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ASSET3g

Technical Reference Guide

Version 5.0.2

© Copyright 2005 AIRCOM International Ltd All rights reserved

ADVANTAGE, AIRCOM, ARRAY WIZARD, ASSET3g, CONNECT, DATASAFE, ENTERPRISE, NEPTUNE, OPTIMA, QUALITA, RANOPT, TARGET and WEBWIZARD are recognised trademarks of AIRCOM International.

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Contents

Appendix A 2g and 2.5g Algorithms

Interference Table Algorithm

5

Interference and Connection Array Calculations

6

Worst Connection Array Calculation Method

7

Average Connection Array Calculation Method

8

Worst Interferer Array Calculation Method

8

Total Interference Array Calculation Method

9

Table of Default C/I BER Conversion Values

9

Frequency Hopping Algorithms

Synthesised Hopping Algorithm

10

12

Non-Frequency Hopping Algorithms

12

Automatic Frequency Planning (ILSA)

13

The Cost Function of the ILSA Algorithm

14

MAIO Planning Cost Function

14

GPRS and HSCSD Capacity Calculations

15

TRX Requirement - Circuit Switched Traffic and HSCSD

15

TRX Requirement - Circuit Switched, HSCSD and GPRS Traffic

15

Grade of Service and Data Rate

16

Channel Occupation Table

17

FCC Calculations

18

Frequency Calculations

20

Appendix B UMTS Algorithms

Notation for UMTS

23

List of Principal Symbols for UMTS

24

UMTS Basic Formulae

26

UMTS Uplink Noise Rise

27

UMTS Uplink Load

27

UMTS Frequency Re-Use Efficiency

27

UMTS Air Interface and User Bitrates

27

UMTS Shadow Fade Modelling

28

UMTS Power Control Error Modelling

29

UMTS Service Activity Modelling

29

UMTS Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services (Web Model)

30

UMTS Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling

31

UMTS Terminal Speed Modelling

31

UMTS Overview of a Snapshot

32

UMTS Initialisation of Terminals

32

Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage in UMTS

32

UMTS Iterations

33

Gathering of Results in UMTS

34

UMTS Scenario Prioritisation

34

UMTS Connection Evaluation

35

Production of a Candidate Active Set in UMTS

35

Uplink Evaluation for UMTS

36

Downlink Evaluation for UMTS

38

UMTS Blocking Probability

39

Calculation of Blocking Probability in the Blocking Report for UMTS

39

Blocking Probability and Failure Rate for UMTS

40

UMTS Coverage Probability Array in the Map View

41

Appendix C CDMA2000 Algorithms

CDMA2000 Notation

44

List of Principal Symbols for CDMA2000

44

CDMA2000 Basic Formulae

46

CDMA2000 Uplink Noise Rise

47

CDMA2000 Uplink Load

47

CDMA2000 Frequency Re-Use Efficiency

47

CDMA2000 Air Interface and User Bitrates

47

CDMA2000 Shadow Fade Modelling

48

CDMA2000 Power Control Error Modelling

49

CDMA2000 Service Activity Modelling

49

CDMA2000 Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services (Web Model)

