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Prof. Prof. A. A. Meher Meher Prasad Prasad Department Department of of Civil Civil Engineering

Prof.Prof. A.A. MeherMeher PrasadPrasad

DepartmentDepartment ofof CivilCivil EngineeringEngineering IndianIndian InstituteInstitute ofof TechnologyTechnology MadrasMadras

email: prasadam@iitm.ac.in

DynamicDynamic -- LoadsLoads changechange withwith timetime NonlinearNonlinear -- LoadedLoaded beyondbeyond ElasticElastic LimitLimit

Type

Usual Name

Dynamic Effects

Material

Nonlinearity

Linear Static

Equivalent Static

No

No

Linear Dynamic

Response Spectrum

Yes

No

Nonlinear

Pushover Analysis

No

Yes

Static

Nonlinear

Time History

Yes

Yes

Dynamic

OverviewOverview

WhatWhat isis pushoverpushover analysis?analysis?

WhatWhat areare itsits fundamentalfundamental techniques?techniques?

WhatWhat toolstools cancan bebe used?used?

CommonCommon pitfallspitfalls inin pushoverpushover analysisanalysis

ExampleExample ofof pushoverpushover analysisanalysis applicationapplication

WhyWhy PushPush--OverOver Analysis?Analysis?

StaticStatic NonlinearNonlinear AnalysisAnalysis techtechnique,nique, alsoalso knownknown asas sequentialsequential yieldyield analysis,analysis, oror simplysimply "push"push--over"over" analysisanalysis hashas gainedgained significantsignificant importanceimportance duringduring thethe pastpast fewfew years.years.

ItIt isis oneone ofof thethe threethree analysisanalysis techntechniiquesques recommendrecommendeedd byby FEMAFEMA 273/274273/274 andand aa mainmain componentcomponent ofof thethe CapacityCapacity SpectrumSpectrum MethodMethod

(ATC(ATC--40).40).

ProperProper

applicatioapplicationn

cancan

provideprovide

valuablevaluable

insightsinsights

intointo

thethe

expectedexpected performanceperformance ofof structuralstructural systemssystems andand componentscomponents

MisuseMisuse

cancan

leadlead

toto

anan

erroneouserroneous

understandingunderstanding

ofof

thethe

performanceperformance characteristics.characteristics.

WhatWhat isis PushPush--OverOver Analysis?Analysis?

Push-over Push-over analysis analysis is is a a technique technique by by which which a a computer computer

model model of of the the building building is is subjected subjected to to a a lateral lateral load load of of a a

certain certain

shape shape

(i.e., (i.e.,

parabolic, parabolic,

inverted inverted

triangular triangular

or or

uniform). uniform).

The The intensity intensity of of the the lateral lateral load load is is slowly slowly increased increased and and the the

sequence sequence of of cracks, cracks, yielding, yielding, plastic plastic hinge hinge formations, formations, and and

failure failure of of various various structural structural components components is is recorded. recorded.

 

Push-over Push-over analysis analysis can can provide provide a a significant significant insight insight into into

the the weak weak links links in in seismic seismic performance performance of of a a structure. structure.

WhatWhat isis PushPush--OverOver Analysis?Analysis?

A series of iterations are usually required during which, the structural deficiencies observed in one iteration, are rectified and followed by another.

This iterative analysis and design process continues until the design satisfies a pre-established performance criteria.

The performance criteria for push-over analysis is generally established as the desired state of the building given a roof-top or spectral displacement amplitude.

ObjectivesObjectives ofof PushPush--OverOver AnalysisAnalysis

To obtain the maximum shear strength of the structure, V b , and the mechanism of collapse.

To evaluate if the structure can achieve the collapse mechanism without exhausting the plastic rotation capacity of the members.

To obtain the monotonic displacement and global ductility capacity of the structure.

To

estimate the concentration of damage and IDI

(Interstorey Drift Index) that can be expected during the

nonlinear seismic response.

(Acceleration)V/W

V/W (Acceleration)

PushPush--overover CurveCurve oror CapacityCapacity SpectrumSpectrum

UsingUsing ssiimmpplele modalmodal analysanalysisis equationsequations spectralspectral displacementdisplacement andand roofroof--toptop displacementdisplacement maymay bebe convertedconverted toto eacheach other.other.

