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ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGES ON WATER RESOURCES IN KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

Professor of Water Resources Management, Director, Water Research Program, President, Saudi Water Association, Advisor to the Minister of Water and Electricity, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: awalid@kfupm.edu.sa

ABSTRACT Saudi Arabia represents about two third of the Arabian Peninsula where renewable water resources are scarce. Consequently the country water system is sensitive to any level of climate change especially in terms of the availability of water resources and water use for different purpose. This will have significant impacts on the development policies and sustainability of the country. He impacts of possible climate change alternatives in terms of temperature increase from 1 to 5 Co have been assessed on reference evapotraspiration, irrigation water use , aquifer recharge, surface runoff, domestic water use in twenty one weather station representing different regions of the country. Assessment of these impacts indicated clearly that most regions have high vulnerability levels for climate change impacts on desertification processes and water resources. The climate change impacts as represented by temperature increase would elevate the levels of reference evapotranspiration by about 1-4.5% at 1 oC increase, and by about 6-19.5% at 5 oC increase in most regions. While, the crops irrigation water demands would rise by about 602 and 3,122 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature respectively. These expected yield losses of different types of field crops (including cereals, vegetables and forage crops) and fruit trees (including date palms) will range between 5 and more than 25%. The total annual reduction in recharge and surface runoff will be about 241 MCM and 1,435 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature respectively. On other hand, the climate change will also increase the domestic and industrial water demands by about 75 and 390 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature respectively. This will lead to more water problems to satisfy the increasing domestic, industrial and agricultural demands. This will result into serious social and economic impacts which affects the sustainability of the national economy and the progress of the country.

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INTRODUCTION

In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, limited water resources (groundwater and surface water) and sensitive desert environment are major features of its ecosystems. Any changes in climatic conditions such as temperature will have significant consequences on water resources and will enhance desertification processes in its cultivated and uncultivated lands. Groundwater resources are the major water supply source for the Kingdom. More than 90% of the national water use is satisfied from groundwater which is pumped from local aquifers. The surface water is very limited due to the low annual precipitation. The annual recharge to the aquifers from the low average rainfall has been very significant for partial compensating the water withdrawal from the aquifers. Furthermore, the irrigation demands are more than 90% of the total water demands. These demands are satisfied mostly from groundwater resources. Any increase in air temperature and in other meteorological parameters will affect the availability of groundwater and surface water conditions by enhancement of evaporation rates from open water bodies, soil and plants. The first parameter to be estimated for the assessment of changes in evaporation is the changes in values of reference evapotranspiration (ETo). Any increase in ETo will result in increasing the evaporation rates and decreasing the available water supplies from annual participation by lowering the annual recharge to aquifers and lowering the surface runoff. Simultaneously, the increase in ETo results in increasing the water demands for urban, industrial and agricultural uses. Normally, in domestic and industrial sectors, there is an increase of about 20-30% from winter to summer seasons, and this increase is expected to be aggravated by temperature rise especially in summer. The irrigation water demands will also be alleviated by increasing the ETo and crop water requirements in various agricultural regions of the Kingdom. Consequently, the available water resources for satisfying the increasing demands will be under increasing stresses due to decrease in water recharge and surface runoff and to the increase domestic. , industrial and agricultural demands. This paper will assess potential impacts of climate change on water resources and its implications for sustainable development. This will be achieved by evaluating the impacts of expected increase in air temperature on the reference crop evapotranspiration, reduction in aquifer recharge, reduction in water supplies, reduction in surfaces water runoff, increase in crop irrigation water requirements, and the socio-economic impacts. 2 2.1 CONVENTIONAL WATER RESOURCES IN SAUDI ARABIA Surface Water

The low rainfall quantities in most of the Kingdom are expected to create limited surface water. The quantities of the annual runoff are estimated to vary between about 5,000 to 8,000 million cubic meters (MCM) of which 780 MCM are produced in the Arabian shelf and the rest are in western coastal parts of the Kingdom. The storage capacity of 215 constructed dams of different shapes and sizes is 833 MCM (personal communications,

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2004). These dams were constructed for groundwater recharge, surface storage and flood control purposes. The available surface water for use is about 2230 MCM including the dams storage. 2.2 Groundwater

