ASSET3g
Technical Reference Guide
Version 5.0.2
© Copyright 2005 AIRCOM International Ltd All rights reserved
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Contents
Appendix A 2g and 2.5g Algorithms
Interference Table Algorithm 
5 
Interference and Connection Array Calculations 
6 
Worst Connection Array Calculation Method 
7 
Average Connection Array Calculation Method 
8 
Worst Interferer Array Calculation Method 
8 
Total Interference Array Calculation Method 
9 
Table of Default C/I BER Conversion Values 
9 
Frequency Hopping Algorithms
Synthesised Hopping Algorithm
10
12
NonFrequency Hopping Algorithms 
12 
Automatic Frequency Planning (ILSA) 
13 
The Cost Function of the ILSA Algorithm
14
MAIO Planning Cost Function 
14 
GPRS and HSCSD Capacity Calculations 
15 
TRX Requirement  Circuit Switched Traffic and HSCSD 
15 
TRX Requirement  Circuit Switched, HSCSD and GPRS Traffic 
15 
Grade of Service and Data Rate 
16 
Channel Occupation Table 
17 
FCC Calculations 
18 
Frequency Calculations 
20 
Appendix B UMTS Algorithms 

Notation for UMTS 
23 
List of Principal Symbols for UMTS 
24 
UMTS Basic Formulae 
26 
UMTS Uplink Noise Rise 
27 
UMTS Uplink Load 
27 
UMTS Frequency ReUse Efficiency 
27 
UMTS Air Interface and User Bitrates 
27 
UMTS Shadow Fade Modelling 
28 
UMTS Power Control Error Modelling 
29 
UMTS Service Activity Modelling 
29 
UMTS Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services (Web Model) 
30 
UMTS Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling 
31 
UMTS Terminal Speed Modelling 
31 
UMTS Overview of a Snapshot 
32 
UMTS Initialisation of Terminals 
32 
Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage in UMTS 
32 
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UMTS Iterations 
33 
Gathering of Results in UMTS 
34 
UMTS Scenario Prioritisation 
34 
UMTS Connection Evaluation 
35 
Production of a Candidate Active Set in UMTS 
35 
Uplink Evaluation for UMTS 
36 
Downlink Evaluation for UMTS 
38 
UMTS Blocking Probability
39
Calculation of Blocking Probability in the Blocking Report for UMTS 
39 
Blocking Probability and Failure Rate for UMTS 
40 
UMTS Coverage Probability Array in the Map View 
41 
Appendix C CDMA2000 Algorithms
CDMA2000 Notation 
44 
List of Principal Symbols for CDMA2000 
44 
CDMA2000 Basic Formulae 
46 
CDMA2000 Uplink Noise Rise 
47 
CDMA2000 Uplink Load 
47 
CDMA2000 Frequency ReUse Efficiency 
47 
CDMA2000 Air Interface and User Bitrates 
47 
CDMA2000 Shadow Fade Modelling 
48 
CDMA2000 Power Control Error Modelling 
49 
CDMA2000 Service Activity Modelling 
49 
CDMA2000 Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services (Web Model) 
50 
CDMA2000 Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling 
51 
CDMA2000 Terminal Speed Modelling 
51 
PN Code Assignment Algorithm for CDMA2000 
51 
Difficulty Factor for CDMA2000 
51 
Best PN Code to Assign for CDMA2000 
52 
Quality Factor for CDMA2000 
52 
CDMA2000 Overview of a Snapshot
53
CDMA2000 Initialisation of Terminals 
53 
Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage in CDMA2000 
53 
CDMA2000 Iterations 
54 
Gathering Of Results in CDMA2000 
55 
CDMA2000 Scenario Prioritisation 
55 
CDMA2000 Connection Evaluation 
56 
Production of a Candidate Active Set in CDMA2000 
56 
CDMA2000 Uplink Evaluation 
57 
CDMA2000 Downlink Evaluation 
59 
Calculation of Equivalent Control Overhead Factors for CDMA2000
60
Uplink RC1  RC2 
61 
Uplink RC3  RC6 When Using a Supplemental Bearer 
62 
Uplink RC3  RC6 When Not Using a Supplemental Bearer 
63 
Downlink RC1  RC2 
64 
Downlink RC3  RC10 
65 
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CDMA2000 Blocking Probability
66
Calculation of Blocking Probability in the Blocking Report for CDMA2000 
66 
CDMA2000 Blocking Probability and Failure Rate 
66 
CDMA2000 Coverage Probability Array in the Map View Window 
67 
Appendix D HDR Algorithms69
HDR Notation 
69 
List of Principal Symbols for HDR 
70 
HDR Basic Formulae 
71 
HDR Uplink Noise Rise 
72 
HDR Uplink Load 
72 
HDR Frequency ReUse Efficiency 
72 
HDR Air Interface and User Bitrates 
73 
HDR Shadow Fade Modelling 
73 
HDR Power Control Error Modelling 
74 
HDR Service Activity Modelling 
74 
HDR Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling 
74 
HDR Terminal Speed Modelling 
75 
Overview of a HDR Snapshot 
75 
HDR Initialisation of Terminals 
76 
HDR Initialisation of System Powers 
76 
HDR Iterations 
76 
Gathering of Results for HDR 
78 
Scenario Prioritisation for HDR 
78 
HDR Connection Evaluation 
78 
HDR Downlink Evaluation 
79 
HDR Uplink Evaluation 
79 
Calculation of Uplink Equivalent Control Overhead Factor for HDR 
81 
HDR Coverage Probability and Blocking 
82 
HDR Coverage Probability Array in the Map View Window 
82 
HDR Blocking Probability and Failure Rate 
82 
About the HDR Quality of Service Algorithm
83
HDR Outline 
84 
IP Packet Transmission Time for HDR 
84 
IP Packet Queueing Delay for HDR 
85 
Throughput for HDR 
87 
Appendix E Packet Quality of Service Algorithms
Simulation Inputs for QoS Analysis
Preliminary Tests
Traffic Generator for QoS Analysis
90
90
90
Matching Generated Traffic to Monte Carlo's Mean Number of Served Users 
91 
WWW Traffic Model 
92 
Packet Model 
93 
About the Code Schemes for GPRS 
94 
QoS Profiles for GPRS 
94 
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Time Simulator for QoS Analysis 
97 
Results of QoS Analysis 
99 
References
Appendix F ASSET3g File Formats
Simulation Array File Formats
3ga File Format
Live Traffic File Formats for 2g Networks
103
105
106
108
NMS File Format 
108 
GSM File Format 
108 
TPS File Format 
109 
Live Traffic File Formats for 3g Networks
109
About the *.tpc File Format 
109 
About the Bearer Traffic File Formats (*.cbc / *.cbd) 
110 
Index
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A PPENDIX
A
2g and 2.5g Algorithms
This chapter describes the following topics:
In This Section
Interference Table Algorithm Interference and Connection Array Calculations Frequency Hopping Algorithms NonFrequency Hopping Algorithms Automatic Frequency Planning (ILSA) MAIO Planning Cost Function GPRS and HSCSD Capacity Calculations FCC Calculations Frequency Calculations
Interference Table Algorithm
The Interference Table stores the following four values for any pair of subcells A and B. These relate to the region where A is the best server.
Field Name 
Description 
Cochannel Traffic 
The amount of traffic served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned the same carrier. 
Cochannel Area 
The area served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned the same carrier. 
Adjacent Channel Traffic
The amount of traffic served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned adjacent carriers.
Adjacent Channel Area
The area served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned adjacent carriers.
The values for area are obtained by averaging the probability of interference over the region where A is the best server. The average is taken over all pixels in the appropriate coverage array.
For traffic, the value to be averaged is the probability of interference x the traffic (in mE) at that pixel. Thus it is necessary to have a traffic raster available to make this calculation.
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The probability of interference at a given pixel is calculated using a standard statistical technique based on a C/I signal threshold value and a standard deviation. The assumption is that a difference in signal level between server and interferer exactly equal to the threshold value would give rise to a 50% chance of cochannel interference. For more information on how these values can be specified, see About the Interference Table Needed for ILSA.
By default, a 18dB offset is used for the adjacent channel interference, relative to the cochannel interference. This means that if, for example, the cochannel C/I threshold value is set at 9dB, a signal difference of 9dB between server and adjacent channel interferer would give rise to a 50% chance of adjacent channel interference. The C/A offset can be modified in the Array Settings dialog box.
All signal differences are converted into probabilities of interference. This graph displays the spread of probabilities for both C/I and C/A based on the default Interference Weights. Here, the C/I signal threshold value is 9 dB, using a standard deviation of 7.78dB.
C/I and C/A weights curve
Note : An example of an Interference Table can be found, along with a description of its File Format, in the Appendix of the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.
Interference and Connection Array Calculations
This table shows the different interference analyses that are possible:
Field Name 
Description 
Worst Connection C/Ic 
Determines the cochannel C/I levels for all of the possible interfering frequencies that may be used by the MSBTS connection. 
Each pixel presents the worst C/Ic level and frequency. 

