Prof.Prof. A.A. MeherMeher PrasadPrasad
DepartmentDepartment ofof CivilCivil EngineeringEngineering IndianIndian InstituteInstitute ofof TechnologyTechnology MadrasMadras
email: prasadam@iitm.ac.in
DynamicDynamic  LoadsLoads changechange withwith timetime NonlinearNonlinear  LoadedLoaded beyondbeyond ElasticElastic LimitLimit
Type 
Usual Name 
Dynamic Effects 
Material 
Nonlinearity 

Linear Static 
Equivalent Static 
No 
No 
Linear Dynamic 
Response Spectrum 
Yes 
No 
Nonlinear 
Pushover Analysis 
No 
Yes 
Static 

Nonlinear 
Time History 
Yes 
Yes 
Dynamic 
OverviewOverview
WhatWhat isis pushoverpushover analysis?analysis?
WhatWhat areare itsits fundamentalfundamental techniques?techniques?
WhatWhat toolstools cancan bebe used?used?
CommonCommon pitfallspitfalls inin pushoverpushover analysisanalysis
ExampleExample ofof pushoverpushover analysisanalysis applicationapplication
WhyWhy PushPushOverOver Analysis?Analysis?
StaticStatic NonlinearNonlinear AnalysisAnalysis techtechnique,nique, alsoalso knownknown asas sequentialsequential yieldyield analysis,analysis, oror simplysimply "push"pushover"over" analysisanalysis hashas gainedgained significantsignificant importanceimportance duringduring thethe pastpast fewfew years.years.
ItIt isis oneone ofof thethe threethree analysisanalysis techntechniiquesques recommendrecommendeedd byby FEMAFEMA 273/274273/274 andand aa mainmain componentcomponent ofof thethe CapacityCapacity SpectrumSpectrum MethodMethod
(ATC(ATC40).40).
ProperProper 
applicatioapplicationn 
cancan provideprovide valuablevaluable 
insightsinsights 
intointo 
thethe 

expectedexpected performanceperformance ofof structuralstructural systemssystems andand componentscomponents 

MisuseMisuse 
cancan 
leadlead 
toto anan erroneouserroneous understandingunderstanding 
ofof 
thethe 
performanceperformance characteristics.characteristics.
WhatWhat isis PushPushOverOver Analysis?Analysis?

Pushover Pushover analysis analysis is is a a technique technique by by which which a a computer computer 

model model of of the the building building is is subjected subjected to to a a lateral lateral load load of of a a 

certain certain 
shape shape 
(i.e., (i.e., 
parabolic, parabolic, 
inverted inverted 
triangular triangular 
or or 

uniform). uniform). 


The The intensity intensity of of the the lateral lateral load load is is slowly slowly increased increased and and the the 

sequence sequence of of cracks, cracks, yielding, yielding, plastic plastic hinge hinge formations, formations, and and 

failure failure of of various various structural structural components components is is recorded. recorded. 


Pushover Pushover analysis analysis can can provide provide a a significant significant insight insight into into 
the the weak weak links links in in seismic seismic performance performance of of a a structure. structure.
WhatWhat isis PushPushOverOver Analysis?Analysis?
A series of iterations are usually required during which, the structural deficiencies observed in one iteration, are rectified and followed by another.
This iterative analysis and design process continues until the design satisfies a preestablished performance criteria.
The performance criteria for pushover analysis is generally established as the desired state of the building given a rooftop or spectral displacement amplitude.
ObjectivesObjectives ofof PushPushOverOver AnalysisAnalysis
To obtain the maximum shear strength of the structure, V _{b} , and the mechanism of collapse.
To evaluate if the structure can achieve the collapse mechanism without exhausting the plastic rotation capacity of the members.

To obtain the monotonic displacement and global ductility capacity of the structure. 