ModerateModerate StrengthStrength andand Stiffness;Stiffness; DuctileDuctile LowLow--Strength;Strength;
ModerateModerate StrengthStrength andand Stiffness;Stiffness; DuctileDuctile
LowLow--Strength;Strength; LowLow--Stiffness;Stiffness; BrittleBrittle

RoofRoof--toptop DisplacementDisplacement

HiHighgh--Strength;Strength; HighHigh--Stiffness;Stiffness; BrittleBrittle

DesignDesign SpectraSpectra RepresentationRepresentation

OrdinaryOrdinary DesignDesign

V/W (Acceleration) Period DESIGN SPECTRUM

V/W (Acceleration)

Period

DESIGN SPECTRUM

PushPush--OverOver AnalysisAnalysis -- CompositeComposite oror ADRSADRS PlotPlot

Constant Period Lines

Co nstant Period Lines V/W (Acceleration) Spectral or Roof-top Displacement ELASTIC DEMAND SPECTRUM

V/W (Acceleration)

Spectral or Roof-top Displacement

ELASTIC DEMAND SPECTRUM

WhatWhat ToolsTools CanCan BeBe Used?Used?

Nonlinear Nonlinear Analysis Analysis software software with with built-in built-in push-over push-over analysis analysis capabilities capabilities

 

DRAIN DRAIN

Spread Spread Plasticity Plasticity

IDARC IDARC

Spread Spread and and Point Point Plasticity Plasticity

SAP2000NL SAP2000NL

Point Point Plasticity Plasticity

ETABS ETABS

Point Point Plasticity Plasticity

ANSYS ANSYS

Spread Spread Plasticity Plasticity

SAVE SAVE

Point Point Plasticity Plasticity (Public (Public version) version)

 

Spread Spread Plasticity Plasticity (Research (Research version) version)

Sequential Sequential application application of of linear linear analysis analysis software software

Spread and Point Plasticity

1. Nonlinearity is assumed to be distributed along the length of the plastic hinge.

2. It provides a more accurate representation of the actual non-linear behaviour of the element

Length of plastic hinge

non-linear behaviour of the element Length of plastic hinge Curvature diagram along the length of the

Curvature diagram along the length of the member

1. Plasticity is assumed to be concentrated at the critical locations. In addition to usual ‘moment hinges’, there can be ‘axial hinges’ and ‘shear hinges’.

2. Plastification of the section

is

assumed

to

occur

suddenly,

and

not

gradually or fibre-by-fibre.

Plastic Hinge

of the section is assumed to occur suddenly, and not gradually or fibre-by-fibre. Plastic Hinge
of the section is assumed to occur suddenly, and not gradually or fibre-by-fibre. Plastic Hinge

Establishing the Performance Point

No No building building can can be be pushed pushed to to infinity infinity without without failure. failure.

Performance Performance point point is is where where the the Seismic Seismic Capacity Capacity and and the the

Seismic Seismic Demand Demand curves curves meet. meet.

If If the the performance performance point point exists exists and and damage damage state state at at that that

point point is is acceptable, acceptable, we we have have a a building building that that satisfies satisfies the the

push-over push-over criterion. criterion.

ATC-40ATC-40 MethodMethod

ThisThis isis anan iterativeiterative procedureprocedure involvinginvolving severalseveral analyses.analyses.

ForFor eacheach analysisanalysis anan effectiveeffective periodperiod forfor anan equivalentequivalent elasticelastic systemsystem andand aa correspondingcorresponding elasticelastic displacementdisplacement areare calculated.calculated. ThisThis displacementdisplacement isis thenthen divideddivided byby aa dampingdamping factorfactor toto obtainobtain anan estimateestimate ofof realreal displacementdisplacement atat thatthat stepstep ofof analysis.analysis.