Worst Connection C/Ia 
Determines the adjacent channel C/I levels for all of the possible interfering frequencies that may be used by the MSBTS connection. 
Each pixel presents the worst C/Ia level and frequency.
Worst Connection C/(Ic+Ia)
Determines the combined cochannel/adjacent channel C/I levels for all of the possible interfering frequencies that may be used by the MSBTS connection.
Each pixel presents the worst C/I level and frequency.
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Average Interference C/Ic
Sums the cochannel C/I levels for all possible interfering frequencies and presents the average C/Ic level.
Average Interference C/Ia
Sums the adjacent channel C/I levels for all possible interfering frequencies and presents the average C/Ia level.
Average Interference C/(Ic_Ia)
Sums the combined cochannel and adjacent C/I levels for all possible interfering frequencies and presents the average C/(Ic_Ia) level.
Worst Interference C/Ic 
For nonfrequency hopping networks sums all of the cochannel C/I levels for an interfering frequency. 
Each pixel presents the total C/I level, server and interfering subcells and interfering frequency. 

Worst Interference C/Ia 
For nonfrequency hopping networks sums all of the adjacent channel C/I levels for an interfering frequency. 
Each pixel presents the total C/I level, server and interfering subcells and interfering frequency.
Note : The worst connection and the worst interferer calculations are the same in the case of a nonfrequency hopping network.
Worst Connection Array Calculation Method
In the Worst Connection Array calculation, the connection refers to the carrier(s) corresponding to a single call:
• In the case of hopping frequencies, it corresponds to the entire group of hopping frequencies
• In the case of nonhopping frequencies, it corresponds to a single frequency
The Worst Connection Array calculates the C/I per connection, summing over all interferers, and then selects the connection with the lowest C/I.
The algorithm for this is as follows:
Where:
For each nonhopping carrier fi in the serving subcell, C/I(fi) is calculated.
For the hopping frequency group in the serving subcell, a single C/I(FH) is calculated.
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Average Connection Array Calculation Method
The Average Connection Array calculates the C/I per connection, summing over all interferers, and then calculates the average of those.
The algorithm for this is as follows:
Where:
(2)
is the averaged C/I for the hopping carriers.
is the number of hopping frequencies.
is the number of nonhopping frequencies.
is frequency Diversity Gain
is the fractional loading, calculated as follows:
, where
is the number of hopping TRX
are the nonhopping frequencies
For each nonhopping carrier fri in the serving subcell, C/I(fri) is calculated.
For the hopping frequency group in the serving subcell, a single C/I(FH) is calculated.
Note : The denominator in the equation above can never be zero (
be 0 at the same time). This is because ASSET3g does not allow you to set the total number of TRX allocated to a subcell to zero, if at least one carrier layer is allocated.
and
cannot both
Worst Interferer Array Calculation Method
The Worst Interferer Array calculates the C/I per frequency, summing over all interferers, and selects the frequency with the lowest C/I. It also finds the interferer that causes the most interference on that frequency.
Note : This array does not take into account fractional loading.
The most interfered frequency and its corresponding C/I are calculated as follows:
If
then
If
then
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Where:
For each (nonhopping) carrier f1 in the serving subcell, C/I(f1) is calculated.
The worst interferer is calculated as follows:
Total Interference Array Calculation Method
The Total Interference Array calculates the C/I per frequency, summing over all interferers, and then sums the C/I for each frequency at the serving cell.
Note : This array does not take into account fractional loading.
The total interference is calculated as follows:
Where:
For each (nonhopping) carrier fi in the serving subcell, C/I(fi) is calculated.
Table of Default C/I BER Conversion Values
This table shows the Default C/I BER Conversion Values in ASSET3g:
C/I (dB) 
Bit Error Rate 
10 
0.5000000000 
9 
0.4880000000 
8 
0.4650000000 
7 
0.4300000000 
6 
0.3880000000 
5 
0.3500000000 
4 
0.3200000000 
3 
0.3000000000 
2 
0.2700000000 
1 
0.2500000000 
0 
0.2200000000 
1 
0.2000000000 
2 
0.1700000000 
3 
0.1500000000 
4 
0.1200000000 
5 
0.1000000000 
6 
0.0900000000 
7 
0.0780000000 
8 
0.0660000000 
9 
0.0550000000 
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10 
0.0450000000 
11 
0.0370000000 
12 
0.0300000000 
13 
0.0260000000 
14 
0.0200000000 
15 
0.0150000000 
16 
0.0120000000 
17 
0.0080000000 
18 
0.0060000000 
19 
0.0040000000 
20 
0.0020000000 
21 
0.0007000000 
22 
0.0001000000 
23 
0.0000070000 
24 
0.0000004000 
25 
0.0000000100 
26 
0.0000000001 
2745 
0.0000000000 
Frequency Hopping Algorithms
The algorithms used for frequency hopping cells are as follows:
1 is used if Where:
, α is used if
, 0 is used otherwise
C/I(i) 
= 
C/I ratio for frequency i 
SSC(i) 
= 
Signal strength from frequency i for serving cell 
i,j 
= 
A particular frequency 
N 
= 
Number of interfering cells 
n 
= 
Number of frequencies in serving cell 
m 
= 
Number of frequencies in interfering cell K 
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SIC(K,i) 
= 
Signal strength from frequency i for interfering cell K 
K 
= 
Interfering cell 
L(K,j) 
= 
Load in interfering cell K on frequency j 
V(K,j) 
= 
DTX factor in interfering cell K on frequency j 
f (i) 
= 
Fractional loading for frequency i for interfering cell 
α 
= 
Adjacent interference factor 
Each C/I(i) is converted to a Bit Error Rate, BER(i) This graph shows the relationship between the Probability of Bit Error and the C/I:
BERAV(serving cell) is calculated as the average BER(i) for all frequencies in the cell:
Where:
x
Number of FH frequencies per TRX Number of FH frequencies/serving cell Number of TRX/serving cell
mFH
nTRX
BERAV(serving cell) is then converted back to dB to give C/I (FH)(serving cell).
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Important : If frequency diversity gain GFDIV(m) is enabled, you also need to add a given gain figure to the hopping C/I. For more information on this, see Defining Frequency Hopping Gain.
Synthesised Hopping Algorithm
For synthesised hopping carrier layers, fractional loading is calculated as follows:
Where:
is the number of TRX allocated to the hopping carrier layers
is the number of hopping carriers
NonFrequency Hopping Algorithms
The calculations for nonfrequency hopping are as follows:
1 is used if
P(i) = f(C/I(i))
P(i) is the Probability of interference, and is calculated from the cumulative normal distribution of combined standard deviation of serving and interfering cell models.
, α is used if
, 0 is used otherwise
and
PTOT = Average of all P(i) in the cell
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This picture shows an example conversion curve:
Example C/I/Probability Curve
Automatic Frequency Planning (ILSA)
The frequency planner uses an Intelligent Local Search Algorithm (ILSA) to search for an optimum or zero cost plan using the latest ideas from Combinatorial Optimisation Theory.