To 
estimate the concentration of damage and IDI 
(Interstorey Drift Index) that can be expected during the
nonlinear seismic response.
(Acceleration)V/W
V/W _{(}_{A}_{c}_{c}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{)}
PushPushoverover CurveCurve oror CapacityCapacity SpectrumSpectrum
UsingUsing ssiimmpplele modalmodal analysanalysisis equationsequations spectralspectral displacementdisplacement andand roofrooftoptop displacementdisplacement maymay bebe convertedconverted toto eacheach other.other.
RoofRooftoptop DisplacementDisplacement
HiHighghStrength;Strength; HighHighStiffness;Stiffness; BrittleBrittle
DesignDesign SpectraSpectra RepresentationRepresentation
OrdinaryOrdinary DesignDesign
V/W (Acceleration)
Period
DESIGN SPECTRUM
PushPushOverOver AnalysisAnalysis  CompositeComposite oror ADRSADRS PlotPlot
Constant Period Lines
V/W (Acceleration)
Spectral or Rooftop Displacement
ELASTIC DEMAND SPECTRUM
WhatWhat ToolsTools CanCan BeBe Used?Used?
Nonlinear Nonlinear Analysis Analysis software software with with builtin builtin pushover pushover analysis analysis capabilities capabilities 


DRAIN DRAIN 
Spread Spread Plasticity Plasticity 


IDARC IDARC 
Spread Spread and and Point Point Plasticity Plasticity 


SAP2000NL SAP2000NL 
Point Point Plasticity Plasticity 


ETABS ETABS 
Point Point Plasticity Plasticity 


ANSYS ANSYS 
Spread Spread Plasticity Plasticity 


SAVE SAVE 
Point Point Plasticity Plasticity (Public (Public version) version) 

Spread Spread Plasticity Plasticity (Research (Research version) version) 

Sequential Sequential application application of of linear linear analysis analysis software software 
Spread and Point Plasticity
1. Nonlinearity is assumed to be distributed along the length of the plastic hinge.
2. It provides a more accurate representation of the actual nonlinear behaviour of the element
Length of plastic hinge
Curvature diagram along the length of the member
1. Plasticity is assumed to be concentrated at the critical locations. In addition to usual ‘moment hinges’, there can be ‘axial hinges’ and ‘shear hinges’.
2. Plastification of the section
is 
assumed 
to 
occur 
suddenly, 
and 
not 
gradually or fibrebyfibre.
Plastic Hinge
Establishing the Performance Point
• • No No building building can can be be pushed pushed to to infinity infinity without without failure. failure.
• • Performance Performance point point is is where where the the Seismic Seismic Capacity Capacity and and the the
Seismic Seismic Demand Demand curves curves meet. meet.
• • If If the the performance performance point point exists exists and and damage damage state state at at that that
point point is is acceptable, acceptable, we we have have a a building building that that satisfies satisfies the the
pushover pushover criterion. criterion.
ATC40ATC40 MethodMethod
ThisThis isis anan iterativeiterative procedureprocedure involvinginvolving severalseveral analyses.analyses.
ForFor eacheach analysisanalysis anan effectiveeffective periodperiod forfor anan equivalentequivalent elasticelastic systemsystem andand aa correspondingcorresponding elasticelastic displacementdisplacement areare calculated.calculated. ThisThis displacementdisplacement isis thenthen divideddivided byby aa dampingdamping factorfactor toto obtainobtain anan estimateestimate ofof realreal displacementdisplacement atat thatthat stepstep ofof analysis.analysis.
V/W (Acceleration)
β
κβ
0
+ 0.05
eff
=
3.21 
− 0.68ln( β eff 
) 