T 0 ∆ e /B 5% damped elastic spectrum δ e T eff
T
0
∆ e /B
5% damped elastic spectrum
δ e
T eff

V/W (Acceleration)

β

κβ

0

+ 0.05

eff

=

3.21

0.68ln(

β

eff

)

 

2.12

2.31

0.4 ln(

β

eff

)

1.65

SR =

A

SR =

V

Roof-top Displacement

ATCATC--4040 NonlinearNonlinear StaticStatic ProcedureProcedure

1.1. DevelopDevelop thethe PushoverPushover CurveCurve

- - 40 40 Nonlinear Nonlinear Static Static Procedure Procedure 1.1. DevelopDevelop thethe PushoverPushover CurveCurve

ATCATC--4040 NonlinearNonlinear StaticStatic ProcedureProcedure

2.2. ConvertConvert PushoverPushover CurveCurve toto capacitycapacity diagramdiagram

Static Static Procedure Procedure 2.2. ConvertConvert PushoverPushover CurveCurve toto capacitycapacity diagramdiagram

ATCATC--4040 NonlinearNonlinear StaticStatic ProcedureProcedure

3.3. PlotPlot elasticelastic designdesign spectrumspectrum inin AA--DD formatformat

Static Static Procedure Procedure 3.3. PlotPlot elasticelastic designdesign spectrumspectrum inin AA -- DD formatformat

ATCATC--4040 NonlinearNonlinear StaticStatic ProcedureProcedure

4.4. PlotPlot thethe demanddemand diagramdiagram andand capacitycapacity diagramdiagram togethertogether

IntersectionIntersection pointpoint givesgives thethe displacementdisplacement demanddemand

AvoidsAvoids nonlinearnonlinear RHRHA;A; instinsteadead analyseanalyse equivalentequivalent linearlinear systemssystems

nonlinear RH RH A; A; inst inst ead ead analyse analyse equivalent equivalent linear linear systems

ATCATC--4040 NonlinearNonlinear StaticStatic ProcedureProcedure

5.5. ConvertConvert displacementdisplacement demanddemand toto roofroof displacementdisplacement andand componentcomponent deformation.deformation.

6.6. CompareCompare toto limitinglimiting valuesvalues forfor specifiedspecified performanceperformance goals.goals.

PointsPoints toto bebe takentaken care care

1.1.

DoDo notnot underestimateunderestimate thethe importanceimportance ofof thethe loadingloading oror displacementdisplacement shapeshape function.function.

2.2.

KnowKnow youryour performanceperformance objectivesobjectives beforebefore youyou pushpush thethe building.building.

3.3.

IfIf itit isis notnot dedesigned,signed, itit ccaannotnnot bebe pushed.pushed.

4.4.

DoDo notnot ignoreignore gravitygravity loloads.ads.

5.5.

DoDo notnot pushpush beyondbeyond failurefailure unlunlessess otherwiseotherwise youyou cancan modelmodel failurfailure.e.

6.6.

PayPay attentionattention toto rebarrebar developmentdevelopment andand laplap lengths.lengths.

7.7.

DoDo notnot ignoreignore shearshear fafaililureure mmeechanismschanisms

8.8.

PP--DeltaDelta effectseffects maymay bebe moremore importantimportant thanthan youyou think.think.

9.9.

DoDo notnot confuseconfuse thethe PushPush--overover withwith thethe realreal earthquakeearthquake loading.loading.

10.10.

ThreeThree--dimensionaldimensional buildingsbuildings mmayay requirerequire mmoorere thanthan aa planarplanar push.push.

1.1. 1. Do Do not not underestimate underestimate the the importance importance of of

the the loading loading shape shape function. function.

The The loading loading or or deformation deformation shape shape function function is is selected selected to to represent represent

the the predominant predominant dynamic dynamic mode mode shape shape of of the the building. building.

 

It It is is most most common common to to keep keep the the load load shape shape constant constant during during the the push. push.

Loading Loading

shape shape

importance importance

increases increases

for for

tall tall

buildings buildings

whose whose

earthquake earthquake response response is is not not dominated dominated by by a a single single mode mode shape. shape.

For For these these buildings, buildings, a a loading loading shape shape function function based based on on the the first first

mode mode shape shape may may seriously seriously underestimate underestimate the the seismic seismic demand demand on on

the the intermediate intermediate floor floor levels. levels.

1.1. 1. Do Do not not underestimate underestimate the the importance importance of of

the the loading loading shape shape function. function.

0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Vb/W
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Vb/W

/H(%)

Inverted Triangle Uniform parabola

AdaptingAdapting LoadLoad PatternsPatterns

• So called “higher mode effects” as the load distribution changes

• Limit base moment increases adapts for maximum shear force

• Limit base shear increases adapts for maximum bending moment

• Not apparent from linear analysis

2. 2.

