which had been !sed to e3press the ideal of military discipline !nder 2!rt 7isner#s higgledy-piggledy regime% (he soldiers had to be ta!ght to thin& and feel in a national and patriotic way% In these two directions lay my f!t!re line of action% I too& !p my wor& with the greatest delight and devotion% 1ere I was presented with an opport!nity of spea&ing

before +!ite a large a!dience% I was now able to confirm what I had hitherto merely felt, namely, that I had a talent for p!blic spea&ing% y voice had become so m!ch better that I co!ld be well !nderstood, at least in all parts of the small hall where the soldiers assembled% *o tas& co!ld have been more pleasing to me than this one> for now, before being demobili9ed, I was in a position to render !sef!l service to an instit!tion which had been infinitely dear to my heart0 namely, the army% I am able to state that my tal&s were s!ccessf!l% ?!ring the co!rse of my lect!res I have led bac& h!ndreds and even tho!sands of my fellow co!ntrymen to their people and their fatherland% I Inationali9ed# these troops and by so doing I helped to restore general discipline% 1ere again I made the ac+!aintance of several comrades whose tho!ght ran along the same lines as my own and who later became members of the first gro!p o!t of which the new movement developed% $hapter *ine0 One day I received an order from my s!periors to investigate the nat!re of an association which was apparently political% It called itself I(he 6erman Labo!r "arty# and was soon to hold a meeting at which 6ottfried Feder wo!ld spea&% I was ordered to attend this meeting and report on the sit!ation% (he spirit of c!riosity in which the army a!thorities then regarded political parties can be very well !nderstood% (he 8evol!tion had granted the soldiers the right to ta&e an active part in politics and it was partic!larly those with the smallest e3perience who had availed themselves of this right% 4!t not !ntil the $entre and the 'ocial?emocratic parties were rel!ctantly forced to recogni9e that the sympathies of the soldiers had t!rned away from the revol!tionary parties towards the national movement and the national reawa&ening, did they feel obliged to withdraw from the army the right to vote and to forbid it all political activity% (he fact that the $entre and ar3ism had adopted this policy was instr!ctive, beca!se if they had not th!s c!rtailed the Irights of the citi9en# - as they described the political rights of the soldiers after the 8evol!tion - the government which had been established in *ovember 191; wo!ld have been overthrown within a few years and the dishono!r and disgrace of the nation wo!ld not have been f!rther prolonged% At that time the soldiers were on the point of ta&ing the best way to rid the nation of the vampires and valets who served the ca!se of the 7ntente in the interior of the co!ntry% 4!t the fact that the so-called Inational# parties voted enth!siastically for the doctrinaire policy of the criminals who organi9ed the 8evol!tion in *ovember B191;C helped also to render the army ineffective as an instr!ment of national restoration and th!s showed once again where men might be led by the p!rely abstract notions accepted by these most g!llible people% (he minds of the bo!rgeois middle classes had become so fossili9ed that they sincerely believed the army co!ld once again become what it had previo!sly been, namely, a rampart of 6erman valo!r> while the $entre "arty and the ar3ists intended only to e3tract the poisono!s tooth of nationalism, witho!t which an army m!st always remain ,!st a police force b!t can never be in the position of a military organi9ation capable of fighting against the o!tside enemy% (his tr!th was s!fficiently proved by s!bse+!ent events% Or did o!r Inational# politicians believe, after all, that the development of o!r army co!ld be other than national5 (his belief might be possible and co!ld be e3plained by the fact that d!ring the /ar they were not soldiers b!t merely tal&ers% In other words, they were parliamentarians, and, as s!ch, they did not have the slightest idea of what was passing in the hearts of those men who remembered the greatness of their own past and also remembered that they had once been the first soldiers in the world% I decided to attend the meeting of this "arty, which had hitherto been entirely !n&nown to me% /hen I arrived that evening in the g!est room of the former 'ternec&er 4rewery - which has now become a place of historical significance for !s - I fo!nd appro3imately 2<-2= persons present, most of them belonging to the lower classes% (he theme of Feder#s lect!re was already familiar to me> for I had heard it in the lect!re co!rse I have spo&en of% (herefore, I co!ld concentrate my attention on st!dying the society itself% (he impression it made !pon me was neither good nor bad% I felt that here was ,!st another one of these many new societies which were being formed at that time% In those days everybody felt called !pon to fo!nd a new "arty whenever he felt displeased with the co!rse of events and had lost confidence in all the parties already e3isting% (h!s it was that new associations spro!ted !p all ro!nd, to disappear ,!st as +!ic&ly, witho!t e3ercising any effect or ma&ing any noise whatsoever% 6enerally spea&ing, the fo!nders of s!ch associations did not have the slightest idea of what it means to bring together a n!mber of people for the fo!ndations of a party or a movement% (herefore these associations disappeared beca!se of their woef!l lac& of anything li&e an ade+!ate grasp of the necessities of the sit!ation% y opinion of the I6erman Labo!r "arty# was not very different after I had listened to their proceedings for abo!t two ho!rs% I was glad when Feder finally came to a close% I had observed eno!gh and was ,!st abo!t to leave when it was anno!nced that anybody who wished was free to open a disc!ssion% (here!pon, I decided to remain% 4!t the disc!ssion seemed to proceed witho!t anything of vital importance being mentioned, when s!ddenly a Iprofessor#

commenced to spea&% 1e opened by throwing do!bt on the acc!racy of what Feder had said, and then% after Feder had replied very effectively, the professor s!ddenly too& !p his position on what he called Ithe basis of facts,# b!t before this he recommended the yo!ng party most !rgently to introd!ce the secession of 4avaria from "r!ssia as one of the leading proposals in its programme% In the most self-ass!red way, this man &ept on insisting that 6erman-A!stria wo!ld ,oin 4avaria and that the peace wo!ld then f!nction m!ch better% 1e made other similarly e3travagant statements% At this ,!nct!re I felt bo!nd to as& for permission to spea& and to tell the learned gentleman what I tho!ght% (he res!lt was that the hono!rable gentleman who had last spo&en slipped o!t of his place, li&e a whipped c!r, witho!t !ttering a so!nd% /hile I was spea&ing the a!dience listened with an e3pression of s!rprise on their faces% /hen I was ,!st abo!t to say good-night to the assembly and to leave, a man came after me +!ic&ly and introd!ced himself% I did not grasp the name correctly> b!t he placed a little boo& in my hand, which was obvio!sly a political pamphlet, and as&ed me very earnestly to read it% I was +!ite pleased> beca!se in this way, I co!ld come to &now abo!t this association witho!t having to attend its tiresome meetings% oreover, this man, who had the appearance of a wor&man, made a good impression on me% (here!pon, I left the hall% At that time I was living in one of the barrac&s of the 2nd Infantry 8egiment% I had a little room which still bore the !nmista&able traces of the 8evol!tion% ?!ring the day I was mostly o!t, at the +!arters of Light Infantry *o% 41 or else attending meetings or lect!res, held at some other branch of the army% I spent only the night at the +!arters where I lodged% 'ince I !s!ally wo&e !p abo!t five o#cloc& every morning I got into the habit of am!sing myself with watching little mice which played aro!nd in my small room% I !sed to place a few pieces of hard bread or cr!st on the floor and watch the f!nny little beasts playing aro!nd and en,oying themselves with these delicacies% I had s!ffered so many privations in my own life that I well &new what h!nger was and co!ld only too well pict!re to myself the pleas!re these little creat!res were e3periencing% 'o on the morning after the meeting I have mentioned, it happened that abo!t five o#cloc& I lay f!lly awa&e in bed, watching the mice playing and vying with each other% As I was not able to go to sleep again, I s!ddenly remembered the pamphlet that one of the wor&ers had given me at the meeting% It was a small pamphlet of which this wor&er was the a!thor% In his little boo& he described how his mind had thrown off the shac&les of the ar3ist and trades-!nion phraseology, and that he had come bac& to the nationalist ideals% (hat was the reason why he had entitled his little boo&0 H y "olitical Awa&eningH% (he pamphlet sec!red my attention the moment I began to read, and I read it with interest to the end% (he process here described was similar to that which I had e3perienced in my own case ten years previo!sly% Mnconscio!sly my own e3periences began to stir again in my mind% ?!ring that day my tho!ghts ret!rned several times to what I had read> b!t I finally decided to give the matter no f!rther attention% A wee& or so later, however, I received a postcard which informed me, to my astonishment, that I had been admitted into the 6erman Labo!r "arty% I was as&ed to answer this comm!nication and to attend a meeting of the "arty $ommittee on /ednesday ne3t% (his manner of getting members rather ama9ed me, and I did not &now whether to be angry or la!gh at it% 1itherto I had not any idea of entering a party already in e3istence b!t wanted to fo!nd one of my own% '!ch an invitation as I now had received I loo&ed !pon as entirely o!t of the +!estion for me% I was abo!t to send a written reply when my c!riosity got the better of me, and I decided to attend the gathering at the date assigned, so that I might e3po!nd my principles to these gentlemen in person% /ednesday came% (he tavern in which the meeting was to ta&e place was the IAlte 8osenbad# in the 1errnstrasse, into which apparently only an occasional g!est wandered% (his was not very s!rprising in the year 1919, when the bills of fare even at the larger resta!rants were only very modest and scanty in their pretensions and th!s not very attractive to clients% 4!t I had never before heard of this resta!rant% I went thro!gh the badly-lighted g!est-room, where not a single g!est was to be seen, and searched for the door which led to the side room> and there I was face-to-face with the I$ongress#% Mnder the dim light shed by a grimy gas-lamp I co!ld see fo!r yo!ng people sitting aro!nd a table, one of them the a!thor of the pamphlet% 1e greeted me cordially and welcomed me as a new member of the 6erman Labo!r "arty% I was ta&en somewhat abac& on being informed that act!ally the *ational "resident of the "arty had not yet come> so I decided that I wo!ld &eep bac& my own e3position for the time being% Finally the "resident appeared% 1e was the man who had been chairman of the meeting held in the 'ternec&er 4rewery, when Feder spo&e% y c!riosity was stim!lated anew and I sat waiting for what was going to happen% *ow I got at least as far as learning the names of the gentlemen who had been parties to the whole affair% (he 8eich *ational "resident of the Association was a certain 1err 1arrer and the "resident for the !nich district was Anton ?re3ler% (he min!tes of the previo!s meeting were read o!t and a vote of confidence in the secretary was passed% (hen came the treas!rer#s report% (he 'ociety possessed a total f!nd of seven mar&s and fifty pfennigs Ba s!m corresponding to Gs% Fd% in 7nglish money at parC, where!pon the treas!rer was ass!red that he had the confidence of the members% (his was now inserted in the min!tes% (hen letters of reply which had been written by the $hairman were read> first, to a letter received from 2iel, then to one from ?Dsseldorf and finally to one from 4erlin% All three replies

received the approval of all present% (hen the incoming letters were read - one from 4erlin, one from ?Dsseldorf and one from 2iel% (he reception of these letters seemed to ca!se great satisfaction% (his increasing b!l& of correspondence was ta&en as the best and most obvio!s sign of the growing importance of the 6erman Labo!r "arty% And then5 /ell, there followed a long disc!ssion of the replies which wo!ld be given to these newly-received letters% It was all very awf!l% (his was the worst &ind of parish-p!mp cl!bbism% And was I s!pposed to become a member of s!ch a cl!b5 (he +!estion of new members was ne3t disc!ssed - that is to say, the +!estion of catching myself in the trap% I now began to as& +!estions% 4!t I fo!nd that, apart from a few general principles, there was nothing - no programme, no pamphlet, nothing at all in print, no card of membership, not even a party stamp, nothing b!t obvio!s good faith and good intentions% I no longer felt inclined to la!gh> for what else was all this b!t a typical sign of the most complete perple3ity and deepest despair in regard to all political parties, their programmes and views and activities5 (he feeling which had ind!ced those few yo!ng people to ,oin in what seemed s!ch a ridic!lo!s enterprise was nothing b!t the call of the inner voice which told them - tho!gh more int!itively than conscio!sly - that the whole party system as it had hitherto e3isted was not the &ind of force that co!ld restore the 6erman nation or repair the damages that had been done to the 6erman people by those who hitherto controlled the internal affairs of the nation% I +!ic&ly read thro!gh the list of principles that formed the platform of the party% (hese principles were stated on typewritten sheets% 1ere again I fo!nd evidence of the spirit of longing and searching, b!t no sign whatever of a &nowledge of the conflict that had to be fo!ght% I myself had e3perienced the feelings which inspired those people% It was the longing for a movement which sho!ld be more than a party, in the hitherto accepted meaning of that word% /hen I ret!rned to my room in the barrac&s that evening I had formed a definite opinion on this association and I was facing the most diffic!lt problem of my life% 'ho!ld I ,oin this party or ref!se5 From the side of the intellect alone, every consideration !rged me to ref!se> b!t my feelings tro!bled me% (he more I tried to prove to myself how senseless this cl!b was, on the whole, the more did my feelings incline me to favo!r it% ?!ring the following days I was restless% I began to consider all the pros and cons% I had long ago decided to ta&e an active part in politics% (he fact that I co!ld do so only thro!gh a new movement was +!ite clear to me> b!t I had hitherto lac&ed the imp!lse to ta&e concrete action% I am not one of those people who will begin something to-day and ,!st give it !p the ne3t day for the sa&e of something new% (hat was the main reason which made it so diffic!lt for me to decide in ,oining something newly fo!nded> for this m!st become the real f!lfilment of everything I dreamt, or else it had better not be started at all% I &new that s!ch a decision sho!ld bind me for ever and that there co!ld be no t!rning bac&% For me there co!ld be no idle dallying b!t only a ca!se to be championed ardently% I had already an instinctive feeling against people who too& !p everything, b!t never carried anything thro!gh to the end% I loathed these )ac&s-of-all(rades, and considered the activities of s!ch people to be worse than if they were to remain entirely +!iescent% Fate herself now seemed to s!pply the finger-post that pointed o!t the way% I sho!ld never have entered one of the big parties already in e3istence and shall e3plain my reasons for this later on% (his l!dicro!s little formation, with its handf!l of members, seemed to have the !ni+!e advantage of not yet being fossili9ed into an Iorgani9ation# and still offered a chance for real personal activity on the part of the individ!al% 1ere it might still be possible to do some effective wor&> and, as the movement was still small, one co!ld all the easier give it the re+!ired shape% 1ere it was still possible to determine the character of the movement, the aims to be achieved and the road to be ta&en, which wo!ld have been impossible in the case of the big parties already e3isting% (he longer I reflected on the problem, the more my opinion developed that ,!st s!ch a small movement wo!ld best serve as an instr!ment to prepare the way for the national res!rgence, b!t that this co!ld never be done by the political parliamentary parties which were too firmly attached to obsolete ideas or had an interest in s!pporting the new regime% /hat had to be proclaimed here was a new Weltanschhauung and not a new election cry% It was, however, infinitely diffic!lt to decide on p!tting the intention into practice% /hat were the +!alifications which I co!ld bring to the accomplishment of s!ch a tas&5 (he fact that I was poor and witho!t reso!rces co!ld, in my opinion, be the easiest to bear% 4!t the fact that I was !tterly !n&nown raised a more diffic!lt problem% I was only one of the millions which $hance allows to e3ist or cease to e3ist, whom even their ne3t-door neighbo!rs will not consent to &now% Another diffic!lty arose from the fact that I had not gone thro!gh the reg!lar school c!rric!l!m% (he so-called Iintellect!als# still loo& down with infinite s!percilio!sness on anyone who has not been thro!gh the prescribed schools and allowed them to p!mp the necessary &nowledge into him% (he +!estion of what a man can do is never as&ed b!t rather, what has he learned5 I7d!cated# people loo& !pon any imbecile who is plastered with a n!mber of academic certificates as s!perior to the ablest yo!ng fellow who lac&s these precio!s doc!ments% I co!ld therefore easily imagine how this Ied!cated# world wo!ld receive me and I was wrong only in so far as I then believed men to be for the most part better than they proved to be in the cold light of reality% 4eca!se of their being

as they are, the few e3ceptions stand o!t all the more conspic!o!sly% I learned more and more to disting!ish between those who will always be at school and those who will one day come to &now something in reality% After two days of caref!l brooding and reflection I became convinced that I m!st ta&e the contemplated step% It was the most fatef!l decision of my life% *o retreat was possible% (h!s I declared myself ready to accept the membership tendered me by the 6erman Labo!r "arty and received a provisional certificate of membership% I was n!mbered seven% $hapter (en0 (he depth of a fall is always meas!red by the difference between the level of the original position from which a body has fallen and that in which it is now fo!nd% (he same holds good for *ations and 'tates% (he matter of greatest importance here is the height of the original level, or rather the greatest height that had been attained before the descent began% For only the profo!nd decline or collapse of that which was capable of reaching e3traordinary heights can ma&e a stri&ing impression on the eye of the beholder% (he collapse of the 'econd 8eich was all the more bewildering for those who co!ld ponder over it and feel the effect of it in their hearts, beca!se the 8eich had fallen from a height which can hardly be imagined in these days of misery and h!miliation% (he 'econd 8eich was fo!nded in circ!mstances of s!ch da99ling splendo!r that the whole nation had become entranced and e3alted by it% Following an !nparalleled series of victories, that 7mpire was handed over as the g!erdon of immortal heroism to the children and grandchildren of the heroes% /hether they were f!lly conscio!s of it or not does not matter> anyhow, the 6ermans felt that this 7mpire had not been bro!ght into e3istence by a series of able political negotiations thro!gh parliamentary channels, b!t that it was different from political instit!tions fo!nded elsewhere by reason of the nobler circ!mstances that had accompanied its establishment% /hen its fo!ndations were laid the accompanying m!sic was not the chatter of parliamentary debates b!t the th!nder and boom of war along the battle front that encircled "aris% It was th!s that an act of statesmanship was accomplished whereby the 6ermans, princes as well as people, established the f!t!re 8eich and restored the symbol of the Imperial $rown% 4ismarc&#s 'tate was not fo!nded on treason and assassination by deserters and shir&ers b!t by the regiments that had fo!ght at the front% (his !ni+!e birth and baptism of fire s!fficed of themselves to s!rro!nd the 'econd 7mpire with an a!reole of historical splendo!r s!ch as few of the older 'tates co!ld lay claim to% And what an ascension then beganJ A position of independence in regard to the o!tside world g!aranteed the means of livelihood at home% (he nation increased in n!mbers and in worldly wealth% (he hono!r of the 'tate and therewith the hono!r of the people as a whole were sec!red and protected by an army which was the most stri&ing witness of the difference between this new 8eich and the old 6erman $onfederation% 4!t the downfall of the 'econd 7mpire and the 6erman people has been so profo!nd that they all seem to have been str!c& d!mbfo!nded and rendered incapable of feeling the significance of this downfall or reflecting on it% It seems as if people were !tterly !nable to pict!re in their minds the heights to which the 7mpire formerly attained, so visionary and !nreal appears the greatness and splendo!r of those days in contrast to the misery of the present% 4earing this in mind we can !nderstand why and how people become so da9ed when they try to loo& bac& to the s!blime past that they forget to loo& for the symptoms of the great collapse which m!st certainly have been present in some form or other% *at!rally this applies only to those for whom 6ermany was more than merely a place of abode and a so!rce of livelihood% (hese are the only people who have been able to feel the present conditions as really catastrophic, whereas others have considered these conditions as the f!lfilment of what they had loo&ed forward to and hitherto silently wished% (he symptoms of f!t!re collapse were definitely to be perceived in those earlier days, altho!gh very few made any attempt to draw a practical lesson from their significance% 4!t this is now a greater necessity than it ever was before% For ,!st as bodily ailments can be c!red only when their origin has been diagnosed, so also political disease can be treated only when it has been diagnosed% It is obvio!s of co!rse that the e3ternal symptoms of any disease can be more readily detected than its internal ca!ses, for these symptoms stri&e the eye more easily% (his is also the reason why so many people recogni9e only e3ternal effects and mista&e them for ca!ses% Indeed they will sometimes try to deny the e3istence of s!ch ca!ses% And that is why the ma,ority of people among !s recogni9e the 6erman collapse only in the prevailing economic distress and the res!lts that have followed therefrom% Almost everyone has to carry his share of this b!rden, and that is why each one loo&s on the economic catastrophe as the ca!se of the present deplorable state of affairs% (he broad masses of the people see little of the c!lt!ral, political, and moral bac&gro!nd of this collapse% any of them completely lac& both the necessary feeling and powers of !nderstanding for it% (hat the masses of the people sho!ld th!s estimate the ca!ses of 6ermany#s downfall is +!ite !nderstandable% 4!t the fact that intelligent sections of the comm!nity regard the 6erman collapse primarily as an economic catastrophe, and conse+!ently thin& that a c!re for it may be fo!nd in an economic sol!tion, seems to me to be the

reason why hitherto no improvement has been bro!ght abo!t% *o improvement can be bro!ght abo!t !ntil it be !nderstood that economics play only a second or third role, while the main part is played by political, moral and racial factors% Only when this is !nderstood will it be possible to !nderstand the ca!ses of the present evil and conse+!ently to find the ways and means of remedying them% (herefore the +!estion of why 6ermany really collapsed is one of the most !rgent significance, especially for a political movement which aims at overcoming this disaster% In scr!tini9ing the past with a view to discovering the ca!ses of the 6erman brea&-!p, it is necessary to be caref!l lest we may be !nd!ly impressed by e3ternal res!lts that readily stri&e the eye and th!s ignore the less manifest ca!ses of these res!lts% (he most facile, and therefore the most generally accepted, way of acco!nting for the present misfort!ne is to say that it is the res!lt of a lost war, and that this is the real ca!se of the present misfort!ne% "robably there are many who honestly believe in this abs!rd e3planation b!t there are many more in whose mo!ths it is a deliberate and conscio!s falsehood% (his applies to all those who are now feeding at the 6overnment tro!ghs% For the prophets of the 8evol!tion again and again declared to the people that it wo!ld be immaterial to the great masses what the res!lt of the /ar might be% On the contrary, they solemnly ass!red the p!blic that it was 1igh Finance which was principally interested in a victorio!s o!tcome of this gigantic str!ggle among the nations b!t that the 6erman people and the 6erman wor&ers had no interest whatsoever in s!ch an o!tcome% Indeed the apostles of world conciliation habit!ally asserted that, far from any 6erman downfall, the opposite was bo!nd to ta&e place - namely, the res!rgence of the 6erman people - once Imilitarism# had been cr!shed% ?id not these self-same circles sing the praises of the 7ntente and did they not also lay the whole blame for the sang!inary str!ggle on the sho!lders of 6ermany5 /itho!t this e3planation, wo!ld they have been able to p!t forward the theory that a military defeat wo!ld have no political conse+!ences for the 6erman people5 /as not the whole 8evol!tion dressed !p in gala colo!rs as bloc&ing the victorio!s advance of the 6erman banners and that th!s the 6erman people wo!ld be ass!red its liberty both at home and abroad5 Is not that so, yo! miserable, lying rascals5 (hat &ind of imp!dence which is typical of the )ews was necessary in order to proclaim the defeat of the army as the ca!se of the 6erman collapse% Indeed the 4erlin :orwErts, that organ and mo!thpiece of sedition then wrote on this occasion that the 6erman nation sho!ld not be permitted to bring home its banners tri!mphantly% And yet they attrib!te o!r collapse to the military defeat% Of co!rse it wo!ld be o!t of the +!estion to enter into an arg!ment with these liars who deny at one moment what they said the moment before% I sho!ld waste no f!rther words on them were it not for the fact that there are many tho!ghtless people who repeat all this in parrot fashion, witho!t being necessarily inspired by any evil motives% 4!t the observations I am ma&ing here are also meant for o!r fighting followers, seeing that nowadays one#s spo&en words are often forgotten and twisted in their meaning% (he assertion that the loss of the /ar was the ca!se of the 6erman collapse can best be answered as follows0 It is admittedly a fact that the loss of the /ar was of tragic importance for the f!t!re of o!r co!ntry% 4!t that loss was not in itself a ca!se% It was rather the conse+!ence of other ca!ses% (hat a disastro!s ending to this life-or-death conflict m!st have involved catastrophes in its train was clearly seen by everyone of insight who co!ld thin& in a straightforward manner% 4!t !nfort!nately there were also people whose powers of !nderstanding seemed to fail them at that critical moment% And there were other people who had first +!estioned that tr!th and then altogether denied it% And there were people who, after their secret desire had been f!lfilled, were s!ddenly faced with the s!bse+!ent facts that res!lted from their own collaboration% '!ch people are responsible for the collapse, and not the lost war, tho!gh they now want to attrib!te everything to this% As a matter of fact the loss of the /ar was a res!lt of their activities and not the res!lt of bad leadership as they now wo!ld li&e to maintain% O!r enemies were not cowards% (hey also &now how to die% From the very first day of the /ar they o!tn!mbered the 6erman Army, and the arsenals and armament factories of the whole world were at their disposal for the replenishment of military e+!ipment% Indeed it is !niversally admitted that the 6erman victories, which had been steadily won d!ring fo!r years of warfare against the whole world, were d!e to s!perior leadership, apart of co!rse from the heroism of the troops% And the organi9ation was solely d!e to the 6erman military leadership% (hat organi9ation and leadership of the 6erman Army was the most mighty thing that the world has ever seen% Any shortcomings which became evident were h!manly !navoidable% (he collapse of that army was not the ca!se of o!r present distress% It was itself the conse+!ence of other fa!lts% 4!t this conse+!ence in its t!rn !shered in a f!rther collapse, which was more visible% (hat s!ch was act!ally the case can be shown as follows0 !st a military defeat necessarily lead to s!ch a complete overthrow of the 'tate and *ation5 /henever has this been the res!lt of an !nl!c&y war5 As a matter of fact, are nations ever r!ined by a lost war and by that alone5 (he answer to this +!estion can be briefly stated by referring to the fact that military defeats are the res!lt of internal decay, cowardice, want of character, and are a retrib!tion for s!ch things% If s!ch were not the ca!ses then a military defeat wo!ld lead to a national res!rgence and bring the nation to a higher pitch of effort% A military defeat

is not the tombstone of national life% 1istory affords inn!merable e3amples to confirm the tr!th of that statement% Mnfort!nately 6ermany#s military overthrow was not an !ndeserved catastrophe, b!t a well-merited p!nishment which was in the nat!re of an eternal retrib!tion% (his defeat was more than deserved by !s> for it represented the greatest e3ternal phenomenon of decomposition among a series of internal phenomena, which, altho!gh they were visible, were not recogni9ed by the ma,ority of the people, who follow the tactics of the ostrich and see only what they want to see% Let !s e3amine the symptoms that were evident in 6ermany at the time that the 6erman people accepted this defeat% Is it not tr!e that in several circles the misfort!nes of the Fatherland were even ,oyf!lly welcomed in the most shamef!l manner5 /ho co!ld act in s!ch a way witho!t thereby meriting vengeance for his attit!de5 /ere there not people who even went f!rther and boasted that they had gone to the e3tent of wea&ening the front and ca!sing a collapse5 (herefore it was not the enemy who bro!ght this disgrace !pon o!r sho!lders b!t rather o!r own co!ntrymen% If they s!ffered misfort!ne for it afterwards, was that misfort!ne !ndeserved5 /as there ever a case in history where a people declared itself g!ilty of a war, and that even against its better conscience and its better &nowledge5 *o, and again no% In the manner in which the 6erman nation reacted to its defeat we can see that the real ca!se of o!r collapse m!st be loo&ed for elsewhere and not in the p!rely military loss of a few positions or the fail!re of an offensive% For if the front as s!ch had given way and th!s bro!ght abo!t a national disaster, then the 6erman nation wo!ld have accepted the defeat in +!ite another spirit% (hey wo!ld have borne the s!bse+!ent misfort!ne with clenched teeth, or they wo!ld have been overwhelmed by sorrow% 8egret and f!ry wo!ld have filled their hearts against an enemy into whose hands victory had been given by a chance event or the decree of Fate> and in that case the nation, following the e3ample of the 8oman 'enate, wo!ld have faced the defeated legions on their ret!rn and e3pressed their than&s for the sacrifices that had been made and wo!ld have re+!ested them not to lose faith in the 7mpire% 7ven the capit!lation wo!ld have been signed !nder the sway of calm reason, while the heart wo!ld have beaten in the hope of the coming revanche% (hat is the reception that wo!ld have been given to a military defeat which had to be attrib!ted only to the adverse decree of Fort!ne% (here wo!ld have been neither ,oy-ma&ing nor dancing% $owardice wo!ld not have been boasted of, and the defeat wo!ld not have been hono!red% On ret!rning from the Front, the troops wo!ld not have been moc&ed at, and the colo!rs wo!ld not have been dragged in the d!st% 4!t above all, that disgracef!l state of affairs co!ld never have arisen which ind!ced a 4ritish officer, $olonel 8epington, to declare with scorn0 7very third 6erman is a traitorJ *o, in s!ch a case this plag!e wo!ld never have ass!med the proportions of a veritable flood which, for the past five years, has smothered every vestige of respect for the 6erman nation in the o!tside world% (his shows only too clearly how false it is to say that the loss of the /ar was the ca!se of the 6erman brea&-!p% *o% (he military defeat was itself b!t the conse+!ence of a whole series of morbid symptoms and their ca!ses which had become active in the 6erman nation before the /ar bro&e o!t% (he /ar was the first catastrophal conse+!ence, visible to all, of how traditions and national morale had been poisoned and how the instinct of self-preservation had degenerated% (hese were the preliminary ca!ses which for many years had been !ndermining the fo!ndations of the nation and the 7mpire% 4!t it remained for the )ews, with their !n+!alified capacity for falsehood, and their fighting comrades, the ar3ists, to imp!te responsibility for the downfall precisely to the man who alone had shown a s!perh!man will and energy in his effort to prevent the catastrophe which he had foreseen and to save the nation from that ho!r of complete overthrow and shame% 4y placing responsibility for the loss of the world war on the sho!lders of L!dendorff they too& away the weapon of moral right from the only adversary dangero!s eno!gh to be li&ely to s!cceed in bringing the betrayers of the Fatherland to )!stice% All this was inspired by the principle - which is +!ite tr!e in itself - that in the big lie there is always a certain force of credibility> beca!se the broad masses of a nation are always more easily corr!pted in the deeper strata of their emotional nat!re than conscio!sly or vol!ntarily> and th!s in the primitive simplicity of their minds they more readily fall victims to the big lie than the small lie, since they themselves often tell small lies in little matters b!t wo!ld be ashamed to resort to large-scale falsehoods% It wo!ld never come into their heads to fabricate colossal !ntr!ths, and they wo!ld not believe that others co!ld have the imp!dence to distort the tr!th so infamo!sly% 7ven tho!gh the facts which prove this to be so may be bro!ght clearly to their minds, they will still do!bt and waver and will contin!e to thin& that there may be some other e3planation% For the grossly imp!dent lie always leaves traces behind it, even after it has been nailed down, a fact which is &nown to all e3pert liars in this world and to all who conspire together in the art of lying% (hese people &now only too well how to !se falsehood for the basest p!rposes% From time immemorial% however, the )ews have &nown better than any others how falsehood and cal!mny can be e3ploited% Is not their very e3istence fo!nded on one great lie, namely, that they are a religio!s comm!nity, whereas in reality they are a race5 And what a raceJ One of the greatest thin&ers that man&ind has prod!ced has branded the )ews for all time with a statement which is profo!ndly and e3actly tr!e% 1e B'chopenha!erC called the )ew H(he 6reat aster of LiesH% (hose who do not reali9e the tr!th of that statement, or do not wish to believe it, will never

be able to lend a hand in helping (r!th to prevail% /e may regard it as a great stro&e of fort!ne for the 6erman nation that its period of lingering s!ffering was so s!ddenly c!rtailed and transformed into s!ch a terrible catastrophe% For if things had gone on as they were the nation wo!ld have more slowly, b!t more s!rely, gone to r!in% (he disease wo!ld have become chronic> whereas, in the ac!te form of the disaster, it at least showed itself clearly to the eyes of a considerable n!mber of observers% It was not by accident that man con+!ered the blac& plag!e more easily than he con+!ered t!berc!losis% (he first appeared in terrifying waves of death that shoo& the whole of man&ind, the other advances insidio!sly> the first ind!ces terror, the other grad!al indifference% (he res!lt is, however, that men opposed the first with all the energy they were capable of, whilst they try to arrest t!berc!losis by feeble means% (h!s man has mastered the blac& plag!e, while t!berc!losis still gets the better of him% (he same applies to diseases in nations% 'o long as these diseases are not of a catastrophic character, the pop!lation will slowly acc!stom itself to them and later s!cc!mb% It is then a stro&e of l!c& - altho!gh a bitter one - when Fate decides to interfere in this slow process of decay and s!ddenly brings the victim face to face with the final stage of the disease% ore often than not the res!lt of a catastrophe is that a c!re is at once !nderta&en and carried thro!gh with rigid determination% 4!t even in s!ch a case the essential preliminary condition is always the recognition of the internal ca!ses which have given rise to the disease in +!estion% (he important +!estion here is the differentiation of the root ca!ses from the circ!mstances developing o!t of them% (his becomes all the more diffic!lt the longer the germs of disease remain in the national body and the longer they are allowed to become an integral part of that body% It may easily happen that, as time goes on, it will become so diffic!lt to recogni9e certain definite vir!lent poisons as s!ch that they are accepted as belonging to the national being> or they are merely tolerated as a necessary evil, so that drastic attempts to locate those alien germs are not held to be necessary% ?!ring the long period of peace prior to the last war certain evils were apparent here and there altho!gh, with one or two e3ceptions, very little effort was made to discover their origin% 1ere again these e3ceptions were first and foremost those phenomena in the economic life of the nation which were more apparent to the individ!al than the evil conditions e3isting in a good many other spheres% (here were many signs of decay which o!ght to have been given serio!s tho!ght% As far as economics were concerned, the following may be said0 (he ama9ing increase of pop!lation in 6ermany before the war bro!ght the +!estion of providing daily bread into a more and more prominent position in all spheres of political and economic tho!ght and action% 4!t !nfort!nately those responsible co!ld not ma&e !p their minds to arrive at the only correct sol!tion and preferred to reach their ob,ective by cheaper methods% 8ep!diation of the idea of ac+!iring fresh territory and the s!bstit!tion for it of the mad desire for the commercial con+!est of the world was bo!nd to lead event!ally to !nlimited and in,!rio!s ind!striali9ation% (he first and most fatal res!lt bro!ght abo!t in this way was the wea&ening of the agric!lt!ral classes, whose decline was proportionate to the increase in the proletariat of the !rban areas, !ntil finally the e+!ilibri!m was completely !pset% (he big barrier dividing rich and poor now became apparent% L!3!ry and poverty lived so close to each other that the conse+!ences were bo!nd to be deplorable% /ant and fre+!ent !nemployment began to play havoc with the people and left discontent and embitterment behind them% (he res!lt of this was to divide the pop!lation into political classes% ?iscontent increased in spite of commercial prosperity% atters finally reached that stage which bro!ght abo!t the general conviction that Ithings cannot go on as they are#, altho!gh no one seemed able to vis!ali9e what was really going to happen% (hese were typical and visible signs of the depths which the prevailing discontent had reached% Far worse than these, however, were other conse+!ences which became apparent as a res!lt of the ind!striali9ation of the nation% In proportion to the e3tent that commerce ass!med definite control of the 'tate, money became more and more of a 6od whom all had to serve and bow down to% 1eavenly 6ods became more and more old-fashioned and were laid away in the corners to ma&e room for the worship of mammon% And th!s began a period of !tter degeneration which became specially pernicio!s beca!se it set in at a time when the nation was more than ever in need of an e3alted idea, for a critical ho!r was threatening% 6ermany sho!ld have been prepared to protect with the sword her efforts to win her own daily bread in a peacef!l way% Mnfort!nately, the predominance of money received s!pport and sanction in the very +!arter which o!ght to have been opposed to it% 1is a,esty, the 2aiser, made a mista&e when he raised representatives of the new finance capital to the ran&s of the nobility% Admittedly, it may be offered as an e3c!se that even 4ismarc& failed to reali9e the threatening danger in this respect% In practice, however, all ideal virt!es became secondary considerations to those of money, for it was clear that having once ta&en this road, the nobility of the sword wo!ld very soon ran& second to that of finance%