Groundwater is stored in more than 20-layered principal and secondary aquifers of different geological ages (Figure 1) (MAW, 1984). The Arabian Shelf includes the deep sedimentary aquifers which are formed mostly of limestone and sandstone that overlay the basement rock formation known as the Arabian Shield, and covers about two third of Saudi Arabia or 1.485 million km2 (MAW, 1984). The principal aquifers are: Saq, Wajid, Tabuk, Minjur, Dhruma, Biyadh, Wasia, Dammam, Umm Er Radhuma and Neogene. The secondary aquifers are: Al-Jauf, Al-Khuff, Al-Jilh, the upper Jurassic, Sakaka, the lower Cretaceous, Aruma, Basalts and Wadi Sediments (Figure 1). Apart from the last two, the groundwater resources stored in these aquifers are non-renewable. The groundwater quality varies between sites and among aquifers. The estimated groundwater reserves to a depth of 300 meters below ground surface is about 2,185 billion cubic meters (BCM) with a total annual recharge of 2,762 MCM based on several hydrogeological studies as given in KFUPM/RI (1988) and Al Alawi and Abdulrazzak (1993). The renewable groundwater resources are mainly stored in the shallow alluvial aquifers and within Basalts, which extends mostly in the southwestern parts of Saudi Arabia with varying thickness and width (MAW, 1984). These aquifers store about 84 BCM with an average annual recharge of 1,196 MCM (BAAC, 1980). The total national groundwater reserves in the shallow and deep aquifers to a depth of 300m below ground surface are about 2,259 (BCM). 2.3 Average Water Share

The total volumes of available renewable water resources from surface water and groundwater recharge are about 6,188 MCM. The average water availability from renewable resources is about 295 cubic meters per person in 2000. The available water resources are summarized in Table 1. 3 CLIMATIC CHANGE IMPACTS ON REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND IRRIGATION REQUIREMENT

The possible increase in temperature will have detrimental impacts on the increase in the level of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and plant water requirements under the water scarce conditions in different regions of the Kingdom. The effects of a temperature increase from 1Co to 5 Co on plant water requirements have been evaluated in different areas in Saudi Arabia. Twenty one weather stations representing different agricultural regions of the Kingdom were used in this study. These stations include the following: Abha, Aflag, Bishah, Hail, Haradh, Hofuf, Jizan, Madina, Maqala, Najran, Qurayyat, Riyadh, Sakakah, Sarrar, Shaqra, Sulayyil, Sylkabir and Taif.

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Figure 1: The extension of the outcrop areas of principle and secondary aquifers in agricultural regions in Saudi Arabia

Table 1: Available Water resources in Saudi Arabia in 2001-2003(MCM) Surface water Groundwater resources Groundwater recharge 5,000-8,000 (2,230 available for use) 2,269,000 (84,000 renewable groundwater in shallow aquifers) 3,958 (1,196 to shallow aquifers and 2,762 to deep aquifers in the Arabian Shelf) 1,050 240

Desalination Treated wastewater

MAW, 2002; Al-Husayyen, 2002; and personal estimation

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In this study, the effect of air temperature increase on reference crop evapotranspiration and irrigation demand was assessed, assuming no change in other climatic parameters. The effects of a temperature increase from 1oC to 5oC on plant water requirements were evaluated in twenty different areas in Saudi Arabia. The crop irrigation requirement (IR) was calculated from the recommended method by Doorenbos and Pruitt (1984) using the following relationship: IR =(ETcrop-(Pe+Ge+Wb))/(1-LR)Ep where: IR Etcrop Pe Ge Wb LR Ep = = = = = = = crop irrigation requirements from the source of water (mm/day) crop evapotranspiration (mm/day) contribution from rainfall (mm/day) contribution from shallow groundwater (mm/day) contribution from carry over of soil water (mm/day) leaching requirements irrigation efficiency (1)