Know Know

your your

performance performance

objectives objectives

before before you you push push the the building. building.

No No building building can can be be displaced displaced to to infinity infinity without without damage. damage.

 

It It

is is

of of

paramount paramount

importance importance

to to

understand understand

the the

specific specific

performance performance objectives objectives desired desired for for the the building. building.

 

Performance Performance objectives objectives such such as as collapse collapse prevention, prevention, life life safety, safety, or or

immediate immediate occupancy occupancy have have to to be be translated translated into into technical technical terms terms

such such as: as: (a) (a) a a given given set set of of design design spectra, spectra, and and (b) (b) specific specific limit limit

states states acceptable acceptable for for various various structural structural components components

 

A A

push-over push-over

analysis analysis

without without

a a

clearly clearly

defined defined

performance performance

objectives objectives is is of of little little use. use.

BUILDINGBUILDING PERFORMANCEPERFORMANCE LEVELSLEVELS

StructuralStructural PerformancPerformancee LLeevelsvels anandd RangRangeses NonstruNonstrucctuturraall SS--11 SS--22
StructuralStructural PerformancPerformancee LLeevelsvels anandd RangRangeses
NonstruNonstrucctuturraall
SS--11
SS--22
SS--33
SS--44
SS--55
SS--66
PePerrffoorrmancemance
ImmImmeedidiateate
DaDammaaggee ConConttrolrol
LifeLife SSaaffeetyty
LimitedLimited SSaafefettyy
CollCollapapssee
NotNot ConsidConsideerreded
LevLeveellss
OccOccuupancpancyy
PrPreveventionention
NN--AA
11--AA
22--AA
NRNR
NRNR
NRNR
NRNR
OpOpereraattionionaall
OpOpereraattionionaall
11--BB
NN--BB
ImmImmeedidiateate OOccccuuppaannccyy
ImmImmeedidiateate
22--BB
33--BB
NRNR
NRNR
NRNR
OccOccuupancpancyy
NN--CC
33--CC
11--CC
22--CC
44--CC
55--CC
66--CC
LifeLife SSaaffeetyty
LifeLife SSaaffeetyty
NN--DD
HaHazzaardrdss RReedduucceedd
NRNR
22--DD
33--DD
44--DD
55--DD
66--DD
55--EE
NN--EE
NoNo
NRNR
NRNR
33--EE
44--EE
CollCollapapssee
NotNot ConsidConsideerreded
rehabilitationrehabilitation
PrPreveventionention

Ref: FEMA 356

EarthquakeEarthquake LevelsLevels (FEMA356)(FEMA356)

       

ApproximateApproximate

 

EarthquakeEarthquake levelslevels

pp

tt

NN

NN

RemarksRemarks

 

yyearsears

yyearsears

yyearsears

ServiceabilityServiceability earthquakeearthquake -- 11

5050%%

5050

7272

7575

FrFreeqqueuentnt

ServiceabilityServiceability earthquakeearthquake -- 22

2020%%

5050

224224

225225

OccasionalOccasional

DesignDesign bbaasissis earthquearthquakeake (DBE)(DBE)

1010%%

5050

475475

500500

RareRare

MaximumMaximum considconsideredered (MCE)(MCE) earthearthqquuakeake --11 (alternate)(alternate)

5%5%

5050

975975

10001000

 

1010%%

100100

949949

VeryVery rarerare

MaximumMaximum considconsideredered (MCE)(MCE) earthquakeearthquake --22 (alternate)(alternate)

2%2%

5050

24752475

 

ExtremelyExtremely

1010%%

250250

23732373

25002500

rarerare

PerformancePerformance ObjectivesObjectives (FEMA(FEMA 356)356)

 

ProbabilityProbability ofof ExceedExceedanceance inin aa ppeeriodriod

TargTargetet bbuuildildiningg ppeerformanrformanccee levellevel

EarthquakeEarthquake levelslevels

OperaOpera--

ImImmediatemediate

LifeLife

CollapseCollapse

tiontionalal

OcOccupacupancncyy

SafetySafety

PrevenPreventiontion

ServiceabilityServiceability earthquakeearthquake -- 11

5050%% inin 5050 yyearsears

aa

bb

cc

dd

ServiceabilityServiceability earthquakeearthquake -- 22

2020%% inin 5050 yyearsears

ee

ff

gg

hh

DesignDesign bbaasissis earthquearthquakeake (DBE)(DBE)