2.12 

2.31 
− 0.4 ln( 
β eff ) 
1.65
SR =
A
SR =
V
Rooftop Displacement
ATCATC4040 NonlinearNonlinear StaticStatic ProcedureProcedure
1.1. DevelopDevelop thethe PushoverPushover CurveCurve
ATCATC4040 NonlinearNonlinear StaticStatic ProcedureProcedure
2.2. ConvertConvert PushoverPushover CurveCurve toto capacitycapacity diagramdiagram
ATCATC4040 NonlinearNonlinear StaticStatic ProcedureProcedure
3.3. PlotPlot elasticelastic designdesign spectrumspectrum inin AADD formatformat
ATCATC4040 NonlinearNonlinear StaticStatic ProcedureProcedure
4.4. PlotPlot thethe demanddemand diagramdiagram andand capacitycapacity diagramdiagram togethertogether
IntersectionIntersection pointpoint givesgives thethe displacementdisplacement demanddemand
AvoidsAvoids nonlinearnonlinear RHRHA;A; instinsteadead analyseanalyse equivalentequivalent linearlinear systemssystems
ATCATC4040 NonlinearNonlinear StaticStatic ProcedureProcedure
5.5. ConvertConvert displacementdisplacement demanddemand toto roofroof displacementdisplacement andand componentcomponent deformation.deformation.
6.6. CompareCompare toto limitinglimiting valuesvalues forfor specifiedspecified performanceperformance goals.goals.
PointsPoints toto bebe takentaken care care
1.1. 
DoDo notnot underestimateunderestimate thethe importanceimportance ofof thethe loadingloading oror displacementdisplacement shapeshape function.function. 
2.2. 
KnowKnow youryour performanceperformance objectivesobjectives beforebefore youyou pushpush thethe building.building. 
3.3. 
IfIf itit isis notnot dedesigned,signed, itit ccaannotnnot bebe pushed.pushed. 
4.4. 
DoDo notnot ignoreignore gravitygravity loloads.ads. 
5.5. 
DoDo notnot pushpush beyondbeyond failurefailure unlunlessess otherwiseotherwise youyou cancan modelmodel failurfailure.e. 
6.6. 
PayPay attentionattention toto rebarrebar developmentdevelopment andand laplap lengths.lengths. 
7.7. 
DoDo notnot ignoreignore shearshear fafaililureure mmeechanismschanisms 
8.8. 
PPDeltaDelta effectseffects maymay bebe moremore importantimportant thanthan youyou think.think. 
9.9. 
DoDo notnot confuseconfuse thethe PushPushoverover withwith thethe realreal earthquakeearthquake loading.loading. 
10.10. 
ThreeThreedimensionaldimensional buildingsbuildings mmayay requirerequire mmoorere thanthan aa planarplanar push.push. 
1.1. 1. Do Do not not underestimate underestimate the the importance importance of of
the the loading loading shape shape function. function.

The The loading loading or or deformation deformation shape shape function function is is selected selected to to represent represent 

the the predominant predominant dynamic dynamic mode mode shape shape of of the the building. building. 


It It is is most most common common to to keep keep the the load load shape shape constant constant during during the the push. push. 


Loading Loading 
shape shape 
importance importance 
increases increases 
for for 
tall tall 
buildings buildings 
whose whose 
earthquake earthquake response response is is not not dominated dominated by by a a single single mode mode shape. shape. 


For For these these buildings, buildings, a a loading loading shape shape function function based based on on the the first first 
mode mode shape shape may may seriously seriously underestimate underestimate the the seismic seismic demand demand on on
the the intermediate intermediate floor floor levels. levels.
1.1. 1. Do Do not not underestimate underestimate the the importance importance of of
the the loading loading shape shape function. function.
∆ /H(%)
Inverted Triangle Uniform parabola
AdaptingAdapting LoadLoad PatternsPatterns
• So called “higher mode effects” as the load distribution changes
• Limit base moment increases adapts for maximum shear force
• Limit base shear increases adapts for maximum bending moment
• Not apparent from linear analysis
2. 2.
Know Know
your your
performance performance
objectives objectives
before before you you push push the the building. building.

No No building building can can be be displaced displaced to to infinity infinity without without damage. damage. 


It It 
is is 
of of paramount paramount importance importance 
to to understand understand 
the the 
specific specific 

performance performance objectives objectives desired desired for for the the building. building. 