50

CDMA2000 Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling

51

CDMA2000 Terminal Speed Modelling

51

PN Code Assignment Algorithm for CDMA2000

51

Difficulty Factor for CDMA2000

51

Best PN Code to Assign for CDMA2000

52

Quality Factor for CDMA2000

52

CDMA2000 Overview of a Snapshot

53

CDMA2000 Initialisation of Terminals

53

Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage in CDMA2000

53

CDMA2000 Iterations

54

Gathering Of Results in CDMA2000

55

CDMA2000 Scenario Prioritisation

55

CDMA2000 Connection Evaluation

56

Production of a Candidate Active Set in CDMA2000

56

CDMA2000 Uplink Evaluation

57

CDMA2000 Downlink Evaluation

59

Calculation of Equivalent Control Overhead Factors for CDMA2000

60

Uplink RC1 - RC2

61

Uplink RC3 - RC6 When Using a Supplemental Bearer

62

Uplink RC3 - RC6 When Not Using a Supplemental Bearer

63

Downlink RC1 - RC2

64

Downlink RC3 - RC10

65

CDMA2000 Blocking Probability

66

Calculation of Blocking Probability in the Blocking Report for CDMA2000

66

CDMA2000 Blocking Probability and Failure Rate

66

CDMA2000 Coverage Probability Array in the Map View Window

67

Appendix D HDR Algorithms69

HDR Notation

69

List of Principal Symbols for HDR

70

HDR Basic Formulae

71

HDR Uplink Noise Rise

72

HDR Uplink Load

72

HDR Frequency Re-Use Efficiency

72

HDR Air Interface and User Bitrates

73

HDR Shadow Fade Modelling

73

HDR Power Control Error Modelling

74

HDR Service Activity Modelling

74

HDR Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling

74

HDR Terminal Speed Modelling

75

Overview of a HDR Snapshot

75

HDR Initialisation of Terminals

76

HDR Initialisation of System Powers

76

HDR Iterations

76

Gathering of Results for HDR

78

Scenario Prioritisation for HDR

78

HDR Connection Evaluation

78

HDR Downlink Evaluation

79

HDR Uplink Evaluation

79

Calculation of Uplink Equivalent Control Overhead Factor for HDR

81

HDR Coverage Probability and Blocking

82

HDR Coverage Probability Array in the Map View Window

82

HDR Blocking Probability and Failure Rate

82

About the HDR Quality of Service Algorithm

83

HDR Outline

84

IP Packet Transmission Time for HDR

84

IP Packet Queueing Delay for HDR

85

Throughput for HDR

87

Appendix E Packet Quality of Service Algorithms

Simulation Inputs for QoS Analysis

Preliminary Tests

Traffic Generator for QoS Analysis

90

90

90

Matching Generated Traffic to Monte Carlo's Mean Number of Served Users

91

WWW Traffic Model

92

Packet Model

93

About the Code Schemes for GPRS

94

QoS Profiles for GPRS

94

Time Simulator for QoS Analysis

97

Results of QoS Analysis

99

References

Appendix F ASSET3g File Formats

Simulation Array File Formats

3ga File Format

Live Traffic File Formats for 2g Networks

103

105

106

108

NMS File Format

108

GSM File Format

108

TPS File Format

109

Live Traffic File Formats for 3g Networks

109

About the *.tpc File Format

109

About the Bearer Traffic File Formats (*.cbc / *.cbd)

110

Index

A PPENDIX

A

2g and 2.5g Algorithms

This chapter describes the following topics:

In This Section

Interference Table Algorithm Interference and Connection Array Calculations Frequency Hopping Algorithms Non-Frequency Hopping Algorithms Automatic Frequency Planning (ILSA) MAIO Planning Cost Function GPRS and HSCSD Capacity Calculations FCC Calculations Frequency Calculations

Interference Table Algorithm

The Interference Table stores the following four values for any pair of sub-cells A and B. These relate to the region where A is the best server.

Field Name

Description

Co-channel Traffic

The amount of traffic served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned the same carrier.

Co-channel Area

The area served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned the same carrier.

Adjacent Channel Traffic

The amount of traffic served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned adjacent carriers.

Adjacent Channel Area

The area served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned adjacent carriers.

The values for area are obtained by averaging the probability of interference over the region where A is the best server. The average is taken over all pixels in the appropriate coverage array.

For traffic, the value to be averaged is the probability of interference x the traffic (in mE) at that pixel. Thus it is necessary to have a traffic raster available to make this calculation.

The probability of interference at a given pixel is calculated using a standard statistical technique based on a C/I signal threshold value and a standard deviation. The assumption is that a difference in signal level between server and interferer exactly equal to the threshold value would give rise to a 50% chance of co-channel interference. For more information on how these values can be specified, see About the Interference Table Needed for ILSA.

By default, a -18dB offset is used for the adjacent channel interference, relative to the co-channel interference. This means that if, for example, the co-channel C/I threshold value is set at 9dB, a signal difference of -9dB between server and adjacent channel interferer would give rise to a 50% chance of adjacent channel interference. The C/A offset can be modified in the Array Settings dialog box.

All signal differences are converted into probabilities of interference. This graph displays the spread of probabilities for both C/I and C/A based on the default Interference Weights. Here, the C/I signal threshold value is 9 dB, using a standard deviation of 7.78dB.

value is 9 dB, using a standard deviation of 7.78dB. C/I and C/A weights curve Note

C/I and C/A weights curve

Note : An example of an Interference Table can be found, along with a description of its File Format, in the Appendix of the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.

Interference and Connection Array Calculations

This table shows the different interference analyses that are possible:

Field Name

Description

Worst Connection C/Ic

Determines the co-channel C/I levels for all of the possible interfering frequencies that may be used by the MS-BTS connection.

Each pixel presents the worst C/Ic level and frequency.

Worst Connection C/Ia

Determines the adjacent channel C/I levels for all of the possible interfering frequencies that may be used by the MS-BTS connection.

Each pixel presents the worst C/Ia level and frequency.

Worst Connection C/(Ic+Ia)

Determines the combined co-channel/adjacent channel C/I levels for all of the possible interfering frequencies that may be used by the MS-BTS connection.

Each pixel presents the worst C/I level and frequency.

Average Interference C/Ic

Sums the co-channel C/I levels for all possible interfering frequencies and presents the average C/Ic level.

Average Interference C/Ia

Sums the adjacent channel C/I levels for all possible interfering frequencies and presents the average C/Ia level.

Average Interference C/(Ic_Ia)

Sums the combined co-channel and adjacent C/I levels for all possible interfering frequencies and presents the average C/(Ic_Ia) level.

Worst Interference C/Ic

For non-frequency hopping networks sums all of the co-channel C/I levels for an interfering frequency.

Each pixel presents the total C/I level, server and interfering sub-cells and interfering frequency.