The interference in the network is measured by the value in the Cost of Current Plan field. Typically, this decreases very rapidly during the early part of the process. Thereafter, the average rate of decrease will be less and decreases will be more sporadic. In fact the cost is often stationary for a while before undergoing another stage of rapid decrease.
ILSA pays special attention to areas of high cost within the network (analogous to areas of high interference), temporarily ignoring lower cost areas. This allows ILSA to make very rapid initial progress. For example, if ILSA is attempting to plan for a network requiring 60 carrier allocations, with 20 available carriers, and identifies a subset of 10 high cost carrier allocations, then the maximum number of new states that ILSA needs to consider has been reduced from 3.8*1025 to 6.1*1012.
The algorithm monitors its own progress and will behave differently depending on how quickly the cost is decreasing at a given time. This intelligent behaviour enables it to continue finding improvements over long periods of time.
At the heart of the algorithm is a random process, so if the algorithm is run twice for a given period of time on a particular network the end results may differ by a few percent. Thus it may be worth running the algorithm more than once.
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The Cost Function of the ILSA Algorithm
The principle behind the algorithm used in the frequency planning tool is that the effectiveness of any particular frequency plan is measured by a single number (the cost). The algorithm then tries to minimise the cost over the set of all possible frequency plans. The cost function measures how much interference there is in the network, and also allows for the different weights that you may have imposed.
For a given frequency plan the value of the cost function is given by the formula:
Where:
= The adjacent channel interference caused on allocation i by allocation j (Units: 200*mE or 20,000*km2)
= The cochannel interference caused on allocation i by allocation j (Units: 200*mE or 20,000*km2)
= The frequency allocated at allocation i
= Members of the set of all frequency allocations
= The retune cost associated with allocation i
= The fixed or forbidden carrier cost associated with allocation i
= The separation costs (from equipment, neighbours, exceptions or close separations) between allocations i and j
= The handover count and intermodulation interference costs associated with allocation i
= The weighting factor applicable to carrier allocation i
MAIO Planning Cost Function
The cost function for MAIO planning is an aggregate of C/I and C/A separation counts generated by per cell pair frequency combinations, based on MAIO step and offset values, and weighted by the interference matrix. It has the following form:
Where:
are subcells
and
are traffic and area percentages
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and
are traffic and area associated with subcell c
and
are interference matrix coefficients
is the C/I or C/A separation coun t for all TRX combinations on sub
cells
GPRS and HSCSD Capacity Calculations
This sectiondescribes GPRS and HSCSD capacity calculations, as follows:
• TRX Requirement  Circuit Switched Traffic and HSCSD
• TRX Requirement Circuit Switched, HSCSD and GPRS Traffic
• Grade of Service and Data Rate
• Channel Occupation Table
TRX Requirement  Circuit Switched Traffic and HSCSD
The number of TS required (
Grade of Services and a choice of Erlang table.
) for the CS traffic load (
) given specified two
The number of TRX required is determined using the Channel to Transceiver Map by
increasing the number of TRX from 1 until the map’s
is equal to or greater than
and
is greater than or equal to
TRX Requirement  Circuit Switched, HSCSD and GPRS Traffic
For cells where GPRS is enabled, the number of TS required from the shared traffic
channels for the GPRS (
average GPRS data rate per TS (
) traffic load (
) can be determined using the
The total number of TS required for CS and GPRS traffic (
determined using the average Circuit Switched TS requirement channel occupation efficiency (e) as follows:
) can then be
and the
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Where:
is total shared traffic channels required
is average (long term) number of TS required for Circuit Switched traffic (=
is average (long term) number of TS required for HSCSD traffic (=
The channel occupation efficiency (e) is determined by first calculating
) without dividing by e and then using the result to look up e in the Channel Occupation table.
The number of TRX required and
transceiver map by increasing the number of TRX from the result of the previous section until the number of available TS for traffic (NCS allocation) is equal to or
greater than
are determined using the channel to
Grade of Service and Data Rate
Circuit Switched Traffic
This section presents the calculation for the blocking for the current allocation of TRX for CS and for each HSCSD multislot type traffic (%). It has been assumed throughout that CS traffic and HSCSD traffic will take precedence over GPRS traffic and therefore the Grade of Service for CS and HSCSD will not be affected by the GPRS load.
Calculate the blocking for the CS traffic given the traffic load ( current allocation of TRX using the selected Erlang table.
) the
HSCSD Blocking
Blocking is calculated from Erlang B or C using the number of HSCSD TS currently allocated to the cell and the HSCSD load in timeslot Erlangs.
= HSCSD traffic load
=timeslots allocated to CS
= number of CS timeslots that may be allocated to HSCSD
Erl = Erlang B or C functions returning blocking given traffic and channels
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Summary blocking is the average of the four separate blocking values weighted by the known distribution.
GPRS Data Rate
The GPRS data rate
calculating the number of TS required for CS and HSCSD. The remaining TS are
available for GPRS. That is:
for the current allocation of TRX is determined by first
Where:
e
is the efficiency from the Channel Occupation table determined from N is the number of TS from the Channel Carrier Map for the current allocation of TRX
Channel Occupation Table
A 
table similar to that shown below is used to relate the number of timeslots available 
to 
the channel occupancy for GPRS capacity calculations. 
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The table is stored in the database and you can edit the occupancy values.
Example of Channel Occupation Table, for Illustrative Purposes Only
FCC Calculations
This section describes the algorithms used to calculate the data provided in the FCC report.
Antenna Height AAT
The Antenna Height AAT is calculated in metres.
The calculation is:
Antenna height + Site ground height + Radial average terrain elevation
The Radial average terrain elevation is the average ground height mapped along a radial of between 3 km and 16 km from the site. If the mapping data prevent this then it will not be calculated and this will be flagged in the FCC report.
Note : Feature height data and clutter heights are ignored in the calculation.
The best available resolution of the map data is used for this calculation. If the best map data is 1000 m resolution then you will receive a warning noting that the map data is of insufficient resolution for the FCC form.
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Used Antenna Height
The Used Antenna Height AAT (metre) is subject to some minimum values according
to the FCC category and, the ERP.
Category 
ERP (if necessary) 
Minimum 
32dBu Served 
N/A 
Minimum of 30 metres 
32dBu Unserved 
ERP>=10 W 
Minimum of 30 metres Minimum of 3 metres 
ERP<=10 W 