Performance Performance objectives objectives such such as as collapse collapse prevention, prevention, life life safety, safety, or or 

immediate immediate occupancy occupancy have have to to be be translated translated into into technical technical terms terms 

such such as: as: (a) (a) a a given given set set of of design design spectra, spectra, and and (b) (b) specific specific limit limit 

states states acceptable acceptable for for various various structural structural components components 


A A 
pushover pushover 
analysis analysis 
without without 
a a 
clearly clearly 
defined defined 
performance performance 
objectives objectives is is of of little little use. use.
BUILDINGBUILDING PERFORMANCEPERFORMANCE LEVELSLEVELS
Ref: FEMA 356
EarthquakeEarthquake LevelsLevels (FEMA356)(FEMA356)
ApproximateApproximate 

EarthquakeEarthquake levelslevels 
pp 
tt 
NN 
NN 
RemarksRemarks 
yyearsears 
yyearsears 
yyearsears 

ServiceabilityServiceability earthquakeearthquake  11 
5050%% 
5050 
7272 
7575 
FrFreeqqueuentnt 
ServiceabilityServiceability earthquakeearthquake  22 
2020%% 
5050 
224224 
225225 
OccasionalOccasional 
DesignDesign bbaasissis earthquearthquakeake (DBE)(DBE) 
1010%% 
5050 
475475 
500500 
RareRare 
MaximumMaximum considconsideredered (MCE)(MCE) earthearthqquuakeake 11 (alternate)(alternate) 
5%5% 
5050 
975975 
10001000 

1010%% 
100100 
949949 
VeryVery rarerare 

MaximumMaximum considconsideredered (MCE)(MCE) earthquakeearthquake 22 (alternate)(alternate) 
2%2% 
5050 
24752475 
ExtremelyExtremely 

1010%% 
250250 
23732373 
25002500 
rarerare 
PerformancePerformance ObjectivesObjectives (FEMA(FEMA 356)356)
ProbabilityProbability ofof ExceedExceedanceance inin aa ppeeriodriod 
TargTargetet bbuuildildiningg ppeerformanrformanccee levellevel 

EarthquakeEarthquake levelslevels 
OperaOpera 
ImImmediatemediate 
LifeLife 
CollapseCollapse 

tiontionalal 
OcOccupacupancncyy 
SafetySafety 
PrevenPreventiontion 

ServiceabilityServiceability earthquakeearthquake  11 
5050%% inin 5050 yyearsears 
aa 
bb 
cc 
dd 
ServiceabilityServiceability earthquakeearthquake  22 
2020%% inin 5050 yyearsears 
ee 
ff 
gg 
hh 
DesignDesign bbaasissis earthquearthquakeake (DBE)(DBE) 
1010%% inin 5050 yyearsears 
ii 
jj 
kk 
ll 
MaximumMaximum considconsideredered EarthquakeEarthquake (MCE)(MCE) 
22%% inin 5050 yyearsears 
mm 
nn 
oo 
Basic Safety Objective pp 
3.3. IfIf itit isis notnot designed,designed, itit cannotcannot bebe pushed.pushed.

E, E, I, I, and and A A are are not not sufficient. sufficient. 


Pushover Pushover characteristics characteristics are are strong strong functions functions of of 

forcedisplacement forcedisplacement 
characteristics characteristics 
of of 
individual individual 

members members and and their their connections. connections. 


If If detailed detailed characteristics characteristics are are not not known, known, the the push push 
over over analysis analysis will will be be an an exercise exercise in in futility. futility.
4.4. DoDo notnot ignoreignore gravitygravity loads.loads.

Inclusion Inclusion 
or or 
exclusion exclusion 
of of 
the the 
gravity gravity 
loads loads 
can can 
have have 
a a 
pronounced pronounced effect effect on on the the shape shape of of the the pushover pushover curve curve and and the the 

member member yielding yielding and and failure failure sequence. sequence. 


Example: Example: 
Due Due to to the the unsymmetric unsymmetric distribution distribution of of + + and and   reinforcements reinforcements
in in R/C R/C beams, beams, gravity gravity load load delays delays the the onset onset of of yielding yielding and and
cracking cracking in in the the beams, beams, resulting resulting in in a a stiffer stiffer structure structure at at lower lower
magnitudes magnitudes of of base base shear. shear.
The The ultimate ultimate capacity capacity of of the the structure, structure, is is usually usually reduced reduced with with
increasing increasing gravity gravity load. load.
5. 5. Do Do not not push push beyond beyond failure failure unless unless
otherwise otherwise you you can can model model failure failure
Force or Moment
Ultimate Capacity
Displacement or Curvature
6. 6. Pay Pay attention attention to to rebar rebar development development and and
lap lap lengths. lengths.