In Eq (1), the major impact of temperature increase on the irrigation requirements (IR) is the effect on the value of crop evapotranspiration (ETcrop). Crop evapotranspiration (ETcrop) was calculated from the following relationship: Etcrop = ETo.Kc where: ETo = reference crop evapotranspiration (mm/day) Kc = crop coefficient and mainly affected by crop characteristics The effect of temperature change on the ETcrop value is due to the increase in reference evapotranspiration (ETo). The Penman-Monteith method was introduced by ASCE in 1990 and 1996 to predict ct ETo (ASCE, 1990 and Allen et al 1996). This method combines thermodynamics, aerodynamics aspects, including resistance to sensible heat and vapor transfer and the surface resistance to vapor transfer. This method was tested and found to be the best for calculating ETo under the prevailing conditions of Al-Hassa, Sarrar, and Al-Fadhly when compared with the measured ETo value among all the above methods. Consequently, the Penman-Monteith method was selected for the calculation of the ETo in this study. A special computer program was developed and used to calculate the change in the values of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) and the irrigation requirement (IR) by (2)

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increasing the temperature by 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5oC in the twenty two areas. The available measured meteorological data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Water (19751985) were used in the calculation of ETo values. The data includes: temperature, humidity, solar radiation, sunshine hours, and wind speed. The increase in IR value is equal to 1.54 times the increase in ETo value, as the average irrigation efficiency value Ep is considered to be 0.65 in Saudi Arabia. Tables 2 and 3 show the percentage increase in reference evapotranspiration in the selected stations in the Kingdom with increasing the temperature from 1 to 5 degrees oC. It is clear from these tables that the increase of 1oC has resulted in increasing the reference evapotranspiration and plant water requirements by about 1-4.5% in most of the regions. While, the increase of 5 oC has resulted in increasing the reference evapotranspiration and plant water requirements by about 6-19.5% in most of the regions. This high increase occurs during winter season from November March, while the low increase occurs during summer season from MaySeptember. In general, the increase in temperature resulted in increasing the ET o and IR values in the selected regions by different ratios. The increase in ETo and IR values in the selected regions during winter season (November-March), were greater than summer and autumn seasons (April-October). In the coastal area (Qatif), 1oC increase in temperature resulted in increasing the ETo and IR by values ranged from 2.2% in June to 4.4% in January . An increase of 5oC in temperature resulted in increasing the ETo and IR by values ranged from 10.8% in June to 20.0 in January . In the oasis area (Hofuf), 1oC increase in temperature resulted in increasing the ETo and IR by 2.1% in August and 3.5% in January (Table 2). An increase of 5oC in temperature resulted in an increasing the ETo and IR by 10.7% in August and 18.2% in January. In the central area (Riyadh), 1oC increase in temperature increased ETo and IR by values ranged from 1.7% in July to 3.1% in January. An increase of 5oC increase in temperature resulted in increasing the ETo and IR by values ranged from 8.2% in July to 15.8 in January (Table 3). In Tabuk area, 1oC increase in temperature resulted an increasing the in ETo and IR values by 2.1% in July and 3.5% in January . An increase of 5oC increase in temperature resulted in increasing the ETo and IR by values ranged from 10.5% in September to 18.0 in January. In Madina area, 1oC increase in temperature resulted in increasing the ETo and IR by values ranged from 1.9% in July to 3.0% in December. An increase of 5 oC in temperature resulted in increasing the ETo and IR by values ranged from 8.9% in September to 15.0 in January . In Sulayyil area, 1oC increase in temperature resulted in increasing the ET o and IR by values ranged from 1.7% in August to 3.4% in December. An increase of 5oC in temperature resulted in increasing the ETo and IR by values ranged from 8.3% in August to 17.6 in January . D-1-6

Table 2. Monthly percentage increase in ETo and IR values with the increase in air temperature by 1oC in the six regions Percent increase in ETo and IR values Qatif 4.2 3.8 2.9 4.0 1.5 2.2 1.3 1.6 1.6 2.3 3.0 3.6 Hufuf 3.8 3.5 3.1 2.6 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.0 2.3 2.5 3.0 3.4 Riyadh 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.2 1.7 1.3 1.0 1.9 1.9 2.6 2.5 Tabuk 2.6 3.1 2.9 2.5 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.2 2.1 2.4 3.2 Madinah 2.4 3.1 2.7 2.4 2.5 1.3 1.7 1.9 1.5 2.6 2.1 4.1 Sulayyil 3.6 3.7 3.2 2.5 1.9 1.7 1.0 1.6 1.9 2.2 3.3 4.1