1010%% inin 5050 yyearsears

ii

jj

kk

ll

MaximumMaximum considconsideredered EarthquakeEarthquake (MCE)(MCE)

22%% inin 5050 yyearsears

mm

nn

oo

Basic Safety Objective

pp

3.3. IfIf itit isis notnot designed,designed, itit cannotcannot bebe pushed.pushed.

E, E, I, I, and and A A are are not not sufficient. sufficient.

 

Push-over Push-over characteristics characteristics are are strong strong functions functions of of

force-displacement force-displacement

characteristics characteristics

of of

individual individual

members members and and their their connections. connections.

 

If If detailed detailed characteristics characteristics are are not not known, known, the the push- push-

over over analysis analysis will will be be an an exercise exercise in in futility. futility.

4.4. DoDo notnot ignoreignore gravitygravity loads.loads.

Inclusion Inclusion

or or

exclusion exclusion

of of

the the

gravity gravity

loads loads

can can

have have

a a

pronounced pronounced effect effect on on the the shape shape of of the the push-over push-over curve curve and and the the

member member yielding yielding and and failure failure sequence. sequence.

 

Example: Example:

Due Due to to the the unsymmetric unsymmetric distribution distribution of of + + and and - - reinforcements reinforcements

in in R/C R/C beams, beams, gravity gravity load load delays delays the the onset onset of of yielding yielding and and

cracking cracking in in the the beams, beams, resulting resulting in in a a stiffer stiffer structure structure at at lower lower

magnitudes magnitudes of of base base shear. shear.

The The ultimate ultimate capacity capacity of of the the structure, structure, is is usually usually reduced reduced with with

increasing increasing gravity gravity load. load.

5. 5. Do Do not not push push beyond beyond failure failure unless unless

otherwise otherwise you you can can model model failure failure

Modeled with failures ignored Actual Displacement Lateral Force
Modeled with
failures ignored
Actual
Displacement
Lateral Force
Force or Moment Ultimate Capacity Displacement or Curvature

Force or Moment

Force or Moment Ultimate Capacity

Ultimate Capacity

Ultimate Capacity
Ultimate Capacity
Ultimate Capacity
Ultimate Capacity
Ultimate Capacity
Force or Moment Ultimate Capacity

Displacement or Curvature

Force or Moment Ultimate Capacity Displacement or Curvature

6. 6. Pay Pay attention attention to to rebar rebar development development and and

lap lap lengths. lengths.

For For R/C R/C members members of of existing existing structures, structures, it it is is very very important important to to

note note the the development development lengths lengths when when calculating calculating member member

capacities. capacities.

If If inadequate inadequate development development lengths lengths are are present, present, as as they they are are in in

most most of of the the older older buildings, buildings, the the contributing contributing steel steel area area should should be be

reduced reduced to to account account for for this this inadequacy. inadequacy.

Failure Failure to to do do so so will will result result in in overestimating overestimating the the actual actual capacity capacity

of of the the members members and and results results in in an an inaccurate inaccurate push-over push-over curve. curve.

JointJoint DetailingDetailing

SuchSuch reinforcementreinforcement detailingdetailing shouldshould notnot bebe usedused
SuchSuch reinforcementreinforcement detailingdetailing
shouldshould notnot bebe usedused

7.7. DoDo notnot ignoreignore shearshear failurefailure mechanismsmechanisms

If If the the shear shear capacity capacity of of structural structural members members is is not not sufficient sufficient to to

permit permit the the formation formation of of flexural flexural plastic plastic hinges, hinges, shear shear failure failure will will

precede precede the the formation formation of of plastic plastic hinges hinges at at the the end end of of the the member. member.

In In R/C R/C members, members, even even if if the the shear shear capacity capacity is is sufficient, sufficient, but but lateral lateral

reinforcement reinforcement is is not not spaced spaced close close enough enough at at the the plastic plastic hinge hinge

zones, zones,

the the

concrete concrete

may may

crush crush

in in

the the

absence absence

of of

sufficient sufficient

confinement. confinement.