For For R/C R/C members members of of existing existing structures, structures, it it is is very very important important to to 
note note the the development development lengths lengths when when calculating calculating member member 

capacities. capacities. 


If If inadequate inadequate development development lengths lengths are are present, present, as as they they are are in in 
most most of of the the older older buildings, buildings, the the contributing contributing steel steel area area should should be be 

reduced reduced to to account account for for this this inadequacy. inadequacy. 


Failure Failure to to do do so so will will result result in in overestimating overestimating the the actual actual capacity capacity 
of of the the members members and and results results in in an an inaccurate inaccurate pushover pushover curve. curve.
JointJoint DetailingDetailing
7.7. DoDo notnot ignoreignore shearshear failurefailure mechanismsmechanisms

If If the the shear shear capacity capacity of of structural structural members members is is not not sufficient sufficient to to 

permit permit the the formation formation of of flexural flexural plastic plastic hinges, hinges, shear shear failure failure will will 

precede precede the the formation formation of of plastic plastic hinges hinges at at the the end end of of the the member. member. 


In In R/C R/C members, members, even even if if the the shear shear capacity capacity is is sufficient, sufficient, but but lateral lateral 

reinforcement reinforcement is is not not spaced spaced close close enough enough at at the the plastic plastic hinge hinge 

zones, zones, 
the the 
concrete concrete 
may may 
crush crush 
in in 
the the 
absence absence 
of of 
sufficient sufficient 

confinement. confinement. 


If If this this happens, happens, the the plastic plastic capacity capacity is is suddenly suddenly dropped dropped to to what what 
can can be be provided provided by by the the longitudinal longitudinal steel steel alone. alone.
ShearShear FailureFailure
ShortShort ColumnColumn FailureFailure
• This failure can be avoided by providing special confining reinforcement over entire column length
8. 8. P∆ P∆ effects effects may may be be more more important important
than than you you think. think.

The The P∆ P∆ effects effects become become increasingly increasingly significant significant with with larger larger 
lateral lateral displacements displacements and and larger larger axial axial column column forces. forces. 


Strong Strong column column   weak weak beam beam design design strategy strategy commonly commonly deals deals 
with with the the moment moment capacity capacity of of columns columns in in the the undeformed undeformed state. state. 


In In a a substantially substantially deformed deformed state, state, the the moment moment capacity capacity of of 
columns columns may may be be sufficiently sufficiently reduced reduced to to counteract counteract the the strong strong 

column column   weak weak beam beam behaviour behaviour envisioned envisioned by by the the design. design. 


Cases Cases of of plastic plastic hinge hinge formations formations during during a a pushover pushover analysis analysis 
in in columns columns "designed" "designed" to to be be stronger stronger than than the the beams beams are are not not rare. rare.
9. 9. Do Do not not confuse confuse the the Pushover Pushover with with the the
real real earthquake earthquake loading. loading.

The The pushover pushover load load is is monotonically monotonically increased increased 

The The earthquake earthquake generated generated forces forces continually continually change change in in amplitude amplitude 
and and direction direction during during the the duration duration of of earthquake earthquake ground ground motion. motion. 


Pushover Pushover loads loads and and structural structural response response are are in in phase phase 

Earthquake Earthquake excitations excitations and and building building response response are are not not necessarily necessarily in in 
phase. phase. 


This This is is particularly particularly true true for for nearfault nearfault ground ground motions motions which which tend tend to to 
concentrate concentrate the the damage damage on on the the lower lower floors, floors, an an effect effect which which is is
difficult difficult to to model model by by the the pushover pushover loads. loads.
9. 9. Do Do not not confuse confuse the the Pushover Pushover with with the the
real real earthquake earthquake loading. loading.
/H
IDARC
SAP
0.16g
0.25g
0.3g
0.35g
10. 10. Threedimensional Threedimensional buildings buildings may may require require
more more than than a a planar planar push. push.

For For building building with with strong strong asymmetry asymmetry in in plan, plan, or or with with numerous numerous 
nonorthogonal nonorthogonal elements, elements, a a planar planar (two (two dimensional) dimensional) pushover pushover 

analysis analysis may may not not suffice. suffice. 