Gulf of Mexico 
N/A 
Minimum of 8 metres 
Note : You will receive a warning if the Average Radial distance exceeds 40.2 km (79.1 km for Gulf of Mexico cells).
Transmitting ERP Watts
The transmitting ERP for a cardinal radial is the radiated power in Watts taking into account the antenna gain for the azimuth, the down tilt and the base station powers/losses.
Note : You will receive a warning if the ERP exceeds 500W.
Used ERPS
This is the value of the transmitting ERP which is used in the calculations, it is the Transmitting ERP subject to certain minima.
Used ERP is the maximum of:
• 0.1 W
• Maximum ERP/500
• Transmitting ERP for the radial
Area within the Service Area Boundary
This will be calculated by finding the distance to the SAB for each degree by linear interpolation of distance as a function of angle, hence dividing the area into triangular sectors, joining at the site. The total area is then calculated by adding up the areas of each of the triangles.
Heron's Formula for calculation of area of scalene triangle:
A = SQR(S (Sa) (Sb) (Sc))
SQR  Square Root
a, b, c – sides of the triangle
S – half the perimeter of triangle, that is (a+b+c)/2
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Distance to Service Area Boundary
The distance to the SAB is calculated as shown here:
For: 
The distance to the SAB is: 
32dBu Served 
D = 2.531 x Used Antenna Height(m) ^ 0.34 x Used ERP for Radial in Watts ^ 0.17 
and 

