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WATER PURIFICATION THROUGH MALUNGGAY ( Moringa oleifera Lin.

) SEED EXTRACT AND SOLAR HEAT

A Research Proposal Presented to the Science Department Zamboanga Del Norte National high school

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Research I ( English for Science and Technology with Basic Statistics )

by Maritoni Charity J. Gayapa and Alexa C. Tiu II- Amethyst September, 2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page TITLE PAGE CERTIFICATION OF ORAL DEFENSE APPROVAL SHEET ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DEDICATION i ii iii iv v

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM: ITS RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND Introduction Background of the Study Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework Schema of the Study Statement of the Problem Hypotheses Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitations Definition of Terms 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ANF STUDIES Legal Aspects Literature Studies 11 13 16

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Materials and Equipment Data Gathering Procedure Statistical Treatment of Study 19 22 22 23

BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES A. Submission of Research Titles for Research Writing 27

B. Budget Proposal C. Schedule of Activities

Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM: ITS [CORRECT THIS] RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND

Introduction

Water is the key to a person's survival because without water survival is simply not an option. However, water has to be purified otherwise bacteria in the water can be harmful to your drink. This is highlighted especially in the Third World countries such as Ethiopia and Gambia where many people die due to contaminated water that contains lots of bacteria that cause infection and illness. In all countries water is considered valuable to maintain its purity and it must go through several processes such as reverse osmosis which is quite expensive. However there are cheaper ways to purify water; it wouldnt even cost you money. One example is solar heat. Solar radiation can kill bacteria in a period of time. It has been tested and proven to purify water in many parts of the world. On the other hand, Malunggay [FIRST MENTION OF TEST ORGANISM, WRITE THE SCIENTIFIC NAME], which is called as a miracle plant, which is very common in many parts of the tropics especially the Philippines, using the seeds of this plant has been tested and also proven to purify and kill bacteria living in water. [CHECK YOUR COMMAS. YOU LOVE COMMAS?] Both of these ways are proven and tested by researchers but not using these two as a combination. The researchers will conduct this study to determine if

Malunggay seed extracts and heat combined is effective in purifying water. This study

aims to determine whether Moringa seed extracts and Solar Heat can be used in water purification.

Background of the Study

The use of solar heat has been reported to be very effective in purifying water. The use of raw malunggay seed extract has also been reported to be a good water purifier. Considering that both solar heat and malunggay seed extract are not costly at all when used in water purification, and both of these ways are proven and tested by researchers but not using these two as a combination, the researchers found it exciting [AVOID THIS WORD WHEN JUSTIFYING EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH] to try to verify and determine if the combination of both solar heat and malunggay seed extract is effective in purifying water.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

This study is anchored on both foreign and local claims, based on their studies, that solar radiation and moringga seed extracts have been tested and proven to be effective in purifying dirty waters. Sia (2008) reported that moringa seeds could treat water on two levels, acting both as a coagulant and an antimicrobial agent. Drs. Geoff Folkard and John

Sutherland from the University of Leicester, England, have worked on substituting moringa seeds for alum to remove solids in water for drinking (Folkard and Sutherland, 1996). According also to to the study that was made by researchers on

http://www.miracletrees.org/moringa_water_purification.html, {NO LINKS] they say that crushed Moringa seeds purify water to be used widely around a certain area and it can lower the bacterial concentration in water so that it will be safe to drink. And it can also be used as a quick and very simple method for cleaning dirty water in rivers. Waters are purified to improve its quality and make it fit for human consumption. Water purification does not only kill the harmful bacteria found in dirty waters but it also aims to make the water looks clear and remove all its impurities to make it more acceptable to user. With the positive reports and encouraging results of earlier studies made about water purification using solar heat Moringga seeds, the researchers find it interesting to

find out how the combination of malunggay seed extracts and solar heat exposure affects the quality of dirty waters in terms of its pH, turbidity and the presence of harmful micro-organism, E. Coli. [WRITE IN FULL. NOT PROPER WAY OF WRITING SCIENTIFIC NAME] An evaluation is to made regarding the hypothesis that states that H0: There is no significant difference in the water before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria. And for the H1: There is a significant difference in the water before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria. The schema clearly illustrates the relationship between the Independent Variables (IV) and the Dependent Variables (DV). There are two (2) IVs in the left box, namely: The first is the concentration or Number of Malunggay Seed added to one (1) Liter water for purification ( 1 seed:1 Liter; 2 seeds: 1 Liter; and 3 seeds:1Liter, respectively) and the second is Solar Heat and in the right box are the Dependent Variables (DV). The arrow in between the two boxes is pointing to the right box containing the DV. This arrow signifies that the IVs have a direct influence on the DV which is Water Quality measured in terms of the following characteristics, namely: Color of Water; Water pH; and No. of E. Coli. It means that changes made in the

concentration of the Independent Variables , a corresponding reaction will be noted from the DV. In this study, should there be significant effects on the Dependent

Variables, the positive Hypothesis may be accepted and it will prove that malunggay and solar heat is effective as water purifier.