 

If If this this happens, happens, the the plastic plastic capacity capacity is is suddenly suddenly dropped dropped to to what what

can can be be provided provided by by the the longitudinal longitudinal steel steel alone. alone.

ShearShear FailureFailure

Shear Shear Failure Failure
Shear Shear Failure Failure

ShortShort ColumnColumn FailureFailure

Short Short Column Column Failure Failure • This failure can be avoided by providi ng special
Short Short Column Column Failure Failure • This failure can be avoided by providi ng special

This failure can be avoided by providing special confining reinforcement over entire column length

8. 8. P-P-effects effects may may be be more more important important

than than you you think. think.

The The P-P-effects effects become become increasingly increasingly significant significant with with larger larger

lateral lateral displacements displacements and and larger larger axial axial column column forces. forces.

Strong Strong column column - - weak weak beam beam design design strategy strategy commonly commonly deals deals

with with the the moment moment capacity capacity of of columns columns in in the the undeformed undeformed state. state.

In In a a substantially substantially deformed deformed state, state, the the moment moment capacity capacity of of

columns columns may may be be sufficiently sufficiently reduced reduced to to counteract counteract the the strong strong

column column - - weak weak beam beam behaviour behaviour envisioned envisioned by by the the design. design.

Cases Cases of of plastic plastic hinge hinge formations formations during during a a push-over push-over analysis analysis

in in columns columns "designed" "designed" to to be be stronger stronger than than the the beams beams are are not not rare. rare.

9. 9. Do Do not not confuse confuse the the Push-over Push-over with with the the

real real earthquake earthquake loading. loading.

The The push-over push-over load load is is monotonically monotonically increased increased

The The earthquake earthquake generated generated forces forces continually continually change change in in amplitude amplitude

and and direction direction during during the the duration duration of of earthquake earthquake ground ground motion. motion.

Push-over Push-over loads loads and and structural structural response response are are in in phase phase

Earthquake Earthquake excitations excitations and and building building response response are are not not necessarily necessarily in in

phase. phase.

This This is is particularly particularly true true for for near-fault near-fault ground ground motions motions which which tend tend to to

concentrate concentrate the the damage damage on on the the lower lower floors, floors, an an effect effect which which is is

difficult difficult to to model model by by the the push-over push-over loads. loads.

9. 9. Do Do not not confuse confuse the the Push-over Push-over with with the the

real real earthquake earthquake loading. loading.

0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 -0.05
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
-0.008
-0.006
-0.004
-0.002
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
-0.05
-0.1
-0.15
-0.2
Vb/W

/H

IDARC

SAP

0.16gIDARC SAP 0.25g 0.3g 0.35g

0.25gIDARC SAP 0.16g 0.3g 0.35g

0.3g

0.35g

10. 10. Three-dimensional Three-dimensional buildings buildings may may require require

more more than than a a planar planar push. push.

For For building building with with strong strong asymmetry asymmetry in in plan, plan, or or with with numerous numerous

non-orthogonal non-orthogonal elements, elements, a a planar planar (two (two dimensional) dimensional) push-over push-over

analysis analysis may may not not suffice. suffice.

For For such such cases cases a a 3D 3D model model of of the the building building must must be be constructed constructed

and and subjected subjected to to push-over push-over analysis. analysis.

Three Three dimensional dimensional buildings buildings may may be be pushed pushed in in the the principal principal

directions directions

orthogonal orthogonal directions. directions.

independently, independently,

or or

pushed pushed

simultaneously simultaneously

in in

AnalysiAnalysiss ProcedureProcedure

SAP2000SAP2000 NLNL

PushoverPushover AnalysiAnalysiss ProcedureProcedure

Create 3D Model

Analysi Analysi s s Procedure Procedure Create 3D Model Assign end offsets Define Hinge properties Assign

Assign end offsets

s s Procedure Procedure Create 3D Model Assign end offsets Define Hinge properties Assign Hinge properties

Define Hinge properties

Create 3D Model Assign end offsets Define Hinge properties Assign Hinge properties Beams Columns – Default