Financial operations s!cceed easier than war operations% 1ence it was no longer any great attraction for a tr!e hero or even a statesman to be bro!ght into to!ch with the nearest )ew ban&er% 8eal merit was not interested in receiving cheap decorations and therefore declined them with than&s% 4!t from the standpoint of good breeding s!ch a development was deeply regrettable% (he nobility began to lose more and more of the racial +!alities that were a condition of its very e3istence, with the res!lt that in many cases the term Iplebeian# wo!ld have been more appropriate% A serio!s state of economic disr!ption was being bro!ght abo!t by the slow elimination of the personal control of vested interests and the grad!al transference of the whole economic str!ct!re into the hands of ,oint stoc& companies% In this way labo!r became degraded into an ob,ect of spec!lation in the hands of !nscr!p!lo!s e3ploiters% (he de-personali9ation of property ownership increased on a vast scale% Financial e3change circles began to tri!mph and made slow b!t s!re progress in ass!ming control of the whole of national life% 4efore the /ar the internationali9ation of the 6erman economic str!ct!re had already beg!n by the ro!ndabo!t way of share iss!es% It is tr!e that a section of the 6erman ind!strialists made a determined attempt to avert the danger, b!t in the end they gave way before the !nited attac&s of money-grabbing capitalism, which was assisted in this fight by its faithf!l henchmen in the ar3ist movement% (he persistent war against 6erman Iheavy ind!stries# was the visible start of the internationali9ation of 6erman economic life as envisaged by the ar3ists% (his, however, co!ld only be bro!ght to a s!ccessf!l concl!sion by the victory which ar3ism was able to gain in the 8evol!tion% As I write these words, s!ccess is attending the general attac& on the 6erman 'tate 8ailways which are now to be t!rned over to international capitalists% (h!s IInternational 'ocial-?emocracy# has once again attained one of its main ob,ectives% (he best evidence of how far this Icommerciali9ation# of the 6erman nation was able to go can be plainly seen in the fact that when the /ar was over one of the leading captains of 6erman ind!stry and commerce gave it as his opinion that commerce as s!ch was the only force which co!ld p!t 6ermany on its feet again% (his sort of nonsense was !ttered ,!st at the time when France was restoring p!blic ed!cation on a h!manitarian basis, th!s doing away with the idea that national life is dependent on commerce rather than ideal val!es% (he statement which 'tinnes broadcasted to the world at that time ca!sed incredible conf!sion% It was immediately ta&en !p and has become the leading motto of all those h!mb!gs and babblers - the Istatesmen# whom Fate let loose on 6ermany after the 8evol!tion% One of the worst evidences of decadence in 6ermany before the /ar was the ever increasing habit of doing things by halves% (his was one of the conse+!ences of the insec!rity that was felt all ro!nd% And it is to be attrib!ted also to a certain timidity which res!lted from one ca!se or another% And the latter malady was aggravated by the ed!cational system% 6erman ed!cation in pre-/ar times had an e3traordinary n!mber of wea& feat!res% It was simply and e3cl!sively limited to the prod!ction of p!re &nowledge and paid little attention to the development of practical ability% 'till less attention was given to the development of individ!al character, in so far as this is ever possible% And hardly any attention at all was paid to the development of a sense of responsibility, to strengthening the will and the powers of decision% (he res!lt of this method was to prod!ce er!dite people who had a passion for &nowing everything% 4efore the /ar we 6ermans were accepted and estimated accordingly% (he 6erman was li&ed beca!se good !se co!ld be made of him> b!t there was little esteem for him personally, on acco!nt of this wea&ness of character% For those who can read its significance aright, there is m!ch instr!ction in the fact that among all nationalities 6ermans were the first to part with their national citi9enship when they fo!nd themselves in a foreign co!ntry% And there is a world of meaning in the saying that was then prevalent0 I/ith the hat in the hand one can go thro!gh the whole co!ntry#% (his &ind of social eti+!ette t!rned o!t disastro!s when it prescribed the e3cl!sive forms that had to be observed in the presence of 1is a,esty% (hese forms insisted that there sho!ld be no contradiction whatsoever, b!t that everything sho!ld be praised which 1is a,esty condescended to li&e% It was ,!st here that the fran& e3pression of manly dignity, and not s!bservience, was most needed% 'ervility in the presence of monarchs may be good eno!gh for the professional lac&ey and place-h!nter, in fact for all those decadent beings who are more pleased to be fo!nd moving in the high circles of royalty than among honest citi9ens% (hese e3ceedingly Ih!mble# creat!res however, tho!gh they grovel before their lord and bread-giver, invariably p!t on airs of bo!ndless s!percilio!sness towards other mortals, which was partic!larly imp!dent when they posed as the only people who had the right to be called Imonarchists#% (his was a gross piece of impertinence s!ch as only despicable specimens among the newly-ennobled or yet-to-be-ennobled co!ld be capable of% And these have always been ,!st the people who have prepared the way for the downfall of monarchy and the monarchical principle% It co!ld not be otherwise% For when a man is prepared to stand !p for a ca!se, come what may, he never grovels before its representative% A man who is serio!s abo!t the maintenance and welfare of an instit!tion will not allow himself to be disco!raged when the representatives of that instit!tion show certain fa!lts

and failings% And he certainly will not r!n aro!nd to tell the world abo!t it, as certain false democratic Ifriends# of the monarchy have done> b!t he will approach 1is a,esty, the bearer of the $rown himself, to warn him of the serio!sness of a sit!ation and pers!ade the monarch to act% F!rthermore, he will not ta&e !p the standpoint that it m!st be left to 1is a,esty to act as the latter thin&s fit, even tho!gh the co!rse which he wo!ld ta&e m!st plainly lead to disaster% 4!t the man I am thin&ing of will deem it his d!ty to protect the monarchy against the monarch himself, no matter what personal ris& he may r!n in doing so% If the worth of the monarchical instit!tion be dependent on the person of the monarch himself, then it wo!ld be the worst instit!tion imaginable> for only in rare cases are &ings fo!nd to be models of wisdom and !nderstanding, and integrity of character, tho!gh we might li&e to thin& otherwise% 4!t this fact is !npalatable to the professional &naves and lac&eys% Net all !pright men, and they are the bac&bone of the nation, rep!diate the nonsensical fiction that all monarchs are wise, etc% For s!ch men history is history and tr!th is tr!th, even where monarchs are concerned% 4!t if a nation sho!ld have the good l!c& to possess a great &ing or a great man it o!ght to consider itself as specially favo!red above all the other nations, and these may be than&f!l if an adverse fort!ne has not allotted the worst to them% It is clear that the worth and significance of the monarchical principle cannot rest in the person of the monarch alone, !nless 1eaven decrees that the crown sho!ld be set on the head of a brilliant hero li&e Frederic& the 6reat, or a sagacio!s person li&e /illiam I% (his may happen once in several cent!ries, b!t hardly oftener than that% (he ideal of the monarchy ta&es precedence of the person of the monarch, inasm!ch as the meaning of the instit!tion m!st lie in the instit!tion it self% (h!s the monarchy may be rec&oned in the category of those whose d!ty it is to serve% 1e, too, is b!t a wheel in this machine and as s!ch he is obliged to do his d!ty towards it% 1e has to adapt himself for the f!lfilment of high aims% If, therefore , there were no significance attached to the idea itself and everything merely centred aro!nd the Isacred# person, then it wo!ld never be possible to depose a r!ler who has shown himself to be an imbecile% It is essential to insist !pon this tr!th at the present time, beca!se recently those phenomena have appeared again and were in no small meas!re responsible for the collapse of the monarchy% /ith a certain amo!nt of native imp!dence these persons once again tal& abo!t Itheir 2ing# - that is to say, the man whom they shamef!lly deserted a few years ago at a most critical ho!r% (hose who refrain from participating in this chor!s of lies are s!mmarily classified as Ibad 6ermans#% (hey who ma&e the charge are the same class of +!itters who ran away in 191; and too& to wearing red badges% (hey tho!ght that discretion was the better part of valo!r% (hey were indifferent abo!t what happened to the 2aiser% (hey camo!flaged themselves as Ipeacef!l citi9ens# b!t more often than not they vanished altogether% All of a s!dden these champions of royalty were nowhere to be fo!nd at that time% $irc!mspectly, one by one, these Iservants and co!nsellors# of the $rown reappeared, to res!me their lip-service to royalty b!t only after others had borne the br!nt of the anti-royalist attac& and s!ppressed the 8evol!tion for them% Once again they were all there% remembering wistf!lly the flesh-pots of 7gypt and almost b!rsting with devotion for the royal ca!se% (his went on !ntil the day came when red badges were again in the ascendant% (hen this whole ramshac&le assembly of royal worshippers sc!ttled anew li&e mice from the cats% If monarchs were not themselves responsible for s!ch things one co!ld not help sympathi9ing with them% 4!t they m!st reali9e that with s!ch champions thrones can be lost b!t certainly never gained% All this devotion was a mista&e and was the res!lt of o!r whole system of ed!cation, which in this case bro!ght abo!t a partic!larly severe retrib!tion% '!ch lamentable tr!mpery was &ept !p at the vario!s co!rts that the monarchy was slowly becoming !nder mined% /hen finally it did begin to totter, everything was swept away% *at!rally, grovellers and lic&-spittles are never willing to die for their masters% (hat monarchs never reali9e this, and almost on principle never really ta&e the tro!ble to learn it, has always been their !ndoing% One visible res!lt of wrong ed!cational system was the fear of sho!ldering responsibility and the res!ltant wea&ness in dealing with obvio!s vital problems of e3istence% (he starting point of this epidemic, however, was in o!r parliamentary instit!tion where the shir&ing of responsibility is partic!larly fostered% Mnfort!nately the disease slowly spread to all branches of everyday life b!t partic!larly affected the sphere of p!blic affairs% 8esponsibility was being shir&ed everywhere and this led to ins!fficient or half-hearted meas!res being ta&en, personal responsibility for each act being red!ced to a minim!m% If we consider the attit!de of vario!s 6overnments towards a whole series of really pernicio!s phenomena in p!blic life, we shall at once recogni9e the fearf!l significance of this policy of half-meas!res and the lac& of co!rage to !nderta&e responsibilities% I shall single o!t only a few from the large n!mbers of instances &nown to me% In ,o!rnalistic circles it is a pleasing c!stom to spea& of the "ress as a I6reat "ower# within the 'tate% As a matter of fact its importance is immense% One cannot easily overestimate it, for the "ress contin!es the wor& of ed!cation even in ad!lt life% 6enerally, readers of the "ress can be classified into three gro!ps0 First, those who believe everything they read> 'econd, those who no longer believe anything> (hird, those who critically e3amine what they read and form their ,!dgments accordingly% *!merically, the first gro!p is by far the strongest, being composed of the broad masses of the people%

Intellect!ally, it forms the simplest portion of the nation% It cannot be classified according to occ!pation b!t only into grades of intelligence% Mnder this category come all those who have not been born to thin& for themselves or who have not learnt to do so and who, partly thro!gh incompetence and partly thro!gh ignorance, believe everything that is set before them in print% (o these we m!st add that type of la9y individ!al who, altho!gh capable of thin&ing for himself o!t of sheer la9iness gratef!lly absorbs everything that others had tho!ght over, modestly believing this to have been thoro!ghly done% (he infl!ence which the "ress has on all these people is therefore enormo!s> for after all they constit!te the broad masses of a nation% 4!t, somehow they are not in a position or are not willing personally to sift what is being served !p to them> so that their whole attit!de towards daily problems is almost solely the res!lt of e3traneo!s infl!ence% All this can be advantageo!s where p!blic enlightenment is of a serio!s and tr!thf!l character, b!t great harm is done when sco!ndrels and liars ta&e a hand at this wor&% (he second gro!p is n!merically smaller, being partly composed of those who were formerly in the first gro!p and after a series of bitter disappointments are now prepared to believe nothing of what they see in print% (hey hate all newspapers% 7ither they do not read them at all or they become e3ceptionally annoyed at their contents, which they hold to be nothing b!t a congeries of lies and misstatements% (hese people are diffic!lt to handle> for they will always be sceptical of the tr!th% $onse+!ently, they are !seless for any form of positive wor&% (he third gro!p is easily the smallest, being composed of real intellect!als whom nat!ral aptit!de and ed!cation have ta!ght to thin& for themselves and who in all things try to form their own ,!dgments, while at the same time caref!lly sifting what they read% (hey will not read any newspaper witho!t !sing their own intelligence to collaborate with that of the writer and nat!rally this does not set writers an easy tas&% )o!rnalists appreciate this type of reader only with a certain amo!nt of reservation% 1ence the trash that newspapers are capable of serving !p is of little danger - m!ch less of importance - to the members of the third gro!p of readers% In the ma,ority of cases these readers have learnt to regard every ,o!rnalist as f!ndamentally a rog!e who sometimes spea&s the tr!th% ost !nfort!nately, the val!e of these readers lies in their intelligence and not in their n!merical strength, an !nhappy state of affairs in a period where wisdom co!nts for nothing and ma,orities for everything% *owadays when the voting papers of the masses are the deciding factor> the decision lies in the hands of the n!merically strongest gro!p> that is to say the first gro!p, the crowd of simpletons and the cred!lo!s% It is an all-important interest of the 'tate and a national d!ty to prevent these people from falling into the hands of false, ignorant or even evil-minded teachers% (herefore it is the d!ty of the 'tate to s!pervise their ed!cation and prevent every form of offence in this respect% "artic!lar attention sho!ld be paid to the "ress> for its infl!ence on these people is by far the strongest and most penetrating of all> since its effect is not transitory b!t contin!al% Its immense significance lies in the !niform and persistent repetition of its teaching% 1ere, if anywhere, the 'tate sho!ld never forget that all means sho!ld converge towards the same end% It m!st not be led astray by the will-o#the-wisp of so-called Ifreedom of the "ress#, or be tal&ed into neglecting its d!ty, and withholding from the nation that which is good and which does good% /ith r!thless determination the 'tate m!st &eep control of this instr!ment of pop!lar ed!cation and place it at the service of the 'tate and the *ation% 4!t what sort of pab!l!m was it that the 6erman "ress served !p for the cons!mption of its readers in pre-/ar days5 /as it not the worst vir!lent poison imaginable5 /as not pacifism in its worst form inoc!lated into o!r people at a time when others were preparing slowly b!t s!rely to po!nce !pon 6ermany5 ?id not this self-same "ress of o!rs in peace time already instil into the p!blic mind a do!bt as to the sovereign rights of the 'tate itself, thereby already handicapping the 'tate in choosing its means of defence5 /as it not the 6erman "ress that !nder stood how to ma&e all the nonsensical tal& abo!t I/estern democracy# palatable to o!r people, !ntil an e3!berant p!blic was event!ally prepared to entr!st its f!t!re to the Leag!e of *ations5 /as not this "ress instr!mental in bringing in a state of moral degradation among o!r people5 /ere not morals and p!blic decency made to loo& ridic!lo!s and classed as o!t-of-date and banal, !ntil finally o!r people also became moderni9ed5 4y means of persistent attac&s, did not the "ress &eep on !ndermining the a!thority of the 'tate, !ntil one blow s!fficed to bring this instit!tion tottering to the gro!nd5 ?id not the "ress oppose with all its might every movement to give the 'tate that which belongs to the 'tate, and by means of constant criticism, in,!re the rep!tation of the army, sabotage general conscription and demand ref!sal of military credits, etc% - !ntil the s!ccess of this campaign was ass!red5 (he f!nction of the so-called liberal "ress was to dig the grave for the 6erman people and 8eich% *o mention need be made of the lying ar3ist "ress% (o them the spreading of falsehood is as m!ch a vital necessity as the mo!se is to a cat% (heir sole tas& is to brea& the national bac&bone of the people, th!s preparing the nation to become the slaves of international finance and its masters, the )ews% And what meas!res did the 'tate ta&e to co!nteract this wholesale poisoning of the p!blic mind5 *one, absol!tely nothing at all% 4y this policy it was hoped to win the favo!r of this pest - by means of flattery, by a recognition of the Ival!e# of the "ress, its Iimportance#, its Ied!cative mission# and similar nonsense% (he )ews ac&nowledged all this with a &nowing smile and ret!rned than&s% (he reason for this ignominio!s fail!re on the part of the 'tate lay not so m!ch in its ref!sal to reali9e the danger

as in the o!t-and-o!t cowardly way of meeting the sit!ation by the adoption of fa!lty and ineffective meas!res% *o one had the co!rage to employ any energetic and radical methods% 7veryone temporised in some way or other> and instead of stri&ing at its heart, the viper was only f!rther irritated% (he res!lt was that not only did everything remain as it was, b!t the power of this instit!tion which sho!ld have been combated grew greater from year to year% (he defence p!t !p by the 6overnment in those days against a mainly )ew-controlled "ress that was slowly corr!pting the nation, followed no definite line of action, it had no determination behind it and above all, no fi3ed ob,ective whatsoever in view% (his is where official !nderstanding of the sit!ation completely failed both in estimating the importance of the str!ggle, choosing the means and deciding on a definite plan% (hey merely tin&ered with the problem% Occasionally, when bitten, they imprisoned one or another ,o!rnalistic viper for a few wee&s or months, b!t the whole poisono!s brood was allowed to carry on in peace% It m!st be admitted that all this was partly the res!lt of e3traordinary crafty tactics on the part of )ewry on the one hand, and obvio!s official st!pidity or naVvetO on the other hand% (he )ews were too clever to allow a sim!ltaneo!s attac& to be made on the whole of their "ress% *o one section f!nctioned as cover for the other% /hile the ar3ist newspaper, in the most despicable manner possible, reviled everything that was sacred, f!rio!sly attac&ed the 'tate and 6overnment and incited certain classes of the comm!nity against each other, the bo!rgeois-democratic papers, also in )ewish hands, &new how to camo!flage themselves as model e3amples of ob,ectivity% (hey st!dio!sly avoided harsh lang!age, &nowing well that bloc&-heads are capable of ,!dging only by e3ternal appearances and never able to penetrate to the real depth and meaning of anything% (hey meas!re the worth of an ob,ect by its e3terior and not by its content% (his form of h!man frailty was caref!lly st!died and !nderstood by the "ress% For this class of bloc&heads the Fran&f!rter Keit!ng wo!ld be ac&nowledged as the essence of respectability% It always caref!lly avoided calling a spade a spade% It deprecated the !se of every form of physical force and persistently appealed to the nobility of fighting with Iintellect!al# weapons% 4!t this fight, c!rio!sly eno!gh, was most pop!lar with the least intellect!al classes% (hat is one of the res!lts of o!r defective ed!cation, which t!rns the yo!th away from the instinctive dictates of *at!re, p!mps into them a certain amo!nt of &nowledge witho!t however being able to bring them to what is the s!preme act of &nowing% (o this end diligence and goodwill are of no avail, if innate !nderstanding fail% (his final &nowledge at which man m!st aim is the !nderstanding of ca!ses which are instinctively perceived% Let me e3plain0 an m!st not fall into the error of thin&ing that he was ever meant to become lord and master of *at!re% A lopsided ed!cation has helped to enco!rage that ill!sion% an m!st reali9e that a f!ndamental law of necessity reigns thro!gho!t the whole realm of *at!re and that his e3istence is s!b,ect to the law of eternal str!ggle and strife% 1e will then feel that there cannot be a separate law for man&ind in a world in which planets and s!ns follow their orbits, where moons and planets trace their destined paths, where the strong are always the masters of the wea& and where those s!b,ect to s!ch laws m!st obey them or be destroyed% an m!st also s!bmit to the eternal principles of this s!preme wisdom% 1e may try to !nderstand them b!t he can never free himself from their sway% It is ,!st for intellect!al demi-monde that the )ew writes those papers which he calls his Iintellect!al# "ress% For them the Fran&f!rter Keit!ng and 4erliner (ageblatt are written, the tone being adapted to them, and it is over these people that s!ch papers have an infl!ence% /hile st!dio!sly avoiding all forms of e3pression that might stri&e the reader as cr!de, the poison is in,ected from other vials into the hearts of the clientele% (he effervescent tone and the fine phraseology l!g the readers into believing that a love for &nowledge and moral principle is the sole driving force that determines the policy of s!ch papers, whereas in reality these feat!res represent a c!nning way of disarming any opposition that might be directed against the )ews and their "ress% (hey ma&e s!ch a parade of respectability that the imbecile readers are all the more ready to believe that the e3cesses which other papers ind!lge in are only of a mild nat!re and not s!ch as to warrant legal action being ta&en against them% Indeed s!ch action might trespass on the freedom of the "ress, that e3pression being a e!phemism !nder which s!ch papers escape legal p!nishment for deceiving the p!blic and poisoning the p!blic mind% 1ence the a!thorities are very slow indeed to ta&e any steps against these ,o!rnalistic bandits for fear of immediately alienating the sympathy of the so-called respectable "ress% A fear that is only too well fo!nded, for the moment any attempt is made to proceed against any member of the g!tter press all the others r!sh to its assistance at once, not indeed to s!pport its policy b!t simply and solely to defend the principle of freedom of the "ress and liberty of p!blic opinion% (his o!tcry will s!cceed in cowering the most stalwart> for it comes from the mo!th of what is called decent ,o!rnalism% And so this poison was allowed to enter the national bloodstream and infect p!blic life witho!t the 6overnment ta&ing any effect!al meas!res to master the co!rse of the disease% (he ridic!lo!s half-meas!res that were ta&en were in themselves an indication of the process of disintegration that was already threatening to brea& !p the 7mpire% For an instit!tion practically s!rrenders its e3istence when it is no longer determined to defend itself with all the weapons at its command% 7very half-meas!re is the o!tward e3pression of an internal process of decay which m!st lead to an e3ternal collapse sooner or later% I believe that o!r present generation wo!ld easily master this danger if they were rightly led% For this generation

has gone thro!gh certain e3periences which m!st have strengthened the nerves of all those who did not become nervo!sly bro&en by them% $ertainly in days to come the )ews will raise a tremendo!s cry thro!gho!t their newspapers once a hand is laid on their favo!rite nest, once a move is made to p!t an end to this scandalo!s "ress and once this instr!ment which shapes p!blic opinion is bro!ght !nder 'tate control and no longer left in the hands of aliens and enemies of the people% I am certain that this will be easier for !s than it was for o!r fathers% (he scream of the twelve-inch shrapnel is more penetrating than the hiss from a tho!sand )ewish newspaper vipers% (herefore let them go on with their hissing% A f!rther e3ample of the wea& and hesitating way in which vital national problems were dealt with in pre-/ar 6ermany is the following0 1and in hand with the political and moral process of infecting the nation, for many years an e+!ally vir!lent process of infection had been attac&ing the p!blic health of the people% In large cities, partic!larly, syphilis steadily increased and t!berc!losis &ept pace with it in reaping its harvest of death almost in every part of the co!ntry% Altho!gh in both cases the effect on the nation was alarming, it seemed as if nobody was in a position to !nderta&e any decisive meas!res against these sco!rges% In the case of syphilis especially the attit!de of the 'tate and p!blic bodies was one of absol!te capit!lation% (o combat this state of affairs something of far wider sweep sho!ld have been !nderta&en than was really done% (he discovery of a remedy which is of a +!estionable nat!re and the e3cellent way in which it was placed on the mar&et were only of little assistance in fighting s!ch a sco!rge% 1ere again the only co!rse to adopt is to attac& the disease in its ca!ses rather than in its symptoms% 4!t in this case the primary ca!se is to be fo!nd in the manner in which love has been prostit!ted% 7ven tho!gh this did not directly bring abo!t the fearf!l disease itself, the nation m!st still s!ffer serio!s damage thereby, for the moral havoc res!lting from this prostit!tion wo!ld be s!fficient to bring abo!t the destr!ction of the nation, slowly b!t s!rely% (his )!dai9ing of o!r spirit!al life and mammoni9ing of o!r nat!ral instinct for procreation will sooner or later wor& havoc with o!r whole posterity% For instead of strong, healthy children, blessed with nat!ral feelings, we shall see miserable specimens of h!manity res!lting from economic calc!lation% For economic considerations are becoming more and more the fo!ndations of marriage and the sole preliminary condition of it% And love loo&s for an o!tlet elsewhere% 1ere, as elsewhere, one may defy *at!re for a certain period of time> b!t sooner or later she will ta&e her ine3orable revenge% And when man reali9es this tr!th it is often too late% O!r own nobility f!rnishes an e3ample of the devastating conse+!ences that follow from a persistent ref!sal to recogni9e the primary conditions necessary for normal wedloc&% 1ere we are openly bro!ght face to face with the res!lts of those reprod!ctive habits which on the one hand are determined by social press!re and, on the other, by financial considerations% (he one leads to inherited debility and the other to ad!lteration of the blood-strain> for all the )ewish da!ghters of the department store proprietors are loo&ed !pon as eligible mates to co-operate in propagating 1is Lordship#s stoc&% And the stoc& certainly loo&s it% All this leads to absol!te degeneration% *owadays o!r bo!rgeoise are ma&ing efforts to follow in the same path, (hey will come to the same ,o!rney#s end% (hese !npleasant tr!ths are hastily and nonchalantly br!shed aside, as if by so doing the real state of affairs co!ld also be abolished% 4!t no% It cannot be denied that the pop!lation of o!r great towns and cities is tending more and more to avail of prostit!tion in the e3ercise of its amoro!s instincts and is th!s becoming more and more contaminated by the sco!rge of venereal disease% On the one hand, the visible effects of this mass-infection can be observed in o!r insane asyl!ms and, on the other hand, alasJ among the children at home% (hese are the dolef!l and tragic witnesses to the steadily increasing sco!rge that is poisoning o!r se3!al life% (heir s!fferings are the visible res!lts of parental vice% (here are many ways of becoming resigned to this !npleasant and terrible fact% any people go abo!t seeing nothing or, to be more correct, not wanting to see anything% (his is by far the simplest and cheapest attit!de to adopt% Others cover themselves in the sacred mantle of pr!dery, as ridic!lo!s as it is false% (hey describe the whole condition of affairs as sinf!l and are profo!ndly indignant when bro!ght face to face with a victim% (hey close their eyes in reverend abhorrence to this godless sco!rge and pray to the Almighty that 1e - if possible after their own death - may rain down fire and brimstone as on 'odom and 6omorrah and so once again ma&e an o!t standing e3ample of this shameless section of h!manity% Finally, there are those who are well aware of the terrible res!lts which this sco!rge will and m!st bring abo!t, b!t they merely shr!g their sho!lders, f!lly convinced of their inability to !nderta&e anything against this peril% 1ence matters are allowed to ta&e their own co!rse% Mndo!btedly all this is very convenient and simple, only it m!st not be overloo&ed that this convenient way of approaching things can have fatal conse+!ences for o!r national life% (he e3c!se that other nations are also not faring any better does not alter the fact of o!r own deterioration, e3cept that the feeling of sympathy for other stric&en nations ma&es o!r own s!ffering easier to bear% 4!t the important +!estion that arises here is0 /hich nation will be the first to ta&e the initiative in mastering this sco!rge, and which nations will s!cc!mb to it5 (his will be the final !pshot of the whole sit!ation% (he present is a period of probation for racial val!es% (he race that fails to come thro!gh the test will simply die o!t and its place will be ta&en by the healthier and stronger races,

which will be able to end!re greater hardships% As this problem primarily concerns posterity, it belongs to that category of which it is said with terrible ,!stification that the sins of the fathers are visited on their offspring !nto the tenth generation% (his is a conse+!ence which follows on an infringement of the laws of blood and race% (he sin against blood and race is the hereditary sin in this world and it brings disaster on every nation that commits it% (he attit!de towards this one vital problem in pre-/ar 6ermany was most regrettable% /hat meas!res were !nderta&en to arrest the infection of o!r yo!th in the large cities5 /hat was done to p!t an end to the contamination and mammoni9ation of se3!al life among !s5 /hat was done to fight the res!ltant spreading of syphilis thro!gho!t the whole of o!r national life5 (he reply to this +!estion can best be ill!strated by showing what sho!ld have been done% Instead of tac&ling this problem in a hapha9ard way, the a!thorities sho!ld have reali9ed that the fort!nes or misfort!nes of f!t!re generations depended on its sol!tion% 4!t to admit this wo!ld have demanded that active meas!res be carried o!t in a r!thless manner% (he primary condition wo!ld have been that the enlightened attention of the whole co!ntry sho!ld be concentrated on this terrible danger, so that every individ!al wo!ld reali9e the importance of fighting against it% It wo!ld be f!tile to impose obligations of a definite character - which are often diffic!lt to bear - and e3pect them to become generally effective, !nless the p!blic be thoro!ghly instr!cted on the necessity of imposing and accepting s!ch obligations% (his demands a widespread and systematic method of enlightenment and all other daily problems that might distract p!blic attention from this great central problem sho!ld be relegated to the bac&gro!nd% In every case where there are e3igencies or tas&s that seem impossible to deal with s!ccessf!lly p!blic opinion m!st be concentrated on the one problem, !nder the conviction that the sol!tion of this problem alone is a matter of life or death% Only in this way can p!blic interest be aro!sed to s!ch a pitch as will !rge people to combine in a great vol!ntary effort and achieve important res!lts% (his f!ndamental tr!th applies also to the individ!al, provided he is desiro!s of attaining some great end% 1e m!st always concentrate his efforts to one definitely limited stage of his progress which has to be completed before the ne3t step be attempted% (hose who do not endeavo!r to reali9e their aims step by step and who do not concentrate their energy in reaching the individ!al stages, will never attain the final ob,ective% At some stage or other they will falter and fail% (his systematic way of approaching an ob,ective is an art in itself, and always calls for the e3pendit!re of every o!nce of energy in order to con+!er step after step of the road% (herefore the most essential preliminary condition necessary for an attac& on s!ch a diffic!lt stage of the h!man road is that the a!thorities sho!ld s!cceed in convincing the masses that the immediate ob,ective which is now being fo!ght for is the only one that deserves to be considered and the only one on which everything depends% (he broad masses are never able clearly to see the whole stretch of the road lying in front of them witho!t becoming tired and th!s losing faith in their ability to complete the tas&% (o a certain e3tent they will &eep the ob,ective in mind, b!t they are only able to s!rvey the whole road in small stages, as in the case of the traveller who &nows where his ,o!rney is going to end b!t who masters the endless stretch far better by attac&ing it in degrees% Only in this way can he &eep !p his determination to reach the final ob,ective% It is in this way, with the assistance of every form of propaganda, that the problem of fighting venereal disease sho!ld be placed before the p!blic - not as a tas& for the nation b!t as the main tas&% 7very possible means sho!ld be employed to bring the tr!th abo!t this sco!rge home to the minds of the people, !ntil the whole nation has been convinced that everything depends on the sol!tion of this problem> that is to say, a healthy f!t!re or national decay% Only after s!ch preparatory meas!res - if necessary spread over a period of many years - will p!blic attention and p!blic resol!tion be f!lly aro!sed, and only then can serio!s and definite meas!res be !nderta&en witho!t r!nning the ris& of not being f!lly !nderstood or of being s!ddenly faced with a slac&ening of the p!blic will% It m!st be made clear to all that a serio!s fight against this sco!rge calls for vast sacrifices and an enormo!s amo!nt of wor&% (o wage war against syphilis means fighting against prostit!tion, against pre,!dice, against old-established c!stoms, against c!rrent fashion, p!blic opinion, and, last b!t not least, against false pr!dery in certain circles% (he first preliminary condition to be f!lfilled before the 'tate can claim a moral right to fight against all these things is that the yo!ng generation sho!ld be afforded facilities for contracting early marriages% Late marriages have the sanction of a c!stom which, from whatever angle we view it, is and will remain a disgrace to h!manity% "rostit!tion is a disgrace to h!manity and cannot be removed simply by charitable or academic methods% Its restriction and final e3termination pres!pposes the removal of a whole series of contrib!tory circ!mstances% (he first remedy m!st always be to establish s!ch conditions as will ma&e early marriages possible, especially for yo!ng men - for women are, after all, only passive s!b,ects in this matter% An ill!stration of the e3tent to which people have so often been led astray nowadays is afforded by the fact that not infre+!ently one hears mothers in so-called Ibetter# circles openly e3pressing their satisfaction at having fo!nd as a h!sband for their da!ghter a man who has already sown his wild oats, etc% As there is !s!ally so little shortage in men of this type, the poor girl finds no diffic!lty in getting a mate of this description, and the children of this

marriage are a visible res!lt of s!ch s!pposedly sensible !nions% /hen one reali9es, apart from this, that every possible effort is being made to hinder the process of procreation and that *at!re is being wilf!lly cheated of her rights, there remains really only one +!estion0 /hy is s!ch an instit!tion as marriage still in e3istence, and what are its f!nctions5 Is it really nothing better than prostit!tion5 ?oes o!r d!ty to posterity no longer play any part5 Or do people not reali9e the nat!re of the c!rse they are inflicting on themselves and their offspring by s!ch criminally foolish neglect of one of the primary laws of *at!re5 (his is how civili9ed nations degenerate and grad!ally perish% arriage is not an end in itself b!t m!st serve the greater end, which is that of increasing and maintaining the h!man species and the race% (his is its only meaning and p!rpose% (his being admitted, then it is clear that the instit!tion of marriage m!st be ,!dged by the manner in which its allotted f!nction is f!lfilled% (herefore early marriages sho!ld be the r!le, beca!se th!s the yo!ng co!ple will still have that pristine force which is the fo!ntain head of a healthy posterity with !nimpaired powers of resistance% Of co!rse early marriages cannot be made the r!le !nless a whole series of social meas!res are first !nderta&en witho!t which early marriages cannot be even tho!ght of % In other words, a sol!tion of this +!estion, which seems a small problem in itself, cannot be bro!ght abo!t witho!t adopting radical meas!res to alter the social bac&gro!nd% (he importance of s!ch meas!res o!ght to be st!died and properly estimated, especially at a time when the socalled Isocial# 8ep!blic has shown itself !nable to solve the ho!sing problem and th!s has made it impossible for inn!merable co!ples to get married% (hat sort of policy prepares the way for the f!rther advance of prostit!tion% Another reason why early marriages are impossible is o!r nonsensical method of reg!lating the scale of salaries, which pays far too little attention to the problem of family s!pport% "rostit!tion, therefore, can only be really serio!sly tac&led if, by means of a radical social reform, early marriage is made easier than hitherto% (his is the first preliminary necessity for the sol!tion of this problem% 'econdly, a whole series of false notions m!st be eradicated from o!r system of bringing !p and ed!cating children - things which hitherto no one seems to have worried abo!t% In o!r present ed!cational system a balance will have to be established, first and foremost, between mental instr!ction and physical training% /hat is &nown as 6ymnasi!m B6rammar 'choolC to-day is a positive ins!lt to the 6ree& instit!tion% O!r system of ed!cation entirely loses sight of the fact that in the long r!n a healthy mind can e3ist only in a healthy body% (his statement, with few e3ceptions, applies partic!larly to the broad masses of the nation% In the pre-/ar 6ermany there was a time when no one too& the tro!ble to thin& over this tr!th% (raining of the body was criminally neglected, the one-sided training of the mind being regarded as a s!fficient g!arantee for the nation#s greatness% (his mista&e was destined to show its effects sooner than had been anticipated% It is not p!re chance that the 4olshevic teaching flo!rishes in those regions whose degenerate pop!lation has been bro!ght to the verge of starvation, as, for e3ample, in the case of $entral 6ermany, 'a3ony, and the 8!hr :alley% In all these districts there is a mar&ed absence of any serio!s resistance, even by the so-called intellect!al classes, against this )ewish contagion% And the simple reason is that the intellect!al classes are themselves physically degenerate, not thro!gh privation b!t thro!gh ed!cation% (he e3cl!sive intellect!alism of the ed!cation in vog!e among o!r !pper classes ma&es them !nfit for life#s str!ggle at an epoch in which physical force and not mind is the dominating factor% (h!s they are neither capable of maintaining themselves nor of ma&ing their way in life% In nearly every case physical disability is the forer!nner of personal cowardice% (he e3travagant emphasis laid on p!rely intellect!al ed!cation and the conse+!ent neglect of physical training m!st necessarily lead to se3!al tho!ghts in early yo!th% (hose boys whose constit!tions have been trained and hardened by sports and gymnastics are less prone to se3!al ind!lgence than those stay-at-homes who have been fed e3cl!sively with mental pab!l!m% 'o!nd methods of ed!cation cannot, however, afford to disregard this, and we m!st not forget that the e3pectations of a healthy yo!ng man from a woman will differ from those of a wea&ling who has been premat!rely corr!pted% (h!s in every branch of o!r ed!cation the day#s c!rric!l!m m!st be arranged so as to occ!py a boy#s free time in profitable development of his physical powers% 1e has no right in those years to loaf abo!t, becoming a n!isance in p!blic streets and in cinemas> b!t when his day#s wor& is done he o!ght to harden his yo!ng body so that his strength may not be fo!nd wanting when the occasion arises% (o prepare for this and to carry it o!t sho!ld be the f!nction of o!r ed!cational system and not e3cl!sively to p!mp in &nowledge or wisdom% O!r school system m!st also rid itself of the notion that the training of the body is a tas& that sho!ld be left to the individ!al himself% (here is no s!ch thing as allowing freedom of choice to sin against posterity and th!s against the race% (he fight against poll!tion of the mind m!st be waged sim!ltaneo!sly with the training of the body% (o-day the whole of o!r p!blic life may be compared to a hot-ho!se for the forced growth of se3!al notions and incitements% A glance at the bill-of-fare provided by o!r cinemas, playho!ses, and theatres s!ffices to prove that this is not the right food, especially for o!r yo!ng people% 1oardings and advertisements &ios&s combine to attract the p!blic in the most v!lgar manner% Anyone who has not altogether lost contact with adolescent yearnings will reali9e that all this m!st have very grave conse+!ences% (his sed!ctive and sens!o!s atmosphere p!ts notions into the heads of o!r

