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Birth and Prenatal Period

The events and environment surrounding the Birth Process. Birth the act of being born; Origin; beginning of life. Prenatal taking place before birth

Labor and Delivery Dilated neck of the uterus Delivery of the baby Placenta is expelled Fetal Distress a condition of an abnormal in the fetus, reflected during the birth process in an abnormal fetal heart rate. Cesarean Section a surgical process that removed the fetus directly from the uterus, if the normal delivery is prohibited. Cultural attitudes toward Birth Pregnant women are encouraged to visit the doctor regularly. To practice proper medication treatment, prescribed by physician. Educating pregnant women on her condition and understanding her emotional and health realization. Maternal should get ready on financial aspects.

Concept of Risk Risk Exposure for possible loss, injury or danger. At risk Describes babies who have a higher probability on experiencing developmental problems,

Low birth weights indicate of at risk babies.

Effects on Physical Development Hard to pay attention. Poor muscle tone. Shows poorer recognition memory. Poorly on verbal test of IQ as preschoolers.

Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUS) Facilities that should help the premature babies to develop continuously even outside the mothers womb. Physical Compromise on the New Born Babies Physical problems in the new born babies. Low birth weight. Anoxia lack of oxygen to the cells, which can produce brain or other tissue damaged Types of Low Birth Weight Babies Preterm Babies- describes babies born before the end of the normal gestational period (7 months or before 7months; 38 weeks). Effects on Physical Development Less mature brain patterns. Growth and health issues problems. More disorganized and difficult to Greater risk for both behavior and soothe. academic performances.

Small for Gestational Age (SGA) Babies born at the weight in the bottom 10% of the babies of a particular gestational age.

Causes of SGA Prenatal would be delayed Chromosomal abnormalities. Infections. Poor maternal nutrition. Maternal substances abused. Physical and Behavioral Assessment Third indicator of risk is poor performance on standard assessment. New born babies must have to undergo some tests to trace developmental problems that might be arise after giving birth. Types of Assessment Apgar Test Introduced in 1953 by Dr. Virginia Apgar, an Obstetrician. Causes of Failure of Apgar Test Maternal depression Labor medication Anxiety Vices

PRECHTL Assessment This examination is also similar to Apgar test, but at this assessment the neurological functions added to make it more comprehensive and reliable. It measures alertness, spontaneous movements. Tremors. Facial expression. Reaction to placement various postures.

BRAZELTON NEONATAL Behavioral Assessment Most comprehensive test the test should be categorized in four aspects; This are the following; Attention and social responsiveness Muscle tone and physical movements Control of alertness (habituation, irritability and excitability). Physiological response to stress.

The Organized Newborn

States of Alertness State Deep sleep Light sleep Characteristics Regular breathing; eyes closed with no eye movements; no activity except for occasional jerkey movements. Eyes closed but rapid eye movements can be obsevrd; activity level low; movements are smoother that in deep sleep; breathing may be irregular. Eyes may open and close but look dull when open; responses to stimulation are delayed but stimulation may cause state to change; activity level varies. Eyes open nad bright; attention focused on stimuli; activity level relatively low. Eyes open; activity level high; may shoe brief fussiness; reacts to stimulation with increases in starlets and motor activity. Intense crying that is difficult to stop; high level of motor activity.


Alert inactivity Alert activity Crying

Electroencophalograph an instrument that measures brain activity by sensing minute electrical changes at the top of the skull. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep a stage of light sleep in which the eyes move rapidly while the eyelids are closed.

Rhythms Newborn babies are rhythmic creatures. It may be different with ours but it will shifts into synchrony with ours as the baby develops. The newborns states, like the adults, occur as rhythms cycling within other rhythms. The baby engages in a cycle of active and quiet sleep that repeats each 50 to 60 minutes. This cycle is coordinated with a cycle of wakefullness that occurs once every 3 to 4 hours. Infants gradually adapt to the 24-hour ligh-dark cycle. Sleep periods become longer at night, usually around 5 to 6 weeks of age, as awake periods lengthen during the day. By 12 to 16 weeks, the pattern of sleeping at night and being awake during the day is fairly well stablished. Reflexes An automatic and stereotype response to a specific stimulus. Newborn Reflexes 1. Rooting Reflex the turning of the infants head toeard the cheeck at which stimulation is applied, followed by opening of the mouth. 2. Palmar Reflex the infants finger grasp of an object that stimulates the palm of the hand. 3. Moro Reflex the infants response to loss of head support or to a loud sound, consisting of thrusting the arms and fingres outward, followed by clenching the fists and makng a grasping motion of the arms acroos the chest. 4. Stepping Reflex the infants response to pressure on the soles of the feet, consisting of stepping (flexing) movements.

