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Formulae You may find the following formulae useful. average velocity = displaceme nt time

v= s t

accelerati on =

a=

(v u ) t

force = mass acceleration momentum = mass velocity change in potential energy = mass gravitational field strength change in height

P= W t

power = work done time taken

W=Fs

_______________________________________________________________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE _______________________________________________________________________________________ Bumper cars The picture shows some bumper cars. 17. A B C D 18. Riding in a bumper car can be dangerous. Even so, many young people do ride in bumper cars. One reason why young people are willing to take the risk is that modern bumper cars are more dangerous they watch more television than their parents their friends urge them to go on the ride they live longer than their parents When two bumper cars collide the force on one car is 80 N The force on the other car is 80 N A 40 N B 80 N C 40 N D

19. A B C D 20. A B C D

A force of 200 N moves a bumper car for 5 m. How much work is done? 0.025 J 40 J 205 J 1000 J Each bumper car has an electric motor. When the voltage across the motor is 120 V, the current is 2 A. How much energy is supplied to the motor in 5 seconds? 48 J 240 J 300 J 1200 J

Looking at roller coasters Carlos and his friends look at a car on a roller coaster. The diagram shows a side view of the roller coaster. L NOT TO SCALE car 90 m

K The empty car weighs 800 N. The car is raised from K to L by an electric motor. 21. A B C D 22. A B C D The work done raising the empty car from K to L is 720 J 7 200 J 72 000 J 720 000 J A car carrying passengers is raised from K to L. The current in the motor is 200 A and the voltage across it is 250 V. The ride takes 20 seconds to move from K to L. The electrical energy supplied to the motor is 4 000 J 5 000 J 50 000 J 1 000 000 J

Investigating parachutes Alison is investigating how the area of a parachute affects the time it takes to fall to the ground. She cuts different sized pieces from plastic bags to make the parachutes. 23. A B C D 24. A B C D In her investigation the independent variable is the gravitational field strength the height the parachute is dropped from the time taken to fall to the ground the area of the parachute The parachute falls through 2 m in a time of 0.5 s. What is the average velocity of the parachute? 0.5 m/s downwards 4.0 m/s downwards 0.5 m/s upwards 4.0 m/s upwards 2

Collisions Nafis and her friends are investigating what happens when cars collide. They use a number of model cars on a frictionless track. 25. A B C D One of the model cars has a mass of 0.2 kg. The car is given an acceleration of 4 m/s2. The force needed to produce this acceleration is 0.05 N 0.8 N 2.0 N 8.0 N

Use this information to answer questions 26 and 27. The velocity-time graph shows the motion of a different model car during one experiment.

10 9 8 7 6 velocity 5 in m/s 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 time in s 10 12 14

The acceleration of this car during the first 2 seconds is 0.2 m/s2 5 m/s2 10 m/s2 20 m/s2

After 5 seconds the momentum of the car is 4 kg m/s. What is the mass of the car? 0.4 kg 0.8 kg 20 kg 40 kg Nafis and her friends discuss safety and collisions. Increasing a drivers reaction time will reduce the risk of an accident. A seat belt protects a driver in a collision by reducing the rate of change of his momentum. Nafis Heather An airbag reduces the risk of injury because it has a lot of kinetic energy. Reducing the friction in a cars brakes will improve their effectiveness.

Colin

Mary

A B C D

Funfair rides 29. Which of these graphs shows the relationship between work done on a ride and energy transferred to the ride?

work done in J

work done in J

energy transferred in J A

energy transferred in J B

work done in J

work done in J

energy transferred in J C

energy transferred in J D

Use this information to answer questions 30 and 31. The diagram below shows a simplified overhead view of this fairground ride.

car on ride

ride turns

P 30. The ride turns at a steady speed. Which of these describes the motion of one of the cars? velocity of car changing steady steady changing acceleration of car constant size zero constant size zero

A B C D

31.

ride turns at a steady speed P Which of these shows the direction of the resultant force that keeps car P moving in a circle? P P P P

Investigating motion A group of students investigate the motion of a glider moving on an air track. The glider moves over a cushion of air and so there is very little friction. The students produce this graph for part of one gliders motion.

12 10 8 speed in cm/s 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 time in seconds 3 4

32. A B C D 33. A B C D

What is the acceleration of the glider? 2 cm/s2 3 cm/s2 4 cm/s2 12 cm/s2 The students try a different experiment. The glider has a mass of 0.4 kg. The resultant force on the glider is 2.0 N. What is the acceleration? 0.2 m/s2 0.8 m/s2 5.0 m/s2 50 m/s2

34.

60 50 40 velocity 30 in m/s 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 time in seconds 20 25 30

A B C D 35.