yo!th which, at their age, o!ght still to be !n&nown to them% Mnfort!nately, the res!lts of this &ind of ed!cation can best be seen in o!r contemporary yo!th who are premat!rely grown !p and therefore old before their time% (he law co!rts from time to time throw a distressing light on the spirit!al life of o!r 14- and 1=-year old children% /ho, therefore, will be s!rprised to learn that venereal disease claims its victims at this age5 And is it not a frightf!l shame to see the n!mber of physically wea& and intellect!ally spoiled yo!ng men who have been introd!ced to the mysteries of marriage by the whores of the big cities5 *o> those who want serio!sly to combat prostit!tion m!st first of all assist in removing the spirit!al conditions on which it thrives% (hey will have to clean !p the moral poll!tion of o!r city Ic!lt!re# fearlessly and witho!t regard for the o!tcry that will follow% If we do not drag o!r yo!th o!t of the morass of their present environment they will be eng!lfed by it% (hose people who do not want to see these things are deliberately enco!raging them and are g!ilty of spreading the effects of prostit!tion to the f!t!re - for the f!t!re belongs to o!r yo!ng generation% (his process of cleansing o!r I2!lt!r# will have to be applied in practically all spheres% (he stage, art, literat!re, the cinema, the "ress and advertisement posters, all m!st have the stains of poll!tion removed and be placed in the service of a national and c!lt!ral idea% (he life of the people m!st be freed from the asphy3iating perf!me of o!r modern eroticism and also from every !nmanly and pr!dish form of insincerity% In all these things the aim and the method m!st be determined by tho!ghtf!l consideration for the preservation of o!r national well-being in body and so!l% (he right to personal freedom comes second in importance to the d!ty of maintaining the race% Only after s!ch meas!res have been p!t into practice can a medical campaign against this sco!rge begin with some hope of s!ccess% 4!t, here again, half-meas!res will be val!eless% Far-reaching and important decisions will have to be made% It wo!ld be doing things by halves if inc!rables were given the opport!nity of infecting one healthy person after another% (his wo!ld be that &ind of h!manitarianism which wo!ld allow h!ndreds to perish in order to save the s!ffering of one individ!al% (he demand that it sho!ld be made impossible for defective people to contin!e to propagate defective offspring is a demand that is based on most reasonable gro!nds, and its proper f!lfilment is the most h!mane tas& that man&ind has to face% Mnhappy and !ndeserved s!ffering in millions of cases will be spared, with the res!lt that there will be a grad!al improvement in national health% A determined decision to act in this manner will at the same time provide an obstacle against the f!rther spread of venereal disease% It wo!ld then be a case, where necessary, of mercilessly isolating all inc!rables - perhaps a barbaric meas!re for those !nfort!nates - b!t a blessing for the present generation and for posterity% (he temporary pain th!s e3perienced in this cent!ry can and will spare f!t!re tho!sands of generations from s!ffering% (he fight against syphilis and its pace-ma&er, prostit!tion, is one of the gigantic tas&s of man&ind> gigantic, beca!se it is not merely a case of solving a single problem b!t the removal of a whole series of evils which are the contrib!tory ca!ses of this sco!rge% ?isease of the body in this case is merely the res!lt of a diseased condition of the moral, social, and racial instincts% 4!t if for reasons of indolence or cowardice this fight is not fo!ght to a finish we may imagine what conditions will be li&e =<< years hence% Little of 6od#s image will be left in h!man nat!re, e3cept to moc& the $reator% 4!t what has been done in 6ermany to co!nteract this sco!rge5 If we thin& calmly over the answer we shall find it distressing% It is tr!e that in governmental circles the terrible and in,!rio!s effects of this disease were well &nown, b!t the co!nter-meas!res which were officially adopted were ineffective and a hopeless fail!re% (hey tin&ered with c!res for the symptoms, wholly regardless of the ca!se of the disease% "rostit!tes were medically e3amined and controlled as far as possible, and when signs of infection were apparent they were sent to hospital % /hen o!twardly c!red, they were once more let loose on h!manity% It is tr!e that Iprotective legislation# was introd!ced which made se3!al interco!rse a p!nishable offence for all those not completely c!red, or those s!ffering from venereal disease% (his legislation was correct in theory, b!t in practice it failed completely% In the first place, in the ma,ority of cases women will decline to appear in co!rt as witnesses against men who have robbed them of their health% /omen wo!ld be e3posed far more than men to !ncharitable remar&s in s!ch cases, and one can imagine what their position wo!ld be if they had been infected by their own h!sbands% 'ho!ld women in that case lay a charge5 Or what sho!ld they do5 In the case of the man there is the additional fact that he fre+!ently is !nfort!nate eno!gh to r!n !p against this danger when he is !nder the infl!ence of alcohol% 1is condition ma&es it impossible for him to assess the +!alities of his Iamoro!s bea!ty,# a fact which is well &nown to every diseased prostit!te and ma&es them single o!t men in this ideal condition for preference% (he res!lt is that the !nfort!nate man is not able to recollect later on who his compassionate benefactress was, which is not s!rprising in cities li&e 4erlin and !nich% any of s!ch cases are visitors from the provinces who, held speechless and enthralled by the magic charm of city life, become an easy prey for prostit!tes% In the final analysis who is able to say whether he has been infected or not5 Are there not inn!merable cases on record where an apparently c!red person has a relapse and does !ntold harm witho!t &nowing it5 (herefore in practice the res!lts of these legislative meas!res are negative% (he same applies to the control of

prostit!tion, and, finally, even medical treatment and c!re are nowadays !nsafe and do!btf!l% One thing only is certain% (he sco!rge has spread f!rther and f!rther in spite of all meas!res, and this alone s!ffices definitely to stamp and s!bstantiate their inefficiency% 7verything else that was !nderta&en was ,!st as inefficient as it was abs!rd% (he spirit!al prostit!tion of the people was neither arrested nor was anything whatsoever !nderta&en in this direction% (hose, however, who do not regard this s!b,ect as a serio!s one wo!ld do well to e3amine the statistical data of the spread of this disease, st!dy its growth in the last cent!ry and contemplate the possibilities of its f!rther development% (he ordinary observer, !nless he were partic!larly st!pid, wo!ld e3perience a cold sh!dder if the position were made clear to him% (he half-hearted and wavering attit!de adopted in pre-/ar 6ermany towards this ini+!ito!s condition can ass!redly be ta&en as a visible sign of national decay% /hen the co!rage to fight for one#s own health is no longer in evidence, then the right to live in this world of str!ggle also ceases% One of the visible signs of decay in the old 8eich was the slow setbac& which the general c!lt!ral level e3perienced% 4!t by I2!lt!r# I do not mean that which we nowadays style as civili9ation, which on the contrary may rather be regarded as inimical to the spirit!al elevation of life% At the t!rn of the last cent!ry a new element began to ma&e its appearance in o!r world% It was an element which had been hitherto absol!tely !n&nown and foreign to !s% In former times there had certainly been offences against good taste> b!t these were mostly depart!res from the orthodo3 canons of art, and posterity co!ld recogni9e a certain historical val!e in them% 4!t the new prod!cts showed signs, not only of artistic aberration b!t of spirit!al degeneration% 1ere, in the c!lt!ral sphere, the signs of the coming collapse first became manifest% (he 4olshevi9ation of art is the only c!lt!ral form of life and the only spirit!al manifestation of which 4olshevism is capable% Anyone to whom this statement may appear strange need only ta&e a glance at those l!c&y 'tates which have become 4olshevi9ed and, to his horror, he will there recogni9e those morbid monstrosities which have been prod!ced by insane and degenerate people% All those artistic aberrations which are classified !nder the names of c!bism and dadism, since the opening of the present cent!ry, are manifestations of art which have come to be officially recogni9ed by the 'tate itself% (his phenomenon made its appearance even d!ring the short-lived period of the 'oviet 8ep!blic in 4avaria% At that time one might easily have recogni9ed how all the official posters, propagandist pict!res and newspapers, etc%, showed signs not only of political b!t also of c!lt!ral decadence% Abo!t si3ty years ago a political collapse s!ch as we are e3periencing to-day wo!ld have been ,!st as inconceivable as the c!lt!ral decline which has been manifested in c!bist and f!t!rist pict!res ever since 19<<% 'i3ty years ago an e3hibition of so-called dadistic Ie3periences# wo!ld have been an absol!tely prepostero!s idea% (he organi9ers of s!ch an e3hibition wo!ld then have been certified for the l!natic asyl!m, whereas, to-day they are appointed presidents of art societies% At that time s!ch an epidemic wo!ld never have been allowed to spread% "!blic opinion wo!ld not have tolerated it, and the 6overnment wo!ld not have remained silent> for it is the d!ty of a 6overnment to save its people from being stampeded into s!ch intellect!al madness% 4!t intellect!al madness wo!ld have res!lted from a development that followed the acceptance of this &ind of art% It wo!ld have mar&ed one of the worst changes in h!man history> for it wo!ld have meant that a retrogressive process had beg!n to ta&e place in the h!man brain, the final stages of which wo!ld be !nthin&able% If we st!dy the co!rse of o!r c!lt!ral life d!ring the last twenty-five years we shall be astonished to note how far we have already gone in this process of retrogression% 7verywhere we find the presence of those germs which give rise to prot!berant growths that m!st sooner or later bring abo!t the r!in of o!r c!lt!re% 1ere we find !ndo!bted symptoms of slow corr!ption> and woe to the nations that are no longer able to bring that morbid process to a halt% In almost all the vario!s fields of 6erman art and c!lt!re those morbid phenomena may be observed% 1ere everything seems to have passed the c!lminating point of its e3cellence and to have entered the c!rve of a hasty decline% At the beginning of the cent!ry the theatres seemed already degenerating and ceasing to be c!lt!ral factors, e3cept the $o!rt theatres, which opposed this prostit!tion of the national art% /ith these e3ceptions, and also a few other decent instit!tions, the plays prod!ced on the stage were of s!ch a nat!re that the people wo!ld have benefited by not visiting them at all% A sad symptom of decline was manifested by the fact that in the case of many Iart centres# the sign was posted on the entrance doors0 For Ad!lts Only% Let it be borne in mind that these preca!tions had to be ta&en in regard to instit!tions whose main p!rpose sho!ld have been to promote the ed!cation of the yo!th and not merely to provide am!sement for sophisticated ad!lts% /hat wo!ld the great dramatists of other times have said of s!ch meas!res and, above all, of the conditions which made these meas!res necessary5 1ow e3asperated 'chiller wo!ld have been, and how 6oethe wo!ld have t!rned away in disg!stJ 4!t what are 'chiller, 6oethe and 'ha&espeare when confronted with the heroes of o!r modern 6erman literat!re5 Old and frowsy and o!tmoded and finished% For it was typical of this epoch that not only were its own prod!cts bad b!t that the a!thors of s!ch prod!cts and their bac&ers reviled everything that had really been great in the past% (his

is a phenomenon that is very characteristic of s!ch epochs% (he more vile and miserable are the men and prod!cts of an epoch, the more they will hate and denigrate the ideal achievements of former generations% /hat these people wo!ld li&e best wo!ld be completely to destroy every vestige of the past, in order to do away with that sole standard of comparison which prevents their own da!bs from being loo&ed !pon as art% (herefore the more lamentable and wretched are the prod!cts of each new era, the more it will try to obliterate all the memorials of the past% 4!t any real innovation that is for the benefit of man&ind can always face comparison with the best of what has gone before> and fre+!ently it happens that those mon!ments of the past g!arantee the acceptance of those modern prod!ctions% (here is no fear that modern prod!ctions of real worth will loo& pale and worthless beside the mon!ments of the past% /hat is contrib!ted to the general treas!ry of h!man c!lt!re often f!lfils a part that is necessary in order to &eep the memory of old achievements alive, beca!se this memory alone is the standard whereby o!r own wor&s are properly appreciated% Only those who have nothing of val!e to give to the world will oppose everything that already e3ists and wo!ld have it destroyed at all costs% And this holds good not only for new phenomena in the c!lt!ral domain b!t also in politics% (he more inferior new revol!tionary movements are, the more will they try to denigrate the old forms% 1ere again the desire to pawn off their shoddy prod!cts as great and original achievements leads them into a blind hatred against everything which belongs to the past and which is s!perior to their own wor&% As long as the historical memory of Frederic& the 6reat, for instance, still lives, Frederic& 7bert can aro!se only a problematic admiration% (he relation of the hero of 'ans 'o!ci to the former rep!blican of 4remen may be compared to that of the s!n to the moon> for the moon can shine only after the direct rays of the s!n have left the earth% (h!s we can readily !nderstand why it is that all the new moons in h!man history have hated the fi3ed stars% In the field of politics, if Fate sho!ld happen temporarily to place the r!ling power in the hands of those nonentities they are not only eager to defile and revile the past b!t at the same time they will !se all means to evade criticism of their own acts% (he Law for the "rotection of the 8ep!blic, which the new 6erman 'tate enacted, may be ta&en as one e3ample of this tr!th% One has good gro!nds to be s!spicio!s in regard to any new idea, or any doctrine or philosophy, any political or economical movement, which tries to deny everything that the past has prod!ced or to present it as inferior and worthless% Any renovation which is really beneficial to h!man progress will always have to begin its constr!ctive wor& at the level where the last stones of the str!ct!re have been laid% It need not bl!sh to !tili9e those tr!ths which have already been established> for all h!man c!lt!re, as well as man himself, is only the res!lt of one long line of development, where each generation has contrib!ted b!t one stone to the b!ilding of the whole str!ct!re% (he meaning and p!rpose of revol!tions cannot be to tear down the whole b!ilding b!t to ta&e away what has not been well fitted into it or is !ns!itable, and to reb!ild the free space th!s ca!sed, after which the main constr!ction of the b!ilding will be carried on% (h!s alone will it be possible to tal& of h!man progress> for otherwise the world wo!ld never be free of chaos, since each generation wo!ld feel entitled to re,ect the past and to destroy all the wor& of the past, as the necessary preliminary to any new wor& of its own% (he saddest feat!re of the condition in which o!r whole civili9ation fo!nd itself before the /ar was the fact that it was not only barren of any creative force to prod!ce its own wor&s of art and civili9ation b!t that it hated, defiled and tried to efface the memory of the s!perior wor&s prod!ced in the past% Abo!t the end of the last cent!ry people were less interested in prod!cing new significant wor&s of their own - partic!larly in the fields of dramatic art and literat!re - than in defaming the best wor&s of the past and in presenting them as inferior and anti+!ated% As if this period of disgracef!l decadence had the slightest capacity to prod!ce anything of s!perior +!alityJ (he efforts made to conceal the past from the eyes of the present afforded clear evidence of the fact that these apostles of the f!t!re acted from an evil intent% (hese symptoms sho!ld have made it clear to all that it was not a +!estion of new, tho!gh wrong, c!lt!ral ideas b!t of a process which was !ndermining the very fo!ndations of civili9ation% It threw the artistic feeling which had hitherto been +!ite sane into !tter conf!sion, th!s spirit!ally preparing the way for political 4olshevism% If the creative spirit of the "ericlean age be manifested in the "arthenon, then the 4olshevist era is manifested thro!gh its c!bist grimace% In this connection attention m!st be drawn once again to the want of co!rage displayed by one section of o!r people, namely, by those who, in virt!e of their ed!cation and position, o!ght to have felt themselves obliged to ta&e !p a firm stand against this o!trage on o!r c!lt!re% 4!t they refrained from offering serio!s resistance and s!rrendered to what they considered the inevitable% (his abdication of theirs was d!e, however, to sheer f!n& lest the apostles of 4olshevist art might raise a r!mp!s> for those apostles always violently attac&ed everyone who was not ready to recogni9e them as the choice spirits of artistic creation, and they tried to strangle all opposition by saying that it was the prod!ct of philistine and bac&water minds% "eople trembled in fear lest they might be acc!sed by these yahoos and swindlers of lac&ing artistic appreciation, as if it wo!ld have been a disgrace not to be able to !nderstand and appreciate the eff!sions of those mental degenerates or arrant rog!es% (hose c!lt!ral disciples, however, had a very simple way of presenting their own eff!sions as wor&s of the highest +!ality% (hey offered incomprehensible and manifestly cra9y prod!ctions to their ama9ed contemporaries as what they called Ian inner

e3perience#% (h!s they forestalled all adverse criticism at very little cost indeed% Of co!rse nobody ever do!bted that there co!ld have been inner e3periences li&e that, b!t some do!bt o!ght to have arisen as to whether or not there was any ,!stification for e3posing these hall!cinations of psychopaths or criminals to the sane portion of h!man society% (he wor&s prod!ced by a orit9 von 'chwind or a 4Rc&lin were also e3ternali9ations of an inner e3perience, b!t these were the e3periences of divinely gifted artists and not of b!ffoons% (his sit!ation afforded a good opport!nity of st!dying the miserable cowardliness of o!r so-called intellect!als who shir&ed the d!ty of offering serio!s resistance to the poisoning of the so!nd instincts of o!r people% (hey left it to the people themselves to form!late their own attit!de towards his imp!dent nonsense% Lest they might be considered as !nderstanding nothing of art, they accepted every caricat!re of art, !ntil they finally lost the power of ,!dging what is really good or bad% (a&en all in all, there were s!perab!ndant symptoms to show that a diseased epoch had beg!n% 'till another critical symptom has to be considered% In the co!rse of the nineteenth cent!ry o!r towns and cities began more and more to lose their character as centres of civili9ation and became more and more centres of habitation% In o!r great modern cities the proletariat does not show m!ch attachment to the place where it lives% (his feeling res!lts from the fact that their dwelling-place is nothing b!t an accidental abode, and that feeling is also partly d!e to the fre+!ent change of residence which is forced !pon them by social conditions% (here is no time for the growth of any attachment to the town in which they live% 4!t another reason lies in the c!lt!ral barrenness and s!perficiality of o!r modern cities% At the time of the 6erman /ars of Liberation o!r 6erman towns and cities were not only small in n!mber b!t also very modest in si9e% (he few that co!ld really be called great cities were mostly the residential cities of princes> as s!ch they had almost always a definite c!lt!ral val!e and also a definite c!lt!ral aspect% (hose few towns which had more than fifty tho!sand inhabitants were, in comparison with modern cities of the same si9e, rich in scientific and artistic treas!res% At the time when !nich had not more than si3ty tho!sand so!ls it was already well on the way to become one of the first 6erman centres of art% *owadays almost every ind!strial town has a pop!lation at least as large as that, witho!t having anything of real val!e to call its own% (hey are agglomerations of tenement ho!ses and congested dwelling barrac&s, and nothing else% It wo!ld be a miracle if anybody sho!ld grow sentimentally attached to s!ch a meaningless place% *obody can grow attached to a place which offers only ,!st as m!ch or as little as any other place wo!ld offer, which has no character of its own and where obvio!sly pains have been ta&en to avoid everything that might have any resemblance to an artistic appearance% 4!t this is not all% 7ven the great cities become more barren of real wor&s of art the more they increase in pop!lation% (hey ass!me more and more a ne!tral atmosphere and present the same aspect, tho!gh on a larger scale, as the wretched little factory towns% 7verything that o!r modern age has contrib!ted to the civili9ation of o!r great cities is absol!tely deficient% All o!r towns are living on the glory and the treas!res of the past% If we ta&e away from the !nich of to-day everything that was created !nder L!dwig II we sho!ld be horror-stric&en to see how meagre has been the o!tp!t of important artistic creations since that time% One might say m!ch the same of 4erlin and most of o!r other great towns% 4!t the following is the essential thing to be noticed0 O!r great modern cities have no o!tstanding mon!ments that dominate the general aspect of the city and co!ld be pointed to as the symbols of a whole epoch% Net almost every ancient town had a mon!ment erected to its glory% It was not in private dwellings that the characteristic art of ancient cities was displayed b!t in the p!blic mon!ments, which were not meant to have a transitory interest b!t an end!ring one% And this was beca!se they did not represent the wealth of some individ!al citi9en b!t the greatness and importance of the comm!nity% It was !nder this inspiration that those mon!ments arose which bo!nd the individ!al inhabitants to their own town in a manner that is often almost incomprehensible to !s to-day% /hat str!c& the eye of the individ!al citi9en was not a n!mber of mediocre private b!ildings, b!t imposing str!ct!res that belonged to the whole comm!nity% In contradistinction to these, private dwellings were of only very secondary importance indeed% /hen we compare the si9e of those ancient p!blic b!ildings with that of the private dwellings belonging to the same epoch then we can !nderstand the great importance which was given to the principle that those wor&s which reflected and affected the life of the comm!nity sho!ld ta&e precedence of all others% Among the bro&en arches and vast spaces that are covered with r!ins from the ancient world the colossal riches that still aro!se o!r wonder have not been left to !s from the commercial palaces of these days b!t from the temples of the 6ods and the p!blic edifices that belonged to the 'tate% (he comm!nity itself was the owner of those great edifices% 7ven in the pomp of 8ome d!ring the decadence it was not the villas and palaces of some citi9ens that filled the most prominent place b!t rather the temples and the baths, the stadia, the circ!ses, the a+!ed!cts, the basilicas, etc%, which belonged to the 'tate and therefore to the people as a whole% In medieval 6ermany also the same principle held sway, altho!gh the artistic o!tloo& was +!ite different% In ancient times the theme that fo!nd its e3pression in the Acropolis or the "antheon was now clothed in the forms of the 6othic $athedral% In the medieval cities these mon!mental str!ct!res towered gigantically above the swarm of

smaller b!ildings with their framewor& walls of wood and bric&% And they remain the dominant feat!re of these cities even to o!r own day, altho!gh they are becoming more and more obsc!red by the apartment barrac&s% (hey determine the character and appearance of the locality% $athedrals, city-halls, corn e3changes, defence towers, are the o!tward e3pression of an idea which has its co!nterpart only in the ancient world% (he dimensions and +!ality of o!r p!blic b!ildings to-day are in deplorable contrast to the edifices that represent private interests% If a similar fate sho!ld befall 4erlin as befell 8ome f!t!re generations might ga9e !pon the r!ins of some )ewish department stores or ,oint-stoc& hotels and thin& that these were the characteristic e3pressions of the c!lt!re of o!r time% In 4erlin itself, compare the shamef!l disproportion between the b!ildings which belong to the 8eich and those which have been erected for the accommodation of trade and finance% (he credits that are voted for p!blic b!ildings are in most cases inade+!ate and really ridic!lo!s% (hey are not b!ilt as str!ct!res that were meant to last b!t mostly for the p!rpose of answering the need of the moment% *o higher idea infl!enced those who commissioned s!ch b!ildings% At the time the 4erlin 'chloss was b!ilt it had a +!ite different significance from what the new library has for o!r time, seeing that one battleship alone represents an e3pendit!re of abo!t si3ty million mar&s, whereas less than half that s!m was allotted for the b!ilding of the 8eichstag, which is the most imposing str!ct!re erected for the 8eich and which sho!ld have been b!ilt to last for ages% Net, in deciding the +!estion of internal decoration, the Mpper 1o!se voted against the !se of stone and ordered that the walls sho!ld be covered with st!cco% For once, however, the parliamentarians made an appropriate decision on that occasion> for plaster heads wo!ld be o!t of place between stone walls% (he comm!nity as s!ch is not the dominant characteristic of o!r contemporary cities, and therefore it is not to be wondered at if the comm!nity does not find itself architect!rally represented% (h!s we m!st event!ally arrive at a veritable civic desert which will at last be reflected in the total indifference of the individ!al citi9en towards his own co!ntry% (his is also a sign of o!r c!lt!ral decay and general brea&-!p% O!r era is entirely preocc!pied with little things which are to no p!rpose, or rather it is entirely preocc!pied in the service of money% (herefore it is not to be wondered at if, with the worship of s!ch an idol, the sense of heroism sho!ld entirely disappear% 4!t the present is only reaping what the past has sown% All these symptoms which preceded the final collapse of the 'econd 7mpire m!st be attrib!ted to the lac& of a definite and !niformly accepted Weltanschhauung and the general !ncertainty of o!tloo& conse+!ent on that lac&% (his !ncertainty showed itself when the great +!estions of the time had to be considered one after another and a decisive policy adopted towards them% (his lac& is also acco!ntable for the habit of doing everything by halves, beginning with the ed!cational system, the shilly-shally, the rel!ctance to !nderta&e responsibilites and, finally, the cowardly tolerance of evils that were even admitted to be destr!ctive% :isionary h!manitarianisms became the fashion% In wea&ly s!bmitting to these aberrations and sparing the feelings of the individ!al, the f!t!re of millions of h!man beings was sacrificed% An e3amination of the religio!s sit!ation before the /ar shows that the general process of disr!ption had e3tended to this sphere also% A great part of the nation itself had for a long time already ceased to have any convictions of a !niform and practical character in their ideological o!tloo& on life% In this matter the point of primary importance was by no means the n!mber of people who reno!nced their ch!rch membership b!t rather the widespread indifference% /hile the two $hristian denominations maintained missions in Asia and Africa, for the p!rpose of sec!ring new adherents to the Faith, these same denominations were losing millions and millions of their adherents at home in 7!rope% (hese former adherents either gave !p religion wholly as a directive force in their lives or they adopted their own interpretation of it% (he conse+!ences of this were specially felt in the moral life of the co!ntry% In parenthesis it may be remar&ed that the progress made by the missions in spreading the $hristian Faith abroad was only +!ite modest in comparison with the spread of ohammedanism% It m!st be noted too that the attac& on the dogmatic principles !nderlying ecclesiastical teaching increased steadily in violence% And yet this h!man world of o!rs wo!ld be inconceivable witho!t the practical e3istence of a religio!s belief% (he great masses of a nation are not composed of philosophers% For the masses of the people, especially faith is absol!tely the only basis of a moral o!tloo& on life% (he vario!s s!bstit!tes that have been offered have not shown any res!lts that might warrant !s in thin&ing that they might !sef!lly replace the e3isting denominations% 4!t if religio!s teaching and religio!s faith were once accepted by the broad masses as active forces in their lives, then the absol!te a!thority of the doctrines of faith wo!ld be the fo!ndation of all practical effort% (here may be a few h!ndreds of tho!sands of s!perior men who can live wisely and intelligently witho!t depending on the general standards that prevail in everyday life, b!t the millions of others cannot do so% *ow the place which general c!stom fills in everyday life corresponds to that of general laws in the 'tate and dogma in religion% (he p!rely spirit!al idea is of itself a changeable thing that may be s!b,ected to endless interpretations% It is only thro!gh dogma that it is given a precise and concrete form witho!t which it co!ld not become a living faith% Otherwise the spirit!al idea wo!ld never become anything more than a mere metaphysical concept, or rather a philosophical opinion% Accordingly the attac& against dogma is comparable to an attac& against the general laws on which the 'tate is

fo!nded% And so this attac& wo!ld finally lead to complete political anarchy if it were s!ccessf!l, ,!st as the attac& on religion wo!ld lead to a worthless religio!s nihilism% (he political leader sho!ld not estimate the worth of a religion by ta&ing some of its shortcomings into acco!nt, b!t he sho!ld as& himself whether there be any practical s!bstit!te in a view which is demonstrably better% Mntil s!ch a s!bstit!te be available only fools and criminals wo!ld thin& of abolishing the e3isting religion% Mndo!btedly no small amo!nt of blame for the present !nsatisfactory religio!s sit!ation m!st be attrib!ted to those who have enc!mbered the ideal of religion with p!rely material accessories and have th!s given rise to an !tterly f!tile conflict between religion and science% In this conflict victory will nearly always be on the side of science, even tho!gh after a bitter str!ggle, while religion will s!ffer heavily in the eyes of those who cannot penetrate beneath the mere s!perficial aspects of science% 4!t the greatest damage of all has come from the practice of debasing religion as a means that can be e3ploited to serve political interests, or rather commercial interests% (he imp!dent and lo!d-mo!thed liars who do this ma&e their profession of faith before the whole world in stentorian tones so that all poor mortals may hear - not that they are ready to die for it if necessary b!t rather that they may live all the better% (hey are ready to sell their faith for any political +!id pro +!o% For ten parliamentary mandates they wo!ld ally themselves with the ar3ists, who are the mortal foes of all religion% And for a seat in the $abinet they wo!ld go the length of wedloc& with the devil, if the latter had not still retained some traces of decency% If religio!s life in pre-war 6ermany had a disagreeable savo!r for the mo!ths of many people this was beca!se $hristianity had been lowered to base !ses by political parties that called themselves $hristian and beca!se of the shamef!l way in which they tried to identify the $atholic Faith with a political party% (his s!bstit!tion was fatal% It proc!red some worthless parliamentary mandates for the party in +!estion, b!t the $h!rch s!ffered damage thereby% (he conse+!ences of that sit!ation had to be borne by the whole nation> for the la3ity that res!lted in religio!s life set in at a ,!nct!re when everything was beginning to lose hold and vacillate and the traditional fo!ndations of c!stom and of morality were threatening to fall as!nder% Net all those crac&s and clefts in the social organism might not have been dangero!s if no grave b!rdens had been laid !pon it> b!t they became disastro!s when the internal solidarity of the nation was the most important factor in withstanding the storm of big events% In the political field also observant eyes might have noticed certain anomalies of the 8eich which foretold disaster !nless some alteration and correction too& place in time% (he lac& of orientation in 6erman policy, both domestic and foreign, was obvio!s to everyone who was not p!rposely blind% (he best thing that co!ld be said abo!t the practice of ma&ing compromises is that it seemed o!twardly to be in harmony with 4ismarc&#s a3iom that Ipolitics is the art of the possible#% 4!t 4ismarc& was a slightly different man from the $hancellors who followed him% (his difference allowed the former to apply that form!la to the very essence of his policy, while in the mo!ths of the others it too& on an !tterly different significance% /hen he !ttered that phrase 4ismarc& meant to say that in order to attain a definite political end all possible means sho!ld be employed or at least that all possibilities sho!ld be tried% 4!t his s!ccessors see in that phrase only a solemn declaration that one is not necessarily bo!nd to have political principles or any definite political aims at all% And the political leaders of the 8eich at that time had no far-seeing policy% 1ere, again, the necessary fo!ndation was lac&ing, namely, a definite Weltanschhauung, and these leaders also lac&ed that clear insight into the laws of political evol!tion which is a necessary +!ality in political leadership% any people who too& a gloomy view of things at that time condemned the lac& of ideas and lac& of orientation which were evident in directing the policy of the 8eich% (hey recogni9ed the inner wea&ness and f!tility of this policy% 4!t s!ch people played only a secondary role in politics% (hose who had the 6overnment of the co!ntry in their hands were +!ite as indifferent to principles of civil wisdom laid down by thin&ers li&e 1o!ston 'tewart $hamberlain as o!r political leaders now are% (hese people are too st!pid to thin& for themselves, and they have too m!ch self-conceit to ta&e from others the instr!ction which they need% O3enstierna 14C gave e3pression to a tr!th which has lasted since time immemorial, when he said that the world is governed by only a particle of wisdom% Almost every civil servant of co!ncillor ran& might nat!rally be s!pposed to possess only an atom or so belonging to this particle% 4!t since 6ermany became a 8ep!blic even this modic!m is wanting% And that is why they had to prom!lgate the Law for the ?efence of the 8ep!blic, which prohibits the holding of s!ch views or e3pressing them% It was fort!nate for O3enstierna that he lived at that time and not in this wise 8ep!blic of o!r time% Already before the /ar that instit!tion which sho!ld have represented the strength of the 8eich - the "arliament, the 8eichstag - was widely recogni9ed as its wea&est feat!re% $owardliness and fear of sho!ldering responsibilities were associated together there in a perfect fashion% One of the silliest notions that one hears e3pressed to-day is that in 6ermany the parliamentary instit!tion has ceased to f!nction since the 8evol!tion% (his might easily be ta&en to imply that the case was different before the 8evol!tion% 4!t in reality the parliamentary instit!tion never f!nctioned e3cept to the detriment of the co!ntry% And

it f!nctioned th!s in those days when people saw nothing or did not wish to see anything% (he 6erman downfall is to be attrib!ted in no small degree to this instit!tion% 4!t that the catastrophe did not ta&e place sooner is not to be credited to the "arliament b!t rather to those who opposed the infl!ence of this instit!tion which, d!ring peace times, was digging the grave of the 6erman *ation and the 6erman 8eich% From the immense mass of devastating evils that were d!e either directly or indirectly to the "arliament I shall select one the most intimately typical of this instit!tion which was the most irresponsible of all time% (he evil I spea& of was seen in the appalling shilly-shally and wea&ness in cond!cting the internal and e3ternal affairs of the 8eich% It was attrib!table in the first place to the action of the 8eichstag and was one of the principal ca!ses of the political collapse% 7verything s!b,ect to the infl!ence of "arliament was done by halves, no matter from what aspect yo! may regard it% (he foreign policy of the 8eich in the matter of alliances was an e3ample of shilly-shally% (hey wished to maintain peace, b!t in doing so they steered straight% into war% (heir "olish policy was also carried o!t by half-meas!res% It res!lted neither in a 6erman tri!mph nor "olish conciliation, and it made enemies of the 8!ssians% (hey tried to solve the Alsace-Lorraine +!estion thro!gh half-meas!res% Instead of cr!shing the head of the French hydra once and for all with the mailed fist and granting Alsace-Lorraine e+!al rights with the other 6erman 'tates, they did neither the one nor the other% Anyhow, it was impossible for them to do otherwise, for they had among their ran&s the greatest traitors to the co!ntry, s!ch as 1err /etterlO of the $entre "arty% 4!t still the co!ntry might have been able to bear with all this provided the half-meas!re policy had not victimi9ed that force in which, as the last resort, the e3istence of the 7mpire depended0 namely, the Army% (he crime committed by the so-called 6erman 8eichstag in this regard was s!fficient of itself to draw down !pon it the c!rses of the 6erman *ation for all time% On the most miserable of prete3ts these parliamentary party henchmen filched from the hands of the nation and threw away the weapons which were needed to maintain its e3istence and therewith defend the liberty and independence of o!r people% If the graves on the plains of Flanders were to open to-day the bloodstained acc!sers wo!ld arise, h!ndreds of tho!sands of o!r best 6erman yo!th who were driven into the arms of death by those conscienceless parliamentary r!ffians who were either wrongly ed!cated for their tas& or only half-ed!cated% (hose yo!ths, and other millions of the &illed and m!tilated, were lost to the Fatherland simply and solely in order that a few h!ndred deceivers of the people might carry o!t their political manoe!vres and their e3actions or even treasonably p!rs!e their doctrinaire theories% 4y means of the ar3ist and democratic "ress, the )ews spread the colossal falsehood abo!t I6erman ilitarism# thro!gho!t the world and tried to inc!lpate 6ermany by every possible means, while at the same time the ar3ist and democratic parties ref!sed to assent to the meas!res that were necessary for the ade+!ate training of o!r national defence forces% (he appalling crime th!s committed by these people o!ght to have been obvio!s to everybody who foresaw that in case of war the whole nation wo!ld have to be called to arms and that, beca!se of the mean h!c&stering of these noble Irepresentatives of the people#, as they called themselves, millions of 6ermans wo!ld have to face the enemy ill-e+!ipped and ins!fficiently trained% 4!t even apart from the conse+!ences of the cr!de and br!tal lac& of conscience which these parliamentarian rascals displayed, it was +!ite clear that the lac& of properly trained soldiers at the beginning of a war wo!ld most probably lead to the loss of s!ch a war> and this probability was confirmed in a most terrible way d!ring the co!rse of the world war% (herefore the 6erman people lost the str!ggle for the freedom and independence of their co!ntry beca!se of the half-hearted and defective policy employed d!ring times of peace in the organi9ation and training of the defensive strength of the nation% (he n!mber of recr!its trained for the land forces was too small> b!t the same half-heartedness was shown in regard to the navy and made this weapon of national self-preservation more or less ineffective% Mnfort!nately, even the naval a!thorities themselves were contaminated with this spirit of half-heartedness% (he tendency to b!ild the ship on the stoc&s somewhat smaller than that ,!st la!nched by the 4ritish did not show m!ch foresight and less geni!s% A fleet which cannot be bro!ght to the same n!merical strength as that of the probable enemy o!ght to compensate for this inferiority by the s!perior fighting power of the individ!al ship% It is the weight of the fighting power that co!nts and not any sort of traditional +!ality% As a matter of fact, modern technical development is so advanced and so well proportioned among the vario!s civili9ed 'tates that it m!st be loo&ed on as practically impossible for one "ower to b!ild vessels which wo!ld have a s!perior fighting +!ality to that of the vessels of e+!al si9e b!ilt by the other "owers% 4!t it is even less feasible to b!ild vessels of smaller displacement which will be s!perior in action to those of larger displacement% As a matter of fact, the smaller proportions of the 6erman vessels co!ld be maintained only at the e3pense of speed and armament% (he phrase !sed to ,!stify this policy was in itself an evidence of the lac& of logical thin&ing on the part of the naval a!thorities who were in charge of these matters in times of peace% (hey declared that the 6erman g!ns were definitely s!perior to the 4ritish .<%= cm% as regards stri&ing efficiency%