5. Tonic Neck Reflex the infants potural change when the head is turned to the side, consisting of extension of the arm on that side and clenching of the other arm in what looks like a fencers position. Congenitally Organized Behaviors Early behaviors of newborns that do not require specific external stimulation and that show more adaptability than simple reflexes. The Three Well-Organized Behavior of Newborn 1. Looking The newborns looking behavior is often unexpected (Crouchman 1985). As early as 8 hours after birth, and in complete darkness, babies open their eyes wide and engage in frequent eye movements, as though they were searching for something to explore (Haith 1991). Looking behavior shows that newborns possess tools for acting on their world, not just for reacting to it. 2. Sucking Babies may suck spontaneously, even during sleep. The sucking act is not stereotype, but adapts to a variety of conditions, such as how much fluid can be obtained with each suck. In addition, sucking is sensitive to sensory events. Babies who are sucking tend to stop whwn they see something start to move or when they hear a voice (Haith 1996). Sucking also seems to buffer the infant againts pain and overstimulation. Agitated babies quiet when they suck on a pacifier, especially when it contains a sweet substance (Smith & Blass 1996). 3. Crying contains various components of behavoir, such as brathing,

vocalizing, and mascular tensing, in a rhythmic pattern. Wolff distinguished three

types of cries in every young infant: a hungry or basic cry; a mad or angry cry; and pain cry. The crying of healthy, newborn infants is fairly characteristics in both pitch and rhythm. An unusual cry, therefore, can signal problems. Babies who are immate or brain damaged produce higher-frequency cries with abnormal timing patterns. Babies who shown evidence of malnutrition at birth or who are preterm often also have higher-pitched cries with abnormal timing patterns. Infants who have genetic anomalities, such as the cri du chat syndrome and Down syndrome have atypical cries as well (Lester & Zesknd). Crying is a major factor in eraly social interaction because it is one of the infants basic tools for getting the caregiver to come closer.

Principles of Motor Development

1. Cephalocaudal Principle According to this principle, the child first gains control of the head, then the arms, then the legs. Infants gain control of head and face movements within the first two months after birth. In the next few months, they are able to lift themselves up using their arms. By 6 to 12 months of age, infants start to gain leg control and may be able to crawl, stand, or walk. 2. Proximodistal Principle Accordingly, the spinal cord develops before other parts of the body. The childs arms develop before the hands, and the hands and feet develop before the fingers and toes. Fingers and toes are the last to develop. 3. General to Specific Principle The general to specific development pattern is the progression from the entire use of the body to the use of specific body parts.

This pattern can be best seen through the learned process of grasping. Just as the child develops a more precise grasp with time and experience, many other motor skills are achieved simultaneously throughout motor development. Each important skill mastered by an infant is considered a motor milestone. The Development of Motor Skills Gross Motor Skills

Gross motor skills refer to any physical skill that requires balance and

coordination such as jumping or running. A baby's gross motor skills start with raising and holding her head up. As their gross motor skills develop, sitting and whole body movement follows. These skills do not require the same hand to eye coordination and more exact muscle use that fine motor skills need. Gross Motor Abilities 24 Months Running well without falling Walking up and down stairs alone Kicking a large ball

18 Months Walking fast, seldom falling Walking up stairs with one hand held Running stiffly Seating self in a small chair Climbing into an adult chair Hurling a ball

36 Months Walking well on toes Walking up stairs alternating feet Pedaling a tricycle Jumping from a step by

Hopping two or three times

Fine Motor Skills Fine motor skills are the manner in which we use our fingers, hands, & arms.

They include reaching, grasping, manipulating objects & using different tools like crayons & scissors.