The momentum of the sky diver when he reaches terminal velocity is 7200 kg m/s. What is the mass of the skydiver? 120 kg 240 kg 360 kg 2400 kg The students discuss how the skydiver reaches terminal velocity. The velocity gradually As the velocity increases, the Adam decreases until it is a terminal upward force gets bigger until Bella velocity. it balances the downward force. As the velocity increases, the downward force gets smaller until it balances the upward force. As the velocity increases, the upward force gets bigger until it is more than the downward force, so he slows down.

Carla

Danny

A B C D

Funfair rides 36. The picture shows a vertical drop ride. The passengers and the car are lifted by an electric motor. The gravitational potential energy gained is 660 kJ. The motor is connected to a 440 V supply. It takes 1 minute to lift the passengers and the car. Assuming that there are no energy losses, what is the current in the motor? 0.025 A 25 A 45.8 A 1500 A Julie and Kim ride horses on the roundabout and discuss circular motion. As we go round at a steady As the roundabout turns at speed, the resultant force pushes Julie a steady speed, each of the us away from the centre of the Kim horses is accelerating. ride. Who is correct? Julie only Kim only Both Julie and Kim Neither

A B C D 37.

A B C D

Use this information to answer questions 39 and 40. Some students investigate rides at a funfair. The diagram shows part of the track of a roller coaster ride. X roller coaster car Y NOT TO SCALE

START A roller coaster car has a mass of 600 kg. Gravitational field strength is 10 N/kg. The roller coaster car loses 120 000 J of gravitational potential energy as it falls from X to Y. 38. A B C D 39. A B C D What is the height of X above Y? 2m 20 m 200 m 2000 m The car is stopped at X before it rolls down to Y. What is the increase in velocity of the car between X and Y assuming there are no energy losses due to friction? 10 m/s 14 m/s 20 m/s 200 m/s

_______________________________________________________________________________________ STRUCTURED QUESTIONS _______________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Russ uses an electric can-crusher at his local recycling centre. The diagram shows a can before and after crushing. 250 000 N force crusher bar 15 cm can 1.5 cm (a) Before Calculate the distance, in m, that the force has moved. After 250 000 N crusher bar

(b)

Distance = m [1 mark] Calculate the work done by the force. State the units in your answer.

(c)

Work done = (33 750 ) [3 marks] State the maximum energy transferred to the can by the force.

[1 mark] (d) The motor of the can crusher works at 230 V and 21 A. It takes 12 s to crush the can. Calculate the electrical energy transferred by the motor.

(e)

Electrical energy transferred = (57 960 J) [2 marks] Not all the energy supplied to the motor is used to crush the can. Explain what happens to the energy that is not used to crush the can.

2.

Babs and Sunita are investigating the physics of ten-pin bowling. Babs measures the time taken for the ball to travel down the bowling alley. The length of the alley is 18 m. The time taken for the ball to travel down the alley is 2.4 s. (a) Calculate the average velocity of the ball.

Average velocity = (7.5 m/s) [2 marks] (b) Explain why this is an average velocity. [1 mark] (c) The mass of each pin is 1.5 kg. The ball hits just one pin with a force of 90 N. Calculate the initial acceleration of the pin.

Acceleration = (60 m/s2) [2 marks] [Total for Q2 = 5 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Headrests are used in cars to prevent whiplash injuries. They are tested using crash dummies. The headrests can be moved vertically and horizontally. Here are some results.

(a)

(i)

State two ways which the headrest should be adjusted for a tall person.

1 2 [2 marks] 9

(ii)

Explain why.

[1 mark] (b) Recent research suggests that when a driver gets a new safety feature such as ABS brakes he drives less carefully. Suggest a reason why. [1 mark] (c) With reference to momentum, explain how the crumple zone in a car protects the driver in a crash. [2 marks] [Total for Q3 = 6 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The diagram shows Frank and Simon playing with a flat sledge on an ice rink. (a) At first, Simon pulls Frank at a constant speed of 1.2 m/s for 6 m with a horizontal force of 35 N. (i) Calculate the momentum of Frank and the sledge if their combined mass is 38 kg. State the unit.

(ii)

Momentum = (45.6 ) [3 marks] Calculate how much useful work Simon has done.

10

(b)

Simon pulls Frank quickly round in a circle. The diagram below shows birds eye view snapshots of the sledge as Simon pulls it round.

(i)

State and explain what happens to Frank as the sledge moves quickly around in a circle. You may add to the diagram if this makes your answer clearer.

[2 marks] (ii) When it is Simons turn, he sits inside a large empty cardboard box instead of on the flat sledge. The box is pulled quickly around in a circle by Frank. What happens to Simon? [1 mark] [Total for Q4 = 8 marks] _______________________________________________________________________________________

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