4!t that was ,!st why they sho!ld have adopted the policy of b!ilding .<%= cm% g!ns also> for it o!ght to have been their ob,ect not to achieve e+!ality b!t s!periority in fighting strength% If that were not so then it wo!ld have been s!perfl!o!s to e+!ip the land forces with 42 cm% mortars> for the 6erman 21 cm% mortar co!ld be far s!perior to any high-angle g!ns which the French possessed at that time and since the fortresses co!ld probably have been ta&en by means of .<%= cm% mortars% (he army a!thorities !nfort!nately failed to do so% If they refrained from ass!ring s!perior efficiency in the artillery as in the velocity, this was beca!se of the f!ndamentally false Iprinciple of ris&# which they adopted% (he naval a!thorities, already in times of peace, reno!nced the principle of attac& and th!s had to follow a defensive policy from the very beginning of the /ar% 4!t by this attit!de they reno!nced also the chances of final s!ccess, which can be achieved only by an offensive policy% A vessel with slower speed and wea&er armament will be crippled and battered by an adversary that is faster and stronger and can fre+!ently shoot from a favo!rable distance% A large n!mber of cr!isers have been thro!gh bitter e3periences in this matter% 1ow wrong were the ideas prevalent among the naval a!thorities in times of peace was proved d!ring the /ar% (hey were compelled to modify the armament of the old vessels and to e+!ip the new ones with better armament whenever there was a chance to do so% If the 6erman vessels in the 4attle of the '&agerra& had been of e+!al si9e, the same armament and the same speed as the 7nglish, the 4ritish Fleet wo!ld have gone down !nder the tempest of the 6erman .; centimeter shells, which hit their aims more acc!rately and were more effective% )apan had followed a different &ind of naval policy% (here, care was principally ta&en to create with every single new vessel a fighting force that wo!ld be s!perior to those of the event!al adversaries% 4!t, beca!se of this policy, it was afterwards possible to !se the fleet for the offensive% /hile the army a!thorities ref!sed to adopt s!ch f!ndamentally erroneo!s principles, the navy - which !nfort!nately had more representatives in "arliament - s!cc!mbed to the spirit that r!led there% (he navy was not organi9ed on a strong basis, and it was later !sed in an !nsystematic and irresol!te way% (he immortal glory which the navy won, in spite of these drawbac&s, m!st be entirely credited to the good wor& and the efficiency and incomparable heroism of officers and crews% If the former commanders-in-chief had been inspired with the same &ind of geni!s all the sacrifices wo!ld not have been in vain% It was probably the very parliamentarian s&ill displayed by the chief of the navy d!ring the years of peace which later became the ca!se of the fatal collapse, since parliamentarian considerations had beg!n to play a more important role in the constr!ction of the navy than fighting considerations% (he irresol!tion, the wea&ness and the fail!re to adopt a logically consistent policy, which is typical of the parliamentary system, contaminated the naval a!thorities% As I have already emphasi9ed, the military a!thorities did not allow themselves to be led astray by s!ch f!ndamentally erroneo!s ideas% L!dendorff, who was then a $olonel in the 6eneral 'taff, led a desperate str!ggle against the criminal vacillations with which the 8eichstag treated the most vital problems of the nation and in most cases voted against them% If the fight which this officer then waged remained !ns!ccessf!l this m!st be debited to the "arliament and partly also to the wretched and wea& attit!de of the $hancellor, 4ethmann-1ollweg% Net those who are responsible for 6ermany#s collapse do not hesitate now to lay all the blame on the sho!lders of the one man who too& a firm stand against the neglectf!l manner in which the interests of the nation were managed% 4!t one falsehood more or less ma&es no difference to these congenital tric&sters% Anybody who thin&s of all the sacrifices which this nation has had to bear, as a res!lt of the criminal neglect of those irresponsible individ!als> anybody who thin&s of the n!mber of those who died or were maimed !nnecessarily> anybody who thin&s of the deplorable shame and dishono!r which has been heaped !pon !s and of the illimitable distress into which o!r people are now pl!nged - anybody who reali9es that in order to prepare the way to a few seats in "arliament for some !nscr!p!lo!s place-h!nters and arrivists will !nderstand that s!ch hirelings can be called by no other name than that of rascal and criminal> for otherwise those words co!ld have no meaning% In comparison with traitors who betrayed the nation#s tr!st every other &ind of twister may be loo&ed !pon as an hono!rable man% It was a pec!liar feat!re of the sit!ation that all the real fa!lts of the old 6ermany were e3posed to the p!blic ga9e only when the inner solidarity of the nation co!ld be in,!red by doing so% (hen, indeed, !npleasant tr!ths were openly proclaimed in the ears of the broad masses, while many other things were at other times shamef!lly h!shed !p or their e3istence simply denied, especially at times when an open disc!ssion of s!ch problems might have led to an improvement in their regard% (he higher government a!thorities &new little or nothing of the nat!re and !se of propaganda in s!ch matters% Only the )ew &new that by an able and persistent !se of propaganda heaven itself can be presented to the people as if it were hell and, vice versa, the most miserable &ind of life can be presented as if it were paradise% (he )ew &new this and acted accordingly% 4!t the 6erman, or rather his 6overnment, did not have the slightest s!spicion of it% ?!ring the /ar the heaviest of penalties had to be paid for that ignorance% Over against the inn!merable drawbac&s which I have mentioned here and which affected 6erman life before the /ar there were many o!tstanding feat!res on the positive side% If we ta&e an impartial s!rvey we m!st admit that

most of o!r drawbac&s were in great meas!re prevalent also in other co!ntries and among the other nations, and very often in a worse form than with !s> whereas among !s there were many real advantages which the other did not have% (he leading phase of 6ermany#s s!periority arose from the fact that, almost alone among all the other 7!ropean nations, the 6erman nation had made the strongest effort to preserve the national character of its economic str!ct!re and for this reason was less s!b,ect than other co!ntries to the power of international finance, tho!gh indeed there were many !ntoward symptoms in this regard also% And yet this s!periority was a perilo!s one and t!rned o!t later to be one of the chief ca!ses of the world war% 4!t even if we disregard this advantage of national independence in economic matters there were certain other positive feat!res of o!r social and political life which were of o!tstanding e3cellence% (hese feat!res were represented by three instit!tions which were constant so!rces of regeneration% In their respective spheres they were models of perfection and were partly !nrivalled% (he first of these was the statal form as s!ch and the manner in which it had been developed for 6ermany in modern times% Of co!rse we m!st e3cept those monarchs who, as h!man beings, were s!b,ect to the failings which afflict this life and its children% If we were not so tolerant in these matters, then the case of the present generation wo!ld be hopeless> for if we ta&e into consideration the personal capabilities and character of the representative fig!res in o!r present regime it wo!ld be diffic!lt to imagine a more modest level of intelligence and moral character% If we meas!re the Ival!e# of the 6erman 8evol!tion by the personal worth and calibre of the individ!als whom this revol!tion has presented to the 6erman people since *ovember 191; then we may feel ashamed indeed in thin&ing of the ,!dgment which posterity will pass on these people, when the Law for the "rotection of the 8ep!blic can no longer silence p!blic opinion% $oming generations will s!rely decide that the intelligence and integrity of o!r new 6erman leaders were in adverse ratio to their boasting and their vices% It m!st be admitted that the monarchy had become alien in spirit to many citi9ens and especially the broad masses% (his res!lted from the fact that the monarchs were not always s!rro!nded by the highest intelligence - so to say and certainly not always by persons of the most !pright character% Mnfort!nately many of them preferred flatterers to honest-spo&en men and hence received their Iinformation# from the former% (his was a so!rce of grave danger at a time when the world was passing thro!gh a period in which many of the old conditions were changing and when this change was affecting even the traditions of the $o!rt% (he average man or woman co!ld not have felt a wave of enth!siasm s!rging within the breast when, for e3ample, at the t!rn of the cent!ry, a princess in !niform and on horsebac& had the soldiers file past her on parade% (hose high circles had apparently no idea of the impression which s!ch a parade made on the minds of ordinary people> else s!ch !nfort!nate occ!rrences wo!ld not have ta&en place% (he sentimental h!manitarianism - not always very sincere - which was professed in those high circles was often more rep!lsive than attractive% /hen, for instance, the "rincess W condescended to taste the prod!cts of a so!p &itchen and fo!nd them e3cellent, as !s!al, s!ch a gest!re might have made an e3cellent impression in times long past, b!t on this occasion it had the opposite effect to what was intended% For even if we ta&e it for granted that 1er 1ighness did not have the slightest idea, that on the day she sampled it, the food was not +!ite the same as on other days, it s!fficed that the people &new it% 7ven the best of intentions th!s became an ob,ect of ridic!le or a ca!se of e3asperation% ?escriptions of the proverbial fr!gality practised by the monarch, his m!ch too early rise in the morning and the dr!dgery he had to go thro!gh all day long !ntil late at night, and especially the constantly e3pressed fears lest he might become !nderno!rished - all this gave rise to omino!s e3pression on the part of the people% *obody was &een to &now what and how m!ch the monarch ate or dran&% *obody gr!dged him a f!ll meal, or the necessary amo!nt of sleep% 7verybody was pleased when the monarch, as a man and a personality, bro!ght hono!r on his family and his co!ntry and f!lfilled his d!ties as a sovereign% All the legends which were circ!lated abo!t him helped little and did m!ch damage% (hese and s!ch things, however, are only mere bagatelle% /hat was m!ch worse was the feeling, which spread thro!gho!t large sections of the nation, that the affairs of the individ!al were being ta&en care of from above and that he did not need to bother himself with them% As long as the 6overnment was really good, or at least moved by goodwill, no serio!s ob,ections co!ld be raised% 4!t the co!ntry was destined to disaster when the old 6overnment, which had at least striven for the best, became replaced by a new regime which was not of the same +!ality% (hen the docile obedience and infantile cred!lity which formerly offered no resistance was bo!nd to be one of the most fatal evils that can be imagined% 4!t against these and other defects there were certain +!alities which !ndo!btedly had a positive effect% First of all the monarchical form of government g!arantees stability in the direction of p!blic affairs and safeg!ards p!blic offices from the spec!lative t!rmoil of ambitio!s politicians% F!rthermore, the venerable tradition which this instit!tion possesses aro!ses a feeling which gives weight to the monarchical a!thority% 4eyond this there is the fact that the whole corps of officials, and the army in partic!lar, are raised above the level of political party obligations% And still another positive feat!re was that the s!preme r!lership of the 'tate was embodied in the monarch, as an

individ!al person, who co!ld serve as the symbol of responsibility, which a monarch has to bear more serio!sly than any anonymo!s parliamentary ma,ority% Indeed, the proverbial honesty and integrity of the 6erman administration m!st be attrib!ted chiefly to this fact% Finally, the monarchy f!lfilled a high c!lt!ral f!nction among the 6erman people, which made amends for many of its defects% (he 6erman residential cities have remained, even to o!r time, centres of that artistic spirit which now threatens to disappear and is becoming more and more materialistic% (he 6erman princes gave a great deal of e3cellent and practical enco!ragement to art and science, especially d!ring the nineteenth cent!ry% O!r present age certainly has nothing of e+!al worth% ?!ring that process of disintegration which was slowly e3tending thro!gho!t the social order the most positive force of resistance was that offered by the army% (his was the strongest so!rce of ed!cation which the 6erman people possessed% For that reason all the hatred of o!r enemies was directed against the paladin of o!r national selfpreservation and o!r liberty% (he strongest testimony in favo!r of this !ni+!e instit!tion is the fact that it was derided, hated and fo!ght against, b!t also feared, by worthless elements all ro!nd% (he fact that the international profiteers who gathered at :ersailles, f!rther to e3ploit and pl!nder the nations directed their enmity specially against the old 6erman army proved once again that it deserved to be regarded as the instit!tion which protected the liberties of o!r people against the forces of the international stoc&-e3change% If the army had not been there to so!nd the alarm and stand on g!ard, the p!rposes of the :ersailles representatives wo!ld have been carried o!t m!ch sooner% (here is only one word to e3press what the 6erman people owe to this army - 7verythingJ It was the army that still inc!lcated a sense of responsibility among the people when this +!ality had become very rare and when the habit of shir&ing every &ind of responsibility was steadily spreading% (his habit had grown !p !nder the evil infl!ences of "arliament, which was itself the very model of irresponsibility% (he army trained the people to personal co!rage at a time when the virt!e of timidity threatened to become an epidemic and when the spirit of sacrificing one#s personal interests for the good of the comm!nity was considered as something that amo!nted almost to wea&-mindedness% At a time when only those were estimated as intelligent who &new how to safeg!ard and promote their own egotistic interests, the army was the school thro!gh which individ!al 6ermans were ta!ght not to see& the salvation of their nation in the false ideology of international fraterni9ation between negroes, 6ermans, $hinese, French and 7nglish, etc%, b!t in the strength and !nity of their own national being% (he army developed the individ!al#s powers of resol!te decision, and this at a time when a spirit of indecision and scepticism governed h!man cond!ct% At a time when the wiseacres were everywhere setting the fashion it needed co!rage to !phold the principle that any command is better than none% (his one principle represents a rob!st and so!nd style of tho!ght, of which not a trace wo!ld have been left in the other branches of life if the army had not f!rnished a constant re,!venation of this f!ndamental force% A s!fficient proof of this may be fo!nd in the appalling lac& of decision which o!r present government a!thorities display% (hey cannot sha&e off their mental and moral lethargy and decide on some definite line of action e3cept when they are forced to sign some new dictate for the e3ploitation of the 6erman people% In that case they decline all responsibility while at the same time they sign everything which the other side places before them> and they sign with the readiness of an official stenographer% (heir cond!ct is here e3plicable on the gro!nd that in this case they are not !nder the necessity of coming to a decision> for the decision is dictated to them% (he army imb!ed its members with a spirit of idealism and developed their readiness to sacrifice themselves for their co!ntry and its hono!r, while greed and materialism dominated in all the other branches of life% (he army !nited a people who were split !p into classes0 and in this respect had only one defect, which was the One Near ilitary 'ervice, a privilege granted to those who had passed thro!gh the high schools% It was a defect, beca!se the principle of absol!te e+!ality was thereby violated> and those who had a better ed!cation were th!s placed o!tside the cadres to which the rest of their comrades belonged% (he reverse wo!ld have been better% 'ince o!r !pper classes were really ignorant of what was going on in the body corporate of the nation and were becoming more and more estranged from the life of the people, the army wo!ld have accomplished a very beneficial mission if it had ref!sed to discriminate in favo!r of the so-called intellect!als, especially within its own ran&s% It was a mista&e that this was not done> b!t in this world of o!rs can we find any instit!tion that has not at least one defect5 And in the army the good feat!res were so absol!tely predominant that the few defects it had were far below the average that generally rises from h!man wea&ness% 4!t the greatest credit which the army of the old 7mpire deserves is that, at a time when the person of the individ!al co!nted for nothing and the ma,ority was everything, it placed individ!al personal val!es above ma,ority val!es% 4y insisting on its faith in personality, the army opposed that typically )ewish and democratic apotheosis of the power of n!mbers% (he army trained what at that time was most s!rely needed0 namely, real men% In a period when men were falling a prey to effeminacy and la3ity, .=<,<<< vigoro!sly trained yo!ng men went from the ran&s of the army each year to mingle with their fellow-men% In the co!rse of their two years# training they had lost the softness of their yo!ng days and had developed bodies as to!gh as steel% (he yo!ng man who had been ta!ght obedience for two years was now fitted to command% (he trained soldier co!ld be recogni9ed already by his wal&% (his was the great school of the 6erman nation> and it was not witho!t reason that it drew !pon its head all the

bitter hatred of those who wanted the 7mpire to be wea& and defenceless, beca!se they were ,ealo!s of its greatness and were themselves possessed by a spirit of rapacity and greed% (he rest of the world recogni9ed a fact which many 6ermans did not wish to see, either beca!se they were blind to facts or beca!se o!t of malice they did not wish to see it% (his fact was that the 6erman Army was the most powerf!l weapon for the defence and freedom of the 6erman nation and the best g!arantee for the livelihood of its citi9ens% (here was a third instit!tion of positive worth, which has to be placed beside that of the monarchy and the army% (his was the civil service% 6erman administration was better organi9ed and better carried o!t than the administration of other co!ntries% (here may have been ob,ections to the b!rea!cratic ro!tine of the officials, b!t from this point of view the state of affairs was similar, if not worse, in the other co!ntries% 4!t the other 'tates did not have the wonderf!l solidarity which this organi9ation possessed in 6ermany, nor were their civil servants of that same high level of scr!p!lo!s honesty% It is certainly better to be a trifle over-b!rea!cratic and honest and loyal than to be over-sophisticated and modern, the latter often implying an inferior type of character and also ignorance and inefficiency% For if it be insin!ated to-day that the 6erman administration of the pre-/ar period may have been e3cellent so far as b!rea!cratic techni+!e goes, b!t that from the practical b!siness point of view it was incompetent, I can only give the following reply0 /hat other co!ntry in the world possessed a better-organi9ed and administered b!siness enterprise than the 6erman 'tate 8ailways, for instance5 It was left to the 8evol!tion to destroy this standard organi9ation, !ntil a time came when it was ta&en o!t of the hands of the nation and sociali9ed, in the sense which the fo!nders of the 8ep!blic had given to that word, namely, ma&ing it s!bservient to the international stoc&e3change capitalists, who were the wire-p!llers of the 6erman 8evol!tion% (he most o!tstanding trait in the civil service and the whole body of the civil administration was its independence of the vicissit!des of government, the political mentality of which co!ld e3ercise no infl!ence on the attit!de of the 6erman 'tate officials% 'ince the 8evol!tion this sit!ation has been completely changed% 7fficiency and capability have been replaced by the test of party-adherence> and independence of character and initiative are no longer appreciated as positive +!alities in a p!blic official% (hey rather tell against him% (he wonderf!l might and power of the old 7mpire was based on the monarchical form of government, the army and the civil service% On these three fo!ndations rested that great strength which is now entirely lac&ing> namely, the a!thority of the 'tate% For the a!thority of the 'tate cannot be based on the babbling that goes on in "arliament or in the provincial diets and not !pon laws made to protect the 'tate, or !pon sentences passed by the law co!rts to frighten those who have had the hardihood to deny the a!thority of the 'tate, b!t only on the general confidence which the management and administration of the comm!nity establishes among the people% (his confidence is in its t!rn, nothing else than the res!lt of an !nsha&able inner conviction that the government and administration of a co!ntry is inspired by disinterested and honest goodwill and on the feeling that the spirit of the law is in complete harmony with the moral convictions of the people% In the long r!n, systems of government are not maintained by terrorism b!t on the belief of the people in the merits and sincerity of those who administer and promote the p!blic interests% (ho!gh it be tr!e that in the period preceding the /ar certain grave evils tended to infect and corrode the inner strength of the nation, it m!st be remembered that the other 'tates s!ffered even more than 6ermany from these drawbac&s and yet those other 'tates did not fail and brea& down when the time of crisis came% If we remember f!rther that those defects in pre-/ar 6ermany were o!tweighed by great positive +!alities we shall have to loo& elsewhere for the effective ca!se of the collapse% And elsewhere it lay% (he !ltimate and most profo!nd reason of the 6erman downfall is to be fo!nd in the fact that the racial problem was ignored and that its importance in the historical development of nations was not grasped% For the events that ta&e place in the life of nations are not d!e to chance b!t are the nat!ral res!lts of the effort to conserve and m!ltiply the species and the race, even tho!gh men may not be able conscio!sly to pict!re to their minds the profo!nd motives of their cond!ct% $hapter 7leven0 (here are certain tr!ths which stand o!t so openly on the roadsides of life, as it were, that every passer-by may see them% Net, beca!se of their very obvio!sness, the general r!n of people disregard s!ch tr!ths or at least they do not ma&e them the ob,ect of any conscio!s &nowledge% "eople are so blind to some of the simplest facts in every-day life that they are highly s!rprised when somebody calls attention to what everybody o!ght to &now% 73amples of (he $ol!mb!s 7gg lie aro!nd !s in h!ndreds of tho!sands> b!t observers li&e $ol!mb!s are rare% /al&ing abo!t in the garden of *at!re, most men have the self-conceit to thin& that they &now everything> yet almost all are blind to one of the o!tstanding principles that *at!re employs in her wor&% (his principle may be called the inner isolation which characteri9es each and every living species on this earth% 7ven a s!perficial glance is s!fficient to show that all the inn!merable forms in which the life-!rge of *at!re

manifests itself are s!b,ect to a f!ndamental law - one may call it an iron law of *at!re - which compels the vario!s species to &eep within the definite limits of their own life-forms when propagating and m!ltiplying their &ind% 7ach animal mates only with one of its own species% (he titmo!se cohabits only with the titmo!se, the finch with the finch, the stor& with the stor&, the field-mo!se with the field-mo!se, the ho!se-mo!se with the ho!se-mo!se, the wolf with the she-wolf, etc% ?eviations from this law ta&e place only in e3ceptional circ!mstances% (his happens especially !nder the comp!lsion of captivity, or when some other obstacle ma&es procreative interco!rse impossible between individ!als of the same species% 4!t then *at!re abhors s!ch interco!rse with all her might> and her protest is most clearly demonstrated by the fact that the hybrid is either sterile or the fec!ndity of its descendants is limited% In most cases hybrids and their progeny are denied the ordinary powers of resistance to disease or the nat!ral means of defence against o!ter attac&% '!ch a dispensation of *at!re is +!ite logical% 7very crossing between two breeds which are not +!ite e+!al res!lts in a prod!ct which holds an intermediate place between the levels of the two parents% (his means that the offspring will indeed be s!perior to the parent which stands in the biologically lower order of being, b!t not so high as the higher parent% For this reason it m!st event!ally s!cc!mb in any str!ggle against the higher species% '!ch mating contradicts the will of *at!re towards the selective improvements of life in general% (he favo!rable preliminary to this improvement is not to mate individ!als of higher and lower orders of being b!t rather to allow the complete tri!mph of the higher order% (he stronger m!st dominate and not mate with the wea&er, which wo!ld signify the sacrifice of its own higher nat!re% Only the born wea&ling can loo& !pon this principle as cr!el, and if he does so it is merely beca!se he is of a feebler nat!re and narrower mind> for if s!ch a law did not direct the process of evol!tion then the higher development of organic life wo!ld not be conceivable at all% (his !rge for the maintenance of the !nmi3ed breed, which is a phenomenon that prevails thro!gho!t the whole of the nat!ral world, res!lts not only in the sharply defined o!tward distinction between one species and another b!t also in the internal similarity of characteristic +!alities which are pec!liar to each breed or species% (he fo3 remains always a fo3, the goose remains a goose, and the tiger will retain the character of a tiger% (he only difference that can e3ist within the species m!st be in the vario!s degrees of str!ct!ral strength and active power, in the intelligence, efficiency, end!rance, etc%, with which the individ!al specimens are endowed% It wo!ld be impossible to find a fo3 which has a &indly and protective disposition towards geese, ,!st as no cat e3ists which has a friendly disposition towards mice% (hat is why the str!ggle between the vario!s species does not arise from a feeling of m!t!al antipathy b!t rather from h!nger and love% In both cases *at!re loo&s on calmly and is even pleased with what happens% (he str!ggle for the daily livelihood leaves behind in the r!c& everything that is wea& or diseased or wavering> while the fight of the male to possess the female gives to the strongest the right, or at least, the possibility to propagate its &ind% And this str!ggle is a means of f!rthering the health and powers of resistance in the species% (h!s it is one of the ca!ses !nderlying the process of development towards a higher +!ality of being% If the case were different the progressive process wo!ld cease, and even retrogression might set in% 'ince the inferior always o!tn!mber the s!perior, the former wo!ld always increase more rapidly if they possessed the same capacities for s!rvival and for the procreation of their &ind> and the final conse+!ence wo!ld be that the best in +!ality wo!ld be forced to recede into the bac&gro!nd% (herefore a corrective meas!re in favo!r of the better +!ality m!st intervene% *at!re s!pplies this by establishing rigoro!s conditions of life to which the wea&er will have to s!bmit and will thereby be n!merically restricted> b!t even that portion which s!rvives cannot indiscriminately m!ltiply, for here a new and rigoro!s selection ta&es place, according to strength and health% If *at!re does not wish that wea&er individ!als sho!ld mate with the stronger, she wishes even less that a s!perior race sho!ld intermingle with an inferior one> beca!se in s!ch a case all her efforts, thro!gho!t h!ndreds of tho!sands of years, to establish an evol!tionary higher stage of being, may th!s be rendered f!tile% 1istory f!rnishes !s with inn!merable instances that prove this law% It shows, with a startling clarity, that whenever Aryans have mingled their blood with that of an inferior race the res!lt has been the downfall of the people who were the standard-bearers of a higher c!lt!re% In *orth America, where the pop!lation is prevalently (e!tonic, and where those elements intermingled with the inferior race only to a very small degree, we have a +!ality of man&ind and a civili9ation which are different from those of $entral and 'o!th America% In these latter co!ntries the immigrants - who mainly belonged to the Latin races - mated with the aborigines, sometimes to a very large e3tent indeed% In this case we have a clear and decisive e3ample of the effect prod!ced by the mi3t!re of races% 4!t in *orth America the (e!tonic element, which has &ept its racial stoc& p!re and did not mi3 it with any other racial stoc&, has come to dominate the American $ontinent and will remain master of it as long as that element does not fall a victim to the habit of ad!lterating its blood% In short, the res!lts of miscegenation are always the following0 BaC (he level of the s!perior race becomes lowered> BbC physical and mental degeneration sets in, th!s leading slowly b!t steadily towards a progressive drying !p of the

vital sap% (he act which brings abo!t s!ch a development is a sin against the will of the 7ternal $reator% And as a sin this act will be avenged% an#s effort to b!ild !p something that contradicts the iron logic of *at!re brings him into conflict with those principles to which he himself e3cl!sively owes his own e3istence% 4y acting against the laws of *at!re he prepares the way that leads to his r!in% 1ere we meet the insolent ob,ection, which is )ewish in its inspiration and is typical of the modern pacifist% It says0 H an can control even *at!re%H (here are millions who repeat by rote that piece of )ewish babble and end !p by imagining that somehow they themselves are the con+!erors of *at!re% And yet their only weapon is ,!st a mere idea, and a very prepostero!s idea into the bargain> beca!se if one accepted it, then it wo!ld be impossible even to imagine the e3istence of the world% (he real tr!th is that, not only has man failed to overcome *at!re in any sphere whatsoever b!t that at best he has merely s!cceeded in getting hold of and lifting a tiny corner of the enormo!s veil which she has spread over her eternal mysteries and secret% 1e never creates anything% All he can do is to discover something% 1e does not master *at!re b!t has only come to be the master of those living beings who have not gained the &nowledge he has arrived at by penetrating into some of *at!re#s laws and mysteries% Apart from all this, an idea can never s!b,ect to its own sway those conditions which are necessary for the e3istence and development of man&ind> for the idea itself has come only from man% /itho!t man there wo!ld be no h!man idea in this world% (he idea as s!ch is therefore always dependent on the e3istence of man and conse+!ently is dependent on those laws which f!rnish the conditions of his e3istence% And not only that% $ertain ideas are even confined to certain people% (his holds tr!e with regard to those ideas in partic!lar which have not their roots in ob,ective scientific tr!th b!t in the world of feeling% In other words, to !se a phrase which is c!rrent to-day and which well and clearly e3presses this tr!th0 (hey reflect an inner e3perience% All s!ch ideas, which have nothing to do with cold logic as s!ch b!t represent mere manifestations of feeling, s!ch as ethical and moral conceptions, etc%, are ine3tricably bo!nd !p with man#s e3istence% It is to the creative powers of man#s imagination that s!ch ideas owe their e3istence% *ow, then, a necessary condition for the maintenance of s!ch ideas is the e3istence of certain races and certain types of men% For e3ample, anyone who sincerely wishes that the pacifist idea sho!ld prevail in this world o!ght to do all he is capable of doing to help the 6ermans con+!er the world> for in case the reverse sho!ld happen it may easily be that the last pacifist wo!ld disappear with the last 6erman% I say this beca!se, !nfort!nately, only o!r people, and no other people in the world, fell a prey to this idea% /hether yo! li&e it or not, yo! wo!ld have to ma&e !p yo!r mind to forget wars if yo! wo!ld achieve the pacifist ideal% *othing less than this was the plan of the American world-redeemer, /oodrow /ilson% Anyhow that was what o!r visionaries believed, and they tho!ght that thro!gh his plans their ideals wo!ld be attained% (he pacifist-h!manitarian idea may indeed become an e3cellent one when the most s!perior type of manhood will have s!cceeded in s!b,!gating the world to s!ch an e3tent that this type is then sole master of the earth% (his idea co!ld have an in,!rio!s effect only in the meas!re according to which its application wo!ld become diffic!lt and finally impossible% 'o, first of all, the fight and then pacifism% If the case were different it wo!ld mean that man&ind has already passed the 9enith of its development, and accordingly the end wo!ld not be the s!premacy of some moral ideal b!t degeneration into barbarism and conse+!ent chaos% "eople may la!gh at this statement> b!t o!r planet has been moving thro!gh the spaces of ether for millions and millions of years, !ninhabited by men, and at some f!t!re date may easily begin to do so again - if men sho!ld forget that wherever they have reached a s!perior level of e3istence, it was not the res!lt of following the ideas of cra9y visionaries b!t by ac&nowledging and rigoro!sly observing the iron laws of *at!re% All that we admire in the world to-day, its science, its art, its technical developments and discoveries, are the prod!cts of the creative activities of a few peoples, and it may be tr!e that their first beginnings m!st be attrib!ted to one race% (he maintenance of civili9ation is wholly dependent on s!ch peoples% 'ho!ld they perish, all that ma&es this earth bea!tif!l will descend with them into the grave% 1owever great, for e3ample, be the infl!ence which the soil e3erts on men, this infl!ence will always vary according to the race in which it prod!ces its effect% ?earth of soil may stim!late one race to the most stren!o!s efforts and highest achievement> while, for another race, the poverty of the soil may be the ca!se of misery and finally of !nderno!rishment, with all its conse+!ences% (he internal characteristics of a people are always the ca!ses which determine the nat!re of the effect that o!ter circ!mstances have on them% /hat red!ces one race to starvation trains another race to harder wor&% All the great civili9ations of the past became decadent beca!se the originally creative race died o!t, as a res!lt of contamination of the blood% (he most profo!nd ca!se of s!ch a decline is to be fo!nd in the fact that the people ignored the principle that all

c!lt!re depends on men, and not the reverse% In other words, in order to preserve a certain c!lt!re, the type of manhood that creates s!ch a c!lt!re m!st be preserved% 4!t s!ch a preservation goes hand-in-hand with the ine3orable law that it is the strongest and the best who m!st tri!mph and that they have the right to end!re% 1e who wo!ld live m!st fight% 1e who does not wish to fight in this world, where permanent str!ggle is the law of life, has not the right to e3ist% '!ch a saying may so!nd hard> b!t, after all, that is how the matter really stands% Net far harder is the lot of him who believes that he can overcome *at!re and th!s in reality ins!lts her% ?istress, misery, and disease are her re,oinders% /hoever ignores or despises the laws of race really deprives himself of the happiness to which he believes he can attain% For he places an obstacle in the victorio!s path of the s!perior race and, by so doing, he interferes with a prere+!isite condition of all h!man progress% Loaded with the b!rden of h!manitarian sentiment, he falls bac& to the level of those who are !nable to raise themselves in the scale of being% It wo!ld be f!tile to attempt to disc!ss the +!estion as to what race or races were the original standard-bearers of h!man c!lt!re and were thereby the real fo!nders of all that we !nderstand by the word h!manity% It is m!ch simpler to deal with this +!estion in so far as it relates to the present time% 1ere the answer is simple and clear% 7very manifestation of h!man c!lt!re, every prod!ct of art, science and technical s&ill, which we see before o!r eyes to-day, is almost e3cl!sively the prod!ct of the Aryan creative power% (his very fact f!lly ,!stifies the concl!sion that it was the Aryan alone who fo!nded a s!perior type of h!manity> therefore he represents the architype of what we !nderstand by the term0 A*% 1e is the "romethe!s of man&ind, from whose shining brow the divine spar& of geni!s has at all times flashed forth, always &indling anew that fire which, in the form of &nowledge, ill!minated the dar& night by drawing aside the veil of mystery and th!s showing man how to rise and become master over all the other beings on the earth% 'ho!ld he be forced to disappear, a profo!nd dar&ness will descend on the earth> within a few tho!sand years h!man c!lt!re will vanish and the world will become a desert% If we divide man&ind into three categories - fo!nders of c!lt!re, bearers of c!lt!re, and destroyers of c!lt!re - the Aryan alone can be considered as representing the first category% It was he who laid the gro!ndwor& and erected the walls of every great str!ct!re in h!man c!lt!re% Only the shape and colo!r of s!ch str!ct!res are to be attrib!ted to the individ!al characteristics of the vario!s nations% It is the Aryan who has f!rnished the great b!ilding-stones and plans for the edifices of all h!man progress> only the way in which these plans have been e3ec!ted is to be attrib!ted to the +!alities of each individ!al race% /ithin a few decades the whole of 7astern Asia, for instance, appropriated a c!lt!re and called s!ch a c!lt!re its own, whereas the basis of that c!lt!re was the 6ree& mind and (e!tonic s&ill as we &now it% Only the e3ternal form - at least to a certain degree - shows the traits of an Asiatic inspiration% It is not tr!e, as some believe, that )apan adds 7!ropean techni+!e to a c!lt!re of her own% (he tr!th rather is that 7!ropean science and technics are ,!st dec&ed o!t with the pec!liar characteristics of )apanese civili9ation% (he fo!ndations of act!al life in )apan to-day are not those of the native )apanese c!lt!re, altho!gh this characteri9es the e3ternal feat!res of the co!ntry, which feat!res stri&e the eye of 7!ropean observers on acco!nt of their f!ndamental difference from !s> b!t the real fo!ndations of contemporary )apanese life are the enormo!s scientific and technical achievements of 7!rope and America, that is to say, of Aryan peoples% Only by adopting these achievements as the fo!ndations of their own progress can the vario!s nations of the Orient ta&e a place in contemporary world progress% (he scientific and technical achievements of 7!rope and America provide the basis on which the str!ggle for daily livelihood is carried on in the Orient% (hey provide the necessary arms and instr!ments for this str!ggle, and only the o!ter forms of these instr!ments have become grad!ally adapted to )apanese ways of life% If, from to-day onwards, the Aryan infl!ence on )apan wo!ld cease - and if we s!ppose that 7!rope and America wo!ld collapse - then the present progress of )apan in science and techni+!e might still last for a short d!ration> b!t within a few decades the inspiration wo!ld dry !p, and native )apanese character wo!ld tri!mph, while the present civili9ation wo!ld become fossili9ed and fall bac& into the sleep from which it was aro!sed abo!t seventy years ago by the impact of Aryan c!lt!re% /e may therefore draw the concl!sion that, ,!st as the present )apanese development has been d!e to Aryan infl!ence, so in the immemorial past an o!tside infl!ence and an o!tside c!lt!re bro!ght into e3istence the )apanese c!lt!re of that day% (his opinion is very strongly s!pported by the fact that the ancient civili9ation of )apan act!ally became fossili9ied and petrified% '!ch a process of senility can happen only if a people loses the racial cell which originally had been creative or if the o!tside infl!ence sho!ld be withdrawn after having awa&ened and maintained the first c!lt!ral developments in that region% If it be shown that a people owes the f!ndamental elements of its c!lt!re to foreign races, assimilating and elaborating s!ch elements, and if s!bse+!ently that c!lt!re becomes fossili9ed whenever the e3ternal infl!ence ceases, then s!ch a race may be called the depository b!t never the creator of a c!lt!re% If we s!b,ect the different peoples to a strict test from this standpoint we shall find that scarcely any one of them has originally created a c!lt!re, b!t almost all have been merely the recipients of a c!lt!re created elsewhere% (his development may be depicted as always happening somewhat in the following way0