32 dBu Unserved 
Subject to a minimum distance of 5.4 km 
Gulf of Mexico 
D = 6.895 x Used Antenna Height(m) ^ 0.30 x Used ERP for Radial (W) ^ 0.15
There is no minimum distance for this SAB
Frequency Calculations
Two frequency calculations are used when you create a Frequency Plan report.
Effective Frequency Reuse
The effective frequency reuse is an approximate indication of the quality of the hopping network.
It can be calculated for each subcell and also the average of these calculated to give a figure for the network as a whole.
Where:
REFF is the Effective Frequency Reuse for a subcell
NF is the total number of carriers available to hopping TRX on the subcell (note: this is not the MA list length)
NTRX is the number of hopping TRX on the subcell
Frequency Load
The average frequency load is another approximate indication of the quality of the hopping network.
It can be calculated for each subcell and also the average of these calculated to give a figure for the network as a whole.
Where:
LFREQ is the Frequency Load of a subcell
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LFRACTION is the Fractional Load of a subcell
LHW is the Hardware Load of a subcell
NTRX is the number of hopping TRX on the subcell
NMA is the MA list length (i.e. all carriers assigned to hopping carrier layers on the subcell)
E is the traffic that could be carried by the timeslots of hopping TRX on the subcell, at
a user specified Grade of Service (GoS), i.e.
NCSTS is the total number of timeslots installed – this value is derived from the Carrier to Timeslot map using NTRX.
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A PPENDIX
B
UMTS Algorithms
This chapter describes the following topics:
In This Section
Notation for UMTS List of Principal Symbols for UMTS UMTS Basic Formulae UMTS Uplink Noise Rise UMTS Uplink Load UMTS Frequency ReUse Efficiency UMTS Air Interface and User Bitrates UMTS Shadow Fade Modelling UMTS Power Control Error Modelling UMTS Service Activity Modelling UMTS Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services (Web Model) UMTS Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling UMTS Terminal Speed Modelling UMTS Overview of a Snapshot UMTS Scenario Prioritisation UMTS Connection Evaluation UMTS Blocking Probability
Notation for UMTS
This list describes the notation symbols used in this section:
• A Greek subscript always indexes a carrier
• indicates a sum over all carriers
• An uppercase Roman subscript always indexes a cell
• indicates a sum over all cells
• A lowercase Roman subscript always indexes a terminal
• indicates a sum over all terminals
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• indicates a sum over all terminals in cell J
indicate if a quantity is uplink or downlink
• Up and down arrows
• All quantities are in standard SI units, never in dB
As an example. The quantity
between terminal j and cell K using carrier α.
represents the
for the uplink
List of Principal Symbols for UMTS
This table describes the list of principal symbols for UMTS:
Symbol
Description
Uplink (downlink) adjacent carrier inteference ratio. Gives fractional power leakage from
carrier β to carrier α. (
Uplink
Downlink
Pilot
Uplink (downlink) processing gain
Cell antenna gain
Terminal antenna gain
Mast head amplifier gain
Boltzmann constant
Mast head amplifier (downlink) insertion loss
Uplink (downlink) linkloss between cell and terminal
Pathloss between cell and terminal
Antenna masking loss
Cable (feeder) loss
Terminal body loss
Thermal noise at terminal
Thermal noise at cell
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Terminal TX power
Cell pilot channel TX power
Cell common channel TX power
Cell synchronisation channel TX power
Downlink traffic channel TX power
Total output TX power of cell
Total received power at terminal
Total received power at cell

Pilot SIR 

Temperature 

Chip rate 
Uplink (downlink) service activity factor
Uplink (downlink) bearer controloverhead factor

Cell orthogonality factor 

Terminal noise figure 

Base station noise figure 

Mast head amplifier noise figure 


Cable (feeder) noise figure ( = 
)

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UMTS Basic Formulae
The following formulae give the basic relations between link powers and noise. Handover gains, power control headroom, and power rise gain have been ignored.
(3)
(1)
(2)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
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UMTS Uplink Noise Rise
Uplink noise rise (on a cell) is the total received power divided by the background noise. The noise rise on carrier α of cell J is given by:
(12)
This is expressed in dB in the Cell Uplink Report.
UMTS Uplink Load
Uplink load (on a cell) is the total received power coming from all terminals divided by the total received power. The cell load on carrier α of cell J is given by
(13)
This is expressed as a percentage in the Cell Uplink Report.
UMTS Frequency ReUse Efficiency
Frequency reuse efficiency (on a cell) is the total received power coming from incell terminals divided by the total received power coming from all terminals. The frequency reuse efficiency on carrier α of cell J is given by
(14)
This is expressed as a percentage in the Cell Uplink Report.
UMTS Air Interface and User Bitrates
For a UMTS network, the Air Interface Bitrate is used in the calculation of processing
gain. The processing gain ( the air interface bitrate.
The User Bitrate is used purely to calculate traffic (data throughput) on a cell.
) is calculated by dividing the system chiprate by
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UMTS Shadow Fade Modelling
This section describes the shadow fade modelling that is used for UMTS.
Shadow fading is modelled in the simulator by applying random offsets to the pathlosses experienced by each of the terminals in a snapshot. Shadow fades are log normally distributed, and you may specify the standard deviation of shadow fading for indoor and outdoor terminals in each clutter type. In reality, the fades between a terminal and the cells that cover it will exhibit a degree of correlation. In particular, a terminal is likely to have similar fades to cells that are located on the same site.
In order to model this in the simulator, you must specify two parameters in the Monte Carlo Wizard:
• The normalised intersite correlation coefficient (
). This is the correlation
between fades from a terminal to cells on different sites.
• The normalised intrasite correlation coefficient (
). This is the correlation
between fades from a terminal to cells on the same site.
These two parameters must satisfy the constraints
For each terminal in a snapshot, a set of correlated fades to cells is generated using the following procedure.
Note : All the random numbers mentioned below are independent and normally distributed with zero mean and unit variance.
1 Generate a random number X
2 For each site I, generate a random number 

3 For each cell J, generate a random number 

4 The fade (in dB) to cell J on site I is then set to:
(15)
where is the standard deviation of the shadow fading at the pixel (in dB).
The above procedure is performed whenever a terminal is initialised at the beginning of a snapshot. Fades for different terminals are uncorrelated, even if the terminals are located in the same pixel.
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UMTS Power Control Error Modelling
This section describes the power control error modelling for a UMTS network.
The simulator does not explicitly model the power control process, but it allows the simulation results to exhibit certain features one would associate with imperfect power control.
The standard deviation of power control error parameter controls the distribution of achieved values for successfully served terminals. If the standard deviation is set to
zero, the value for each successfully served terminal is
(ignoring quantisation and any lower limit on the link power). In a real system this is not the case since imperfect power control produces a (lognormal) distribution of achieved values at a cell.
The simulator models imperfect power control by including a lognormal error on the uplink and downlink transmit powers of successfully served terminals. The errors on the uplink and downlink are uncorrelated, and are applied after all other handover gains and margins have been considered. Terminals are never considered as having failed to make a connection if the resulting error makes them transmit at too high or too low a power.
achieved perfectly
UMTS Service Activity Modelling
The UMTS service activity affects three areas of the simulation.
Consumption of Resources
A successfully served circuit switched service will consume the same number of
resources regardless of the service activity factor. The number of resources in this case depends only on the bearer used.
A successfully served packet switched service will consume a partial number of
resources depending on the service activity factor. For example, if a PS service is served using a bearer that requires 2 resources and the activity factor is 1%, then 0.02 resources will be consumed.
Calculation of Throughput
The throughput of a successfully served service is calculated by multiplying the data rate of the bearer used, by the service activity factor.
Calculation of Interference
Equations
total
P
J
α
=+
pilot
P
J
α
+
common
P
J
α
+
sync
P
J
α
+
∑
j
(
α β
j
+
j
↓
↓
)
traffic
P
Jj
α
(9)
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all have a dependence on
or
(10)
(11)
UMTS Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services (Web Model)
Using the same notation as given in the WWW traffic model, the activity factor formula is:
Where:

= Average packet time period (s) 

= Size of a Packet (bytes) 
= the Max Bit Rate the particular service supports (bit/s) 


= Average session time period (s) 

= Number of packet calls per session 

= Reading time between packet calls (s) 

= Number of packets within a packet call 

= Inter arrival time between packets in a packet call (s) 

= Retransmission factor (%) 
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UMTS Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling
You can indicate if a cell has an antenna system providing transmit or receive diversity by ticking the appropriate check boxes in the Site Database. Transmit
(receive) diversity on a cell effectively reduces the
downlink (uplink). When defining a service, you must specify two requirements for the downlink (uplink). One requirement is used on cells with transmit (receive) diversity and the other is used on cells without transmit (receive) diversity.
requirement on the
UMTS Terminal Speed Modelling
Handover gains are speeddependent, and so each terminal in the simulation is given a random speed. For each terminal type and clutter type, you must specify four
parameters that determine the speed distribution. These are the mean speed (
the standard deviation of the speed distribution (
and the maximum speed (
),
), the minimum speed (
). A random speed is then given by:
(16)
where is a random number taken from a normal distribution of zero mean and unit variance.
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UMTS Overview of a Snapshot
This section gives an overview of a UMTS snapshot:
The aim of a snapshot is to produce a plausible picture of the network at a particular instant in time. This picture will typically consist of a set of successfully served terminals and their states, that is the link powers and handover state, and a set of unserved terminals and their reasons for failure. Many snapshots must be performed and the results from them averaged in order to produce an overall picture of network behaviour. A snapshot involves the stages outlined in the following diagram:
Initialisation of Terminals
Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage
Perform Iterations Until Convergence Achieved
Gathering of Results
UMTS Initialisation of Terminals
The first stage of a snapshot involves creating a geographical distribution of terminals attempting to connect to the network. Each pixel is allocated a random, Poisson distributed, number of terminals, according to the mean number of terminals specified for the pixel in the terminaldensity array. Also during this initialisation stage, each terminal is given a set of random lognormal fades, one for each cell that covers it, that is it has a pathloss to it. A random “power control error” is chosen for the uplink and downlink. A terminal will use the same random values (fading, power control error, speed) for the duration of its existence in a snapshot.
After all the terminals have been created, they are given a random ordering which sets the sequence in which they will be considered during an iteration.
Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage in UMTS
Before commencing the iterative process, the system is placed in a known state, namely the state of an unloaded network. This is simply done by setting all link powers to zero, and making all resources available at the cells.
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UMTS Iterations
An iteration involves sequentially evaluating the terminals (precisely once) to see if they can make a connection to the network. After each terminal is evaluated, the noise
in the network (at cells and terminals) is updated before moving on to evaluate the
next terminal.
A terminal may connect to the network in a variety of different ways (connection
scenarios). For example a terminal may have several different cells or carriers that it
may use. Each of the connection scenarios for a terminal is evaluated in turn until one that allows a successful connection is found. If no scenario can produce a successful connection to the network, the link powers for the terminal are set to zero, and the reasons for failure of the first scenario are recorded.
Terminals which fail to make a connection in an iteration are not removed from the
simulation, since success or failure in an iteration does not necessarily ensure the same result in a subsequent iteration. In fact, the state (succeeded/failed) of a terminal
is determined purely by its state in the final iteration of a snapshot when convergence
has been achieved.
The following diagram illustrates how a snapshot converges with successive iterations. Each histogram shows the distribution of achieved uplink values for successfully served terminals. All terminals are running a service with an uplink requirement of 6 dB.
End of
Iteration 5
After the first iteration, the majority of “served” terminals fail to meet their requirement. This is because terminals evaluated at the beginning of the first iteration see little or no interference and so have their TX powers set to low values. By the end
of the first iteration, the noise in the system will have increased due to interference
from the newly served terminals. Hence terminals evaluated at the beginning of the first iteration will no longer attain their desired by the end of the first iteration. In fact,
only the last terminal served is guaranteed to achieve its desired.
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Successive iterations produce increasingly accurate pictures of network noise, and a larger proportion of the terminals meet their requirement. By the seventh iteration in the example above, practically all the served terminals meet their requirement, and the system noise no longer changes significantly between iterations. The iterations have converged to produce a plausible picture of served and failed terminals in the network. Any remaining distribution in the achieved values of served terminals is largely due to quantisation of link powers, or from specifying a nonzero power control error standard deviation.
Convergence Criteria for UMTS
A good practical measure of convergence is to examine how the total uplink
interference from terminals (summed over all cells) changes between iterations. This
is 
considerably faster than measuring the distribution of achieved values. 
If 
the percentage change in total uplink interference changes by an amount smaller 
than the threshold that you have specified then the iterations are deemed to have converged. The default threshold is a 1% change in the interference between iterations. You also sets the maximum number of iterations that may be performed in any one snapshot (default = 10).
Gathering of Results in UMTS
The final stage of a snapshot involves gathering results from the current snapshot and combining them with the results from previous snapshots, so that average values for the geographic output arrays and Excel reports may be calculated. The information gathered includes cell information such as resource and power usage, information about the states of successfully served terminals, and the reasons for failure of terminals which failed to be served.
UMTS Scenario Prioritisation
A UMTS Connection Scenario consists of the following pieces of information.
• Carrier
• Carrier load status (overloaded/underloaded). If any covering cell uses the above carrier and exceeds its “load balance threshold”, then the carrier load status is set to overloaded. Otherwise the carrier load status is set to underloaded.
• Primary cell
• of primary cell
• UL bearer
• DL bearer
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The rules for prioritising scenarios during connection evaluation are (in order of decreasing importance):
• Underloaded (before overloaded) carriers
• Higher (before lower) priority carriers (with respect to service)
• Higher (before lower)
• Higher (before lower) priority DL bearers (with respect to servicecarrier)
• Higher (before lower) priority UL bearers (with respect to servicecarrier)
UMTS Connection Evaluation
There are three stages to evaluating a UMTS connection scenario to see if a terminal may be served.
• Production of a candidate active set for the terminal
• Uplink evaluation
• Downlink evaluation
Production of a Candidate Active Set in UMTS
In order for a cell to be in the candidate active set of a terminal, it must have an
adequate number of primary or handover resources available, and the pilot SIR for the cell must also be of an acceptable level. It is necessary to produce a candidate active set before the uplink and downlink can be evaluated. A candidate active set is produced by the following steps:
Check primary resource availability & pilot SIR level for candidate primary cell.
Check handover resource availability & pilot candidate handover cells.
E I
c
o
levels for
or
The connection scenario being examined sets the candidate primary cell. This cell is checked to see if it has a sufficient number of primary resources available, and to see if it provides an adequate pilot SIR level at the terminal. If these conditions are met, the cell is flagged as the primary cell of the candidate active set.
The remaining covering cells are evaluated to see if they can be handover cells. Cells with a low downlink linkloss are checked before cells with a higher downlink linkloss. A handover cell must have a sufficient number of handover resources available, and provide an level that is within the handover margin of the level of the primary cell. Each cell that satisfies these requirements is flagged as a handover cell of the candidate active set unless the active set size limit specified by the primary cell has been reached.
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Uplink Evaluation for UMTS
This is the process of determining the terminal transmit power required to meet the uplink requirement. It is necessary to consider several effects here, such as handover gains, power control headroom, and noise rise limits on cells. The uplink evaluation carries out the following procedure:
Calculate required terminal power to meet cell in candidate active set. E N b 
o 
for each 
Temporarily set terminal power to the lowest possible power
that will achieve a satisfactory
E N
b
o
value.
Calculate difference between two best
E N
b
o
values achieved
on cells in the candidate active set.
Calculate handover gains, power rise, and power control headroom.
See if terminal has sufficient power to make link.
Check terminal power does not break noise rise limit on any cells.
Apply lognormal error to uplink power, ensuring that all cell noiserise and terminal power limits are not broken.
For each cell in the candidate active set, the terminal transmit power required to meet the uplink is calculated. This lowest of these values is then quantised according to the quantisation level specified for the terminal. We call the resulting power. The terminal transmit power is temporarily set to, and the two best values on cells in the candidate active set are calculated. The difference between these two values (in dB), together with the terminal speed, allows the following quantities to be determined from the tables that you supply in the Services dialog box
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Terminal Power Reduction
The terminal power reduction (
transmit power of the terminal. It is equivalent to a reduction in the uplink
requirement.
) is a gain that reduces the required
Average Power Rise
The Average Power Rise (
control can compensate for fading in a channel and keep the received power (from a terminal) fairly constant in the cell providing the power control. However this compensation for fades causes peaks in the terminal transmission power. This results in a rise in the average interference experienced in other cells. This is modelled in the simulator by adding an average transmit power rise to the terminal transmit power when calculating the uplink interference caused in other cells. When calculating the interference a terminal causes to its own cell, the average power rise is not added.
P power rise
) effect is due to fast power control. Fast power
Power Control Headroom
The Power Control Headroom (
overhead on the transmit power a terminal requires to make the uplink. It is a function of terminal speed, and the overhead is largest for slow moving terminals.
The overhead ensures that the uplink power control is able to compensate for deep fades at a cell border.
H pch
) is also called shadow fade margin. This is an
Soft Handover Gain against Average Power Rise
The Soft Handover Gain against Average Power Rise (
power rise for soft handover cells. For nonhandover cells,
G power rise
) reduces the average
= 1.
G power rise
Soft Handover Gain against Power Control Headroom
The Soft Handover Gain against Power Control Headroom ( control headroom when a terminal is in soft handover.
After all the above quantities have been calculated, the terminal is checked to see if it has sufficient power to make the uplink. The actual transmit power of the terminal
) reduces the power
G pch
) is given by
(17)
The uplink
requirement can be satisfied if
(18)
where
is the maximum possible transmit power of the terminal.
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The terminal is also checked to see if it will break the noise rise limit on any of the
covering cells. When calculating the interference, the terminal power is taken as When calculating the interference produced on other cells, the terminal power is
taken as
. If the terminal cannot meet the uplink
requirement without breaking a noise rise limit, then the terminal fails to be
is finally given a random (log
served. If the uplink can be successfully achieved,
normal) adjustment to model the effect of imperfect power control.
Downlink Evaluation for UMTS
This is the process of determining the cell transmit powers required to meet the downlink requirement at the terminal. It is necessary to consider the effect of maximal ratio combining when there are multiple links. The downlink evaluation carries out the following procedure.
Iterate
until
Eb/No
achieved
or not
changing
between
iterations
Calculate difference between two best E I 
values from 