Worst Interference C/Ia

For non-frequency hopping networks sums all of the adjacent channel C/I levels for an interfering frequency.

Each pixel presents the total C/I level, server and interfering sub-cells and interfering frequency.

Note : The worst connection and the worst interferer calculations are the same in the case of a non-frequency hopping network.

Worst Connection Array Calculation Method

In the Worst Connection Array calculation, the connection refers to the carrier(s) corresponding to a single call:

In the case of hopping frequencies, it corresponds to the entire group of hopping frequencies

In the case of non-hopping frequencies, it corresponds to a single frequency

The Worst Connection Array calculates the C/I per connection, summing over all interferers, and then selects the connection with the lowest C/I.

The algorithm for this is as follows:

with the lowest C/I. The algorithm for this is as follows: Where: For each non-hopping carrier

Where:

For each non-hopping carrier fi in the serving sub-cell, C/I(fi) is calculated.

For the hopping frequency group in the serving sub-cell, a single C/I(FH) is calculated.

Average Connection Array Calculation Method

The Average Connection Array calculates the C/I per connection, summing over all interferers, and then calculates the average of those.

The algorithm for this is as follows:

the average of those. The algorithm for this is as follows: Where: (2) is the averaged

Where:

(2)

is the averaged C/I for the hopping carriers.of those. The algorithm for this is as follows: Where: (2) is the number of hopping

is the number of hopping frequencies.Where: (2) is the averaged C/I for the hopping carriers. is the number of non-hopping frequencies.

is the number of non-hopping frequencies.the hopping carriers. is the number of hopping frequencies. is frequency Diversity Gain is the fractional

is frequency Diversity Gainfrequencies. is the number of non-hopping frequencies. is the fractional loading, calculated as follows: , where

is the fractional loading, calculated as follows:of non-hopping frequencies. is frequency Diversity Gain , where is the number of hopping TRX are

, whereGain is the fractional loading, calculated as follows: is the number of hopping TRX are the

is the fractional loading, calculated as follows: , where is the number of hopping TRX are

is the number of hopping TRX

are the non-hopping frequenciescalculated as follows: , where is the number of hopping TRX For each non-hopping carrier fr

For each non-hopping carrier fri in the serving sub-cell, C/I(fri) is calculated.

For the hopping frequency group in the serving sub-cell, a single C/I(FH) is calculated.

in the serving sub-cell, a single C/I(FH) is calculated. Note : The denominator in the equation

Note : The denominator in the equation above can never be zero (

be 0 at the same time). This is because ASSET3g does not allow you to set the total number of TRX allocated to a sub-cell to zero, if at least one carrier layer is allocated.

and

to zero , if at least one carrier layer is allocated. and cannot both Worst Interferer

cannot both

Worst Interferer Array Calculation Method

The Worst Interferer Array calculates the C/I per frequency, summing over all interferers, and selects the frequency with the lowest C/I. It also finds the interferer that causes the most interference on that frequency.

Note : This array does not take into account fractional loading.

The most interfered frequency and its corresponding C/I are calculated as follows:

If

and its corresponding C/I are calculated as follows: If then If then Page 8 ASSET3g Technical

then

and its corresponding C/I are calculated as follows: If then If then Page 8 ASSET3g Technical

If

its corresponding C/I are calculated as follows: If then If then Page 8 ASSET3g Technical Reference

then

its corresponding C/I are calculated as follows: If then If then Page 8 ASSET3g Technical Reference

Where:

For each (non-hopping) carrier f1 in the serving sub-cell, C/I(f1) is calculated.

The worst interferer is calculated as follows:

calculated. The worst interferer is calculated as follows: Total Interference Array Calculation Method The Total

Total Interference Array Calculation Method

The Total Interference Array calculates the C/I per frequency, summing over all interferers, and then sums the C/I for each frequency at the serving cell.

Note : This array does not take into account fractional loading.

The total interference is calculated as follows:

loading. The total interference is calculated as follows: Where: For each (non-hopping) carrier f i in

Where:

For each (non-hopping) carrier fi in the serving sub-cell, C/I(fi) is calculated.

Table of Default C/I BER Conversion Values

This table shows the Default C/I BER Conversion Values in ASSET3g:

C/I (dB)

Bit Error Rate

-10

0.5000000000

-9

0.4880000000

-8

0.4650000000

-7

0.4300000000

-6

0.3880000000

-5

0.3500000000

-4

0.3200000000

-3

0.3000000000

-2

0.2700000000

-1

0.2500000000

0

0.2200000000

1

0.2000000000

2

0.1700000000

3

0.1500000000

4

0.1200000000

5

0.1000000000

6

0.0900000000

7

0.0780000000

8

0.0660000000

9

0.0550000000

10

0.0450000000

11

0.0370000000

12

0.0300000000

13

0.0260000000

14

0.0200000000

15

0.0150000000

16

0.0120000000

17

0.0080000000

18

0.0060000000

19

0.0040000000

20

0.0020000000

21

0.0007000000

22

0.0001000000

23

0.0000070000

24

0.0000004000

25

0.0000000100

26

0.0000000001

27-45

0.0000000000

Frequency Hopping Algorithms

The algorithms used for frequency hopping cells are as follows:

algorithms used for frequency hopping cells are as follows: 1 is used if Where: , α
algorithms used for frequency hopping cells are as follows: 1 is used if Where: , α
algorithms used for frequency hopping cells are as follows: 1 is used if Where: , α