Aryan tribes, often almost ridic!lo!sly small in n!mber, s!b,!gated foreign peoples and, stim!lated by the conditions of life which their new co!ntry offered them Bfertility, the nat!re of the climate, etc%C, and profiting also by the ab!ndance of man!al labo!r f!rnished them by the inferior race, they developed intellect!al and organi9ing fac!lties which had hitherto been dormant in these con+!ering tribes% /ithin the co!rse of a few tho!sand years, or even cent!ries, they gave life to c!lt!res whose primitive traits completely corresponded to the character of the fo!nders, tho!gh modified by adaptation to the pec!liarities of the soil and the characteristics of the s!b,!gated people% 4!t finally the con+!ering race offended against the principles which they first had observed, namely, the maintenance of their racial stoc& !nmi3ed, and they began to intermingle with the s!b,!gated people% (h!s they p!t an end to their own separate e3istence> for the original sin committed in "aradise has always been followed by the e3p!lsion of the g!ilty parties% After a tho!sand years or more the last visible traces of those former masters may then be fo!nd in a lighter tint of the s&in which the Aryan blood had be+!eathed to the s!b,!gated race, and in a fossili9ed c!lt!re of which those Aryans had been the original creators% For ,!st as the blood% of the con+!eror, who was a con+!eror not only in body b!t also in spirit, got s!bmerged in the blood of the s!b,ect race, so the s!bstance disappeared o!t of which the torch of h!man c!lt!re and progress was &indled% In so far as the blood of the former r!ling race has left a light n!ance of colo!r in the blood of its descendants, as a to&en and a memory, the night of c!lt!ral life is rendered less dim and dar& by a mild light radiated from the prod!cts of those who were the bearers of the original fire% (heir radiance shines across the barbarism to which the s!b,ected race has reverted and might often lead the s!perficial observer to believe that he sees before him an image of the present race when he is really loo&ing into a mirror wherein only the past is reflected% It may happen that in the co!rse of its history s!ch a people will come into contact a second time, and even oftener, with the original fo!nders of their c!lt!re and may not even remember that distant association% Instinctively the remnants of blood left from that old r!ling race will be drawn towards this new phenomenon and what had formerly been possible only !nder comp!lsion can now be s!ccessf!lly achieved in a vol!ntary way% A new c!lt!ral wave flows in and lasts !ntil the blood of its standard-bearers becomes once again ad!lterated by intermi3t!re with the originally con+!ered race% It will be the tas& of those who set themselves to the st!dy of a !niversal history of civili9ation to investigate history from this point of view instead of allowing themselves to be smothered !nder the mass of e3ternal data, as is only too often the case with o!r present historical science% (his short s&etch of the changes that ta&e place among those races that are only the depositories of a c!lt!re also f!rnishes a pict!re of the development and the activity and the disappearance of those who are the tr!e fo!nders of c!lt!re on this earth, namely the Aryans themselves% )!st as in o!r daily life the so-called man of geni!s needs a partic!lar occasion, and sometimes indeed a special stim!l!s, to bring his geni!s to light, so too in the life of the peoples the race that has geni!s in it needs the occasion and stim!l!s to bring that geni!s to e3pression% In the monotony and ro!tine of everyday life even persons of significance seem ,!st li&e the others and do not rise beyond the average level of their fellow-men% 4!t as soon as s!ch men find themselves in a special sit!ation which disconcerts and !nbalances the others, the h!mble person of apparently common +!alities reveals traits of geni!s, often to the ama9ement of those who have hitherto &nown him in the small things of everyday life% (hat is the reason why a prophet only seldom co!nts for something in his own co!ntry% /ar offers an e3cellent occasion for observing this phenomenon% In times of distress, when the others despair, apparently harmless boys s!ddenly spring !p and become heroes, f!ll of determination, !nda!nted in the presence of ?eath and manifesting wonderf!l powers of calm reflection !nder s!ch circ!mstances% If s!ch an ho!r of trial did not come nobody wo!ld have tho!ght that the so!l of a hero l!r&ed in the body of that beardless yo!th% A special imp!lse is almost always necessary to bring a man of geni!s into the foregro!nd% (he sledge-hammer of Fate which stri&es down the one so easily s!ddenly finds the co!nter-impact of steel when it stri&es at the other% And, after the common shell of everyday life is bro&en, the core that lay hidden in it is displayed to the eyes of an astonished world% (his s!rro!nding world then grows obstinate and will not believe that what had seemed so li&e itself is really of that different +!ality so s!ddenly displayed% (his is a process which is repeated probably every time a man of o!tstanding significance appears% (ho!gh an inventor, for e3ample, does not establish his fame !ntil the very day that he carries thro!gh his invention, it wo!ld be a mista&e to believe that the creative geni!s did not become alive in him !ntil that moment% From the very ho!r of his birth the spar& of geni!s is living within the man who has been endowed with the real creative fac!lty% (r!e geni!s is an innate +!ality% It can never be the res!lt of ed!cation or training% As I have stated already, this holds good not merely of the individ!al b!t also of the race% (hose peoples who manifest creative abilities in certain periods of their history have always been f!ndamentally creative% It belongs to their very nat!re, even tho!gh this fact may escape the eyes of the s!perficial observer% 1ere also recognition from o!tside is only the conse+!ence of practical achievement% 'ince the rest of the world is incapable of recogni9ing geni!s as s!ch, it can only see the visible manifestations of geni!s in the form of inventions, discoveries, b!ildings,

painting, etc%> b!t even here a long time passes before recognition is given% )!st as the individ!al person who has been endowed with the gift of geni!s, or at least talent of a very high order, cannot bring that endowment to reali9ation !ntil he comes !nder the !rge of special circ!mstances, so in the life of the nations the creative capacities and powers fre+!ently have to wait !ntil certain conditions stim!late them to action% (he most obvio!s e3ample of this tr!th is f!rnished by that race which has been, and still is, the standard-bearer of h!man progress0 I mean the Aryan race% As soon as Fate brings them face to face with special circ!mstances their powers begin to develop progressively and to be manifested in tangible form% (he characteristic c!lt!res which they create !nder s!ch circ!mstances are almost always conditioned by the soil, the climate and the people they s!b,!gate% (he last factor - that of the character of the people - is the most decisive one% (he more primitive the technical conditions !nder which the civili9ing activity ta&es place, the more necessary is the e3istence of man!al labo!r which can be organi9ed and employed so as to ta&e the place of mechanical power% 1ad it not been possible for them to employ members of the inferior race which they con+!ered, the Aryans wo!ld never have been in a position to ta&e the first steps on the road which led them to a later type of c!lt!re> ,!st as, witho!t the help of certain s!itable animals which they were able to tame, they wo!ld never have come to the invention of mechanical power which has s!bse+!ently enabled them to do witho!t these beasts% (he phrase, I(he oor has accomplished his f!nction, so let him now depart#, has, !nfort!nately, a profo!nd application% For tho!sands of years the horse has been the faithf!l servant of man and has helped him to lay the fo!ndations of h!man progress, b!t now motor power has dispensed with the !se of the horse% In a few years to come the !se of the horse will cease entirely> and yet witho!t its collaboration man co!ld scarcely have come to the stage of development which he has now created% For the establishment of s!perior types of civili9ation the members of inferior races formed one of the most essential pre-re+!isites% (hey alone co!ld s!pply the lac& of mechanical means witho!t which no progress is possible% It is certain that the first stages of h!man civili9ation were not based so m!ch on the !se of tame animals as on the employment of h!man beings who were members of an inferior race% Only after s!b,!gated races were employed as slaves was a similar fate allotted to animals, and not vice versa, as some people wo!ld have !s believe% At first it was the con+!ered enemy who had to draw the plo!gh and only afterwards did the o3 and horse ta&e his place% *obody else b!t p!ling pacifists can consider this fact as a sign of h!man degradation% '!ch people fail to recogni9e that this evol!tion had to ta&e place in order that man might reach that degree of civili9ation which these apostles now e3ploit in an attempt to ma&e the world pay attention to their rigmarole% (he progress of man&ind may be compared to the process of ascending an infinite ladder% One does not reach the higher level witho!t first having climbed the lower r!ngs% (he Aryan therefore had to ta&e that road which his sense of reality pointed o!t to him and not that which the modern pacifist dreams of% (he path of reality is, however, diffic!lt and hard to tread> yet it is the only one which finally leads to the goal where the others envisage man&ind in their dreams% 4!t the real tr!th is that those dreamers help only to lead man away from his goal rather than towards it% It was not by mere chance that the first forms of civili9ation arose there where the Aryan came into contact with inferior races, s!b,!gated them and forced them to obey his command% (he members of the inferior race became the first mechanical tools in the service of a growing civili9ation% (hereby the way was clearly indicated which the Aryan had to follow% As a con+!eror, he s!b,!gated inferior races and t!rned their physical powers into organi9ed channels !nder his own leadership, forcing them to follow his will and p!rpose% 4y imposing on them a !sef!l, tho!gh hard, manner of employing their powers he not only spared the lives of those whom he had con+!ered b!t probably made their lives easier than these had been in the former state of so-called Ifreedom#% /hile he r!thlessly maintained his position as their master, he not only remained master b!t he also maintained and advanced civili9ation% For this depended e3cl!sively on his inborn abilities and, therefore, on the preservation of the Aryan race as s!ch% As soon, however, as his s!b,ect began to rise and approach the level of their con+!eror, a phase of which ascension was probably the !se of his lang!age, the barriers that had disting!ished master from servant bro&e down% (he Aryan neglected to maintain his own racial stoc& !nmi3ed and therewith lost the right to live in the paradise which he himself had created% 1e became s!bmerged in the racial mi3t!re and grad!ally lost his c!lt!ral creativeness, !ntil he finally grew, not only mentally b!t also physically, more li&e the aborigines whom he had s!b,ected rather than his own ancestors% For some time he co!ld contin!e to live on the capital of that c!lt!re which still remained> b!t a condition of fossili9ation soon set in and he san& into oblivion% (hat is how c!lt!res and empires decline and yield their places to new formations% (he ad!lteration of the blood and racial deterioration conditioned thereby are the only ca!ses that acco!nt for the decline of ancient civili9ations> for it is never by war that nations are r!ined, b!t by the loss of their powers of resistance, which are e3cl!sively a characteristic of p!re racial blood% In this world everything that is not of so!nd racial stoc& is li&e chaff% 7very historical event in the world is nothing more nor less than a manifestation of the instinct of racial self-preservation, whether for weal or woe%

(he +!estion as to the gro!nd reasons for the predominant importance of Aryanism can be answered by pointing o!t that it is not so m!ch that the Aryans are endowed with a stronger instinct for self-preservation, b!t rather that this manifests itself in a way which is pec!liar to themselves% $onsidered from the s!b,ective standpoint, the willto-live is of co!rse e+!ally strong all ro!nd and only the forms in which it is e3pressed are different% Among the most primitive organisms the instinct for self-preservation does not e3tend beyond the care of the individ!al ego% 7gotism, as we call this passion, is so predominant that it incl!des even the time element> which means that the present moment is deemed the most important and that nothing is left to the f!t!re% (he animal lives only for itself, searching for food only when it feels h!nger and fighting only for the preservation of its own life% As long as the instinct for self-preservation manifests itself e3cl!sively in s!ch a way, there is no basis for the establishment of a comm!nity> not even the most primitive form of all, that is to say the family% (he society formed by the male with the female, where it goes beyond the mere conditions of mating, calls for the e3tension of the instinct of selfpreservation, since the readiness to fight for one#s own ego has to be e3tended also to the mate% (he male sometimes provides food for the female, b!t in most cases both parents provide food for the offspring% Almost always they are ready to protect and defend each other> so that here we find the first, tho!gh infinitely simple, manifestation of the spirit of sacrifice% As soon as this spirit e3tends beyond the narrow limits of the family, we have the conditions !nder which larger associations and finally even 'tates can be formed% (he lowest species of h!man beings give evidence of this +!ality only to a very small degree, so that often they do not go beyond the formation of the family society% /ith an increasing readiness to place their immediate personal interests in the bac&gro!nd, the capacity for organi9ing more e3tensive comm!nities develops% (he readiness to sacrifice one#s personal wor& and, if necessary, even one#s life for others shows its most highly developed form in the Aryan race% (he greatness of the Aryan is not based on his intellect!al powers, b!t rather on his willingness to devote all his fac!lties to the service of the comm!nity% 1ere the instinct for self-preservation has reached its noblest form> for the Aryan willingly s!bordinates his own ego to the common weal and when necessity calls he will even sacrifice his own life for the comm!nity% (he constr!ctive powers of the Aryan and that pec!liar ability he has for the b!ilding !p of a c!lt!re are not gro!nded in his intellect!al gifts alone% If that were so they might only be destr!ctive and co!ld never have the ability to organi9e> for the latter essentially depends on the readiness of the individ!al to reno!nce his own personal opinions and interests and to lay both at the service of the h!man gro!p% 4y serving the common weal he receives his reward in ret!rn% For e3ample, he does not wor& directly for himself b!t ma&es his prod!ctive wor& a part of the activity of the gro!p to which he belongs, not only for his own benefit b!t for the general% (he spirit !nderlying this attit!de is e3pressed by the word0 /O82, which to him does not at all signify a means of earning one#s daily livelihood b!t rather a prod!ctive activity which cannot clash with the interests of the comm!nity% /henever h!man activity is directed e3cl!sively to the service of the instinct for self-preservation it is called theft or !s!ry, robbery or b!rglary, etc% (his mental attit!de, which forces self-interest to recede into the bac&gro!nd in favo!r of the common weal, is the first prere+!isite for any &ind of really h!man civili9ation% It is o!t of this spirit alone that great h!man achievements have spr!ng for which the original doers have scarcely ever received any recompense b!t which t!rns o!t to be the so!rce of ab!ndant benefit for their descendants% It is this spirit alone which can e3plain why it so often happens that people can end!re a harsh b!t honest e3istence which offers them no ret!rns for their toil e3cept a poor and modest livelihood% 4!t s!ch a livelihood helps to consolidate the fo!ndations on which the comm!nity e3ists% 7very wor&er and every peasant, every inventor, state official, etc%, who wor&s witho!t ever achieving fort!ne or prosperity for himself, is a representative of this s!blime idea, even tho!gh he may never become conscio!s of the profo!nd meaning of his own activity% 7verything that may be said of that &ind of wor& which is the f!ndamental condition of providing food and the basic means of h!man progress is tr!e even in a higher sense of wor& that is done for the protection of man and his civili9ation% (he ren!nciation of one#s own life for the sa&e of the comm!nity is the crowning significance of the idea of all sacrifice% In this way only is it possible to protect what has been b!ilt !p by man and to ass!re that this will not be destroyed by the hand of man or of nat!re% In the 6erman lang!age we have a word which admirably e3presses this !nderlying spirit of all wor&0 It is "flichterfDll!ng, which means the service of the common weal before the consideration of one#s own interests% (he f!ndamental spirit o!t of which this &ind of activity springs is the contradistinction of I7gotism# and we call it IIdealism#% 4y this we mean to signify the willingness of the individ!al to ma&e sacrifices for the comm!nity and his fellow-men% It is of the !tmost importance to insist again and again that idealism is not merely a s!perfl!o!s manifestation of sentiment b!t rather something which has been, is and always will be, a necessary precondition of h!man civili9ation> it is even o!t of this that the very idea of the word I1!man# arises% (o this &ind of mentality the Aryan owes his position in the world% And the world is indebted to the Aryan mind for having developed the concept of Iman&ind#> for it is o!t of this spirit alone that the creative force has come which in a !ni+!e way combined rob!st

m!sc!lar power with a first-class intellect and th!s created the mon!ments of h!man civili9ation% /ere it not for idealism all the fac!lties of the intellect, even the most brilliant, wo!ld be nothing b!t intellect itself, a mere e3ternal phenomenon witho!t inner val!e and never a creative force% 'ince tr!e idealism, however, is essentially the s!bordination of the interests and life of the individ!al to the interests and life of the comm!nity, and since the comm!nity on its part represents the pre-re+!isite condition of every form of organi9ation, this idealism accords in its innermost essence with the final p!rpose of *at!re% (his feeling alone ma&es men vol!ntarily ac&nowledge that strength and power are entitled to ta&e the lead and th!s ma&es them a constit!ent particle in that order o!t of which the whole !niverse is shaped and formed% /itho!t being conscio!s of it, the p!rest idealism is always associated with the most profo!nd &nowledge% 1ow tr!e this is and how little gen!ine idealism has to do with fantastic self-dramati9ation will become clear the moment we as& an !nspoilt child, a healthy boy for e3ample, to give his opinion% (he very same boy who listens to the rantings of an Iidealistic# pacifist witho!t !nderstanding them, and even re,ects them, wo!ld readily sacrifice his yo!ng life for the ideal of his people% Mnconscio!sly his instinct will s!bmit to the &nowledge that the preservation of the species, even at the cost of the individ!al life, is a primal necessity and he will protest against the fantasies of pacifist ranters, who in reality are nothing better than cowardly egoists, even tho!gh camo!flaged, who contradict the laws of h!man development% For it is a necessity of h!man evol!tion that the individ!al sho!ld be imb!ed with the spirit of sacrifice in favo!r of the common weal, and that he sho!ld not be infl!enced by the morbid notions of those &naves who pretend to &now better than *at!re and who have the imp!dencc to critici9e her decrees% It is ,!st at those ,!nct!res when the idealistic attit!de threatens to disappear that we notice a wea&ening of this force which is a necessary constit!ent in the fo!nding and maintenance of the comm!nity and is thereby a necessary condition of civili9ation% As soon as the spirit of egotism begins to prevail among a people then the bonds of the social order brea& and man, by see&ing his own personal happiness, veritably t!mbles o!t of heaven and falls into hell% "osterity will not remember those who p!rs!ed only their own individ!al interests, b!t it will praise those heroes who reno!nced their own happiness% (he )ew offers the most stri&ing contrast to the Aryan% (here is probably no other people in the world who have so developed the instinct of self-preservation as the so-called Ichosen# people% (he best proof of this statement is fo!nd in the simple fact that this race still e3ists% /here can another people be fo!nd that in the co!rse of the last two tho!sand years has !ndergone so few changes in mental o!tloo& and character as the )ewish people5 And yet what other people has ta&en s!ch a constant part in the great revol!tions5 4!t even after having passed thro!gh the most gigantic catastrophes that have overwhelmed man&ind, the )ews remain the same as ever% /hat an infinitely tenacio!s will-to-live, to preserve one#s &ind, is demonstrated by that factJ (he intellect!al fac!lties of the )ew have been trained thro!gh tho!sands of years% (o-day the )ew is loo&ed !pon as specially Ic!nning#> and in a certain sense he has been so thro!gho!t the ages% 1is intellect!al powers, however, are not the res!lt of an inner evol!tion b!t rather have been shaped by the ob,ect-lessons which the )ew has received from others% (he h!man spirit cannot climb !pwards witho!t ta&ing s!ccessive steps% For every step !pwards it needs the fo!ndation of what has been constr!cted before - the past - which in, the comprehensive sense here employed, can have been laid only in a general civili9ation% All thin&ing originates only to a very small degree in personal e3perience% (he largest part is based on the acc!m!lated e3periences of the past% (he general level of civili9ation provides the individ!al, who in most cases is not conscio!sly aware of the fact, with s!ch an ab!ndance of preliminary &nowledge that with this e+!ipment he can more easily ta&e f!rther steps on the road of progress% (he boy of to-day, for e3ample, grows !p among s!ch an overwhelming mass of technical achievement which has acc!m!lated d!ring the last cent!ry that he ta&es as granted many things which a h!ndred years ago were still mysteries even to the greatest minds of those times% Net these things that are not so m!ch a matter of co!rse are of enormo!s importance to those who wo!ld !nderstand the progress we have made in these matters and wo!ld carry on that progress a step farther% If a man of geni!s belonging to the Itwenties of the last cent!ry were to arise from his grave to-day he wo!ld find it more diffic!lt to !nderstand o!r present age than the contemporary boy of fifteen years of age who may even have only an average intelligence% (he man of geni!s, th!s come bac& from the past, wo!ld need to provide himself with an e3traordinary amo!nt of preliminary information which o!r contemporary yo!th receive a!tomatically, so to spea&, d!ring the time they are growing !p among the prod!cts of o!r modern civili9ation% 'ince the )ew - for reasons that I shall deal with immediately - never had a civili9ation of his own, he has always been f!rnished by others with a basis for his0 intellect!al wor&% 1is intellect has always developed by the !se of those c!lt!ral achievements which he has fo!nd ready-to-hand aro!nd him% (he process has never been the reverse% For, tho!gh among the )ews the instinct of self-preservation has not been wea&er b!t has been m!ch stronger than among other peoples, and tho!gh the impression may easily be created that the intellect!al powers of the )ew are at

least e+!al to those of other races, the )ews completely lac& the most essential pre-re+!isite of a c!lt!ral people, namely the idealistic spirit% /ith the )ewish people the readiness for sacrifice does not e3tend beyond the simple instinct of individ!al preservation% In their case the feeling of racial solidarity which they apparently manifest is nothing b!t a very primitive gregario!s instinct, similar to that which may be fo!nd among other organisms in this world% It is a remar&able fact that this herd instinct brings individ!als together for m!t!al protection only as long as there is a common danger which ma&es m!t!al assistance e3pedient or inevitable% (he same pac& of wolves which a moment ago ,oined together in a common attac& on their victim will dissolve into individ!al wolves as soon as their h!nger has been satisfied% (his is also s!re of horses, which !nite to defend themselves against any aggressor b!t separate the moment the danger is over% It is m!ch the same with the )ew% 1is spirit of sacrifice is only apparent% It manifests itself only so long as the e3istence of the individ!al ma&es this a matter of absol!te necessity% 4!t as soon as the common foe is con+!ered and the danger which threatened the individ!al )ews is overcome and the prey sec!red, then the apparent harmony disappears and the original conditions set in again% )ews act in concord only when a common danger threatens them or a common prey attracts them% /here these two motives no longer e3ist then the most br!tal egotism appears and these people who before had lived together in !nity will t!rn into a swarm of rats that bitterly fight against each other% If the )ews were the only people in the world they wo!ld be wallowing in filth and mire and wo!ld e3ploit one another and try to e3terminate one another in a bitter str!ggle, e3cept in so far as their !tter lac& of the ideal of sacrifice, which shows itself in their cowardly spirit, wo!ld prevent this str!ggle from developing% (herefore it wo!ld be a complete mista&e to interpret the m!t!al help which the )ews render one another when they have to fight - or, to p!t it more acc!rately, to e3ploit - their fellow being, as the e3pression of a certain idealistic spirit of sacrifice% 1ere again the )ew merely follows the call of his individ!al egotism% (hat is why the )ewish 'tate, which o!ght to be a vital organi9ation to serve the p!rpose of preserving or increasing the race, has absol!tely no territorial bo!ndaries% For the territorial delimitation of a 'tate always demands a certain idealism of spirit on the part of the race which forms that 'tate and especially a proper acceptance of the idea of wor&% A 'tate which is territorially delimited cannot be established or maintained !nless the general attit!de towards wor& be a positive one% If this attit!de be lac&ing, then the necessary basis of a civili9ation is also lac&ing% (hat is why the )ewish people, despite the intellect!al powers with which they are apparently endowed, have not a c!lt!re - certainly not a c!lt!re of their own% (he c!lt!re which the )ew en,oys to-day is the prod!ct of the wor& of others and this prod!ct is debased in the hands of the )ew% In order to form a correct ,!dgment of the place which the )ew holds in relation to the whole problem of h!man civili9ation, we m!st bear in mind the essential fact that there never has been any )ewish art and conse+!ently that nothing of this &ind e3ists to-day% /e m!st reali9e that especially in those two royal domains of art, namely architect!re and m!sic, the )ew has done no original creative wor&% /hen the )ew comes to prod!cing something in the field of art he merely bowdler-i9es something already in e3istence or simply steals the intellect!al word, of others% (he )ew essentially lac&s those +!alities which are characteristic of those creative races that are the fo!nders of civili9ation% (o what e3tent the )ew appropriates the civili9ation b!ilt !p by others - or rather corr!pts it, to spea& more acc!rately - is indicated by the fact that he c!ltivates chiefly the art which calls for the smallest amo!nt of original invention, namely the dramatic art% And even here he is nothing better than a &ind of ,!ggler or, perhaps more correctly spea&ing, a &ind of mon&ey imitator> for in this domain also he lac&s the creative elan which is necessary for the prod!ction of all really great wor&% 7ven here, therefore, he is not a creative geni!s b!t rather a s!perficial imitator who, in spite of all his reto!ching and tric&s, cannot disg!ise the fact that there is no inner vitality in the shape he gives his prod!cts% At this ,!nct!re the )ewish "ress comes in and renders friendly assistance by sho!ting hosannas over the head of even the most ordinary b!ngler of a )ew, !ntil the rest of the world is stampeded into thin&ing that the ob,ect of so m!ch praise m!st really be an artist, whereas in reality he may be nothing more than a low-class mimic% *o> the )ews have not the creative abilities which are necessary to the fo!nding of a civili9ation> for in them there is not, and never has been, that spirit of idealism which is an absol!tely necessary element in the higher development of man&ind% (herefore the )ewish intellect will never be constr!ctive b!t always destr!ctive% At best it may serve as a stim!l!s in rare cases b!t only within the meaning of the poet#s lines0 I The Power which alwa(s wills the *ad$ and alwa(s works the +ood, -Kraft$ die stets das *se will und stets das +ute schafft C% It is not thro!gh his help b!t in spite of his help that man&ind ma&es any progress% 'ince the )ew has never had a 'tate which was based on territorial delimitations, and therefore never a civili9ation of his own, the idea arose that here we were dealing with a people who had to be considered as *omads% (hat is a great and mischievo!s mista&e% (he tr!e nomad does act!ally possess a definite delimited territory where he lives% It is merely that he does not c!ltivate it, as the settled farmer does, b!t that he lives on the prod!cts of his herds,

with which he wanders over his domain% (he nat!ral reason for this mode of e3istence is to be fo!nd in the fact that the soil is not fertile and that it does not give the steady prod!ce which ma&es a fi3ed abode possible% O!tside of this nat!ral ca!se, however, there is a more profo!nd ca!se0 namely, that no mechanical civili9ation is at hand to ma&e !p for the nat!ral poverty of the region in +!estion% (here are territories where the Aryan can establish fi3ed settlements by means of the technical s&ill which he has developed in the co!rse of more than a tho!sand years, even tho!gh these territories wo!ld otherwise have to be abandoned, !nless the Aryan were willing to wander abo!t them in nomadic fashion> b!t his technical tradition and his age-long e3perience of the !se of technical means wo!ld probably ma&e the nomadic life !nbearable for him% /e o!ght to remember that d!ring the first period of American coloni9ation n!mero!s Aryans earned their daily livelihood as trappers and h!nters, etc%, fre+!ently wandering abo!t in large gro!ps with their women and children, their mode of e3istence very m!ch resembling that of ordinary nomads% (he moment, however, that they grew more n!mero!s and were able to acc!m!late larger reso!rces, they cleared the land and drove o!t the aborigines, at the same time establishing settlements which rapidly increased all over the co!ntry% (he Aryan himself was probably at first a nomad and became a settler in the co!rse of ages% 4!t yet he was never of the )ewish &ind% (he )ew is not a nomad> for the nomad has already a definite attit!de towards the concept of Iwor&#, and this attit!de served as the basis of a later c!lt!ral development, when the necessary intellect!al conditions were at hand% (here is a certain amo!nt of idealism in the general attit!de of the nomad, even tho!gh it be rather primitive% 1is whole character may, therefore, be foreign to Aryan feeling b!t it will never be rep!lsive% 4!t not even the slightest trace of idealism e3ists in the )ewish character% (he )ew has never been a nomad, b!t always a parasite, battening on the s!bstance of others% If he occasionally abandoned regions where he had hitherto lived he did not do it vol!ntarily% 1e did it beca!se from time to time he was driven o!t by people who were tired of having their hospitality ab!sed by s!ch g!ests% )ewish self-e3pansion is a parasitic phenomenon - since the )ew is always loo&ing for new past!res for his race% 4!t this has nothing to do with nomadic life as s!ch> beca!se the )ew does not ever thin& of leaving a territory which he has once occ!pied% 1e stic&s where he is with s!ch tenacity that he can hardly be driven o!t even by s!perior physical force% 1e e3pands into new territories only when certain conditions for his e3istence are provided therein> b!t even then - !nli&e the nomad - he will not change his former abode% 1e is and remains a parasite, a sponger who, li&e a pernicio!s bacill!s, spreads over wider and wider areas according as some favo!rable area attracts him% (he effect prod!ced by his presence is also li&e that of the vampire> for wherever he establishes himself the people who grant him hospitality are bo!nd to be bled to death sooner or later% (h!s the )ew has at all times lived in 'tates that have belonged to other races and within the organi9ation of those 'tates he had formed a 'tate of his own, which is, however, hidden behind the mas& of a Ireligio!s comm!nity#, as long as e3ternal circ!mstances do not ma&e it advisable for this comm!nity to declare its tr!e nat!re% As soon as the )ew feels himself s!fficiently established in his position to be able to hold it witho!t a disg!ise, he lifts the mas& and s!ddenly appears in the character which so many did not formerly believe or wish to see0 namely that of the )ew% (he life which the )ew lives as a parasite thriving on the s!bstance of other nations and 'tates has res!lted in developing that specific character which 'chopenha!er once described when he spo&e of the )ew as I(he 6reat aster of Lies#% (he &ind of e3istence which he leads forces the )ew to the systematic !se of falsehood, ,!st as nat!rally as the inhabitants of northern climates are forced to wear warm clothes% 1e can live among other nations and 'tates only as long as he s!cceeds in pers!ading them that the )ews are not a distinct people b!t the representatives of a religio!s faith who th!s constit!te a Ireligio!s comm!nity#, tho!gh this be of a pec!liar character% As a matter of fact, however, this is the first of his great falsehoods% 1e is obliged to conceal his own partic!lar character and mode of life that he may be allowed to contin!e his e3istence as a parasite among the nations% (he greater the intelligence of the individ!al )ew, the better will he s!cceed in deceiving others% 1is s!ccess in this line may even go so far that the people who grant him hospitality may be led to believe that the )ew among them is a gen!ine Frenchman, for instance, or 7nglishman or 6erman or Italian, who ,!st happens to belong to a religio!s denomination which is different from that prevailing in these co!ntries% 7specially in circles concerned with the e3ec!tive administration of the 'tate, where the officials generally have only a minim!m of historical sense, the )ew is able to impose his infamo!s deception with comparative ease% In these circles independent thin&ing is considered a sin against the sacred r!les according to which official promotion ta&es place% It is therefore not s!rprising that even to-day in the 4avarian government offices, for e3ample, there is not the slightest s!spicion that the )ews form a distinct nation themselves and are not merely the adherents of a I$onfession#, tho!gh one glance at the "ress which belongs to the )ews o!ght to f!rnish s!fficient evidence to the contrary even for those who possess only the smallest degree of intelligence% (he )ewish 7cho, however, is not an official ga9ette and therefore not a!thoritative in the eyes of those government potentates% )ewry has always been a nation of a definite racial character and never differentiated merely by the fact of belonging to a certain religion% At a very early date, !rged on by the desire to ma&e their way in the world, the )ews

began to cast abo!t for a means whereby they might distract s!ch attention as might prove inconvenient for them% /hat co!ld be more effective and at the same time more above s!spicion than to borrow and !tili9e the idea of the religio!s comm!nity5 1ere also everything is copied, or rather stolen> for the )ew co!ld not possess any religio!s instit!tion which had developed o!t of his own conscio!sness, seeing that he lac&s every &ind of idealism> which means that belief in a life beyond this terrestrial e3istence is foreign to him% In the Aryan mind no religion can ever be imagined !nless it embodies the conviction that life in some form or other will contin!e after death% As a matter of fact, the (alm!d is not a boo& that lays down principles according to which the individ!al sho!ld prepare for the life to come% It only f!rnishes r!les for a practical and convenient life in this world% (he religio!s teaching of the )ews is principally a collection of instr!ctions for maintaining the )ewish blood p!re and for reg!lating interco!rse between )ews and the rest of the world0 that is to say, their relation with non-)ews% 4!t the )ewish religio!s teaching is not concerned with moral problems% It is rather concerned with economic problems, and very petty ones at that% In regard to the moral val!e of the religio!s teaching of the )ews there e3ist and always have e3isted +!ite e3ha!stive st!dies Bnot from the )ewish side> for whatever the )ews have written on this +!estion has nat!rally always been of a tendentio!s characterC which show !p the &ind of religion that the )ews have in a light that ma&es it loo& very !ncanny to the Aryan mind% (he )ew himself is the best e3ample of the &ind of prod!ct which this religio!s training evolves% 1is life is of this world only and his mentality is as foreign to the tr!e spirit of $hristianity as his character was foreign to the great Fo!nder of this new creed two tho!sand years ago% And the Fo!nder of $hristianity made no secret indeed of 1is estimation of the )ewish people% /hen 1e fo!nd it necessary 1e drove those enemies of the h!man race o!t of the (emple of 6od> beca!se then, as always, they !sed religion as a means of advancing their commercial interests% 4!t at that time $hrist was nailed to the $ross for his attit!de towards the )ews> whereas o!r modern $hristians enter into party politics and when elections are being held they debase themselves to beg for )ewish votes% (hey even enter into political intrig!es with the atheistic )ewish parties against the interests of their own $hristian nation% On this first and f!ndamental lie, the p!rpose of which is to ma&e people believe that )ewry is not a nation b!t a religion, other lies are s!bse+!ently based% One of those f!rther lies, for e3ample, is in connection with the lang!age spo&en by the )ew% For him lang!age is not an instr!ment for the e3pression of his inner tho!ghts b!t rather a means of cloa&ing them% /hen tal&ing French his tho!ghts are )ewish and when writing 6erman rhymes he only gives e3pression to the character of his own race% As long as the )ew has not s!cceeded in mastering other peoples he is forced to spea& their lang!age whether he li&es it or not% 4!t the moment that the world wo!ld become the slave of the )ew it wo!ld have to learn some other lang!age B7speranto, for e3ampleC so that by this means the )ew co!ld dominate all the more easily% 1ow m!ch the whole e3istence of this people is based on a permanent falsehood is proved in a !ni+!e way by I(he "rotocols of the 7lders of Kion#, which are so violently rep!diated by the )ews% /ith groans and moans, the Fran&f!rter Keit!ng repeats again and again that these are forgeries% (his alone is evidence in favo!r of their a!thenticity% /hat many )ews !nconscio!sly wish to do is here clearly set forth% It is not necessary to as& o!t of what )ewish brain these revelations sprang> b!t what is of vital interest is that they disclose, with an almost terrifying precision, the mentality and methods of action characteristic of the )ewish people and these writings e3po!nd in all their vario!s directions the final aims towards which the )ews are striving% (he st!dy of real happenings, however, is the best way of ,!dging the a!thenticity of those doc!ments% If the historical developments which have ta&en place within the last few cent!ries be st!died in the light of this boo& we shall !nderstand why the )ewish "ress incessantly rep!diates and deno!nces it% For the )ewish peril will be stamped o!t the moment the general p!blic come into possession of that boo& and !nderstand it% In order to get to &now the )ew properly it is necessary to st!dy the road which he has been following among the other peoples d!ring the last few cent!ries% One e3ample will s!ffice to give a clear insight here% 'ince his career has been the same at all epochs - ,!st as the people at whose e3pense he has lived have remained the same - for the p!rposes of ma&ing the re+!isite analysis it will be best to mar& his progress by stages% For the sa&e of simplicity we shall indicate these stages by letters of the alphabet% (he first )ews came into what was then called 6ermania d!ring the period of the 8oman invasion> and, as !s!al, they came as merchants% ?!ring the t!rmoil ca!sed by the great migrations of the 6erman tribes the )ews seem to have disappeared% /e may therefore consider the period when the 6ermans formed the first political comm!nities as the beginning of that process whereby $entral and *orthern 7!rope was again, and this time permanently, )!dai9ed% A development began which has always been the same or similar wherever and whenever )ews came into contact with Aryan peoples% BaC As soon as the first permanent settlements had been established the )ew was s!ddenly Ithere#% 1e arrived as a merchant and in the beginning did not tro!ble to disg!ise his nationality% 1e still remained openly a )ew, partly it may be beca!se he &new too little of the lang!age% It may also be that people of other races ref!sed to mi3 with him, so that he co!ld not very well adopt any other appearance than that of a foreign merchant% 4eca!se of his s!btlety and c!nning and the lac& of e3perience on the part of the people whose g!est he became, it was not to his