18 Months Making a tower of four cubes Releasing 10 cubes into a cup Scribbling spontaneously

Imitating a drawing stroke Piling three blocks on a Inserting a square block into Form board a performance box

Fine Motor Abilities 24 Months Building a six to seven cube tower Aligning two or more cubes to form a train Imitating a horizontal drawing stroke vertical Beginning circular strokes

36 Months Copying a circle Copying bridges with cubes Building a 9-10 blocks tower Drawing a persons head

The Nature vs. Nurture in the development of Motor activities The term nature refers to the biological forces that govern development. To a certain extent our development is programmed by the genetic codes we inherit. This biological program unfolds throughout childhood. Nurture refers to the environmental conditions and supports that influence development. Elements of nurture include a child's economic and sociocultural environments. Poverty, malnutrition, and a lack of adequate medical care can alter a child's developmental path. John Watson, a renowned American psychologist of the early twentieth century, was a strong proponent of the nurture school. Watson argued that experience and learningnurturedetermined what children would become. But other researchers have disagreed, pointing out that characteristics such as personality are determined more by genetics (nature) than by nurture. Today, however, developmental scientists understand that nature and nurture work together and it is impossible to distinguish their separate effects


Known as the library of the body. Our brain contains approximately 100 billion of nerve cells or what we called neurons. What are Neurons? They are responsible for the transmission of different activities from one part of the nervous system to another. Neurons have cell body and a nucleus. But neurons are considered unique than any other cell in the body for they develop extensions on the opposite sides. These extensions are called DENDRITES which are the tangle of strands that look like the roots of the plant. Axon Outgoing dendrites extensions are called. These are long fiber extending from the cell body in a neuron. It sends messages from the cell. Myelin is a fatty substance that insulates and speeds message transmission. Cells do not touch one another but are separated by fluid filled gaps called Synapses. Information is passed along a neuron as an electrical signal and crosses the synapse by the flow of chemicals called Neurotransmitters. (Neurotransmitters are chemicals which transmits electrical activity from one neuron across the synapse to another neuron.) The Three Major Parts of the Brain Brain Stem - includes the cerebellum which is responsible for balance and control. The Mid-Brain - serves as a relay station and controls breathing and swallowing.

Cerebrum - The highest brain center. It includes the left and right hemispheres and the bundle of nerves that connect them. * Cerebral Cortex The thin sheets of gray matter that covers the brain. Crucial for the functioning of the senses, language, memory, thought, decision making and control of voluntary actions.

Development of the Brain (Three Stages) 1. Cell Production Most neurons are produced between 10-26 weeks following conception. 2. Cell Migration outward migration of the cells to their proper locations. 3. Cell Elaboration the axons and dendrites form synapses with other cells. The fetus brain grows faster than any other organ and this pace continues in

infancy. At birth body weight is only 5% of the adult weight while the brain weighs 25% of its adult value. Primary Motor Area first area to mature and locations that control activity the head mature first and maturation precedes downward


(Cephalocaudal Direction). Hemispheric Specialization Two hemispheres of brain are not perfectly symmetrical, but are laterized. Meaning that the left brain and the right brain are somewhat specialized. Left Brain- words and concepts or more specialized on language performance. The right brain is more oriented to images. Mathematical and spatial

The Physical Growth

The overall rate of growth fluctuates during the growth years, with different body parts growing at different rates. Arnold Gesell Growth in Size Doesnt proceed at a steady rate, speeds up throughout childhood, peeks during puberty and slows down as we reach adolescence Nature and nurture affects the pace of growth of an individual.

Growth in Body proportion & composition Proximodistal development is evident on an individual on their 6th-9th month. Cephalocaudal development is apparent when the lower part of body catches up in adolescence Muscles and greater shoulder width for boys Fats and broader hips for girls

Sex Differentiation Gender affects body size and composition. Fathers sperm determines the sex of the fetus Continues from birth until puberty Girls develop somewhat faster than boys but they share relatively similar heights, body proportion and body composition with boys up until puberty changes manifest.

Puberty and Adolescence Puberty is the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. Hormones from Endocrine glands surges the difference between sexes Growth hormone from the pituitary gland helps stimulate bone growth

Factors that affect Growth and Maturation Heredity Exercise Nutrition Eating disorders: Anorexia nervosa a severe eating disorder usually involving excessive weight loss through self-starvation, most often found in teenage girls. Bulimia a disorder of food binging and sometimes purging by selfinduced vomiting, typically observed in teenage girls. Obesity a condition of excess fat storage; often defined as weight more than 20% over a standardized, ideal weight. Social class and Poverty Physical Abnormality Abuse and Psychological Trauma i.e. Shaken Baby Syndrome

Figure 1 Growth rate of Boys and Girls

Figure 2 Body Proportion at Several Ages

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela

Main Campus

Written Report in Developmental Psychology

Presented by:
Siason, Rina M. Baares, Ruby R. Dela Pea, Maricar C. Manipon, Joannie M. Pitalbo, Zaldy B.

Presented to:
Prof. Rhod Dantay