1 is used if Where:

frequency hopping cells are as follows: 1 is used if Where: , α is used if

, α is used if

cells are as follows: 1 is used if Where: , α is used if , 0

, 0 is used otherwise

C/I(i)

=

C/I ratio for frequency i

SSC(i)

=

Signal strength from frequency i for serving cell

i,j

=

A particular frequency

N

=

Number of interfering cells

n

=

Number of frequencies in serving cell

m

=

Number of frequencies in interfering cell K

SIC(K,i)

=

Signal strength from frequency i for interfering cell K

K

=

Interfering cell

L(K,j)

=

Load in interfering cell K on frequency j

V(K,j)

=

DTX factor in interfering cell K on frequency j

f (i)

=

Fractional loading for frequency i for interfering cell

α

=

Adjacent interference factor

Each C/I(i) is converted to a Bit Error Rate, BER(i) This graph shows the relationship between the Probability of Bit Error and the C/I:

between the Probability of Bit Error and the C/I: BER AV (serving cell) is calculated as

BERAV(serving cell) is calculated as the average BER(i) for all frequencies in the cell:

as the aver age BER(i) for all frequencies in the cell: Where: x Number of FH

Where:

x

Number of FH frequencies per TRX Number of FH frequencies/serving cell Number of TRX/serving cell

mFH

nTRX

BERAV(serving cell) is then converted back to dB to give C/I (FH)(serving cell).

Important : If frequency diversity gain GFDIV(m) is enabled, you also need to add a given gain figure to the hopping C/I. For more information on this, see Defining Frequency Hopping Gain.

Synthesised Hopping Algorithm

For synthesised hopping carrier layers, fractional loading is calculated as follows:

layers, frac tional loading is calculated as follows: Where: is the number of TRX allocated to

Where:

is the number of TRX allocated to the hopping carrier layerslayers, frac tional loading is calculated as follows: Where: is the number of hopping carriers Non-Frequency

is the number of TRX allocated to the hopping carrier layers is the number of hopping

is the number of hopping carriers

Non-Frequency Hopping Algorithms

The calculations for non-frequency hopping are as follows:

The calculations for non-frequency hopping are as follows: 1 is used if P(i) = f(C/I(i)) P(i)
The calculations for non-frequency hopping are as follows: 1 is used if P(i) = f(C/I(i)) P(i)
The calculations for non-frequency hopping are as follows: 1 is used if P(i) = f(C/I(i)) P(i)
The calculations for non-frequency hopping are as follows: 1 is used if P(i) = f(C/I(i)) P(i)
The calculations for non-frequency hopping are as follows: 1 is used if P(i) = f(C/I(i)) P(i)

1 is used if

P(i) = f(C/I(i))

P(i) is the Probability of interference, and is calculated from the cumulative normal distribution of combined standard deviation of serving and interfering cell models.

, α is used if

, 0 is used otherwise

cell models. , α is used if , 0 is used otherwise and P TOT =

and

PTOT = Average of all P(i) in the cell

This picture shows an example conversion curve:

This picture shows an ex ample conversion curve: Example C/I/Probability Curve Automatic Frequency Planning (ILSA) The

Example C/I/Probability Curve

Automatic Frequency Planning (ILSA)

The frequency planner uses an Intelligent Local Search Algorithm (ILSA) to search for an optimum or zero cost plan using the latest ideas from Combinatorial Optimisation Theory.

The interference in the network is measured by the value in the Cost of Current Plan field. Typically, this decreases very rapidly during the early part of the process. Thereafter, the average rate of decrease will be less and decreases will be more sporadic. In fact the cost is often stationary for a while before undergoing another stage of rapid decrease.

ILSA pays special attention to areas of high cost within the network (analogous to areas of high interference), temporarily ignoring lower cost areas. This allows ILSA to make very rapid initial progress. For example, if ILSA is attempting to plan for a network requiring 60 carrier allocations, with 20 available carriers, and identifies a sub-set of 10 high cost carrier allocations, then the maximum number of new states that ILSA needs to consider has been reduced from 3.8*1025 to 6.1*1012.

The algorithm monitors its own progress and will behave differently depending on how quickly the cost is decreasing at a given time. This intelligent behaviour enables it to continue finding improvements over long periods of time.

At the heart of the algorithm is a random process, so if the algorithm is run twice for a given period of time on a particular network the end results may differ by a few percent. Thus it may be worth running the algorithm more than once.

The Cost Function of the ILSA Algorithm

The principle behind the algorithm used in the frequency planning tool is that the effectiveness of any particular frequency plan is measured by a single number (the cost). The algorithm then tries to minimise the cost over the set of all possible frequency plans. The cost function measures how much interference there is in the network, and also allows for the different weights that you may have imposed.