disadvantage openly to retain his )ewish character% (his may even have been advantageo!s to him> for the foreigner was received &indly% BbC 'lowly b!t steadily he began to ta&e part in the economic life aro!nd him> not as a prod!cer, however, b!t only as a middleman% 1is commercial c!nning, ac+!ired thro!gh tho!sands of years of negotiation as an intermediary, made him s!perior in this field to the Aryans, who were still +!ite ingen!o!s and indeed cl!msy and whose honesty was !nlimited> so that after a short while commerce seemed destined to become a )ewish monopoly% (he )ew began by lending o!t money at !s!rio!s interest, which is a permanent trade of his% It was he who first introd!ced the payment of interest on borrowed money% (he danger which this innovation involved was not at first recogni9ed> indeed the innovation was welcomed, beca!se it offered momentary advantages% BcC At this stage the )ew had become firmly settled down> that is to say, he inhabited special sections of the cities and towns and had his own +!arter in the mar&et-places% (h!s he grad!ally came to form a 'tate within a 'tate% 1e came to loo& !pon the commercial domain and all money transactions as a privilege belonging e3cl!sively to himself and he e3ploited it r!thlessly% BdC At this stage finance and trade had become his complete monopoly% Finally, his !s!rio!s rate of interest aro!sed opposition and the increasing imp!dence which the )ew began to manifest all ro!nd stirred !p pop!lar indignation, while his display of wealth gave rise to pop!lar envy% (he c!p of his ini+!ity became f!ll to the brim when he incl!ded landed property among his commercial wares and degraded the soil to the level of a mar&et commodity% 'ince he himself never c!ltivated the soil b!t considered it as an ob,ect to be e3ploited, on which the peasant may still remain b!t only on condition that he s!bmits to the most heartless e3actions of his new master, p!blic antipathy against the )ew steadily increased and finally t!rned into open animosity% 1is e3tortionate tyranny became so !nbearable that people rebelled against his control and !sed physical violence against him% (hey began to scr!tini9e this foreigner somewhat more closely, and then began to discover the rep!lsive traits and characteristics inherent in him, !ntil finally an abyss opened between the )ews and their hosts, across which abyss there co!ld be no f!rther contact% In times of distress a wave of p!blic anger has !s!ally arisen against the )ew> the masses have ta&en the law into their own hands> they have sei9ed )ewish property and r!ined the )ew in their !rge to protect themselves against what they consider to be a sco!rge of 6od% 1aving come to &now the )ew intimately thro!gh the co!rse of cent!ries, in times of distress they loo&ed !pon his presence among them as a p!blic danger comparable only to the plag!e% BeC 4!t then the )ew began to reveal his tr!e character% 1e paid co!rt to governments, with servile flattery, !sed his money to ingratiate himself f!rther and th!s reg!larly sec!red for himself once again the privilege of e3ploiting his victim% Altho!gh p!blic wrath flared !p against this eternal profiteer and drove him o!t, after a few years he reappeared in those same places and carried on as before% *o persec!tion co!ld force him to give !p his trade of e3ploiting other people and no amo!nt of harrying s!cceeded in driving him o!t permanently% 1e always ret!rned after a short time and it was always the old story with him% In an effort to save at least the worst from happening, legislation was passed which debarred the )ew from obtaining possession of the land% BfC In proportion as the powers of &ings and princes increased, the )ew sidled !p to them% 1e begged for Icharters# and Iprivileges# which those gentlemen, who were generally in financial straits, gladly granted if they received ade+!ate payment in ret!rn% 1owever high the price he has to pay, the )ew will s!cceed in getting it bac& within a few years from operating the privilege he has ac+!ired, even with interest and compo!nd interest% 1e is a real leech who clings to the body of his !nfort!nate victims and cannot be removed> so that when the princes fo!nd themselves in need once again they too& the blood from his swollen veins with their own hands% (his game was repeated !nendingly% In the case of those who were called I6erman "rinces#, the part they played was +!ite as contemptible as that played by the )ew% (hey were a real sco!rge for their people% (heir compeers may be fo!nd in some of the government ministers of o!r time% It was d!e to the 6erman princes that the 6erman nation co!ld not s!cceed in definitely freeing itself from the )ewish peril% Mnfort!nately the sit!ation did not change at a later period% (he princes finally received the reward which they had a tho!sand-fold deserved for all the crimes committed by them against their own people% (hey had allied themselves with 'atan and later on they discovered that they were in 'atan#s embrace% BgC 4y permitting themselves to be entangled in the toils of the )ew, the princes prepared their own downfall% (he position which they held among their people was slowly b!t steadily !ndermined not only by their contin!ed fail!re to g!ard the interests of their s!b,ects b!t by the positive e3ploitation of them% (he )ew calc!lated e3actly the time when the downfall of the princes was approaching and did his best to hasten it% 1e intensified their financial diffic!lties by hindering them in the e3ercise of their d!ty towards their people, by inveigling them thro!gh the most servile flatteries into f!rther personal display, whereby he made himself more and more indispensable to them% 1is ast!teness, or rather his !tter !nscr!p!lo!sness, in money affairs enabled him to e3act new income from the princes, to s+!ee9e the money o!t of them and then have it spent as +!ic&ly as possible% 7very $o!rt had its I$o!rt )ews#, as this plag!e was called, who tort!red the innocent victims !ntil they were driven to despair> while

at the same time this )ew provided the means which the princes s+!andered on their own pleas!res% It is not to be wondered at that these ornaments of the h!man race became the recipients of official hono!rs and even were admitted into the ran&s of the hereditary nobility, th!s contrib!ting not only to e3pose that social instit!tion to ridic!le b!t also to contaminate it from the inside% *at!rally the )ew co!ld now e3ploit the position to which he had attained and p!sh himself forward even more rapidly than before% Finally he became bapti9ed and th!s entitled to all the rights and privileges which belonged to the children of the nation on which he preyed% (his was a high-class stro&e of b!siness for him, and he often availed himself of it, to the great ,oy of the $h!rch, which was pro!d of having gained a new child in the Faith, and also to the ,oy of Israel, which was happy at seeing the tric& p!lled off s!ccessf!lly% BhC At this stage a transformation began to ta&e place in the world of )ewry% Mp to now they had been )ews - that is to say, they did not hitherto set any great val!e on pretending to be something else> and anyhow the distinctive characteristics which separated them from other races co!ld not be easily overcome% 7ven as late as the time of Frederic& the 6reat nobody loo&ed !pon the )ews as other than a Iforeign# people, and 6oethe rose !p in revolt against the fail!re legally to prohibit marriage between $hristians and )ews% 6oethe was certainly no reactionary and no time-server% /hat he said came from the voice of the blood and the voice of reason% *otwithstanding the disgracef!l happenings ta&ing place in $o!rt circles, the people recogni9ed instinctively that the )ew was the foreign body in their own flesh and their attit!de towards him was directed by recognition of that fact% 4!t a change was now destined to ta&e place% In the co!rse of more than a tho!sand years the )ew had learned to master the lang!age of his hosts so thoro!ghly that he considered he might now lay stress on his )ewish character and emphasi9e the I6ermanism# a bit more% (ho!gh it m!st have appeared ridic!lo!s and abs!rd at first sight, he was imp!dent eno!gh to call himself a I(e!ton#, which in this case meant a 6erman% In that way began one of the most infamo!s impositions that can be imagined% (he )ew did not possess the slightest traces of the 6erman character% 1e had only ac+!ired the art of twisting the 6erman lang!age to his own !ses, and that in a disg!sting way, witho!t having assimilated any other feat!re of the 6erman character% (herefore his command of the lang!age was the sole gro!nd on which he co!ld pretend to be a 6erman% It is not however by the tie of lang!age, b!t e3cl!sively by the tie of blood that the members of a race are bo!nd together% And the )ew himself &nows this better than any other, seeing that he attaches so little importance to the preservation of his own lang!age while at the same time he strives his !tmost to maintain his blood free from intermi3t!re with that of other races% A man may ac+!ire and !se a new lang!age witho!t m!ch tro!ble> b!t it is only his old ideas that he e3presses thro!gh the new lang!age% 1is inner nat!re is not modified thereby% (he best proof of this is f!rnished by the )ew himself% 1e may spea& a tho!sand tong!es and yet his )ewish nat!re will remain always one and the same% 1is disting!ishing characteristics were the same when he spo&e the Latin lang!age at Ostia two tho!sand years ago as a merchant in grain, as they are to-day when he tries to sell ad!lterated flo!r with the aid of his 6erman gibberish% 1e is always the same )ew% (hat so obvio!s a fact is not recogni9ed by the average head-cler& in a 6erman government department, or by an officer in the police administration, is also a self-evident and nat!ral fact> since it wo!ld be diffic!lt to find another class of people who are so lac&ing in instinct and intelligence as the civil servants employed by o!r modern 6erman 'tate a!thorities% (he reason why, at the stage I am dealing with, the )ew so s!ddenly decided to transform himself into a 6erman is not diffic!lt to discover% 1e felt the power of the princes slowly cr!mbling and therefore loo&ed abo!t to find a new social plan& on which he might stand% F!rthermore, his financial domination over all the spheres of economic life had become so powerf!l that he felt he co!ld no longer s!stain that enormo!s str!ct!re or add to it !nless he were admitted to the f!ll en,oyment of the Irights of citi9enship%# 1e aimed at both, preservation and e3pansion> for the higher he co!ld climb the more all!ring became the prospect of reaching the old goal, which was promised to him in ancient times, namely world-r!lership, and which he now loo&ed forward to with feverish eyes, as he tho!ght he saw it visibly approaching% (herefore all his efforts were now directed to becoming a f!lly-fledged citi9en, endowed with all civil and political rights% (hat was the reason for his emancipation from the 6hetto% BiC And th!s the $o!rt )ew slowly developed into the national )ew% 4!t nat!rally he still remained associated with persons in higher +!arters and he even attempted to p!sh his way f!rther into the inner circles of the r!ling set% 4!t at the same time some other representatives of his race were c!rrying favo!r with the people% If we remember the crimes the )ew had committed against the masses of the people in the co!rse of so many cent!ries, how repeatedly and r!thlessly he e3ploited them and how he s!c&ed o!t even the very marrow of their s!bstance, and when we f!rther remember how they grad!ally came to hate him and finally considered him as a p!blic sco!rge - then we may well !nderstand how diffic!lt the )ew m!st have fo!nd this final transformation% Nes, indeed, it m!st ta3 all their powers to be able to present themselves as Ifriends of h!manity# to the poor victims whom they have s&inned raw% (herefore the )ew began by ma&ing p!blic amends for the crimes which he had committed against the people in the past% 1e started his metamorphosis by first appearing as the Ibenefactor# of h!manity% 'ince his new philanthropic

policy had a very concrete aim in view, he co!ld not very well apply to himself the biblical co!nsel, not to allow the left hand to &now what the right hand is giving% 1e felt obliged to let as many people as possible &now how deeply the s!fferings of the masses grieved him and to what e3cesses of personal sacrifice he was ready to go in order to help them% /ith this manifestation of innate modesty, so typical of the )ew, he tr!mpeted his virt!es before the world !ntil finally the world act!ally began to believe him% (hose who ref!sed to share this belief were considered to be doing him an in,!stice% (h!s after a little while he began to twist things aro!nd, so as to ma&e it appear that it was he who had always been wronged, and vice versa% (here were really some partic!larly foolish people who co!ld not help pitying this poor !nfort!nate creat!re of a )ew% Attention may be called to the fact that, in spite of his proclaimed readiness to ma&e personal sacrifices, the )ew never becomes poor thereby% 1e has a happy &nac& of always ma&ing both ends meet% Occasionally his benevolence might be compared to the man!re which is not spread over the field merely for the p!rpose of getting rid of it, b!t rather with a view to f!t!re prod!ce% Anyhow, after a comparatively short period of time, the world was given to &now that the )ew had become a general benefactor and philanthropist% /hat a transformationJ /hat is loo&ed !pon as more or less nat!ral when done by other people here became an ob,ect of astonishment, and even sometimes of admiration, beca!se it was considered so !n!s!al in a )ew% (hat is why he has received more credit for his acts of benevolence than ordinary mortals% And something more0 (he )ew became liberal all of a s!dden and began to tal& enth!siastically of how h!man progress m!st be enco!raged% 6rad!ally he ass!med the air of being the herald of a new age% Net at the same time he contin!ed to !ndermine the gro!nd-wor& of that part of the economic system in which the people have the most practical interest% 1e bo!ght !p stoc& in the vario!s national !nderta&ings and th!s p!shed his infl!ence into the circ!it of national prod!ction, ma&ing this latter an ob,ect of b!ying and selling on the stoc& e3change, or rather what might be called the pawn in a financial game of chess, and th!s r!ining the basis on which personal proprietorship alone is possible% Only with the entrance of the )ew did that feeling of estrangement, between employers and employees begin which led at a later date to the political class-str!ggle% Finally the )ew gained an increasing infl!ence in all economic !nderta&ings by means of his predominance in the stoc&-e3change% If not the ownership, at least he sec!red control of the wor&ing power of the nation% In order to strengthen his political position, he directed his efforts towards removing the barrier of racial and civic discrimination which had hitherto hindered his advance at every t!rn% /ith characteristic tenacity he championed the ca!se of religio!s tolerance for this p!rpose> and in the freemason organi9ation, which had fallen completely into his hands, he fo!nd a magnificent weapon which helped him to achieve his ends% 6overnment circles, as well as the higher sections of the political and commercial bo!rgeoisie, fell a prey to his plans thro!gh his manip!lation of the masonic net, tho!gh they themselves did not even s!spect what was happening% Only the people as s!ch, or rather the masses which were ,!st becoming conscio!s of their own power and were beginning to !se it in the fight for their rights and liberties, had hitherto escaped the grip of the )ew% At least his infl!ence had not yet penetrated to the deeper and wider sections of the people% (his was !nsatisfactory to him% (he most important phase of his policy was therefore to sec!re control over the people% (he )ew reali9ed that in his efforts to reach the position of p!blic despot he wo!ld need a Ipeace-ma&er%# And he tho!ght he co!ld find a peacema&er if he co!ld whip-in s!fficient e3tensive sections of the bo!rgeois% 4!t the freemasons failed to catch the glove-man!fact!rers and the linen-weavers in the frail meshes of their net% And so it became necessary to find a grosser and withal a more effective means% (h!s another weapon beside that of freemasonry wo!ld have to be sec!red% (his was the "ress% (he )ew e3ercised all his s&ill and tenacity in getting hold of it% 4y means of the "ress he began grad!ally to control p!blic life in its entirety% 1e began to drive it along the road which he had chosen to reach his own ends> for he was now in a position to create and direct that force which, !nder the name of Ip!blic opinion# is better &nown to-day than it was some decades ago% 'im!ltaneo!sly the )ew gave himself the air of thirsting after &nowledge% 1e la!ded every phase of progress, partic!larly those phases which led to the r!in of others> for he ,!dges all progress and development from the standpoint of the advantages which these bring to his own people% /hen it brings him no s!ch advantages he is the deadly enemy of enlightenment and hates all c!lt!re which is real c!lt!re as s!ch% All the &nowledge which he ac+!ires in the schools of others is e3ploited by him e3cl!sively in the service of his own race% 7ven more watchf!lly than ever before, he now stood g!ard over his )ewish nationality% (ho!gh b!bbling over with Ienlightenment#, Iprogress#, Iliberty#, Ih!manity#, etc%, his first care was to preserve the racial integrity of his own people% 1e occasionally bestowed one of his female members on an infl!ential $hristian> b!t the racial stoc& of his male descendants was always preserved !nmi3ed f!ndamentally% 1e poisons the blood of others b!t preserves his own blood !nad!lterated% (he )ew scarcely ever marries a $hristian girl, b!t the $hristian ta&es a )ewess to wife% (he mongrels that are a res!lt of this latter !nion always declare themselves on the )ewish side% (h!s a part of the higher nobility in partic!lar became completely degenerate% (he )ew was well aware of this fact and systematically !sed this means of disarming the intellect!al leaders of the opposite race% (o mas& his tactics and fool his victims, he tal&s of the e+!ality of all men, no matter what their race or colo!r may be% And the simpletons begin to believe

him% 'ince his whole nat!re still retains too foreign an odo!r for the broad masses of the people to allow themselves to be ca!ght in his snare, he !ses the "ress to p!t before the p!blic a pict!re of himself which is entirely !ntr!e to life b!t well designed to serve his p!rpose% In the comic papers special efforts are made to represent the )ews as an inoffensive little race which, li&e all others, has its pec!liarities% In spite of their manners, which may seem a bit strange, the comic papers present the )ews as f!ndamentally good-hearted and hono!rable% Attempts are generally made to ma&e them appear insignificant rather than dangero!s% ?!ring this phase of his progress the chief goal of the )ew was the victory of democracy, or rather the s!preme hegemony of the parliamentary system, which embodies his concept of democracy% (his instit!tion harmonises best with his p!rposes> for th!s the personal element is eliminated and in its place we have the d!nder-headed ma,ority, inefficiency and, last b!t by no means least, &navery% (he final res!lt m!st necessarily have been the overthrow of the monarchy, which had to happen sooner or later% B,C A tremendo!s economic development transformed the social str!ct!re of the nation% (he small artisan class slowly disappeared and the factory wor&er, who too& its place, had scarcely any chance of establishing an independent e3istence of his own b!t san& more and more to the level of a proletariat% An essential characteristic of the factory wor&er is that he is scarcely ever able to provide for an independent so!rce of livelihood which will s!pport him in later life% In the tr!e sense of the word, he is Idisinherited#% 1is old age is a misery to him and can hardly be called life at all% In earlier times a similar sit!ation had been created, which had imperatively demanded a sol!tion and for which a sol!tion was fo!nd% 'ide by side with the peasant and the artisan, a new class was grad!ally developed, namely that of officials and employees, especially those employed in the vario!s services of the 'tate% (hey also were a Idisinherited# class, in the tr!e sense of the word% 4!t the 'tate fo!nd a remedy for this !nhealthy sit!ation by ta&ing !pon itself the d!ty of providing for the 'tate official who co!ld establish nothing that wo!ld be an independent means of livelihood for himself in his old age% (h!s the system of pensions and retiring allowances was introd!ced% "rivate enterprises slowly followed this e3ample in increasing n!mbers> so that to-day every permanent non-man!al wor&er receives a pension in his later years, if the firm which he has served is one that has reached or gone beyond a certain si9e% It was only by virt!e of the ass!rance given of 'tate officials, that they wo!ld be cared for in their old age% that s!ch a high degree of !nselfish devotion to d!ty was developed, which in pre-war times was one of the disting!ising characteristics of 6erman officials% (h!s a whole class which had no personal property was saved from destit!tion by an intelligent system of provision, and fo!nd a place in the social str!ct!re of the national comm!nity% (he problem is now p!t before the 'tate and nation, b!t this time in a m!ch larger form% /hen the new ind!stries sprang !p and developed, millions of people left the co!ntryside and the villages to ta&e !p employment in the big factories% (he conditions !nder which this new class fo!nd itself forced to live were worse than miserable% (he more or less mechanical transformation of the methods of wor& hitherto in vog!e among the artisans and peasants did not fit in well with the habits or mentality of this new wor&ing-class% (he way in which the peasants and artisans had formerly wor&ed had nothing comparable to the intensive labo!r of the new factory wor&er% In the old trades time did not play a highly important role, b!t it became an essential element in the new ind!strial system% (he formal ta&ing over of the old wor&ing ho!rs into the mammoth ind!strial enterprises had fatal res!lts% (he act!al amo!nt of wor& hitherto accomplished within a certain time was comparatively small, beca!se the modern methods of intensive prod!ction were then !n&nown% (herefore, tho!gh in the older system a wor&ing day of fo!rteen or even fifteen ho!rs was not !nend!rable, now it was beyond the possibilities of h!man end!rance beca!se in the new system every min!te was !tili9ed to the e3treme% (his abs!rd transference of the old wor&ing ho!rs to the new ind!strial system proved fatal in two directions% First, it r!ined the health of the wor&ers> secondly, it destroyed their faith in a s!perior law of ,!stice% Finally, on the one hand a miserable wage was received and, on the other, the employer held a m!ch more l!crative position than before% 1ence a stri&ing difference between the ways of life on the one side and on the other% In the open co!ntry there co!ld be no social problem, beca!se the master and the farm-hand were doing the same &ind of wor& and doing it together% (hey ate their food in common, and sometimes even o!t of the same dish% 4!t in this sphere also the new system introd!ced an entirely different set of conditions between masters and men% (he division created between employer and employees seems not to have e3tended to all branches of life% 1ow far this )!dai9ing process has been allowed to ta&e effect among o!r people is ill!strated by the fact that man!al labo!r not only receives practically no recognition b!t is even considered degrading% (hat is not a nat!ral 6erman attit!de% It is d!e to the introd!ction of a foreign element into o!r lives, and that foreign element is the )ewish spirit, one of the effects of which has been to transform the high esteem in which o!r handicrafts once were held into a definite feeling that all physical labo!r is something base and !nworthy% (h!s a new social class has grown !p which stands in low esteem> and the day m!st come when we shall have to face the +!estion of whether the nation will be able to ma&e this class an integral part of the social comm!nity or

whether the difference of stat!s now e3isting will become a permanent g!lf separating this class from the others% One thing, however, is certain0 (his class does not incl!de the worst elements of the comm!nity in its ran&s% 8ather the contrary is the tr!th0 it incl!des the most energetic parts of the nation% (he sophistication which is the res!lt of a so-called civili9ation has not yet e3ercised its disintegrating and degenerating infl!ence on this class% (he broad masses of this new lower class, constit!ted by the man!al labo!rers, have not yet fallen a prey to the morbid wea&ness of pacifism% (hese are still rob!st and, if necessary, they can be br!tal% /hile o!r bo!rgeoisie middle class paid no attention at all to this momento!s problem and indifferently allowed events to ta&e their co!rse, the )ew sei9ed !pon the manifold possibilities which the sit!ation offered him for the f!t!re% /hile on the one hand he organi9ed capitalistic methods of e3ploitation to their !ltimate degree of efficiency, he c!rried favo!r with the victims of his policy and his power and in a short while became the leader of their str!ggle against himself% IAgainst himself# is here only a fig!rative way of spea&ing> for this I6reat aster of Lies# &nows how to appear in the g!ise of the innocent and throw the g!ilt on others% 'ince he had the imp!dence to ta&e a personal lead among the masses, they never for a moment s!spected that they were falling a prey to one of the most infamo!s deceits ever practised% And yet that is what it act!ally was% (he moment this new class had arisen o!t of the general economic sit!ation and ta&en shape as a definite body in the social order, the )ew saw clearly where he wo!ld find the necessary pacema&er for his own progressive march% At first he had !sed the bo!rgeois class as a battering-ram against the fe!dal order> and now he !sed the wor&er against the bo!rgeois world% )!st as he s!cceeded in obtaining civic rights by intrig!es carried on !nder the protection of the bo!rgeois class, he now hoped that by ,oining in the str!ggle which the wor&ers were waging for their own e3istence he wo!ld be able to obtain f!ll control over them% /hen that moment arrives, then the only ob,ective the wor&ers will have to fight for will be the f!t!re of the )ewish people% /itho!t &nowing it, the wor&er is placing himself at the service of the very power against which he believes he is fighting% Apparently he is made to fight against capital and th!s he is all the more easily bro!ght to fight for capitalist interests% O!tcries are systematically raised against international capital b!t in reality it is against the str!ct!re of national economics that these slogans are directed% (he idea is to demolish this str!ct!re and on its r!ins tri!mphantly erect the str!ct!re of the International 'toc& 73change% In this line of action the proced!re of the )ew was as follows0 1e &owtowed to the wor&er, hypocritically pretended to feel pity for him and his lot, and even to be indignant at the misery and poverty which the wor&er had to end!re% (hat is the way in which the )ew endeavo!red to gain the confidence of the wor&ing class% 1e showed himself eager to st!dy their vario!s hardships, whether real or imaginary, and strove to awa&en a yearning on the part of the wor&ers to change the conditions !nder which they lived% (he )ew artf!lly en&indled that innate yearning for social ,!stice which is a typical Aryan characteristic% Once that yearning became alive it was transformed into hatred against those in more fort!nate circ!mstances of life% (he ne3t stage was to give a precise philosophical aspect to the str!ggle for the elimination of social wrongs% And th!s the ar3ist doctrine was invented% 4y presenting his doctrine as part and parcel of a ,!st revindication of social rights, the )ew propagated the doctrine all the more effectively% 4!t at the same time he provo&ed the opposition of decent people who ref!sed to admit these demands which, beca!se of the form and pse!do-philosophical trimmings in which they are presented, seemed f!ndamentally !n,!st and impossible for reali9ation% For, !nder the cloa& of p!rely social concepts there are hidden aims which are of a 'atanic character% (hese aims are even e3po!nded in the open with the clarity of !nlimited imp!dence% (his ar3ist doctrine is an individ!al mi3t!re of h!man reason and h!man abs!rdity> b!t the combination is arranged in s!ch a way that only the abs!rd part of it co!ld ever be p!t into practice, b!t never the reasonable part of it% 4y categorically rep!diating the personal worth of the individ!al and also the nation and its racial constit!ent, this doctrine destroys the f!ndamental basis of all civili9ation> for civili9ation essentially depends on these very factors% '!ch is the tr!e essence of the ar3ist Weltanschhauung, so far as the word Weltanschhauung can be applied at all to this phantom arising from a criminal brain% (he destr!ction of the concept of personality and of race removes the chief obstacle which barred the way to domination of the social body by its inferior elements, which are the )ews% (he very abs!rdity of the economic and political theories of ar3ism gives the doctrine its pec!liar significance% 4eca!se of its pse!do-logic, intelligent people ref!se to s!pport it, while all those who are less acc!stomed to !se their intellect!al fac!lties, or who have only a r!dimentary notion of economic principles, ,oin the ar3ist ca!se with flying banners% (he intelligence behind the movement - for even this movement needs intelligence if it is to s!bsist - is s!pplied by the )ews themselves, nat!rally of co!rse as a grat!ito!s service which is at the same time a sacrifice on their part% (h!s arose a movement which was composed e3cl!sively of man!al wor&ers !nder the leadership of )ews% (o all e3ternal appearances, this movement strives to ameliorate the conditions !nder which the wor&ers live> b!t in reality its aim is to enslave and thereby annihilate the non-)ewish races% (he propaganda which the freemasons had carried on among the so-called intelligentsia, whereby their pacifist

teaching paralysed the instinct for national self-preservation, was now e3tended to the broad masses of the wor&ers and bo!rgeoisie by means of the "ress, which was almost everywhere in )ewish hands% (o those two instr!ments of disintegration a third and still more r!thless one was added, namely, the organi9ation of br!te physical force among the masses% As massed col!mns of attac&s, the ar3ist troops stormed those parts of the social order which had been left standing after the two former !ndermining operations had done their wor&% (he combined activity of all these forces has been marvello!sly managed% And it will not be s!rprising if it t!rns o!t that those instit!tions which have always appeared as the organs of the more or less traditional a!thority of the 'tate sho!ld now fall before the ar3ist attac&% Among o!r higher and highest 'tate officials, with very few e3ceptions, the )ew has fo!nd the cost complacent bac&ers in his wor& of destr!ction% An attit!de of snea&ing servility towards Is!periors# and s!percilio!s arrogance towards Iinferiors# are the characteristics of this class of people, as well as a grade of st!pidity which is really frightening and at the same time a towering self-conceit, which has been so consistently developed to ma&e it am!sing% 4!t these +!alities are of the greatest !tility to the )ew in his dealings with o!r a!thorities% (herefore they are +!alities which he appreciates most in the officials% If I were to s&etch ro!ghly the act!al str!ggle which is now beginning I sho!ld describe it somewhat th!s0 *ot satisfied with the economic con+!est of the world, b!t also demanding that it m!st come !nder his political control, the )ew s!bdivides the organi9ed ar3ist power into two parts, which correspond to the !ltimate ob,ectives that are to be fo!ght for in this str!ggle which is carried on !nder the direction of the )ew% (o o!tward appearance, these seem to be two independent movements, b!t in reality they constit!te an indivisible !nity% (he two divisions are0 (he political movement and the trades !nion movement% (he trades !nion movement has to gather in the recr!its% It offers assistance and protection to the wor&ers in the hard str!ggle which they have to wage for the bare means of e3istence, a str!ggle which has been occasioned by the greediness and narrow-mindedness of many of the ind!strialists% Mnless the wor&ers be ready to s!rrender all claims to an e3istence which the dignity of h!man nat!re itself demands, and !nless they are ready to s!bmit their fate to the will of employers who in many cases have no sense of h!man responsibilities and are !tterly callo!s to h!man wants, then the wor&er m!st necessarily ta&e matters into his own hands, seeing that the organi9ed social comm!nity - that is to say, the 'tate - pays no attention to his needs% (he so-called national-minded bo!rgeoisie, blinded by its own material interests, opposes this life-or-death str!ggle of the wor&ers and places the most diffic!lt obstacles in their way% *ot only does this bo!rgeoisie hinder all efforts to enact legislation which wo!ld shorten the inh!manly long ho!rs of wor&, prohibit child-labo!r, grant sec!rity and protection to women and improve the hygienic conditions of the wor&shops and the dwellings of the wor&ingclass, b!t while the bo!rgeoisie hinders all this the shrewd )ew ta&es the ca!se of the oppressed into his own hands% 1e grad!ally becomes the leader of the trades !nion movements, which is an easy tas& for him, beca!se he does not gen!inely intend to find remedies for the social wrong0 he p!rs!es only one ob,ective, namely, to gather and consolidate a body of followers who will act !nder his commands as an armed weapon in the economic war for the destr!ction of national economic independence% For, while a so!nd social policy has to move between the two poles of sec!ring a decent level of p!blic health and welfare on the one hand and, on the other, that of safeg!arding the independence of the economic life of the nation, the )ew does not ta&e these poles into acco!nt at all% (he destr!ction of both is one of his main ob,ects% 1e wo!ld r!in, rather than safeg!ard, the independence of the national economic system% (herefore, as the leader of the trades !nion movement, he has no scr!ples abo!t p!tting forward demands which not only go beyond the declared p!rpose of the movement b!t co!ld not be carried into effect witho!t r!ining the national economic str!ct!re% On the other hand, he has no interest in seeing a healthy and st!rdy pop!lation develop> he wo!ld be more content to see the people degenerate into an !nthin&ing herd which co!ld be red!ced to total s!b,ection% 4eca!se these are his final ob,ectives, he can afford to p!t forward the most abs!rd claims% 1e &nows very well that these claims can never be reali9ed and that therefore nothing in the act!al state of affairs co!ld be altered by them, b!t that the most they can do is to aro!se the spirit of !nrest among the masses% (hat is e3actly the p!rpose which he wishes s!ch propaganda to serve and not a real and honest improvement of the social conditions% (he )ews will therefore remain the !n+!estioned leaders of the trades !nion movement so long as a campaign is not !nderta&en, which m!st be carried o!t on gigantic lines, for the enlightenment of the masses> so that they will be enabled better to !nderstand the ca!ses of their misery% Or the same end might be achieved if the government a!thorities wo!ld get rid of the )ew and his wor&% For as long as the masses remain so ill-informed as they act!ally are to-day, and as long as the 'tate remains as indifferent to their lot as it now is, the masses will follow whatever leader ma&es them the most e3travagant promises in regard to economic matters% (he )ew is a past master at this art and his activities are not hampered by moral considerations of any &ind% *at!rally it ta&es him only a short time to defeat all his competitors in this field and drive them from the scene of action% In accordance with the general br!tality and rapacity of his nat!re, he t!rns the trades !nion movement into an organi9ation for the e3ercise of physical violence% (he resistance of those whose common sense has hitherto

saved them from s!rrendering to the )ewish dictatorship is now bro&en down by terrori9ation% (he s!ccess of that &ind of activity is enormo!s% "arallel with this, %the political organi9ation advances% It operates hand-in-hand with the trades !nion movement, inasm!ch as the latter prepares the masses for the political organi9ation and even forces them into it% (his is also the so!rce that provides the money which the political organi9ation needs to &eep its enormo!s apparat!s in action% (he trades !nion organi9ation is the organ of control for the political activity of its members and whips in the masses for all great political demonstrations% In the end it ceases to str!ggle for economic interests b!t places its chief weapon, the ref!sal to contin!e wor& - which ta&es the form of a general stri&e - at the disposal of the political movement% 4y means of a "ress whose contents are adapted to the level of the most ignorant readers, the political and trades !nion organi9ations are provided with an instr!ment which prepares the lowest strat!m of the nation for a campaign of r!thless destr!ction% It is not considered part of the p!rpose of this "ress to inspire its readers with ideals which might help them to lift their minds above the sordid conditions of their daily lives> b!t, on the contrary, it panders to their lowest instincts% Among the la9y-minded and self-see&ing sections of the masses this &ind of spec!lation t!rns o!t l!crative% It is this "ress above all which carries on a fanatical campaign of cal!mny, strives to tear down everything that might be considered as a mainstay of national independence and to sabotage all c!lt!ral val!es as well as to destroy the a!tonomy of the national economic system% It aims its attac& especially against all men of character who ref!se to fall into line with the )ewish efforts to obtain control over the 'tate or who appear dangero!s to the )ews merely beca!se of their s!perior intelligence% For in order to inc!r the enmity of the )ew it is not necessary to show any open hostility towards him% It is +!ite s!fficient if one be considered capable of opposing the )ew some time in the f!t!re or !sing his abilities and character to enhance the power and position of a nation which the )ew finds hostile to himself% (he )ewish instinct, which never fails where these problems have to be dealt with, readily discerns the tr!e mentality of those whom the )ew meets in everyday life> and those who are not of a &indred spirit with him may be s!re of being listed among his enemies% 'ince the )ew is not the ob,ect of aggression b!t the aggressor himself, he considers as his enemies not only those who attac& him b!t also those who may be capable of resisting him% (he means which he employs to brea& people of this &ind, who may show themselves decent and !pright, are not the open means generally !sed in hono!rable conflict, b!t falsehood and cal!mny% 1e will stop at nothing% 1is !tterly low-down cond!ct is so appalling that one really cannot be s!rprised if in the imagination of o!r people the )ew is pict!red as the incarnation of 'atan and the symbol of evil% (he ignorance of the broad masses as regards the inner character of the )ew, and the lac& of instinct and insight that o!r !pper classes display, are some of the reasons which e3plain how it is that so many people fall an easy prey to the systematic campaign of falsehood which the )ew carries on% /hile the !pper classes, with their innate cowardliness, t!rn away from anyone whom the )ew th!s attac&s with lies and cal!mny, the common people are cred!lo!s of everything, whether beca!se of their ignorance or their simple-mindedness% 6overnment a!thorities wrap themselves !p in a robe of silence, b!t more fre+!ently they persec!te the victims of )ewish attac&s in order to stop the campaign in the )ewish "ress% (o the fat!o!s mind of the government official s!ch a line of cond!ct appears to belong to the policy of !pholding the a!thority of the 'tate and preserving p!blic order% 6rad!ally the ar3ist weapon in the hands of the )ew becomes a constant bogy to decent people% 'ometimes the fear of it stic&s in the brain or weighs !pon them as a &ind of nightmare% "eople begin to +!ail before this fearf!l foe and therewith become his victims% B&C (he )ewish domination in the 'tate seems now so f!lly ass!red that not only can he now afford to call himself a )ew once again, b!t he even ac&nowledges freely and openly what his ideas are on racial and political +!estions% A section of the )ews avows itself +!ite openly as an alien people, b!t even here there is another falsehood% /hen the Kionists try to ma&e the rest of the world believe that the new national conscio!sness of the )ews will be satisfied by the establishment of a )ewish 'tate in "alestine, the )ews thereby adopt another means to d!pe the simple-minded 6entile% (hey have not the slightest intention of b!ilding !p a )ewish 'tate in "alestine so as to live in it% /hat they really are aiming at is to establish a central organi9ation for their international swindling and cheating% As a sovereign 'tate, this cannot be controlled by any of the other 'tates% (herefore it can serve as a ref!ge for swindlers who have been fo!nd o!t and at the same time a high-school for the training of other swindlers% As a sign of their growing pres!mption and sense of sec!rity, a certain section of them openly and imp!dently proclaim their )ewish nationality while another section hypocritically pretend that they are 6erman, French or 7nglish as the case may be% (heir blatant behavio!r in their relations with other people shows how clearly they envisage their day of tri!mph in the near f!t!re% (he blac&-haired )ewish yo!th lies in wait for ho!rs on end, satanically glaring at and spying on the !ns!spicio!s girl whom he plans to sed!ce, ad!lterating her blood and removing her from the bosom of her own people% (he )ew !ses every possible means to !ndermine the racial fo!ndations of a s!b,!gated people% In his systematic efforts to