For For such such cases cases a a 3D 3D model model of of the the building building must must be be constructed constructed 
and and subjected subjected to to pushover pushover analysis. analysis. 


Three Three dimensional dimensional buildings buildings may may be be pushed pushed in in the the principal principal 
directions directions
orthogonal orthogonal directions. directions.
independently, independently,
or or
pushed pushed
simultaneously simultaneously
in in
AnalysiAnalysiss ProcedureProcedure
SAP2000SAP2000 NLNL
PushoverPushover AnalysiAnalysiss ProcedureProcedure
Create 3D Model
Assign end offsets
Define Hinge properties
Assign Hinge properties
Beams
Columns – Default PMM
– Default M3
Define Static Pushover Cases
Gravity Pushover (Force controlled) DL+0.25LL Lateral Pushover (Displacement controlled)
Define Load case
(Lateral Load at centre of mass)
Run Static analysis
Run static pushover analysis
Establish Performance point
MaterialMaterial PropertiesProperties
ConcreteConcrete PropertiesProperties
_{•}_{•} CubeCube compressivecompressive strength,strength, ff _{c}_{k}_{c}_{k}
_{•}_{•} ModulusModulus ofof ElasticityElasticity ofof concreteconcrete ((
ReinforcingReinforcing SteelSteel PropertiesProperties
_{•}_{•} YieldYield strengthstrength ofof steelsteel
E
c
= 5000
_{•}_{•} ModulusModulus ofof ElasticityElasticity ofof steelsteel EE _{s}_{s}
ModificationModification FactorsFactors
FactorsFactors toto estimateestimate thethe expectedexpected strengthstrength 1.51.5 timestimes thethe ConcreteConcrete compressivecompressive strengthstrength ((ff _{c}_{k}_{c}_{k} )) SteelSteel yieldyield stressstress ((ff _{y}_{y} )) (Factor(Factor ofof 1.251.25 usedused forfor capaccapacityity estimationestimation consideringconsidering strainstrain hardeninghardening ofof steel)steel)
Knowledge Factors, m _{k}
No 
Description of available information 
^{m} 
k 
1 
Original construction documents, including material testing report 
1.0 

2 
Documentation as in (1) but no material testing undertaken 
0.9 

3 
Documentation as in (2) and minor deteriorations of original condition 
0.8 

4 
Incomplete but usable original construction documents 
0.7 

5 
Documentation as in (4) and limited inspection and material test results with large variation. 
0.6 

6 
Little knowledge about the details of components 
0.5 
MaterialMaterial PropertiesProperties
FrameFrame ElementsElements
InfillInfill (struts)(struts)
ModelingModeling ofof StructuralStructural elementselements
Beams and columns 
3D Frame elements 
Slab 
Diaphragm action (ignore the out of plane stiffness) 
Flat slabs 
Plate elements 
Beam column joints 
End offsets (Rigid zone factor 1) 
Asymmetric Structures 
Centre of mass (add non structural mass to corresponding beams) Centre of stiffness 
Inclusion of appendages 
Include water tanks, cantilever slabs 
ModelingModeling ofof StructuralStructural elementselements
Stairway slabs
Shear Walls
Infill walls
Foundation
Isolated footings
Single pile
Multiple piles
Plinth beams
Equivalent frame elements
Wide Column Elements
Equivalent strut method
Hinged at the bottom of foundation
Fixed at five times the diameter of pile
Fixity of columns at top of pile cap
Frame elements
ModelingModeling ofof BeamsBeams andand ColumnsColumns
3D3D FrameFrame ElementsElements
CrossCross SectionalSectional dimensions,dimensions, reinforcementreinforcement details,details, materialmaterial typtypee
EffectiveEffective momentmoment ofof inertiainertia
BeamsBeams 
RectangularRectangular 
0.50.5 II _{g}_{g} 
TTBeamBeam 
0.70.7 II _{g}_{g} 

LLBeamBeam 
0.60.6 II _{g}_{g} 

ColumnsColumns 
0.70.7 II _{g}_{g} 
ModelingModeling ofof Beams
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