For a given frequency plan the value of the cost function is given by the formula:

plan the value of the cost function is given by the formula: Where: = The adjacent

Where:

= The adjacent channel interference caused on allocation i by allocation j (Units: 200*mE or 20,000*km2)

= The co-channel interference caused on allocation i by allocation j (Units: 200*mE or 20,000*km2)

= The frequency allocated at allocation i

= Members of the set of all frequency allocations

= The retune cost associated with allocation i

= The fixed or forbidden carrier cost associated with allocation i

= The separation costs (from equipment, neighbours, exceptions or close separations) between allocations i and j

= The handover count and intermodulation interference costs associated with allocation i

= The weighting factor applicable to carrier allocation i

MAIO Planning Cost Function

The cost function for MAIO planning is an aggregate of C/I and C/A separation counts generated by per cell pair frequency combinations, based on MAIO step and offset values, and weighted by the interference matrix. It has the following form:

by the interf erence matrix. It has the following form: Where: are sub-cells and are traffic

Where:

are sub-cellsthe interf erence matrix. It has the following form: Where: and are traffic and area percentages

matrix. It has the following form: Where: are sub-cells and are traffic and area percentages Page
matrix. It has the following form: Where: are sub-cells and are traffic and area percentages Page

andmatrix. It has the following form: Where: are sub-cells are traffic and area percentages Page 14

matrix. It has the following form: Where: are sub-cells and are traffic and area percentages Page

are traffic and area percentages

andare traffic and area associated with sub-cell c and are interference matrix coefficients is the

and are traffic and area associated with sub-cell c and are interference matrix coefficients is the

are traffic and area associated with sub-cell c

andand are traffic and area associated with sub-cell c are interference matrix coefficients is the C/I

and are traffic and area associated with sub-cell c and are interference matrix coefficients is the

are interference matrix coefficients

is the C/I or C/A separation count for all TRX combinations on sub- t for all TRX combinations on sub-

cells

C/A separation coun t for all TRX combinations on sub- cells GPRS and HSCSD Capacity Calculations

GPRS and HSCSD Capacity Calculations

This sectiondescribes GPRS and HSCSD capacity calculations, as follows:

TRX Requirement - Circuit Switched Traffic and HSCSD

TRX Requirement -Circuit Switched, HSCSD and GPRS Traffic

Grade of Service and Data Rate

Channel Occupation Table

TRX Requirement - Circuit Switched Traffic and HSCSD

Table TRX Requirement - Circuit Switched Traffic and HSCSD The number of TS required ( Grade

The number of TS required (

Grade of Services and a choice of Erlang table.

) for the CS traffic load (

and a choice of Erlang table. ) for the CS traffic load ( ) given specified

) given specified two

table. ) for the CS traffic load ( ) given specified two The number of TRX
table. ) for the CS traffic load ( ) given specified two The number of TRX

The number of TRX required is determined using the Channel to Transceiver Map by

increasing the number of TRX from 1 until the map’s

Map by increasing the number of TRX from 1 until the map’s is equal to or

is equal to or greater than

of TRX from 1 until the map’s is equal to or greater than . and is
of TRX from 1 until the map’s is equal to or greater than . and is
.
.

and

is greater than or equal to

TRX Requirement - Circuit Switched, HSCSD and GPRS Traffic

For cells where GPRS is enabled, the number of TS required from the shared traffic

channels for the GPRS (

average GPRS data rate per TS (

) traffic load (

the GPRS ( average GPRS data rate per TS ( ) traffic load ( ) can
the GPRS ( average GPRS data rate per TS ( ) traffic load ( ) can

) can be determined using the

):
):
per TS ( ) traffic load ( ) can be determined using the ): The total
per TS ( ) traffic load ( ) can be determined using the ): The total

The total number of TS required for CS and GPRS traffic (

determined using the average Circuit Switched TS requirement channel occupation efficiency (e) as follows:

) can then be

channel occupation efficiency (e) as follows: ) can then be and the ASSET3g Technical Reference Guide

and the

occupation efficiency (e) as follows: ) can then be and the ASSET3g Technical Reference Guide Version

Where:

is total shared traffic channels requiredWhere: is average (long term) number of TS required for Circuit Switched traffic (= ) is

is average (long term) number of TS required for Circuit Switched traffic (=Where: is total shared traffic channels required ) is average (long term) number of TS required

)
)

is average (long term) number of TS required for HSCSD traffic (=number of TS required for Circuit Switched traffic (= ) ) The channel occupation efficiency (e)

)
)

The channel occupation efficiency (e) is determined by first calculating

) without dividing by e and then using the result to look up e in the Channel Occupation table.

(
(
the result to look up e in the Channel Occupation table. ( The number of TRX

The number of TRX required and

transceiver map by increasing the number of TRX from the result of the previous section until the number of available TS for traffic (NCS allocation) is equal to or

greater than

are determined using the channel to

.
.