r!in girls and women he strives to brea& down the last barriers of discrimination between him and other peoples% (he )ews were responsible for bringing negroes into the 8hineland, with the !ltimate idea of bastardi9ing the white race which they hate and th!s lowering its c!lt!ral and political level so that the )ew might dominate% For as long as a people remain racially p!re and are conscio!s of the treas!re of their blood, they can never be overcome by the )ew% *ever in this world can the )ew become master of any people e3cept a bastardi9ed people% (hat is why the )ew systematically endeavo!rs to lower the racial +!ality of a people by permanently ad!lterating the blood of the individ!als who ma&e !p that people% In the field of politics he now begins to replace the idea of democracy by introd!cing the dictatorship of the proletariat% In the masses organi9ed !nder the ar3ist banners he has fo!nd a weapon which ma&es it possible for him to discard democracy, so as to s!b,!gate and r!le in a dictatorial fashion by the aid of br!te force% 1e is systematically wor&ing in two ways to bring abo!t this revol!tion% (hese ways are the economic and the political respectively% Aided by international infl!ences, he forms a ring of enemies aro!nd those nations which have proved themselves too st!rdy for him in withstanding attac&s from within% 1e wo!ld li&e to force them into war and then, if it sho!ld be necessary to his plans, he will !nf!rl the banners of revolt even while the troops are act!ally fighting at the front% 7conomically he brings abo!t the destr!ction of the 'tate by a systematic method of sabotaging social enterprises !ntil these become so costly that they are ta&en o!t of the hands of the 'tate and then s!bmitted to the control of )ewish finance% "olitically he wor&s to withdraw from the 'tate its means of s!sbsistence, inasm!ch as he !ndermines the fo!ndations of national resistance and defence, destroys the confidence which the people have in their 6overnment, reviles the past and its history and drags everything national down into the g!tter% $!lt!rally his activity consists in bowdleri9ing art, literat!re and the theatre, holding the e3pressions of national sentiment !p to scorn, overt!rning all concepts of the s!blime and bea!tif!l, the worthy and the good, finally dragging the people to the level of his own low mentality% Of religion he ma&es a moc&ery% orality and decency are described as anti+!ated pre,!dices and th!s a systematic attac& is made to !ndermine those last fo!ndations on which the national being m!st rest if the nation is to str!ggle for its e3istence in this world% BlC *ow begins the great and final revol!tion% As soon as the )ew is in possession of political power he drops the last few veils which have hitherto helped to conceal his feat!res% O!t of the democratic )ew, the )ew of the "eople, arises the I)ew of the 4lood#, the tyrant of the peoples% In the co!rse of a few years he endeavo!rs to e3terminate all those who represent the national intelligence% And by th!s depriving the peoples of their nat!ral intellect!al leaders he fits them for their fate as slaves !nder a lasting despotism% 8!ssia f!rnishes the most terrible e3ample of s!ch a slavery% In that co!ntry the )ew &illed or starved thirty millions of the people, in a bo!t of savage fanaticism and partly by the employment of inh!man tort!re% And he did this so that a gang of )ewish literati and financial bandits sho!ld dominate over a great people% 4!t the final conse+!ence is not merely that the people lose all their freedom !nder the domination of the )ews, b!t that in the end these parasites themselves disappear% (he death of the victim is followed sooner or later by that of the vampire% If we review all the ca!ses which contrib!ted to bring abo!t the downfall of the 6erman people we shall find that the most profo!nd and decisive ca!se m!st be attrib!ted to the lac& of insight into the racial problem and especially in the fail!re to recogni9e the )ewish danger% It wo!ld have been easy eno!gh to end!re the defeats s!ffered on the battlefields in A!g!st 191;% (hey were nothing when compared with the military victories which o!r nation had achieved% O!r downfall was not the res!lt of those defeats> b!t we were overthrown by that force which had prepared those defeats by systematically operating for several decades to destroy those political instincts and that moral stamina which alone enable a people to str!ggle for its e3istence and therewith sec!re the right to e3ist% 4y neglecting the problem of preserving the racial fo!ndations of o!r national life, the old 7mpire abrogated the sole right which entitles a people to live on this planet% *ations that ma&e mongrels of their people, or allow their people to be t!rned into mongrels, sin against the /ill of 7ternal "rovidence% And th!s their overthrow at the hands of a stronger opponent cannot be loo&ed !pon as a wrong b!t, on the contrary, as a restoration of ,!stice% If a people ref!ses to g!ard and !phold the +!alities with which it has been endowed by *at!re and which have their roots in the racial blood, then s!ch a people has no right to complain over the loss of its earthly e3istence% 7verything on this earth can be made into something better% 7very defeat may be made the fo!ndation of a f!t!re victory% 7very lost war may be the ca!se of a later res!rgence% 7very visitation of distress can give a new impet!s to h!man energy% And o!t of every oppression those forces can develop which bring abo!t a new re-birth of the national so!l - provided always that the racial blood is &ept p!re% 4!t the loss of racial p!rity will wrec& inner happiness for ever% It degrades men for all time to come% And the physical and moral conse+!ences can never be wiped o!t% If this !ni+!e problem be st!died and compared with the other problems of life we shall easily recogni9e how small

is their importance in comparison with this% (hey are all limited to time> b!t the problem of the maintenance or loss of the p!rity of the racial blood will last as long as man himself lasts% All the symptoms of decline which manifested themselves already in pre-war times can be traced bac& to the racial problem% /hether one is dealing with +!estions of general law, or monstro!s e3crescences in economic life, of phenomena which point to a c!lt!ral decline or political degeneration, whether it be a +!estion of defects in the school-system or of the evil infl!ence which the "ress e3erts over the ad!lt pop!lation - always and everywhere these phenomena are at bottom ca!sed by a lac& of consideration for the interests of the race to which one#s own nation belongs, or by the fail!re to recogni9e the danger that comes from allowing a foreign race to e3ist within the national body% (hat is why all attempts at reform, all instit!tions for social relief, all political striving, all economic progress and all apparent increase in the general stoc& of &nowledge, were doomed to be !nprod!ctive of any significant res!lts% (he nation, as well as the organi9ation which enables it to e3ist - namely, the 'tate - were not developing in inner strength and stability, b!t, on the contrary, were visibly losing their vitality% (he false brilliance of the 'econd 7mpire co!ld not disg!ise the inner wea&ness% And every attempt to invigorate it anew failed beca!se the main and most important problem was left o!t of consideration% It wo!ld be a mista&e to thin& that the followers of the vario!s political parties which tried to doctor the condition of the 6erman people, or even all their leaders, were bad in themselves or meant wrong% (heir activity even at best was doomed to fail, merely beca!se of the fact that they saw nothing b!t the symptoms of o!r general malady and they tried to doctor the symptoms while they overloo&ed the real ca!se of the disease% If one ma&es a methodical st!dy of the lines along which the old 7mpire developed one cannot help seeing, after a caref!l political analysis, that a process of inner degeneration had already set in even at the time when the !nited 7mpire was formed and the 6erman nation began to ma&e rapid e3ternal progress% (he general sit!ation was declining, in spite of the apparent political s!ccess and in spite of the increasing economic wealth% At the elections to the 8eichstag the growing n!mber of ar3ist votes indicated that the internal brea&down and the political collapse were then rapidly approaching% All the victories of the so-called bo!rgeois parties were fr!itless, not only beca!se they co!ld not prevent the n!merical increase in the growing mass of ar3ist votes, even when the bo!rgeois parties tri!mphed at the polls, b!t mainly beca!se they themselves were already infected with the germs of decay% (ho!gh +!ite !naware of it, the bo!rgeois world was infected from within with the deadly vir!s of ar3ist ideas% (he fact that they sometimes openly resisted was to be e3plained by the competitive strife among ambitio!s political leaders, rather than by attrib!ting it to any opposition in principle between adversaries who were determined to fight one another to the bitter end% ?!ring all those years only one protagonist was fighting with steadfast perseverance% (his was the )ew% (he 'tar of ?avid steadily ascended as the will to national self-preservation declined% (herefore it was not a solid national phalan3 that, of itself and o!t of its own feeling of solidarity, r!shed to the battlefields in A!g!st 1914% 4!t it was rather the manifestation of the last flic&er from the instinct of national selfpreservation against the progress of the paralysis with which the pacifist and ar3ist doctrine threatened o!r people% 7ven in those days when the destinies of the nation were in the balance the internal enemy was not recogni9ed> therefore all efforts to resist the e3ternal enemy were bo!nd to be in vain% "rovidence did not grant the reward to the victorio!s sword, b!t followed the eternal law of retrib!tive ,!stice% A profo!nd recognition of all this was the so!rce of those principles and tendencies which inspire o!r new movement% /e were convinced that only by recogni9ing s!ch tr!ths co!ld we stop the national decline in 6ermany and lay a granite fo!ndation on which the 'tate co!ld again be b!ilt !p, a 'tate which wo!ld not be a piece of mechanism alien to o!r people, constit!ted for economic p!rposes and interests, b!t an organism created from the so!l of the people themselves% A 678 A* '(A(7 I* A 678 A* *A(IO* $hapter (welve0 1ere at the close of the vol!me I shall describe the first stage in the progress of o!r movement and shall give a brief acco!nt of the problems we had to deal with d!ring that period% In doing this I have no intention of e3po!nding the ideals which we have set !p as the goal of o!r movement> for these ideals are so momento!s in their significance that an e3position of them will need a whole vol!me% (herefore I shall devote the second vol!me of this boo& to a detailed s!rvey of the principles which form the programme of o!r movement and I shall attempt to draw a pict!re of what we mean by the word I'tate#% /hen I say Iwe# in this connection I mean to incl!de all those h!ndreds of tho!sands who have f!ndamentally the same longing, tho!gh in the individ!al cases they cannot find ade+!ate words to describe the vision that hovers before their eyes% It is a characteristic feat!re of all great reforms that in the beginning there is only one single protagonist to come forward on behalf of several millions of people% (he final goal of a great reformation has often been the ob,ect of profo!nd longing on the parts of h!ndreds of tho!sands for many cent!ries before, !ntil finally one among them comes forward as a herald to anno!nce the will of that m!ltit!de and become the standard-bearer of the old yearning, which he now leads to a reali9ation in a new idea%

(he fact that millions of o!r people yearn at heart for a radical change in o!r present conditions is proved by the profo!nd discontent which e3ists among them% (his feeling is manifested in a tho!sand ways% 'ome e3press it in a form of disco!ragement and despair% Others show it in resentment and anger and indignation% Among some the profo!nd discontent calls forth an attit!de of indifference, while it !rges others to violent manifestations of wrath% Another indication of this feeling may be seen on the one hand in the attit!de of those who abstain from voting at elections and, on the other, in the large n!mbers of those who side with the fanatical e3tremists of the left wing% (o these latter people o!r yo!ng movement had to appeal first of all% It was not meant to be an organi9ation for contented and satisfied people, b!t was meant to gather in all those who were s!ffering from profo!nd an3iety and co!ld find no peace, those who were !nhappy and discontented% It was not meant to float on the s!rface of the nation b!t rather to p!sh its roots deep among the masses% Loo&ed at from the p!rely political point of view, the sit!ation in 191; was as follows0 A nation had been torn into two parts% One part, which was by far the smaller of the two, contained the intellect!al classes of the nation from which all those employed in physical labo!r were e3cl!ded% On the s!rface these intellect!al classes appeared to be national-minded, b!t that word meant nothing else to them e3cept a very vag!e and feeble concept of the d!ty to defend what they called the interests of the 'tate, which in t!rn seemed identical with those of the dynastic regime% (his class tried to defend its ideas and reach its aims by carrying on the fight with the aid of intellect!al weapons, which co!ld be !sed only here and there and which had only a s!perficial effect against the br!tal meas!res employed by the adversaries, in the face of which the intellect!al weapons were of their very nat!re bo!nd to fail% /ith one violent blow the class which had hitherto governed was now str!c& down% It trembled with fear and accepted every h!miliation imposed on it by the merciless victor% Over against this class stood the broad masses of man!al labo!rers who were organi9ed in movements with a more or less radically ar3ist tendency% (hese organi9ed masses were firmly determined to brea& any &ind of intellect!al resistance by the !se of br!te force% (hey had no nationalist tendencies whatsoever and deliberately rep!diated the idea of advancing the interests of the nation as s!ch% On the contrary, they promoted the interests of the foreign oppressor% *!merically this class embraced the ma,ority of the pop!lation and, what is more important, incl!ded all those elements of the nation witho!t whose collaboration a national res!rgence was not only a practical impossibility b!t was even inconceivable% For already in 191; one thing had to be clearly recogni9ed> namely, that no res!rgence of the 6erman nation co!ld ta&e place !ntil we had first restored o!r national strength to face the o!tside world% For this p!rpose arms are not the preliminary necessity, tho!gh o!r bo!rgeois Istatesmen# always blathered abo!t it being so> what was wanted was will-power% At one time the 6erman people had more than s!fficient military armament% And yet they were not able to defend their liberty beca!se they lac&ed those energies which spring from the instinct of national selfpreservation and the will to hold on to one#s own% (he best armament is only dead and worthless material as long as the spirit is wanting which ma&es men willing and determined to avail themselves of s!ch weapons% 6ermany was rendered defenceless not beca!se she lac&ed arms, b!t beca!se she lac&ed the will to &eep her arms for the maintenance of her people% (o-day o!r Left-wing politicians in partic!lar are constantly insisting that their craven-hearted and obse+!io!s foreign policy necessarily res!lts from the disarmament of 6ermany, whereas the tr!th is that this is the policy of traitors% (o all that &ind of tal& the answer o!ght to be0 *o, the contrary is the tr!th% No!r action in delivering !p the arms was dictated by yo!r anti-national and criminal policy of abandoning the interests of the nation% And now yo! try to ma&e people believe that yo!r miserable whining is f!ndamentally d!e to the fact that yo! have no arms% )!st li&e everything else in yo!r cond!ct, this is a lie and a falsification of the tr!e reason% 4!t the politicians of the 8ight deserve e3actly the same reproach% It was thro!gh their miserable cowardice that those r!ffians of )ews who came into power in 191; were able to rob the nation of its arms% (he conservative politicians have neither right nor reason on their side when they appeal to disarmament as the ca!se which compelled them to adopt a policy of pr!dence Bthat is to say, cowardiceC% 1ere, again, the contrary is the tr!th% ?isarmament is the res!lt of their lac& of spirit% (herefore the problem of restoring 6ermany#s power is not a +!estion of how can we man!fact!re arms b!t rather a +!estion of how we can prod!ce that spirit which enables a people to bear arms% Once this spirit prevails among a people then it will find a tho!sand ways, each of which leads to the necessary armament% 4!t a coward will not fire even a single shot when attac&ed tho!gh he may be armed with ten pistols% For him they are of less val!e than a blac&thorn in the hands of a man of co!rage% (he problem of re-establishing the political power of o!r nation is first of all a problem of restoring the instinct of national self-preservation for if no other reason than that every preparatory step in foreign policy and every foreign ,!dgment on the worth of a 'tate has been proved by e3perience to be gro!nded not on the material si9e of the armament s!ch a 'tate may possess b!t rather on the moral capacity for resistance which s!ch a 'tate has or is believed to have% (he +!estion whether or not a nation be desirable as an ally is not so m!ch determined by the inert mass of arms which it has at hand b!t by the obvio!s presence of a st!rdy will to national self-preservation

and a heroic co!rage which will fight thro!gh to the last breath% For an alliance is not made between arms b!t between men% (he 4ritish nation will therefore be considered as the most val!able ally in the world as long as it can be co!nted !pon to show that br!tality and tenacity in its government, as well as in the spirit of the broad masses, which enables it to carry thro!gh to victory any str!ggle that it once enters !pon, no matter how long s!ch a str!ggle may last, or however great the sacrifice that may be necessary or whatever the means that have to be employed> and all this even tho!gh the act!al military e+!ipment at hand may be !tterly inade+!ate when compared with that of other nations% Once it is !nderstood that the restoration of 6ermany is a +!estion of reawa&ening the will to political selfpreservation we shall see +!ite clearly that it will not be eno!gh to win over those elements that are already national-minded b!t that the deliberately anti-national masses m!st be converted to believe in the national ideals% A yo!ng movement that aims at re-establishing a 6erman 'tate with f!ll sovereign powers will therefore have to ma&e the tas& of winning over the broad masses a special ob,ective of its plan of campaign% O!r so-called Inational bo!rgeoisie# are so lamentably s!pine, generally spea&ing, and their national spirit appears so fec&less, that we may feel s!re they will offer no serio!s resistance against a vigoro!s national foreign - or domestic policy% 7ven tho!gh the narrow-minded 6erman bo!rgeoisie sho!ld &eep !p a passive resistance when the ho!r of deliverance is at hand, as they did in 4ismarc&#s time, we shall never have to fear any active resistance on their part, beca!se of their recogni9ed proverbial cowardice% It is +!ite different with the masses of o!r pop!lation, who are imb!ed with ideas of internationalism% (hro!gh the primitive ro!ghness of their nat!res they are disposed to accept the preaching of violence, while at the same time their )ewish leaders are more br!tal and r!thless% (hey will cr!sh any attempt at a 6erman revival, ,!st as they smashed the 6erman Army by stri&ing at it from the rear% Above all, these organi9ed masses will !se their n!merical ma,ority in this "arliamentarian 'tate not only to hinder any national foreign policy, b!t also to prevent 6ermany from restoring her political power and therewith her prestige abroad% (h!s she becomes e3cl!ded from the ran&s of desirable allies% For it is not we o!rselves alone who are aware of the handicap that res!lts from the e3istence of fifteen million ar3ists, democrats, pacifists and followers of the $entre, in o!r midst, b!t foreign nations also recogni9e this internal b!rden which we have to bear and ta&e it into their calc!lations when estimating the val!e of a possible alliance with !s% *obody wo!ld wish to form an alliance with a 'tate where the active portion of the pop!lation is at least passively opposed to any resol!te foreign policy% (he sit!ation is made still worse by reason of the fact that the leaders of those parties which were responsible for the national betrayal are ready to oppose any and every attempt at a revival, simply beca!se they want to retain the positions they now hold% According to the laws that govern h!man history it is inconceivable that the 6erman people co!ld res!me the place they formerly held witho!t retaliating on those who were both ca!se and occasion of the collapse that involved the r!in of o!r 'tate% 4efore the ,!dgment seat of posterity *ovember 191; will not be regarded as a simple rebellion b!t as high treason against the co!ntry% (herefore it is not possible to thin& of re-establishing 6erman sovereignty and political independence witho!t at the same time reconstr!cting a !nited front within the nation, by a peacef!l conversion of the pop!lar will% Loo&ed at from the standpoint of practical ways and means, it seems abs!rd to thin& of liberating 6ermany from foreign bondage as long as the masses of the people are not willing to s!pport s!ch an ideal of freedom% After caref!lly considering this problem from the p!rely military point of view, everybody, and in partic!lar every officer, will agree that a war cannot be waged against an o!tside enemy by battalions of st!dents> b!t that, together with the brains of the nation, the physical strength of the nation is also necessary% F!rthermore it m!st be remembered that the nation wo!ld be robbed of its irreplaceable assets by a national defence in which only the intellect!al circles, as they are called, were engaged% (he yo!ng 6erman intellect!als who ,oined the vol!nteer regiments and fell on the battlefields of Flanders in the a!t!mn of 1914 were bitterly missed later on% (hey were the dearest treas!re which the nation possessed and their loss co!ld not be made good in the co!rse of the war% And it is not only the str!ggle itself which co!ld not be waged if the wor&ing masses of the nation did not ,oin the storm battalions, b!t the necessary technical preparations co!ld not be made witho!t a !nified will and a common front within the nation itself% O!r nation which has to e3ist disarmed, !nder the tho!sand eyes appointed by the :ersailles "eace (reaty, cannot ma&e any technical preparations for the recovery of its freedom and h!man independence !ntil the whole army of spies employed within the co!ntry is c!t down to those few whose inborn baseness wo!ld lead them to betray anything and everything for the proverbial thirty pieces of silver% 4!t we can deal with s!ch people% (he millions, however, who are opposed to every &ind of national revival simply beca!se of their political opinions, constit!te an ins!rmo!ntable obstacle% At least the obstacle will remain ins!rmo!ntable as long as the ca!se of their opposition, which is international ar3ism, is not overcome and its teachings banished from both their hearts and heads% From whatever point of view we may e3amine the possibility of recovering o!r independence as a 'tate and a people, whether we consider the problem from the standpoint of technical rearmament or from that of the act!al

str!ggle itself, the necessary pre-re+!isite always remains the same% (his pre-re+!isite is that the broad masses of the people m!st first be won over to accept the principle of o!r national independence% If we do not regain o!r e3ternal freedom every step forward in domestic reform will at best be an a!gmentation of o!r prod!ctive powers for the benefit of those nations that loo& !pon !s as a colony to be e3ploited% (he s!rpl!s prod!ced by any so-called improvement wo!ld only go into the hands of o!r international controllers and any social betterment wo!ld at best increase the prod!ct of o!r labo!r in favo!r of those people% *o c!lt!ral progress can be made by the 6erman nation, beca!se s!ch progress is too m!ch bo!nd !p with the political independence and dignity of a people% (herefore, as we can find a satisfactory sol!tion for the problem of 6ermany#s f!t!re only by winning over the broad masses of o!r people for the s!pport of the national idea, this wor& of ed!cation m!st be considered the highest and most important tas& to be accomplished by a movement which does not strive merely to satisfy the needs of the moment b!t considers itself bo!nd to e3amine in the light of f!t!re res!lts everything it decides to do or refrain from doing% As early as 1919 we were convinced that the nationali9ation of the masses wo!ld have to constit!te the first and paramo!nt aim of the new movement% From the tactical standpoint, this decision laid a certain n!mber of obligations on o!r sho!lders% B1C *o social sacrifice co!ld be considered too great in this effort to win over the masses for the national revival% In the field of national economics, whatever concessions are granted to-day to the employees are negligible when compared with the benefit to be reaped by the whole nation if s!ch concessions contrib!te to bring bac& the masses of the people once more to the bosom of their own nation% *othing b!t meanness and shortsightedness, which are characteristics that !nfort!nately are only too prevalent among o!r employers, co!ld prevent people from recogni9ing that in the long r!n no economic improvement and therefore no rise in profits are possible !nless internal solidarity be restored among the b!l& of the people who ma&e !p o!r nation% If the 6erman trades !nions had defended the interests of the wor&ing-classes !ncompromisingly d!ring the /ar> if even d!ring the /ar they had !sed the weapon of the stri&e to force the ind!strialists - who were greedy for higher dividends - to grant the demands of the wor&ers for whom the !nions acted> if at the same time they had stood !p as good 6ermans for the defence of the nation as sto!tly as for their own claims, and if they had given to their co!ntry what was their co!ntry#s d!e - then the /ar wo!ld never have been lost% 1ow l!dicro!sly insignificant wo!ld all, and even the greatest, economic concession have been in face of the tremendo!s importance of s!ch a victory% For a movement which wo!ld restore the 6erman wor&er to the 6erman people it is therefore absol!tely necessary to !nderstand clearly that economic sacrifices m!st be considered light in s!ch cases, provided of co!rse that they do not go the length of endangering the independence and stability of the national economic system% B2C (he ed!cation of the masses along national lines can be carried o!t only indirectly, by improving their social conditions> for only by s!ch a process can the economic conditions be created which enable everybody to share in the c!lt!ral life of the nation% B.C (he nationali9ation of the broad masses can never be achieved by half-meas!res - that is to say, by feebly insisting on what is called the ob,ective side of the +!estion - b!t only by a r!thless and devoted insistence on the one aim which m!st be achieved% (his means that a people cannot be made Inational# according to the signification attached to that word by o!r bo!rgeois class to-day - that is to say, nationalism with many reservations - b!t national in the vehement and e3treme sense% "oison can be overcome only by a co!nter-poison, and only the s!pine bo!rgeois mind co!ld thin& that the 2ingdom of 1eaven can be attained by a compromise% (he broad masses of a nation are not made !p of professors and diplomats% 'ince these masses have only a poor ac+!aintance with abstract ideas, their reactions lie more in the domain of the feelings, where the roots of their positive as well as their negative attit!des are implanted% (hey are s!sceptible only to a manifestation of strength which comes definitely either from the positive or negative side, b!t they are never s!sceptible to any half-hearted attit!de that wavers between one pole and the other% (he emotional gro!nds of their attit!de f!rnish the reason for their e3traordinary stability% It is always more diffic!lt to fight s!ccessf!lly against Faith than against &nowledge% Love is less s!b,ect to change than respect% 1atred is more lasting than mere aversion% And the driving force which has bro!ght abo!t the most tremendo!s revol!tions on this earth has never been a body of scientific teaching which has gained power over the masses, b!t always a devotion which has inspired them, and often a &ind of hysteria which has !rged them to action% /hoever wishes to win over the masses m!st &now the &ey that will open the door to their hearts% It is not ob,ectivity, which is a fec&less attit!de, b!t a determined will, bac&ed !p by force, when necessary% B4C (he so!l of the masses can be won only if those who lead the movement for that p!rpose are determined not merely to carry thro!gh the positive str!ggle for their own aims b!t are also determined to destroy the enemy that opposes them% /hen they see an !ncompromising onsla!ght against an adversary the people have at all times ta&en this as a proof that right is on the side of the active aggressor> b!t if the aggressor sho!ld go only half-way and fail to p!sh home

his s!ccess by driving his opponent entirely from the scene of action, the people will loo& !pon this as a sign that the aggressor is !ncertain of the ,!stice of his own ca!se and his half-way policy may even be an ac&nowledgment that his ca!se is !n,!st% (he masses are b!t a part of *at!re herself% (heir feeling is s!ch that they cannot !nderstand m!t!al handsha&ings between men who are declared enemies% (heir wish is to see the stronger side win and the wea&er wiped o!t or s!b,ected !nconditionally to the will of the stronger% (he nationali9ation of the masses can be s!ccessf!lly achieved only if, in the positive str!ggle to win the so!l of the people, those who spread the international poison among them are e3terminated% B=C All the great problems of o!r time are problems of the moment and are only the res!lts of certain definite ca!ses% And among all those there is only one that has a profo!ndly ca!sal significance% (his is the problem of preserving the p!re racial stoc& among the people% 1!man vigo!r or decline depends on the blood% *ations that are not aware of the importance of their racial stoc&, or which neglect to preserve it, are li&e men who wo!ld try to ed!cate the p!g-dog to do the wor& of the greyho!nd, not !nderstanding that neither the speed of the greyho!nd nor the imitative fac!lties of the poodle are inborn +!alities which cannot be drilled into the one or the other by any form of training% A people that fails to preserve the p!rity of its racial blood thereby destroys the !nity of the so!l of the nation in all its manifestations% A disintegrated national character is the inevitable conse+!ence of a process of disintegration in the blood% And the change which ta&es place in the spirit!al and creative fac!lties of a people is only an effect of the change that has modified its racial s!bstance% If we are to free the 6erman people from all those failings and ways of acting which do not spring from their original character, we m!st first get rid of those foreign germs in the national body which are the ca!se of its failings and false ways% (he 6erman nation will never revive !nless the racial problem is ta&en into acco!nt and dealt with% (he racial problem f!rnishes the &ey not only to the !nderstanding of h!man history b!t also to the !nderstanding of every &ind of h!man c!lt!re% BFC 4y incorporating in the national comm!nity the masses of o!r people who are now in the international camp we do not thereby mean to reno!nce the principle that the interests of the vario!s trades and professions m!st be safeg!arded% ?ivergent interests in the vario!s branches of labo!r and in the trades and professions are not the same as a division between the vario!s classes, b!t rather a feat!re inherent in the economic sit!ation% :ocational gro!ping does not clash in the least with the idea of a national comm!nity, for this means national !nity in regard to all those problems that affect the life of the nation as s!ch% (o incorporate in the national comm!nity, or simply the 'tate, a strat!m of the people which has now formed a social class the standing of the higher classes m!st not be lowered b!t that of the lower classes m!st be raised% (he class which carries thro!gh this process is never the higher class b!t rather the lower one which is fighting for e+!ality of rights% (he bo!rgeoisie of to-day was not incorporated in the 'tate thro!gh meas!res enacted by the fe!dal nobility b!t only thro!gh its own energy and a leadership that had spr!ng from its own ran&s% (he 6erman wor&er cannot be raised from his present standing and incorporated in the 6erman fol&-comm!nity by means of goody-goody meetings where people tal& abo!t the brotherhood of the people, b!t rather by a systematic improvement in the social and c!lt!ral life of the wor&er !ntil the yawning abyss between him and the other classes can be filled in% A movement which has this for its aim m!st try to recr!it its followers mainly from the ran&s of the wor&ing class% It m!st incl!de members of the intellect!al classes only in so far as s!ch members have rightly !nderstood and accepted witho!t reserve the ideal towards which the movement is striving% (his process of transformation and re!nion cannot be completed within ten or twenty years% It will ta&e several generations, as the history of s!ch movements has shown% (he most diffic!lt obstacle to the re!nion of o!r contemporary wor&er in the national fol&-comm!nity does not consist so m!ch in the fact that he fights for the interests of his fellow-wor&ers, b!t rather in the international ideas with which he is imb!ed and which are of their nat!re at variance with the ideas of nationhood and fatherland% (his hostile attit!de to nation and fatherland has been inc!lcated by the leaders of the wor&ing class% If they were inspired by the principle of devotion to the nation in all that concerns its political and social welfare, the trades !nions wo!ld ma&e those millions of wor&ers most val!able members of the national comm!nity, witho!t thereby affecting their own constant str!ggle for their economic demands% A movement which sincerely endeavo!rs to bring the 6erman wor&er bac& into his fol&-comm!nity, and resc!e him from the folly of internationalism, m!st wage a vigoro!s campaign against certain notions that are prevalent among the ind!strialists% One of these notions is that according to the concept of the fol&-comm!nity, the employee is obliged to s!rrender all his economic rights to the employer and, f!rther, that the wor&ers wo!ld come into conflict with the fol&-comm!nity if they sho!ld attempt to defend their own ,!st and vital interests% (hose who try to propagate s!ch a notion are deliberate liars% (he idea of a fol&-comm!nity does not impose any obligations on the one side that are not imposed on the other% A wor&er certainly does something which is contrary to the spirit of fol&-comm!nity if he acts entirely on his own

initiative and p!ts forward e3aggerated demands witho!t ta&ing the common good into consideration or the maintenance of the national economic str!ct!re% 4!t an ind!strialist also acts against the spirit of the fol&comm!nity if he adopts inh!man methods of e3ploitation and mis!ses the wor&ing forces of the nation to ma&e millions !n,!stly for himself from the sweat of the wor&ers% 1e has no right to call himself Inational# and no right to tal& of a fol&-comm!nity, for he is only an !nscr!p!lo!s egoist who sows the seeds of social discontent and provo&es a spirit of conflict which sooner or later m!st be in,!rio!s to the interests of the co!ntry% (he reservoir from which the yo!ng movement has to draw its members will first of all be the wor&ing masses% (hose masses m!st be delivered from the cl!tches of the international mania% (heir social distress m!st be eliminated% (hey m!st be raised above their present c!lt!ral level, which is deplorable, and transformed into a resol!te and val!able factor in the fol&-comm!nity, inspired by national ideas and national sentiment% If among those intellect!al circles that are nationalist in their o!tloo& men can be fo!nd who gen!inely love the people and loo& forward eagerly to the f!t!re of 6ermany, and at the same time have a so!nd grasp of the importance of a str!ggle whose aim is to win over the so!l of the masses, s!ch men are cordially welcomed in the ran&s of o!r movement, beca!se they can serve as a val!able intellect!al force in the wor& that has to be done% 4!t this movement can never aim at recr!iting its membership from the !nthin&ing herd of bo!rgeois voters% If it did so the movement wo!ld be b!rdened with a mass of people whose whole mentality wo!ld only help to paralyse the effort of o!r campaign to win the mass of the people% In theory it may be very fine to say that the broad masses o!ght to be infl!enced by a combined leadership of the !pper and lower social strata within the framewor& of the one movement> b!t, notwithstanding all this, the fact remains that tho!gh it may be possible to e3ercise a psychological infl!ence on the bo!rgeois classes and to aro!se some enth!siasm or even awa&en some !nderstanding among them by o!r p!blic demonstrations, their traditional characteristics cannot be changed% In other words, we co!ld not eliminate from the bo!rgeois classes the inefficiency and s!pineness which are part of a tradition that has developed thro!gh cent!ries% (he difference between the c!lt!ral levels of the two gro!ps and between their respective attit!des towards social-economic +!estions is still so great that it wo!ld t!rn o!t a hindrance to the movement the moment the first enth!siasm aro!sed by o!r demonstrations calmed down% Finally, it is not part of o!r programme to transform the nationalist camp itself, b!t rather to win over those who are anti-national in their o!tloo&% It is from this viewpoint that the strategy of the whole movement m!st finally be decided% BGC (his one-sided b!t accordingly clear and definite attit!de m!st be manifested in the propaganda of the movement> and, on the other hand, this is absol!tely necessary to ma&e the propaganda itself effective% If propaganda is to be of service to the movement it m!st be addressed to one side alone> for if it sho!ld vary the direction of its appeal it will not be !nderstood in the one camp or may be re,ected by the other, as merely insisting on obvio!s and !ninteresting tr!isms> for the intellect!al training of the two camps that come into +!estion here has been very different% 7ven the manner in which something is presented and the tone in which partic!lar details are emphasi9ed cannot have the same effect in those two strata that belong respectively to the opposite e3tremes of the social str!ct!re% If the propaganda sho!ld refrain from !sing primitive forms of e3pression it will not appeal to the sentiments of the masses% If, on the other hand, it conforms to the cr!de sentiments of the masses in its words and gest!res the intellect!al circles will be averse to it beca!se of its ro!ghness and v!lgarity% Among a h!ndred men who call themselves orators there are scarcely ten who are capable of spea&ing with effect before an a!dience of streetsweepers, loc&smiths and navvies, etc%, to-day and e3po!nd the same s!b,ect with e+!al effect to-morrow before an a!dience of !niversity professors and st!dents% Among a tho!sand p!blic spea&ers there may be only one who can spea& before a composite a!dience of loc&smiths and professors in the same hall in s!ch a way that his statements can be f!lly comprehended by each gro!p while at the same time he effectively infl!ences both and awa&ens enth!siasm, on the one side as well as on the other, to hearty appla!se% 4!t it m!st be remembered that in most cases even the most bea!tif!l idea embodied in a s!blime theory can be bro!ght home to the p!blic only thro!gh the medi!m of smaller minds% (he thing that matters here is not the vision of the man of geni!s who created the great idea b!t rather the s!ccess which his apostles achieve in shaping the e3pression of this idea so as to bring it home to the minds of the masses% 'ocial-?emocracy and the whole ar3ist movement were partic!larly +!alified to attract the great masses of the nation, beca!se of the !niformity of the p!blic to which they addressed their appeal% (he more limited and narrow their ideas and arg!ments, the easier it was for the masses to grasp and assimilate them> for those ideas and arg!ments were well adapted to a low level of intelligence% (hese considerations led the new movement to adopt a clear and simple line of policy, which was as follows0 In its message as well as in its forms of e3pression the propaganda m!st be &ept on a level with the intelligence of the masses, and its val!e m!st be meas!red only by the act!al s!ccess it achieves% At a p!blic meeting where the great masses are gathered together the best spea&er is not he whose way of approaching a s!b,ect is most a&in to the spirit of those intellect!als who may happen to be present, b!t the spea&er

who &nows how to win the hearts of the masses% An ed!cated man who is present and who finds fa!lt with an address beca!se he considers it to be on an intellect!al plane that is too low, tho!gh he himself has witnessed its effect on the lower intellect!al gro!ps whose adherence has to be won, only shows himself completely incapable of rightly ,!dging the sit!ation and therewith proves that he can be of no !se in the new movement% Only intellect!als can be of !se to a movement who !nderstand its mission and its aims so well that they have learned to ,!dge o!r methods of propaganda e3cl!sively by the s!ccess obtained and never by the impression which those methods made on the intellect!als themselves% For o!r propaganda is not meant to serve as an entertainment for those people who already have a nationalist o!tloo&, b!t its p!rpose is to win the adhesion of those who have hitherto been hostile to national ideas and who are nevertheless of o!r own blood and race% In general, those considerations of which I have given a brief s!mmary in the chapter on I/ar "ropaganda# became the g!iding r!les and principles which determined the &ind of propaganda we were to adopt in o!r campaign and the manner in which we were to p!t it into practice% (he s!ccess that has been obtained proves that o!r decision was right% B;C (he ends which any political reform movement sets o!t to attain can never be reached by trying to ed!cate the p!blic or infl!ence those in power b!t only by getting political power into its hands% 7very idea that is meant to move the world has not only the right b!t also the obligation of sec!ring control of those means which will enable the idea to be carried into effect% In this world s!ccess is the only r!le of ,!dgment whereby we can decide whether s!ch an !nderta&ing was right or wrong% And by the word Is!ccess# in this connection I do not mean s!ch a s!ccess as the mere con+!est of power in 191; b!t the s!ccessf!l iss!e whereby the common interests of the nation have been served% A co!p d#etat cannot be considered s!ccessf!l if, as many empty-headed government lawyers in 6ermany now believe, the revol!tionaries s!cceeded in getting control of the 'tate into their hands b!t only if, in comparison with the state of affairs !nder the old regime, the lot of the nation has been improved when the aims and intentions on which the revol!tion was based have been p!t into practice% (his certainly does not apply to the 6erman 8evol!tion, as that movement was called, which bro!ght a gang of bandits into power in the a!t!mn of 191;% 4!t if the con+!est of political power be a re+!isite preliminary for the practical reali9ation of the ideals that inspire a reform movement, then any movement which aims at reform m!st, from the very first day of its activity, be considered by its leaders as a movement of the masses and not as a literary tea cl!b or an association of philistines who meet to play ninepins% B9C (he nat!re and internal organi9ation of the new movement ma&e it anti-parliamentarian% (hat is to say, it re,ects in general and in its own str!ct!re all those principles according to which decisions are to be ta&en on the vote of the ma,ority and according to which the leader is only the e3ec!tor of the will and opinion of others% (he movement lays down the principle that, in the smallest as well as in the greatest problems, one person m!st have absol!te a!thority and bear all responsibility% In o!r movement the practical conse+!ences of this principle are the following0 (he president of a large gro!p is appointed by the head of the gro!p immediately above his in a!thority% 1e is then the responsible leader of his gro!p% All the committees are s!b,ect to his a!thority and not he to theirs% (here is no s!ch thing as committees that vote b!t only committees that wor&% (his wor& is allotted by the responsible leader, who is the president of the gro!p% (he same principle applies to the higher organi9ations - the 4e9ir& BdistrictC, the 2reis B!rban circ!itC and the 6a! Bthe regionC% In each case the president is appointed from above and is invested with f!ll a!thority and e3ec!tive power% Only the leader of the whole party is elected at the general meeting of the members% 4!t he is the sole leader of the movement% All the committees are responsible to him, b!t he is not responsible to the committees% 1is decision is final, b!t he bears the whole responsibility of it% (he members of the movement are entitled to call him to acco!nt by means of a new election, or to remove him from office if he has violated the principles of the movement or has not served its interests ade+!ately% 1e is then replaced by a more capable man% who is invested with the same a!thority and obliged to bear the same responsibility% One of the highest d!ties of the movement is to ma&e this principle imperative not only within its own ran&s b!t also for the whole 'tate% (he man who becomes leader is invested with the highest and !nlimited a!thority, b!t he also has to bear the last and gravest responsibility% (he man who has not the co!rage to sho!lder responsibility for his actions is not fitted to be a leader% Only a man of heroic mo!ld can have the vocation for s!ch a tas&% 1!man progress and h!man c!lt!res are not fo!nded by the m!ltit!de% (hey are e3cl!sively the wor& of personal geni!s and personal efficiency% 4eca!se of this principle, o!r movement m!st necessarily be anti-parliamentarian, and if it ta&es part in the parliamentary instit!tion it is only for the p!rpose of destroying this instit!tion from within> in other words, we wish to do away with an instit!tion which we m!st loo& !pon as one of the gravest symptoms of h!man decline%