c cells in the candidate active set. 
o 
Read downlink 
E N b 
target reduction. 
Calculate the lowest cell TX power ( T ) that will achieve a
satisfactory
E N
b
o
value.
Set TX powers for cells in candidate active set to T .
Calculate total achieved
E N
b
o
at terminal assuming maximal
ratio combining of links.
Increase/Decrease _{T} if total achieved
too low/high.
E N
b
o
at terminal is
Apply lognormal error to all downlink powers, ensuring that all downlink power limits and cell power limits are not broken.
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The difference between the two best values of cells in the candidate active set is calculated. This figure, together with the terminal speed, determines the downlink target reduction in soft handover. This is found by linear interpolation of the values that you supply in the Services dialog box.
The downlink powers for cells in the candidate active set are calculated iteratively. The iterative procedure involves setting all downlink powers to the same (nonzero) value . The total achieved is then calculated by summing the values for individual downlinks. If the total achieved is too low (high) by a factor of , then is increased (decreased) by a factor of . This process continues until ceases to change between iterations, or the downlink requirement is achieved.
Note : Individual downlink powers are kept within the limits that you supply throughout the iterative procedure outlined above, so cells will never be allowed to transmit more power than they have available.
If the downlink requirement can not be achieved, then the terminal fails to be served, and all downlink powers are set to zero.
UMTS Blocking Probability
This section describes the following:
• Calculation of Blocking Probability in the Blocking Report
• Blocking Probability and Failure Rate
• Coverage Probability Array in the Map View Window
Calculation of Blocking Probability in the Blocking Report for UMTS
The blocking probabilities for cells (shown in the blocking report) cannot be found by simply averaging the blocking probabilities at pixels in the Map View window for the following reasons:
• Pixels with high traffic should have more influence on cell blocking probability than pixels with low traffic.
• Pixels in coverage holes should not influence cell blocking probability, even if they contain high traffic.
• A service may use some bearers more frequently than others. Frequently used bearers should have more influence on the blocking probability than infrequently used bearers.
• Several cells may serve the traffic at a pixel.
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A measure of blocking probability that is sensibly weighted is needed with respect to
these factors. Such a measure can be found by selective passivescanning at the end of
a snapshot. This is different to the usual (global) passivescanning that the user selects
in the simulation wizard. Global passivescanning tests all pixels and allows all
scenarios to be evaluated, whereas selective passivescanning only tests a subset of pixels and scenarios at the end of each snapshot. To determine which pixels and scenarios to check, the successfully served terminals are taken from the previous snapshot and used to check for blocking at the end of the current snapshot. Each
terminal is placed at the location it had in the previous snapshot, and checked to see if
it can connect to the cell that previously served it, using the previous UL and DL
bearer. This automatically ensures that the cell blocking probability is correctly
weighted, since the most likely terminal locations and connection scenarios are checked.
Blocking Probability and Failure Rate for UMTS
The blocking probability measured in the tool is more similar to a Lost Call Held blocking probability than a Lost Call Cleared (ErlangB) blocking probability. This is a consequence of the way the simulator works. The simulator simply tries to serve as much of the offered traffic as possible. The following formulae show how these probabilities are related in a simple situation.
Note : These formulae are not used to explicitly calculate blocking probabilities in the tool, since the probabilities in the tool are all found by sampling snapshots.
Take a system with fixed capacity
second and mean holding time
, and Poisson traffic with arrival rate
users per
seconds. The mean offered traffic is
^{(}^{1}^{9}^{)}
The probability that exactly C users are offered.
(20)
The probability that more than C users are offered.
(21)
The probability that less than C users are offered.
Lost Call Cleared: In an LCC system, blocked users do not try again.
(22)
Lost Call Held: In an LCH system, blocked users persistently retry until connected.
(23)
It
to
Note : The “Failure Rate” ( terminals that fail.
is easy to show that
each other for low blocking probabilities.
. The two probabilities are most similar
) in the failure report is the proportion of offered
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(24)
This is NOT a blocking probability and it should never be treated as one. The failure rate can be an order of magnitude lower than both the LCC and LCH blocking probabilities.
UMTS Coverage Probability Array in the Map View
The meaning of “coverage probability” shown in the Map View is dependent on whether the (global) passivescan terminal is being used to test every pixel at the end of a snapshot.
When running a simulation with passivescan disabled, the coverage probability in
the Map View is determined by the connection attempts made by the randomly scattered terminals. It gives the proportion of offered terminals at the pixel that were successfully served. This is not related to the blocking probability at the pixel. In fact
it is more like the complement of the “failure rate” given in the reports. For example,
a cell with a coverage probability of 20% at most pixels would give a failure rate of
about 80% in the report.
When running a simulation with passivescan enabled, the coverage probability at each pixel in the Map View is determined largely by the connection attempts of passivescan terminals at the end of the snapshot. In this case, the coverage probability is simply the complement of the blocking probability at the pixel that is, the two probabilities sum to 1.
To summarise, if want to see blocking (and its causes) in the Map View, then the passivescan should be enabled. If you would only like to view the reports, then the passivescan terminal may be disabled.
Note : The blocking probability report is always calculated using the selective passive scanning technique, which is totally independent of the global passivescanning used for the Map View.
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A PPENDIX
C
CDMA2000 Algorithms
This chapter describes the following topics:
In This Section
CDMA2000 Notation List of Principal Symbols for CDMA2000 CDMA2000 Basic Formulae CDMA2000 Uplink Noise Rise CDMA2000 Uplink Load CDMA2000 Frequency ReUse Efficiency CDMA2000 Air Interface and User Bitrates CDMA2000 Shadow Fade Modelling CDMA2000 Power Control Error Modelling CDMA2000 Service Activity Modelling CDMA2000 Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services (Web Model) CDMA2000 Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling CDMA2000 Terminal Speed Modelling PN Code Assignment Algorithm for CDMA2000 CDMA2000 Overview of a Snapshot CDMA2000 Scenario Prioritisation CDMA2000 Connection Evaluation Calculation of Equivalent Control Overhead Factors for CDMA2000 CDMA2000 Blocking Probability
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CDMA2000 Notation
This list describes the notation symbols used in this section:
• A Greek subscript always indexes a carrier.
indicates a sum over all carriers.
• An uppercase Roman subscript always indexes a sector.
indicates a sum over all sectors
• A lowercase Roman subscript always indexes a terminal.