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

Table 3. Monthly percentage increase in ETo and IR values with the increase in air temperature by 5oC in the six regions Percent increase in ETo and IR values Qatif 16.7 19.2 17.6 14.0 10.6 9.9 9.2 10.9 11.5 14.0 15.2 17.9 Hufuf 18.8 18.0 15.7 13.4 11.1 10.6 10.3 10.5 11.3 12.7 15.5 17.7 Riyadh 17.1 15.0 14.8 11.7 10.3 8.4 7.5 8.1 8.7 11.3 13.6 16.6 Tabuk 17.2 17.6 15.0 12.6 11.3 10.7 10.6 9.9 9.5 11.5 13.4 17.3 Madinah 15.1 14.2 13.6 11.2 10.0 7.8 8.2 8.6 8.5 10.7 13.3 15.5 Sulayyil 16.0 16.2 13.8 12.0 9.2 7.7 7.6 7.9 8.6 11.0 14.6 15.6

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

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4. 4.1

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER RESOURCES Assessment of Increase in Reference Evpotranspiration Impacts on Recharges of Aquifer

Necessary geological, hydrological and hydrogeological data and information including maps for main aquifers in the Kingdom have been reviewed. New geological maps were developed for the main aquifers showing the outcrop extent of these aquifers. Data about hydrogeological features of the aquifers of the Kingdom were also review including recharge studies and assessments on various aquifer systems. The values of recharge on the outcrop of different aquifers have been defined. Example of the recharge values to different aquifers are given in Table 4. Table 4: Estimated annual recharge in some aquifers Aquifer Region Annual Recharge MCM/year 290 52 391

Saq Tawil Neogene

Western North Region Northern Region Eastern Region

The calculated total annual recharge to all aquifers in the Arabian Shelf is about 2,762 MCM based on several hydrogeological studies as given in KFUPM/RI (1988) and Al Alawi and Abdulrazzak (1993). The annual recharge to shallow aquifers in the Arabian Shield is 1,196 MCM (BAAC, 1980). Thus, the total annual recharge to all aquifers in the Kingdom is about 3,958 MCM. The average increase in reference evapotranspiration ETo, as calculated, which reduces the recharge to all aquifers has been defined as 2.3% and 12% of the total annual recharge at 1 oC and 5 oC increase in temperature respectively. The calculated reduction in the values of total annual recharge is about 91.4 MCM and 475 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increase in temperature respectively. The reduction in annual surface runoff of 5,000 8000 MCM at ETo increase of about 2.3% and 12% at 1 oC and 5 oC increase in temperature respectively have been calculated . At 1 oC increase in temperature, the increase in ETo of 2.3% will result in decreasing the annual surface runoff by about 115 -184 MCM (with an average of 150 MCM). While at 5 oC increase in temperature, the increase in ETo of 12% will result in decreasing the annual surface runoff by about 600-960MCM (with average of 780 MCM). The total annual reduction in water resources equals to reduction in recharge and surface runoff. Thus, the total water resources reduction will be about 241 MCM and 1,435 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature respectively.

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The reduction in water recharge to aquifers and surface water runoff will result in deterioration of water quality and production of aquifer systems in the Kingdom and they will not be able to satisfy the growing demands. Consequently, the urban, industrial and agricultural water supplies from groundwater and limited surface water will be affected. Serious socio-economic impacts will be resulted. 4.2 Impacts of Climate Change on Irrigation Water Demands

The calculated increase in ETo and irrigation requirements have been used to calculate the increase in irrigation water requirements of various crop types in different regions of the Kingdom at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature. The annual percentage increase in IR values with the increase in air temperature by 1 and 5 oC in the Kingdom (MCM) is shown in Table 2 and 3 respectively. The Total irrigation demands for cultivated crops in the Kingdom have been calculated using a special developed model for different types of crops in different regions considering the effect of temperature increase. The results are shown in Table 5 and 6. The annual increase in irrigation requirements at 1 and 5 oC increases in temperature will be about 602 and 3,122 MCM respectively (Table 7). 4.3 Impacts of Climate Change on Domestic And Industrial Water Demands