Grade of Service and Data Rate

Circuit Switched Traffic

This section presents the calculation for the blocking for the current allocation of TRX for CS and for each HSCSD multi-slot type traffic (%). It has been assumed throughout that CS traffic and HSCSD traffic will take precedence over GPRS traffic and therefore the Grade of Service for CS and HSCSD will not be affected by the GPRS load.

Calculate the blocking for the CS traffic given the traffic load ( current allocation of TRX using the selected Erlang table.

current allocation of TRX using the selected Erlang table. ) the HSCSD Blocking Blocking is calculated

) the

HSCSD Blocking

Blocking is calculated from Erlang B or C using the number of HSCSD TS currently allocated to the cell and the HSCSD load in timeslot Erlangs.

= HSCSD traffic loadto the cell and the HSCSD load in timeslot Erlangs. =timeslots allocated to CS = number

=timeslots allocated to CSand the HSCSD load in timeslot Erlangs. = HSCSD traffic load = number of CS timeslots

= number of CS timeslots that may be allocated to HSCSDErlangs. = HSCSD traffic load =timeslots allocated to CS Erl = Erlang B or C functions

Erl = Erlang B or C functions returning blocking given traffic and channels

B or C functions returnin g blocking given traffic and channels Page 16 ASSET3g Technical Reference
Summary blocking is the average of the four separate blocking values weighted by the known
Summary blocking is the average of the four separate blocking values weighted by the known
Summary blocking is the average of the four separate blocking values weighted by the known
Summary blocking is the average of the four separate blocking values weighted by the known
Summary blocking is the average of the four separate blocking values weighted by the known

Summary blocking is the average of the four separate blocking values weighted by the known distribution.

GPRS Data Rate

values weighted by the known distribution. GPRS Data Rate The GPRS data rate calculating the number

The GPRS data rate

calculating the number of TS required for CS and HSCSD. The remaining TS are

available for GPRS. That is:

for the current allocation of TRX is determined by first

is: for the current allocation of TRX is determined by first Where: e is the efficiency
is: for the current allocation of TRX is determined by first Where: e is the efficiency

Where:

e

current allocation of TRX is determined by first Where: e is the efficiency from the Channel

is the efficiency from the Channel Occupation table determined from N is the number of TS from the Channel Carrier Map for the current allocation of TRX

Channel Occupation Table

A

table similar to that shown below is used to relate the number of timeslots available

to

the channel occupancy for GPRS capacity calculations.

The table is stored in the database and you can edit the occupancy values.

in the database and you can edit the occupancy values. Example of Channel Occupation Tabl e,

Example of Channel Occupation Table, for Illustrative Purposes Only

FCC Calculations

This section describes the algorithms used to calculate the data provided in the FCC report.

Antenna Height AAT

The Antenna Height AAT is calculated in metres.

The calculation is:

Antenna height + Site ground height + Radial average terrain elevation

The Radial average terrain elevation is the average ground height mapped along a radial of between 3 km and 16 km from the site. If the mapping data prevent this then it will not be calculated and this will be flagged in the FCC report.

Note : Feature height data and clutter heights are ignored in the calculation.

The best available resolution of the map data is used for this calculation. If the best map data is 1000 m resolution then you will receive a warning noting that the map data is of insufficient resolution for the FCC form.

Used Antenna Height

The Used Antenna Height AAT (metre) is subject to some minimum values according

to the FCC category and, the ERP.

Category

ERP (if necessary)

Minimum

32dBu Served

N/A

Minimum of 30 metres

32dBu Unserved

ERP>=10 W

Minimum of 30 metres Minimum of 3 metres

ERP<=10 W

Gulf of Mexico

N/A

Minimum of 8 metres

Note : You will receive a warning if the Average Radial distance exceeds 40.2 km (79.1 km for Gulf of Mexico cells).

Transmitting ERP Watts

The transmitting ERP for a cardinal radial is the radiated power in Watts taking into account the antenna gain for the azimuth, the down tilt and the base station powers/losses.

Note : You will receive a warning if the ERP exceeds 500W.

Used ERPS

This is the value of the transmitting ERP which is used in the calculations, it is the Transmitting ERP subject to certain minima.

Used ERP is the maximum of:

0.1 W

Maximum ERP/500

Transmitting ERP for the radial

Area within the Service Area Boundary

This will be calculated by finding the distance to the SAB for each degree by linear interpolation of distance as a function of angle, hence dividing the area into triangular sectors, joining at the site. The total area is then calculated by adding up the areas of each of the triangles.

Heron's Formula for calculation of area of scalene triangle:

A = SQR(S (S-a) (S-b) (S-c))

SQR - Square Root

a, b, c – sides of the triangle

S – half the perimeter of triangle, that is (a+b+c)/2

Distance to Service Area Boundary

The distance to the SAB is calculated as shown here:

For:

The distance to the SAB is:

32dBu Served

D = 2.531 x Used Antenna Height(m) ^ 0.34 x Used ERP for Radial in Watts ^ 0.17

and

32 dBu Unserved

Subject to a minimum distance of 5.4 km

Gulf of Mexico

D = 6.895 x Used Antenna Height(m) ^ 0.30 x Used ERP for Radial (W) ^ 0.15

There is no minimum distance for this SAB

Frequency Calculations

Two frequency calculations are used when you create a Frequency Plan report.

