Sei sulla pagina 1di 236

Posted originally, 4/28/11

50 %
50 %

Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings

Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building

Developed by:

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers The American Institute of Architects Illuminating Engineering Society of North America U.S. Green Building Council U.S. Department of Energy

Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings

This is an ASHRAE Design Guide. Design Guides are developed under ASHRAE’s Special Publication procedures and are not consensus docu- ments. This document is an application manual that provides voluntary rec- ommendations for consideration in achieving greater levels of energy savings relative to minimum standards.

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

This publication was prepared under the auspices of ASHRAE Special Project 133.

PROJECT COMMITTEE

Bing Liu Chair Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Merle McBride

Vice-Chair

Owens Corning

Daniel Nall AIA/USGBC Representative WSP Flack + Kurtz

Mick Schwedler ASHRAE Representative Trane, a division of Ingersoll Rand

Michael Lane IES Representative Lighting Design Lab

Mathew Tanteri IES Representative Tanteri + Associates

Don Colliver Steering Committee Ex Officio University of Kentucky

Erin McConahey Member at Large Arup

Brian Thornton Analysis Support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Weimin Wang Analysis Support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Lilas Pratt

Staff Liaison

ASHRAE

STEERING COMMITTEE

Don Colliver

Chair

Bill Worthen

AIA Representative

Rita Harrold

IES Representative

Brendan Owens USGBC Representative

Tom Watson ASHRAE Representative

Jerome Lam DOE Representative

Mick Schwedler ASHRAE SSPC 90.1 Liaison

Adrienne Thomle ASHRAE TC 7.6 Liaison

Lilas Pratt ASHRAE Staff Liaison

Any updates/errata to this publication will be posted on the ASHRAEWeb site at www.ashrae.org/publicationupdates.

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings

Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers The American Institute of Architects Illuminating Engineering Society of North America U.S. Green Building Council U.S. Department of Energy

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

ISBN 978-1-936504-05-3

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E. Atlanta, GA 30329 www.ashrae.org

All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Printed on 10% post-consumer waste using soy-based inks.

Cover design and illustrations by Emily Luce, Designer. Cover photographs courtesy of ASHRAE and Michael Lane.

ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated, and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that the information in the publication is free of errors, and ASHRAE does not necessarily agree with any statement or opinion in this publication. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user.

No part of this book may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credit; nor may any part of this book be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any way or by any means—electronic, photocopying, recording, or other—with- out permission in writing from ASHRAE. Requests for permission should be submitted at www.ashrae.org/permissions.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Advanced energy design guide for small to medium office buildings : achieving 50% energy savings toward a net zero energy building / American

Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers p. cm. Includes bibliographical references.

Summary: "Designed to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings over the minimum code requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for small to medium office buildings; allows contractors, consulting engineers, architects, and designers to easily achieve advanced levels of energy savings without having to resort to detailed calculations or analyses"--Provided by publisher. ISBN 978-1-936504-05-3 (softcover : alk. paper)

[et al.].

1. Office buildings--Energy conservation. 2. Office buildings--Design and construction. I. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-

Conditioning Engineers.

TJ163.5.O35A38 2011

725'.0472--dc22

2011006680

ASHRAE STAFF

SPECIAL P UBLICATIONS

Mark Owen Editor/Group Manager of Handbook and Special Publications Cindy Sheffield Michaels Managing Editor James Madison Walker Associate Editor Elisabeth Parrish Assistant Editor Michshell Phillips Editorial Coordinator

P UBLISHING SERVICES

David Soltis Group Manager of Publishing Services and Electronic Communications Jayne Jackson Publication Traffic Administrator

P UBLISHER

W. Stephen Comstock

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Contents

Acknowledgments .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

ix

Abbreviations and Acronyms

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

xi

Foreword: A Message for Building Owners and Developers

 

xv

Chapter 1 Introduction

 

1

Goal of this Guide

2

Scope

2

How to Use this Guide

3

Energy Modeling Analysis

3

Achieving 50% Energy Savings

4

References

5

Chapter 2 Integrated Design Process

 

7

 

Principles of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD)

 

8

Using IPD to Maximize Energy Efficiency

10

Details by Project Phase

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11

References .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

19

Chapter 3

Integrated Design Strategies

 

21

 

. Overview of Design Influences

Introduction .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

21

22

Building and Site Design Features

 

23

Climate Features

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

23

Building

Features .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

29

Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs)

 

34

Envelope

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

34

Lighting .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

37

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

vi

| Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings

. Service Water Heating

HVAC Systems

Plug

Loads .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

40

41

41

HVAC Controls

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

43

Quality Assurance

Multidisciplinary Coordination for Energy Efficiency

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

44

44

. Multidisciplinary Recommendations

Overview .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 44

45

Use of Energy Modeling as Design Guidance

63

References

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

67

Chapter 4 Design Strategies and Recommendations by Climate Zone

 

71

Introduction .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

71

Climate-Related Design Strategies

 

71

Hot, Humid Climates (Miami, Houston, Atlanta)

72

Hot, Dry Climates (Phoenix, Los Angeles, Las Vegas)

73

Mild, Humid Climates (Baltimore)

74

Mild, Dry Climates (Albuquerque)

75

Marine Climates (San Francisco, Seattle)

75

Cold, Dry Climates (Denver, Helena)

76

Cold Climates (Chicago, Minneapolis)

77

Climate Zone Recommendations

78

Zone 1

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

81

Zone 2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

84

Zone 3

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

87

Zone 4

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

90

Zone 5

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

93

Zone 6

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

96

Zone 7

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

99

Zone 8

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

102

References .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

105

Chapter 5

How to Implement Recommendations

107

Envelope .

. Opaque Envelope Components

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

107

107

. Window Design Guidelines for Thermal Conditions

Vertical Fenestration

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

121

122

Window Design Guidelines for Daylighting

 

125

References .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

126

Daylighting .

. General Recommendations

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

127

127

References .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

139

© 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.

Contents | vii

 

Electric

Lighting .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

140

Interior Lighting

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

140

Exterior

Lighting .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

151

References and Resources

154

Plug Loads

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

155

Equipment and Control Guidelines

 

155

References and Resources

156

Service Water Heating

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

158

General Recommendations

 

158

Resources .

. HVAC Systems and Equipment

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

160

161

HVAC System Types

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

161

HVAC System Considerations

 

170

References and Resources

184

Quality Assurance .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

186

. References and Resources

Overview .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

186

189

Additional Bonus Savings

190

Daylighting—Toplighting

190

Natural Ventilation

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

193

Renewable

Energy .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

194

References .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

197

Appendix A

Envelope Thermal Performance Factors

 

199

Appendix B

International Climatic Zone Definitions

 

201

Definitions .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

202

References .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

202

Appendix C

Commissioning Information and Examples

 

203

Commissioning Scope of Services

203

Introduction .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.