The domestic and industrial water use increase at 1 to 5 oC has been assumed to be about 5% and 25% respectively. Thus, the expected rise in domestic and industrial demands will range between 75 and 390 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature respectively. Table 5. Irrigation water demands for different crop groups in the agricultural regions of Saudi Arabia in 2000 (MCM).
Regions Eastern Reg. Riyadh Qaseem Hail Northern Reg. Madinah Makkah Aseer* Al-Baha* Jizan Najran Kingdom 105 1,771 946 328 191 27 14 2 0 8 3,394 CEREALS Wheat Others 50 159 73 117 93 4 351 17 5 1,483 8 2,360 Total 155 1,930 1,019 445 285 32 365 19 6 1,483 16 5,754 34 341 156 79 59 12 151 2 1 117 39 991 VEGE. FODDER CROPS Alfalfa 186 2,279 1,678 357 441 91 105 50 3 125 5,314 Others 42 272 91 23 30 0 267 7 3 1,277 9 2,023 Total 228 2,551 1,770 380 471 91 373 57 6 1,277 133 7,337 FRUITS Dates Others 550 1,185 478 273 180 323 335 31 0 6 70 3,431 31 273 140 118 478 115 172 13 2 70 148 1,561 Total 581 1,459 618 391 657 438 507 45 3 76 217 4,992 998 6,281 3,563 1,295 1,472 573 1,395 123 15 2,953 406 19,074 TOTAL

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Table 6. Actual irrigation water consumption for different crop groups in the agricultural regions of Saudi Arabia in 2000 (MCM)
Regions Eastern Reg. Riyadh Qaseem Hail Northern Reg. Madinah Makkah Aseer* Al-Baha* Jizan Najran Kingdom CEREALS Wheat Others 137 2,303 1,230 426 249 36 18 3 1 11 4,412 65 206 95 152 121 5 457 22 7 1,928 10 3,068 Total 202 2,509 1,324 578 370 41 475 25 7 1,928 20 7,481 45 444 203 102 77 15 196 2 1 152 51 1,288 VEGE. FODDER CROPS Alfalfa 241 2,963 2,182 464 573 118 137 65 3 162 6,908 Others 55 354 119 30 39 1 347 10 4 1,660 11 2,630 Total 297 3,317 2,301 494 612 119 484 74 7 1,660 173 9,538 FRUITS Dates Others 715 1,541 622 355 234 420 435 41 1 8 91 4,461 40 355 182 153 621 150 223 17 3 91 192 2,029 Total 755 1,896 804 509 855 570 658 58 4 99 283 6,490 1,298 8,166 4,632 1,684 1,914 744 1,814 160 19 3,839 527 24,797 TOTAL

Table 7. Annual increase in IR values with the increase in air temperature by 1 and 5 oC in the Kigdom (MCM) Increase By 1 oCIncrease by 1 oCIncrease by 5 oCIncrease by 5 oC in Irrigationin Actual waterin Irrigationin Actual water water demands consumption water demands consumption 27 35 138 179 138 180 754 980 82 107 442 574 32 42 174 226 44 57 213 277 14 18 65 85 36 47 181 236 4 5 19 24 0 1 2 3 77 100 369 480 9 11 44 57 463 602 2,401 3,122

Regions Eastern Reg. Riyadh Qaseem Hail Northern Reg. Madinah Makkah Aseer* Al-Baha* Jizan Najran Kingdom

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EXPECTED TOTAL WATER STRESSES BY EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGE IN SAUDI ARABIA

The total water stress is aquel to the total quantities of decrease in groundwater recharge and surface runoff, increase in irrigation requirements and domestic and industrial demands at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature. The calculated total water stress ranges between 1520 to 4,947 MCM at 1 oC and o 5 C increases in temperature respectively (Figure 2). This will represent a serious challenge on the domestic, industrial, agricultural and natural vegetation in different land forms in the Kingdom. Early monitoring and warning systems should be developed and appropriate contingency plans should be developed in advance for the protection of national interest and to minimize desertification induced processes in different regions of the Kingdom.
Groundwater Recharge Irrigation Water Demands 6000 5000 Water Stress (MCM)
430

Surface Runoff Domestic & Industrial

4000 3000 2000 1000 0


65 602 150 91.4 475 750 3122

1C

Increase in Temperature

5C

Figure 2.