B1<C (he movement steadfastly ref!ses to ta&e !p any stand in regard to those problems which are either o!tside of its sphere of political wor& or seem to have no f!ndamental importance for !s% It does not aim at bringing abo!t a religio!s reformation, b!t rather a political reorgani9ation of o!r people% It loo&s !pon the two religio!s denominations as e+!ally val!able mainstays for the e3istence of o!r people, and therefore it ma&es war on all those parties which wo!ld degrade this fo!ndation, on which the religio!s and moral stability of o!r people is based, to an instr!ment in the service of party interests% Finally, the movement does not aim at establishing any one form of 'tate or trying to destroy another, b!t rather to ma&e those f!ndamental principles prevail witho!t which no rep!blic and no monarchy can e3ist for any length of time% (he movement does not consider its mission to be the establishment of a monarchy or the preservation of the 8ep!blic b!t rather to create a 6erman 'tate% (he problem concerning the o!ter form of this 'tate, that is to say, its final shape, is not of f!ndamental importance% It is a problem which m!st be solved in the light of what seems practical and opport!ne at the moment% Once a nation has !nderstood and appreciated the great problems that affect its inner e3istence, the +!estion of o!ter formalities will never lead to any internal conflict% B11C (he problem of the inner organi9ation of the movement is not one of principle b!t of e3pediency% (he best &ind of organi9ation is not that which places a large intermediary apparat!s between the leadership of the movement and the individ!al followers b!t rather that which wor&s s!ccessf!lly with the smallest possible intermediary apparat!s% For it is the tas& of s!ch an organi9ation to transmit a certain idea which originated in the brain of one individ!al to a m!ltit!de of people and to s!pervise the manner in which this idea is being p!t into practice% (herefore, from any and every viewpoint, the organi9ation is only a necessary evil% At best it is only a means of reaching certain ends% (he worst happens when it becomes an end in itself% 'ince the world prod!ces more mechanical than intelligent beings, it will always be easier to develop the form of an organi9ation than its s!bstance> that is to say, the ideas which it is meant to serve% (he march of any idea which strives towards practical f!lfilment, and in partic!lar those ideas which are of a reformatory character, may be ro!ghly s&etched as follows0 A creative idea ta&es shape in the mind of somebody who there!pon feels himself called !pon to transmit this idea to the world% 1e propo!nds his faith before others and thereby grad!ally wins a certain n!mber of followers% (his direct and personal way of prom!lgating one#s ideas among one#s contemporaries is the most nat!ral and the most ideal% 4!t as the movement develops and sec!res a large n!mber of followers it grad!ally becomes impossible for the original fo!nder of the doctrine on which the movement is based to carry on his propaganda personally among his inn!merable followers and at the same time g!ide the co!rse of the movement% According as the comm!nity of followers increases, direct comm!nication between the head and the individ!al followers becomes impossible% (his interco!rse m!st then ta&e place thro!gh an intermediary apparat!s introd!ced into the framewor& of the movement% (h!s ideal conditions of inter-comm!nication cease, and organi9ation has to be introd!ced as a necessary evil% 'mall s!bsidiary gro!ps come into e3istence, as in the political movement, for e3ample, where the local gro!ps represent the germ-cells o!t of which the organi9ation develops later on% 4!t s!ch s!b-divisions m!st not be introd!ced into the movement !ntil the a!thority of the spirit!al fo!nder and of the school he has created are accepted witho!t reservation% Otherwise the movement wo!ld r!n the ris& of becoming split !p by divergent doctrines% In this connection too m!ch emphasis cannot be laid on the importance of having one geographic centre as the chief seat of the movement% Only the e3istence of s!ch a seat or centre, aro!nd which a magic charm s!ch as that of ecca or 8ome is woven, can s!pply a movement with that permanent driving force which has its so!rces in the internal !nity of the movement and the recognition of one head as representing this !nity% /hen the first germinal cells of the organi9ation are being formed care m!st always be ta&en to insist on the importance of the place where the idea originated% (he creative, moral and practical greatness of the place whence the movement went forth and from which it is governed m!st be e3alted to a s!preme symbol, and this m!st be hono!red all the more according as the original cells of the movement become so n!mero!s that they have to be regro!ped into larger !nits in the str!ct!re of the organi9ation% /hen the n!mber of individ!al followers became so large that direct personal contact with the head of the movement was o!t of the +!estion, then we had to form those first local gro!ps% As those gro!ps m!ltiplied to an e3traordinary n!mber it was necessary to establish higher cadres into which the local gro!ps were distrib!ted% 73amples of s!ch cadres in the political organi9ation are those of the region B6a!C and the district B4e9ir&C% (ho!gh it may be easy eno!gh to maintain the original central a!thority over the lowest gro!ps, it is m!ch more diffic!lt to do so in relation to the higher !nits of organi9ation which have now developed% And yet we m!st s!cceed in doing this, for this is an indispensable condition if the !nity of the movement is to be g!aranteed and the idea of it carried into effect% Finally, when those larger intermediary organi9ations have to be combined in new and still higher !nits it becomes

increasingly diffic!lt to maintain over them the absol!te s!premacy of the original seat of the movement and the school attached to it% $onse+!ently the mechanical forms of an organi9ation m!st only be introd!ced if and in so far as the spirit!al a!thority and the ideals of the central seat of the organi9ation are shown to be firmly established% In the political sphere it may often happen that this s!premacy can be maintained only when the movement has ta&en over s!preme political control of the nation% 1aving ta&en all these considerations into acco!nt, the following principles were laid down for the inner str!ct!re of the movement0 BaC (hat at the beginning all activity sho!ld be concentrated in one town0 namely, !nich% (hat a band of absol!tely reliable followers sho!ld be trained and a school fo!nded which wo!ld s!bse+!ently help to propagate the idea of the movement% (hat the prestige of the movement, for the sa&e of its s!bse+!ent e3tension, sho!ld first be established here thro!gh gaining as many s!ccessf!l and visible res!lts as possible in this one place% (o sec!re name and fame for the movement and its leader it was necessary, not only to give in this one town a stri&ing e3ample to shatter the belief that the ar3ist doctrine was invincible b!t also to show that a co!nter-doctrine was possible% BbC (hat local gro!ps sho!ld not be established before the s!premacy of the central a!thority in !nich was definitely established and ac&nowledged% BcC (hat ?istrict, 8egional, and "rovincial gro!ps sho!ld be formed only after the need for them has become evident and only after the s!premacy of the central a!thority has been satisfactorily g!aranteed% F!rther, that the creation of s!bordinate organisms m!st depend on whether or not those persons can be fo!nd who are +!alified to !nderta&e the leadership of them% 1ere there were only two sol!tions0 BaC (hat the movement sho!ld ac+!ire the necessary f!nds to attract and train intelligent people who wo!ld be capable of becoming leaders% (he personnel th!s obtained co!ld then be systematically employed according as the tactical sit!ation and the necessity for efficiency demanded% (his sol!tion was the easier and the more e3pedite% 4!t it demanded large financial reso!rces> for this gro!p of leaders co!ld wor& in the movement only if they co!ld be paid a salary% BbC 4eca!se the movement is not in a position to employ paid officials it m!st begin by depending on honorary helpers% *at!rally this sol!tion is slower and more diffic!lt% It means that the leaders of the movement have to allow vast territories to lie fallow !nless in these respective districts one of the members comes forward who is capable and willing to place himself at the service of the central a!thority for the p!rpose of organi9ing and directing the movement in the region concerned% It may happen that in e3tensive regions no s!ch leader can be fo!nd, b!t that at the same time in other regions two or three or even more persons appear whose capabilities are almost on a level% (he diffic!lty which this sit!ation involves is very great and can be overcome only with the passing of the years% For the establishment of any branch of the organi9ation the decisive condition m!st always be that a person can be fo!nd who is capable of f!lfilling the f!nctions of a leader% )!st as the army and all its vario!s !nits of organi9ation are !seless if there are no officers, so any political organi9ation is worthless if it has not the right &ind of leaders% If an inspiring personality who has the gift of leadership cannot be fo!nd for the organi9ation and direction of a local gro!p it is better for the movement to refrain from establishing s!ch a gro!p than to r!n the ris& of fail!re after the gro!p has been fo!nded% (he will to be a leader is not a s!fficient +!alification for leadership% For the leader m!st have the other necessary +!alities% Among these +!alities will-power and energy m!st be considered as more serviceable than the intellect of a geni!s% (he most val!able association of +!alities is to be fo!nd in a combination of talent, determination and perseverance% B12C (he f!t!re of a movement is determined by the devotion, and even intolerance, with which its members fight for their ca!se% (hey m!st feel convinced that their ca!se alone is ,!st, and they m!st carry it thro!gh to s!ccess, as against other similar organi9ations in the same field% It is +!ite erroneo!s to believe that the strength of a movement m!st increase if it be combined with other movements of a similar &ind% Any e3pansion res!lting from s!ch a combination will of co!rse mean an increase in e3ternal development, which s!perficial observers might consider as also an increase of power> b!t in reality the movement th!s admits o!tside elements which will s!bse+!ently wea&en its constit!tional vigo!r% (ho!gh it may be said that one movement is identical in character with another, in reality no s!ch identity e3ists% If it did e3ist then practically there wo!ld not be two movements b!t only one% And whatever the difference may be, even if it consist only of the meas!re in which the capabilities of the one set of leaders differ from those of the other, there it is% It is against the nat!ral law of all development to co!ple dissimilar organisms,or the law is that the stronger m!st overcome the wea&er and, thro!gh the str!ggle necessary for s!ch a con+!est, increase the

constit!tional vigo!r and effective strength of the victor% 4y amalgamating political organi9ations that are appro3imately ali&e, certain immediate advantages may be gained, b!t advantages th!s gained are bo!nd in the long r!n to become the ca!se of internal wea&nesses which will ma&e their appearance later on% A movement can become great only if the !nhampered development of its internal strength be safeg!arded and steadfastly a!gmented, !ntil victory over all its competitors be sec!red% One may safely say that the strength of a movement and its right to e3istence can be developed only as long as it remains tr!e to the principle that str!ggle is a necessary condition of its progress and that its ma3im!m strength will be reached only as soon as complete victory has been won% (herefore a movement m!st not strive to obtain s!ccesses that will be only immediate and transitory, b!t it m!st show a spirit of !ncompromising perseverance in carrying thro!gh a long str!ggle which will sec!re for it a long period of inner growth% All those movements which owe their e3pansion to a so-called combination of similar organisms, which means that their e3ternal strength is d!e to a policy of compromise, are li&e plants whose growth is forced in a hotho!se% (hey shoot !p e3ternally b!t they lac& that inner strength which enables the nat!ral plant to grow into a tree that will withstand the storms of cent!ries% (he greatness of every powerf!l organi9ation which embodies a creative idea lies in the spirit of religio!s devotion and intolerance with which it stands o!t against all others, beca!se it has an ardent faith in its own right% If an idea is right in itself and, f!rnished with the fighting weapons I have mentioned, wages war on this earth, then it is invincible and persec!tion will only add to its internal strength% (he greatness of $hristianity did not arise from attempts to ma&e compromises with those philosophical opinions of the ancient world which had some resemblance to its own doctrine, b!t in the !nrelenting and fanatical proclamation and defence of its own teaching% (he apparent advance that a movement ma&es by associating itself with other movements will be easily reached and s!rpassed by the steady increase of strength which a doctrine and its organi9ation ac+!ires if it remains independent and fights its own ca!se alone% B1.C (he movement o!ght to ed!cate its adherents to the principle that str!ggle m!st not be considered a necessary evil b!t as something to be desired in itself% (herefore they m!st not be afraid of the hostility which their adversaries manifest towards them b!t they m!st ta&e it as a necessary condition on which their whole right to e3istence is based% (hey m!st not try to avoid being hated by those who are the enemies of o!r people and o!r philosophy of life, b!t m!st welcome s!ch hatred% Lies and cal!mnies are part of the method which the enemy employs to e3press his chagrin% (he man who is not opposed and vilified and slandered in the )ewish "ress is not a sta!nch 6erman and not a tr!e *ational 'ocialist% (he best r!le whereby the sincerity of his convictions, his character and strength of will, can be meas!red is the hostility which his name aro!ses among the mortal enemies of o!r people% (he followers of the movement, and indeed the whole nation, m!st be reminded again and again of the fact that, thro!gh the medi!m of his newspapers, the )ew is always spreading falsehood and that if he tells the tr!th on some occasions it is only for the p!rpose of mas&ing some greater deceit, which t!rns the apparent tr!th into a deliberate falsehood% (he )ew is the 6reat aster of Lies% Falsehood and d!plicity are the weapons with which he fights% 7very cal!mny and falsehood p!blished by the )ews are to&ens of hono!r which can be worn by o!r comrades% 1e whom they decry most is nearest to o!r hearts and he whom they mortally hate is o!r best friend% If a comrade of o!rs opens a )ewish newspaper in the morning and does not find himself vilified there, then he has spent yesterday to no acco!nt% For if he had achieved something he wo!ld be persec!ted, slandered, derided and ab!sed% (hose who effectively combat this mortal enemy of o!r people, who is at the same time the enemy of all Aryan peoples and all c!lt!re, can only e3pect to aro!se opposition on the part of this race and become the ob,ect of its slandero!s attac&s% /hen these tr!ths become part of the flesh and blood, as it were, of o!r members, then the movement will be impregnable and invincible% B14C (he movement m!st !se all possible means to c!ltivate respect for the individ!al personality% It m!st never forget that all h!man val!es are based on personal val!es, and that every idea and achievement is the fr!it of the creative power of one man% /e m!st never forget that admiration for everything that is great is not only a trib!te to one creative personality b!t that all those who feel s!ch admiration become thereby !nited !nder one covenant% *othing can ta&e the place of the individ!al, especially if the individ!al embodies in himself not the mechanical element b!t the element of c!lt!ral creativeness% *o p!pil can ta&e the place of the master in completing a great pict!re which he has left !nfinished> and ,!st in the same way no s!bstit!te can ta&e the place of the great poet or thin&er, or the great statesman or military general% For the so!rce of their power is in the realm of artistic creativeness% It can never be mechanically ac+!ired, beca!se it is an innate prod!ct of divine grace% (he greatest revol!tions and the greatest achievements of this world, its greatest c!lt!ral wor&s and the immortal

creations of great statesmen, are inseparably bo!nd !p with one name which stands as a symbol for them in each respective case% (he fail!re to pay trib!te to one of those great spirits signifies a neglect of that enormo!s so!rce of power which lies in the remembrance of all great men and women% (he )ew himself &nows this best% 1e, whose great men have always been great only in their efforts to destroy man&ind and its civili9ation, ta&es good care that they are worshipped as idols% 4!t the )ew tries to degrade the hono!r in which nations hold their great men and women% 1e stigmati9es this hono!r as Ithe c!lt of personality#% As soon as a nation has so far lost its co!rage as to s!bmit to this imp!dent defamation on the part of the )ews it reno!nces the most important so!rce of its own inner strength% (his inner force cannot arise from a policy of pandering to the masses b!t only from the worship of men of geni!s, whose lives have !plifted and ennobled the nation itself% /hen men#s hearts are brea&ing and their so!ls are pl!nged into the depths of despair, their great forebears t!rn their eyes towards them from the dim shadows of the past - those forebears who &new how to tri!mph over an3iety and affliction, mental servit!de and physical bondage - and e3tend their eternal hands in a gest!re of enco!ragement to despairing so!ls% /oe to the nation that is ashamed to clasp those hands% ?!ring the initial phase of o!r movement o!r greatest handicap was the fact that none of !s were &nown and o!r names meant nothing, a fact which then seemed to some of !s to ma&e the chances of final s!ccess problematical% O!r most diffic!lt tas& then was to ma&e o!r members firmly believe that there was a tremendo!s f!t!re in store for the movement and to maintain this belief as a living faith> for at that time only si3, seven or eight persons came to hear one of o!r spea&ers% $onsider that only si3 or seven poor devils who were entirely !n&nown came together to fo!nd a movement which sho!ld s!cceed in doing what the great mass-parties had failed to do0 namely, to reconstr!ct the 6erman 8eich, even in greater power and glory than before% /e sho!ld have been very pleased if we were attac&ed or even ridic!led% 4!t the most depressing fact was that nobody paid any attention to !s whatever% (his !tter lac& of interest in !s ca!sed me great mental pain at that time% /hen I entered the circle of those men there was not yet any +!estion of a party or a movement% I have already described the impression which was made on me when I first came into contact with that small organi9ation% '!bse+!ently I had time, and also the occasion, to st!dy the form of this so-called party which at first had made s!ch a woef!l impression% (he pict!re was indeed +!ite depressing and disco!raging% (here was nothing, absol!tely nothing at all% (here was only the name of a party% And the committee consisted of all the party members% 'omehow or other it seemed ,!st the &ind of thing we were abo!t to fight against - a miniat!re parliament% (he voting system was employed% /hen the great parliament cried !ntil they were hoarse - at least they sho!ted over problems of importance - here this small circle engaged in interminable disc!ssions as to the form in which they might answer the letters which they were delighted to have received% *eedless to say, the p!blic &new nothing of all this% In !nich nobody &new of the e3istence of s!ch a party, not even by name, e3cept o!r few members and their small circle of ac+!aintances% 7very /ednesday what was called a committee meeting was held in one of the cafOs, and a debate was arranged for one evening each wee&% In the beginning all the members of the movement were also members of the committee, therefore the same persons always t!rned !p at both meetings% (he first step that had to be ta&en was to e3tend the narrow limits of this small circle and get new members, b!t the principal necessity was to !tili9e all the means at o!r command for the p!rpose of ma&ing the movement &nown% /e chose the following methods0 /e decided to hold a monthly meeting to which the p!blic wo!ld be invited% 'ome of the invitations were typewritten, and some were written by hand% For the first few meetings we distrib!ted them in the streets and delivered them personally at certain ho!ses% 7ach one canvassed among his own ac+!aintances and tried to pers!ade some of them to attend o!r meetings% (he res!lt was lamentable% I still remember once how I personally delivered eighty of these invitations and how we waited in the evening for the crowds to come% After waiting in vain for a whole ho!r the chairman finally had to open the meeting% Again there were only seven people present, the old familiar seven% /e then changed o!r methods% /e had the invitations written with a typewriter in a !nich stationer#s shop and then m!ltigraphed them% (he res!lt was that a few more people attended o!r ne3t meeting% (he n!mber increased grad!ally from eleven to thirteen to seventeen, to twenty-three and finally to thirty-fo!r% /e collected some money within o!r own circle, each poor devil giving a small contrib!tion, and in that way we raised s!fficient f!nds to be able to advertise one of o!r meetings in the !nich Observer, which was still an independent paper% (his time we had an astonishing s!ccess% /e had chosen the !nich 1ofbrE!ha!s 2eller Bwhich m!st not be confo!nded with the !nich 1ofbrE!ha!s FestsaalC as o!r meeting-place% It was a small hall and wo!ld accommodate scarcely more than 1.< people% (o me, however, the hall seemed enormo!s, and we were all trembling lest this tremendo!s edifice wo!ld remain partly empty on the night of the meeting% At seven o#cloc& 111 persons were present, and the meeting was opened% A !nich professor delivered the

principal address, and I spo&e after him% (hat was my first appearance in the role of p!blic orator% (he whole thing seemed a very daring advent!re to 1err 1arrer, who was then chairman of the party% 1e was a very decent fellow> b!t he had an a priori conviction that, altho!gh I might have +!ite a n!mber of good +!alities, I certainly did not have a talent for p!blic spea&ing% 7ven later he co!ld not be pers!aded to change his opinion% 4!t he was mista&en% (wenty min!tes had been allotted to me for my speech on this occasion, which might be loo&ed !pon as o!r first p!blic meeting% I tal&ed for thirty min!tes, and what I always had felt deep down in my heart, witho!t being able to p!t it to the test, was here proved to be tr!e0 I co!ld ma&e a good speech% At the end of the thirty min!tes it was +!ite clear that all the people in the little hall had been profo!ndly impressed% (he enth!siasm aro!sed among them fo!nd its first e3pression in the fact that my appeal to those present bro!ght !s donations which amo!nted to three h!ndred mar&s% (hat was a great relief for !s% O!r finances were at that time so meagre that we co!ld not afford to have o!r party prospect!s printed, or even leaflets% *ow we possessed at least the n!cle!s of a f!nd from which we co!ld pay the most !rgent and necessary e3penses% 4!t the s!ccess of this first larger meeting was also important from another point of view% I had already beg!n to introd!ce some yo!ng and fresh members into the committee% ?!ring the long period of my military service I had come to &now a large n!mber of good comrades whom I was now able to pers!ade to ,oin o!r party% All of them were energetic and disciplined yo!ng men who, thro!gh their years of military service, had been imb!ed with the principle that nothing is impossible and that where there#s a will there#s a way% (he need for this fresh blood s!pply became evident to me after a few wee&s of collaboration with the new members% 1err 1arrer, who was then chairman of the party, was a ,o!rnalist by profession, and as s!ch he was a man of general &nowledge% 4!t as leader of the party he had one very serio!s handicap0 he co!ld not spea& to the crowd% (ho!gh he did his wor& conscientio!sly, it lac&ed the necessary driving force, probably for the reason that he had no oratorical gifts whatsoever% 1err ?re3ler, at that time chairman of the !nich local gro!p, was a simple wor&ing man% 1e, too, was not of any great importance as a spea&er% oreover, he was not a soldier% 1e had never done military service, even d!ring the /ar% 'o that this man who was feeble and diffident by nat!re had missed the only school which &nows how to transform diffident and wea&ly nat!res into real men% (herefore neither of those two men were of the st!ff that wo!ld have enabled them to stir !p an ardent and indomitable faith in the !ltimate tri!mph of the movement and to br!sh aside, with obstinate force and if necessary with br!tal r!thlessness, all obstacles that stood in the path of the new idea% '!ch a tas& co!ld be carried o!t only by men who had been trained, body and so!l, in those military virt!es which ma&e a man, so to spea&, agile as a greyho!nd, to!gh as leather, and hard as 2r!pp steel% At that time I was still a soldier% "hysically and mentally I had the polish of si3 years of service, so that in the beginning this circle m!st have loo&ed on me as +!ite a stranger% In common with my army comrades, I had forgotten s!ch phrases as0 H(hat will not goH, or H(hat is not possibleH, or H/e o!ght not to ta&e s!ch a ris&> it is too dangero!sH% (he whole !nderta&ing was of its very nat!re dangero!s% At that time there were many parts of 6ermany where it wo!ld have been absol!tely impossible openly to invite people to a national meeting that dared to ma&e a direct appeal to the masses% (hose who attended s!ch meetings were !s!ally dispersed and driven away with bro&en heads% It certainly did not call for any great +!alities to be able to do things in that way% (he largest so-called bo!rgeois mass meetings were acc!stomed to dissolve, and those in attendance wo!ld r!n away li&e rabbits when frightened by a dog as soon as a do9en comm!nists appeared on the scene% (he 8eds !sed to pay little attention to those bo!rgeois organi9ations where only babblers tal&ed% (hey recogni9ed the inner triviality of s!ch associations m!ch better than the members themselves and therefore felt that they need not be afraid of them% On the contrary, however, they were all the more determined to !se every possible means of annihilating once and for all any movement that appeared to them to be a danger to their own interests% (he most effective means which they always employed in s!ch cases were terror and br!te force% (he ar3ist leaders, whose b!siness consisted in deceiving and misleading the p!blic, nat!rally hated most of all a movement whose declared aim was to win over those masses which hitherto had been e3cl!sively at the service of international ar3ism in the )ewish and 'toc& 73change parties% (he title alone, I6erman Labo!r party#, irritated them% It co!ld easily be foreseen that at the first opport!ne moment we sho!ld have to face the opposition of the ar3ist despots, who were still into3icated with their tri!mph in 191;% "eople in the small circles of o!r own movement at that time showed a certain amo!nt of an3iety at the prospect of s!ch a conflict% (hey wanted to refrain as m!ch as possible from coming o!t into the open, beca!se they feared that they might be attac&ed and beaten% In their minds they saw o!r first p!blic meetings bro&en !p and feared that the movement might th!s be r!ined for ever% I fo!nd it diffic!lt to defend my own position, which was that the conflict sho!ld not be evaded b!t that it sho!ld be faced openly and that we sho!ld be armed with those weapons which are the only protection against br!te force% (error cannot be overcome by the weapons of the mind b!t only by co!nterterror% (he s!ccess of o!r first p!blic meeting strengthened my own position% (he members felt enco!raged to

arrange for a second meeting, even on a larger scale% 'ome time in October 1919 the second larger meeting too& place in the 7berl-brE! 2eller% (he theme of o!r speeches was I4rest-Litows& and :ersailles#% (here were fo!r spea&ers% I tal&ed for almost an ho!r, and the s!ccess was even more stri&ing than at o!r first meeting% (he n!mber of people who attended had grown to more than 1.<% An attempt to dist!rb the proceedings was immediately fr!strated by my comrades% (he wo!ld-be dist!rbers were thrown down the stairs, bearing imprints of violence on their heads% A fortnight later another meeting too& place in the same hall% (he n!mber in attendance had now increased to more than 1G<, which meant that the room was fairly well filled% I spo&e again, and once more the s!ccess obtained was greater than at the previo!s meeting% (hen I proposed that a larger hall sho!ld be fo!nd% After loo&ing aro!nd for some time we discovered one at the other end of the town, in the I?e!tschen 8eich# in the ?acha!er 'trasse% (he first meeting at this new rende9vo!s had a smaller attendance than the previo!s meeting% (here were ,!st less than 14< present% (he members of the committee began to be disco!raged, and those who had always been sceptical were now convinced that this fallingoff in the attendance was d!e to the fact that we were holding the meetings at too short intervals% (here were lively disc!ssions, in which I !pheld my own opinion that a city with G<<,<<< inhabitants o!ght to be able not only to stand one meeting every fortnight b!t ten meetings every wee&% I held that we sho!ld not be disco!raged by one comparative setbac&, that the tactics we had chosen were correct, and that sooner or later s!ccess wo!ld be o!rs if we only contin!ed with determined perseverance to p!sh forward on o!r road% (his whole winter of 1919-2< was one contin!al str!ggle to strengthen confidence in o!r ability to carry the movement thro!gh to s!ccess and to intensify this confidence !ntil it became a b!rning faith that co!ld move mo!ntains% O!r ne3t meeting in the small hall proved the tr!th of my contention% O!r a!dience had increased to more than 2<<% (he p!blicity effect and the financial s!ccess were splendid% I immediately !rged that a f!rther meeting sho!ld be held% It too& place in less than a fortnight, and there were more than 2G< people present% (wo wee&s later we invited o!r followers and their friends, for the seventh time, to attend o!r meeting% (he same hall was scarcely large eno!gh for the n!mber that came% (hey amo!nted to more than fo!r h!ndred% ?!ring this phase the yo!ng movement developed its inner form% 'ometimes we had more or less hefty disc!ssions within o!r small circle% From vario!s sides - it was then ,!st the same as it is to-day - ob,ections were made against the idea of calling the yo!ng movement a party% I have always considered s!ch criticism as a demonstration of practical incapability and narrow-mindedness on the part of the critic% (hose ob,ections have always been raised by men who co!ld not differentiate between e3ternal appearances and inner strength, b!t tried to ,!dge the movement by the high-so!nding character of the name attached to it% (o this end they ransac&ed the vocab!lary of o!r ancestors, with !nfort!nate res!lts% At that time it was very diffic!lt to ma&e the people !nderstand that every movement is a party as long as it has not bro!ght its ideals to final tri!mph and th!s achieved its p!rpose% It is a party even if it give itself a tho!sand difterent names% Any person who tries to carry into practice an original idea whose reali9ation wo!ld be for the benefit of his fellow men will first have to loo& for disciples who are ready to fight for the ends he has in view% And if these ends did not go beyond the destr!ction of the party system and therewith p!t a stop to the process of disintegration, then all those who come forward as protagonists and apostles of s!ch an ideal are a party in themselves as long as their final goal is reached% It is only hair-splitting and playing with words when these anti+!ated theorists, whose practical s!ccess is in reverse ratio to their wisdom, pres!me to thin& they can change the character of a movement which is at the same time a party, by merely changing its name% On the contrary, it is entirely o!t of harmony with the spirit of the nation to &eep harping on that far-off and forgotten nomenclat!re which belongs to the ancient 6ermanic times and does not awa&en any distinct association in o!r age% (his habit of borrowing words from the dead past tends to mislead the people into thin&ing that the e3ternal trappings of its vocab!lary are the important feat!re of a movement% It is really a mischievo!s habit> b!t it is +!ite prevalent nowadays% At that time, and s!bse+!ently, I had to warn followers repeatedly against these wandering scholars who were peddling 6ermanic fol&-lore and who never accomplished anything positive or practical, e3cept to c!ltivate their own s!perab!ndant self-conceit% (he new movement m!st g!ard itself against an infl!3 of people whose only recommendation is their own statement that they have been fighting for these very same ideals d!ring the last thirty or forty years% *ow if somebody has fo!ght for forty years to carry into effect what he calls an idea, and if these alleged efforts not only show no positive res!lts b!t have not even been able to hinder the s!ccess of the opposing party, then the story of those forty years of f!tile effort f!rnishes s!fficient proof for the incompetence of s!ch a protagonist% "eople of that &ind are specially dangero!s beca!se they do not want to participate in the movement as ordinary members% (hey tal& rather of the leading positions which wo!ld be the only fitting posts for them, in view of their past wor& and also so that they might be enabled to carry on that wor& f!rther% 4!t woe to a yo!ng movement if the cond!ct of

it sho!ld fall into the hands of s!ch people% A b!siness man who has been in charge of a great firm for forty years and who has completely r!ined it thro!gh his mismanagement is not the &ind of person one wo!ld recommend for the fo!nding of a new firm% And it is ,!st the same with a new national movement% *obody of common sense wo!ld appoint to a leading post in s!ch a movement some (e!tonic eth!selah who had been ineffectively preaching some idea for a period of forty years, !ntil himself and his idea had entered the stage of senile decay% F!rthermore, only a very small percentage of s!ch people ,oin a new movement with the intention of serving its end !nselfishly and helping in the spread of its principles% In most cases they come beca!se they thin& that, !nder the Sgis of the new movement, it will be possible for them to prom!lgate their old ideas to the misfort!ne of their new listeners% Anyhow, nobody ever seems able to describe what e3actly these ideas are% It is typical of s!ch persons that they rant abo!t ancient (e!tonic heroes of the dim and distant ages, stone a3es, battle spears and shields, whereas in reality they themselves are the woef!llest poltroons imaginable% For those very same people who brandish (e!tonic tin swords that have been fashioned caref!lly according to ancient models and wear padded bear-s&ins, with the horns of o3en mo!nted over their bearded faces, proclaim that all contemporary conflicts m!st be decided by the weapons of the mind alone% And th!s they s&edaddle when the first comm!nist c!dgel appears% "osterity will have little occasion to write a new epic on these heroic gladiators% I have seen too m!ch of that &ind of people not to feel a profo!nd contempt for their miserable play-acting% (o the masses of the nation they are ,!st an ob,ect of