Effective Frequency Re-use

The effective frequency re-use is an approximate indication of the quality of the hopping network.

It can be calculated for each subcell and also the average of these calculated to give a figure for the network as a whole.

calculated to give a figure for the network as a whole. Where: R EFF is the

Where:

REFF is the Effective Frequency Re-use for a subcell

NF is the total number of carriers available to hopping TRX on the subcell (note: this is not the MA list length)

NTRX is the number of hopping TRX on the subcell

Frequency Load

The average frequency load is another approximate indication of the quality of the hopping network.

It can be calculated for each subcell and also the average of these calculated to give a figure for the network as a whole.

calculated to give a figure for the network as a whole. Where: L FREQ is the
calculated to give a figure for the network as a whole. Where: L FREQ is the
calculated to give a figure for the network as a whole. Where: L FREQ is the

Where:

LFREQ is the Frequency Load of a subcell

LFRACTION is the Fractional Load of a subcell

LHW is the Hardware Load of a subcell

NTRX is the number of hopping TRX on the subcell

NMA is the MA list length (i.e. all carriers assigned to hopping carrier layers on the subcell)

E is the traffic that could be carried by the timeslots of hopping TRX on the subcell, at

a user specified Grade of Service (GoS), i.e.

NCSTS is the total number of timeslots installed – this value is derived from the Carrier to Timeslot map using NTRX.

is derived from the Carrier to Timeslot map using N TRX . ASSET3g Technical Reference Guide

A PPENDIX

B

UMTS Algorithms

This chapter describes the following topics:

In This Section

Notation for UMTS List of Principal Symbols for UMTS UMTS Basic Formulae UMTS Uplink Noise Rise UMTS Uplink Load UMTS Frequency Re-Use Efficiency UMTS Air Interface and User Bitrates UMTS Shadow Fade Modelling UMTS Power Control Error Modelling UMTS Service Activity Modelling UMTS Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services (Web Model) UMTS Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling UMTS Terminal Speed Modelling UMTS Overview of a Snapshot UMTS Scenario Prioritisation UMTS Connection Evaluation UMTS Blocking Probability

Notation for UMTS

This list describes the notation symbols used in this section:

A Greek subscript always indexes a carrier

section: • A Greek subscript always indexes a carrier • indicates a sum over all carriers

indicates a sum over all carriers

An uppercase Roman subscript always indexes a cell

• An uppercase Roman subscript always indexes a cell • indicates a sum over all cells

indicates a sum over all cells

A lowercase Roman subscript always indexes a terminal

• A lowercase Roman subscript always indexes a terminal • indicates a sum over all terminals

indicates a sum over all terminals

• indicates a sum over all terminals in cell J indicate if a quantity is

indicates a sum over all terminals in cell J

indicate if a quantity is uplink or downlink• indicates a sum over all terminals in cell J • Up and down arrows •

Up and down arrows

All quantities are in standard SI units, never in dB

• All quantities are in standard SI units, never in dB As an example. The quantity

As an example. The quantity

between terminal j and cell K using carrier α.

represents the

terminal j and cell K using carrier α . represents the for the uplink List of

for the uplink

List of Principal Symbols for UMTS

This table describes the list of principal symbols for UMTS:

Symbol

Description

,
,

Uplink (downlink) adjacent carrier inteference ratio. Gives fractional power leakage from

carrier β to carrier α. (

)
)

Uplinkpower leakage from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing

power leakage from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink)

Downlinkpower leakage from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing

from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing gain

Pilotfrom carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Uplink (downlink) processing gain Cell

from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing gain

Uplink (downlink) processing gainfrom carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Cell antenna gain Terminal

Cell antenna gain( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing gain Terminal antenna gain Mast head amplifier gain

Terminal antenna gainPilot Uplink (downlink) processing gain Cell antenna gain Mast head amplifier gain Boltzmann constant Mast head

Mast head amplifier gainprocessing gain Cell antenna gain Terminal antenna gain Boltzmann constant Mast head amplifier (downlink) insertion

antenna gain Terminal antenna gain Mast head amplifier gain Boltzmann constant Mast head amplifier (downlink) insertion

Boltzmann constant

antenna gain Mast head amplifier gain Boltzmann constant Mast head amplifier (downlink) insertion loss Uplink

Mast head amplifier (downlink) insertion loss

Uplink (downlink) linkloss between cell and terminalconstant Mast head amplifier (downlink) insertion loss Pathloss between cell and terminal Antenna masking loss

Pathloss between cell and terminalloss Uplink (downlink) linkloss between cell and terminal Antenna masking loss Cable (feeder) loss Terminal body