Stress on Water Resources as a Result of Climatic Change (MCM)

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6. 6.1

SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN SAUDI ARABIA Socio-Economic Impacts from Increasing Water Demands and Reduction in Supplied for Domestic and Industrial Purposes

The domestic and industrial water demands of about 2030 MCM in 2000 are expected to increase by 75 and 390 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature respectively. The expected costs from desalination will exceed one billion Saudi Riyals annually as the costs of drinking water production and distribution is about SR 4. This represents about ten percent of the present costs of total national water supplies. The stress on domestic water supplies will be aggravated by the possible decrease in groundwater recharge and surface runoff with temperature increase. This means that the domestic water supplies of 50% from groundwater and surface water will be replaced partially or totally from desalination processes. 6.2 Socio-Economic Impacts from Increasing Agricultural Water Demands and Reduction in Supplies

The total irrigation water use has increased from about 6,108 MCM in 1970 to about 19,074 MCM in 2000. The climate change will result in increasing the annual irrigation water use by about 602 and 3,122 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature respectively. It will be difficult under decreasing surface runoff. The calculated reduction in the values of total annual recharge is about 91.4 MCM and 475 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature respectively. The reduction in annual surface runoff of 5,000 8000 MCM will be about 150 MCM and 780 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature respectively. The total annual reduction in water resources equals to reduction in recharge and surface runoff. Thus, the total water resources reduction will be about 241 MCM and 1,435 MCM at 1 oC and 5 oC increases in temperature respectively. The expected rise in irrigation demands will lead to losses in crop yield if not compensated. These expected yield losses of different types of field crops (including cereals, vegetables and forage crops) and fruit trees (including date palms) will range between 5 and more than 25% (Doorenbos and Kassam, 1986). The value of these losses represent more than the actual profit for farmers from agricultural activities in different regions of the Kingdom. This represents a serious challenge to survival of the agricultural sector as a major economic sector in the national economy. Compensation of the crop losses importation from foreign countries represent additional burden on the economy. Furthermore, the agricultural activities represent a major supporter for about 25% of the national population who still live in rural areas. The deterioration of agriculture for rural communities represents a threat to the social structure and welfare of these communities.

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CONCLUSIONS On the basis of the findings of the study, the following conclusions are given: The possible climate change in terms of temperature increase will lead to significant decreases in groundwater recharge and surface runoff, and increase in irrigation, domestic and industrial demands . Serious socio-economic impacts will result in different regions. Proper protection plans should be considered in the national development strategy of the Kingdom. This should include the design of early monitoring and warning systems which should be developed to avoid consequences on recharge, runoff, soils and plants

Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Research Institute of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals for the given support to complete this study. REFERENCES Allen, R.G., W.O. Pruitt, J.A. Businger, L.J. Fritschen, M.E. Jensen, and F.H. Quinn, (1996). Evaporation and Transpiration. Chapter 4 in Hydrology Handbook, Second Edition. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 28, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, p.125. American Society of Civil Engineering (ASCE) (1990). Reference Evapotranspiration Calculator, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, U.S.A. Alawi, J. and Abdulrazzak, M. 1993. Water in the Arabian Peninsula: Problems and Prospective. In P. Rogers, and P. Lydon (eds), Water in the Arab World Perspectives and Prognoses:171-202. Division of Applied Sciences: Harvard University. Al-Husayyen, Abdullah, 2002; Water Challenge-Alternatives and Non-Conventional Solutions, Proceedings of the Symposium of Infrastructure Financing and Provision, Power, Water and Sewage; Organized by High Commission for the Development of Riyadh, January 2002, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. British Arabian Advisory Company (BAAC), 1980, "Water Resources of Saudi Arabia," Vol. 1, Prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Doorenbos, J and W.O. Pruitt, (1984). Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 24, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 144 p. Doorenbos, J. and A.H. Kassam, 1986. 'Yield Response to Water', FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 33, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Research Institute (KFUPM/RI), 1988, "Groundwater Resources Conditions in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia," Research report, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Research Institute 61p.

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Ministry of Agriculture and Water (MAW). 1984. Water Atlas of Saudi Arabia. Department of Water Resources Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Agriculture and Water (MAW). 2002. Agricultural statistical year book. Department of Economic Studies and Statistics, Fourteenth issue, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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