indicates a sum over all terminals. 

indicates a sum over all terminals in sector J. 
indicate if a quantity is uplink or downlink.
• Up and down arrows
• All quantities are in standard SI units, never in dB.
As an example. The quantity
between terminal j and sector K using carrier α.
represents the
for the uplink
List of Principal Symbols for CDMA2000
The following table describes the list of principal symbols for CDMA2000:
Symbol
Description
Uplink (downlink) adjacent carrier interference ratio. Gives fractional power leakage from
carrier β to carrier α. (
Uplink
Downlink
Pilot
Uplink (downlink) processing gain
Sector antenna gain
Terminal antenna gain
Mast head amplifier gain
Boltzmann constant
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Mast head amplifier (downlink) insertion loss
Uplink (downlink) linkloss between sector and terminal

Pathloss between sector and terminal 

Antenna masking loss 

Cable (feeder) loss 

TX combiner loss (downlink) 

RX splitter loss (uplink) 

Terminal body loss 

Thermal noise at terminal 

Thermal noise at sector 

Excess noise at sector 

Terminal TX power 
Downlink broadcast channel TX power
Downlink commonassignment channel TX power
Downlink commoncontrol channel TX power
Downlink commonpowercontrol channel TX power
Downlink dedicatedcontrol channel TX power
Sector pilot channel TX power
Sector paging channel TX power (summed over all paging channels)
Downlink quickpaging channel TX power

Sector synchronisation channel TX power 

Downlink traffic channel TX power 

Total output TX power of sector 

Total received power at terminal 

Total received power at sector 

Temperature 
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Chip rate 

,

Uplink (downlink) service activity factor 

,

Uplink (downlink) bearer controloverhead factor 


Terminal noise figure 


Base station noise figure 


Mast head amplifier noise figure 
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