Assign Hinge properties

Beams

Columns – Default PMM

– Default M3

Beams Columns – Default PMM – Default M3 Define Static Pushover Cases Gravity Pushover (Force

Define Static Pushover Cases

Default PMM – Default M3 Define Static Pushover Cases Gravity Pushover (Force controlled) DL+0.25LL Lateral

Gravity Pushover (Force controlled) DL+0.25LL Lateral Pushover (Displacement controlled)

DL+0.25LL Lateral Pushover (Displacement controlled) Define Load case (Lateral Load at centre of mass) Run

Define Load case

(Lateral Load at centre of mass)

Define Load case (Lateral Load at centre of mass) Run Static analysis Run static pushover analysis

Run Static analysis

Load case (Lateral Load at centre of mass) Run Static analysis Run static pushover analysis Establish

Run static pushover analysis

Load case (Lateral Load at centre of mass) Run Static analysis Run static pushover analysis Establish

Establish Performance point

MaterialMaterial PropertiesProperties

ConcreteConcrete PropertiesProperties

CubeCube compressivecompressive strength,strength, ff ckck

ModulusModulus ofof ElasticityElasticity ofof concreteconcrete ((

ReinforcingReinforcing SteelSteel PropertiesProperties

YieldYield strengthstrength ofof steelsteel

E

c

= 5000

f )) c k
f
))
c k

ModulusModulus ofof ElasticityElasticity ofof steelsteel EE ss

ModificationModification FactorsFactors

FactorsFactors toto estimateestimate thethe expectedexpected strengthstrength 1.51.5 timestimes thethe ConcreteConcrete compressivecompressive strengthstrength ((ff ckck )) SteelSteel yieldyield stressstress ((ff yy )) (Factor(Factor ofof 1.251.25 usedused forfor capaccapacityity estimationestimation consideringconsidering strainstrain hardeninghardening ofof steel)steel)

Knowledge Factors, m k

No

Description of available information

m

k

1

Original construction documents, including material testing report

1.0

2

Documentation as in (1) but no material testing undertaken

0.9

3

Documentation as in (2) and minor deteriorations of original condition

0.8

4

Incomplete but usable original construction documents

0.7

5

Documentation as in (4) and limited inspection and material test results with large variation.

0.6

6

Little knowledge about the details of components

0.5

MaterialMaterial PropertiesProperties

FrameFrame ElementsElements

InfillInfill (struts)(struts)

Material Material Properties Properties Frame Frame Elements Elements Infill Infill (struts) (struts)
Material Material Properties Properties Frame Frame Elements Elements Infill Infill (struts) (struts)

ModelingModeling ofof StructuralStructural elementselements

Beams and columns

3D Frame elements

Slab

Diaphragm action (ignore the out of plane stiffness)

Flat slabs

Plate elements

Beam column joints

End offsets (Rigid zone factor 1)

Asymmetric Structures

Centre of mass (add non structural mass to corresponding beams) Centre of stiffness

Inclusion of appendages

Include water tanks, cantilever slabs

ModelingModeling ofof StructuralStructural elementselements

Stairway slabs

Shear Walls

Infill walls

Foundation

Foundation Isolated footings Single pile Multiple piles Plinth beams
Foundation Isolated footings Single pile Multiple piles Plinth beams

Isolated footingsFoundation Single pile Multiple piles Plinth beams

Single pileFoundation Isolated footings Multiple piles Plinth beams

Multiple pilesFoundation Isolated footings Single pile Plinth beams

Plinth beamsFoundation Isolated footings Single pile Multiple piles

Equivalent frame elements

Wide Column Elements

Equivalent strut method

Hinged at the bottom of foundation

Fixed at five times the diameter of pile

Fixity of columns at top of pile cap

Frame elements

ModelingModeling ofof BeamsBeams andand ColumnsColumns

3D3D FrameFrame ElementsElements

CrossCross SectionalSectional dimensions,dimensions, reinforcementreinforcement details,details, materialmaterial typtypee

EffectiveEffective momentmoment ofof inertiainertia

BeamsBeams

RectangularRectangular

0.50.5 II gg

TT--BeamBeam

0.70.7 II gg

LL--BeamBeam

0.60.6 II gg

ColumnsColumns

0.70.7 II gg

ModelingModeling ofof Beams