Malunggay Seed Extract 1 Kernel per Liter of Water 2 Kernels per Liter of Water 2 Kernels per Liter of Water Solar heat Water Quality Color of water Ph No. of coliform bacteria

Figure 1.1 The Schema of the Study.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine if Malunggay (Moringa oleifera Lin.) seed extract and solar heat are effective in water purification. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following sub-problems: 1. What are the characteristics of the samples of water in terms of: 1.1. Turbidity? 1.2. Ph? 1.3. Number of Coliform bacteria? 2. What are the characteristics of the samples of water exposed to different malunggay seed extracts in terms of: 2.1. Turbidity? 2.2. pH? 2.3. Number of the Coliform bacteria? 3. What are the characteristics of the samples of water exposed to solar heat in terms of: 3.1. Turbidity? 3.2. pH? 3.3. Number of the Coliform bacteria?

4. What are the characteristics of the samples of water exposed to malunggay seed extract and solar heat combined in terms of: 4.1. Turbidity? 4.2. pH? 4.3. Number of the Coliform bacteria? [THESE ARE SUGGESTED QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS]

5. Is there a significant difference in the characteristics of the samples of water before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria?

Hypotheses

On the bases of the research problems stated, two formulated:

hypothesis are hereby

H0: There is no significant difference in the water before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria. H1: There is a significant difference in the water before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria.

Significance of the Study This study hopes to create an impact on peoples health and the economy.

Peoples health.

People in the rural areas or those who are living in the

hinterlands where there is no purified water available just drink water taken from open wells. They are highly vulnerable to getting sick with diarrhea from their dirty or contaminated drinking water. Using this type of water purification can lessen the cause of diarrhea and many other diseases caused by harmful bacteria in water. The purification process is very easy to do because even small children can do it right and it doesnt use sophisticated and costly gadgets. Economy. This study can also be a big help in the economy of our poor families and the nation, in general, because it doesnt use any expensive chemicals and processes. It uses only a very common natural ingredient taken from malunggay

seeds. Malunggay is most commonly found in many parts of the country and it could be easily grown in everyones backyard and last for a number of years. Environment. It can benefit the environment because this process is purely organic. This process would encourage Maluggay tree planting in order to have a readily available source of kernels for water purification. Likewise, it would eventually guarantee a year-round supply of a very nutritious malunggay leaves for home consumption and for sale. Furthermore, the waste from pounding malunggay seeds is biodegradable; therefore, it wont cause poisoning and environmental pollution. It is very safe. [WHAT ABOUT THE FUTURE STUDENT-RESEARCHERS?; THE

COMMUNITY? THE RURAL FOLKS?; THE POOR?]

Scope and Limitation of the Study The study is going to [TOO WORDY. DELETE. REPLACED WITH: will] be conducted at the Loods Residence, Turno, Dipolog City covering the period from the last week of September to the second week of October 2011. The water that the researchers will use is open-well water [FROM WHERE?] which will be examined by the Agape Laboratory, Dipolog City. The researchers will collect 12 Malunggay kernels. The production of Malunggay seed extract will be done using the crushing method. This study is limited only to the use of the Malunggay seed extract and solar heat for water purification of an open-well water samples.

Definition of Key Terms

Moringa oleifera. Malunggy in Filipino, This term [DELETE] refers to the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. It is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses. Kernel. This term refers to the grain or seed, as of a cereal grass, enclosed in a husk grain or seed, as of a cereal grass, enclosed in a husk Etract. This term refers to obtain something from a source, usually by separating it out from other material Water purification. This term refers to the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human

consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacology, chemical and industrial applications. Water quality. This term refers to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. Solar Heat. This term refers to the energy emitted by the sun from a nuclear fusion reaction that creates electromagnetic energy. pH. This term refers to the measure of acidity or alkalinity. Turbidity. This term refers to the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by individual particles (suspended solids) that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality. Open well. This term refers to a well whose diameter is great enough (1 meter or more) for a person to descend to the water level. It is an artificial pond filling a large excavation in the zone of saturation up to the water table. E. Coli. This term refers to the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of mammals.