Antenna masking lossbetween cell and terminal Pathloss between cell and terminal Cable (feeder) loss Terminal body loss Thermal

Cable (feeder) lossPathloss between cell and terminal Antenna masking loss Terminal body loss Thermal noise at terminal Thermal

Terminal body losscell and terminal Antenna masking loss Cable (feeder) loss Thermal noise at terminal Thermal noise at

Thermal noise at terminalAntenna masking loss Cable (feeder) loss Terminal body loss Thermal noise at cell Page 24 ASSET3g

Thermal noise at cell(feeder) loss Terminal body loss Thermal noise at terminal Page 24 ASSET3g Technical Reference Guide Version

Terminal TX power Cell pilot channel TX power Cell common channel TX power Cell synchronisation

Terminal TX power

Cell pilot channel TX powerTerminal TX power Cell common channel TX power Cell synchronisation channel TX power Downlink traffic channel

Cell common channel TX powerTerminal TX power Cell pilot channel TX power Cell synchronisation channel TX power Downlink traffic channel

Cell synchronisation channel TX powerCell pilot channel TX power Cell common channel TX power Downlink traffic channel TX power Total

Downlink traffic channel TX powerchannel TX power Cell synchronisation channel TX power Total output TX power of cell Total received

Total output TX power of cellchannel TX power Downlink traffic channel TX power Total received power at terminal Total received power

Total received power at terminaltraffic channel TX power Total output TX power of cell Total received power at cell Pilot

Total received power at celloutput TX power of cell Total received power at terminal Pilot SIR Temperature Chip rate Uplink

Pilot SIR

Pilot SIR

Temperature

Temperature

Chip rate

Chip rate

Uplink (downlink) service activity factorpower at cell Pilot SIR Temperature Chip rate Uplink (downlink) bearer control-overhead factor Cell

Uplink (downlink) bearer control-overhead factorChip rate Uplink (downlink) service activity factor Cell orthogonality factor Terminal noise figure Base

Cell orthogonality factor

Cell orthogonality factor

Terminal noise figure

Terminal noise figure

Base station noise figure

Base station noise figure

Mast head amplifier noise figure

Mast head amplifier noise figure

Cable (feeder) noise figure ( = )

Cable (feeder) noise figure ( =

)
)

UMTS Basic Formulae

The following formulae give the basic relations between link powers and noise. Handover gains, power control headroom, and power rise gain have been ignored.

control headroom, and power rise gain have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7)
control headroom, and power rise gain have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7)
control headroom, and power rise gain have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7)

(3)

headroom, and power rise gain have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
headroom, and power rise gain have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
headroom, and power rise gain have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
headroom, and power rise gain have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
headroom, and power rise gain have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

(1)

(2)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

rise gain have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)

(9)

gain have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) Page

(10)

have been ignored. (3) (1) (2) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) Page 26

(11)

UMTS Uplink Noise Rise

Uplink noise rise (on a cell) is the total received power divided by the background noise. The noise rise on carrier α of cell J is given by:

noise. The noise rise on carrier α of cell J is given by: (12) This is

(12)

This is expressed in dB in the Cell Uplink Report.

UMTS Uplink Load

Uplink load (on a cell) is the total received power coming from all terminals divided by the total received power. The cell load on carrier α of cell J is given by

power. The cell load on carrier α of cell J is given by (13) This is

(13)

This is expressed as a percentage in the Cell Uplink Report.

UMTS Frequency Re-Use Efficiency

Frequency re-use efficiency (on a cell) is the total received power coming from in-cell terminals divided by the total received power coming from all terminals. The frequency re-use efficiency on carrier α of cell J is given by

re-use efficiency on carrier α of cell J is given by (14) This is expressed as

(14)

This is expressed as a percentage in the Cell Uplink Report.

UMTS Air Interface and User Bitrates

For a UMTS network, the Air Interface Bitrate is used in the calculation of processing

,
,

gain. The processing gain ( the air interface bitrate.

The User Bitrate is used purely to calculate traffic (data throughput) on a cell.

) is calculated by dividing the system chiprate by

UMTS Shadow Fade Modelling

This section describes the shadow fade modelling that is used for UMTS.

Shadow fading is modelled in the simulator by applying random offsets to the pathlosses experienced by each of the terminals in a snapshot. Shadow fades are log- normally distributed, and you may specify the standard deviation of shadow fading for indoor and outdoor terminals in each clutter type. In reality, the fades between a terminal and the cells that cover it will exhibit a degree of correlation. In particular, a terminal is likely to have similar fades to cells that are located on the same site.

In order to model this in the simulator, you must specify two parameters in the Monte Carlo Wizard:

The normalised inter-site correlation coefficient (

). This is the correlation• The normalised inter-site correlation coefficient ( between fades from a terminal to cells on different

between fades from a terminal to cells on different sites.

The normalised intra-site correlation coefficient (

). This is the correlation• The normalised intra-site correlation coefficient ( between fades from a terminal to cells on the

between fades from a terminal to cells on the same site.

.
.

These two parameters must satisfy the constraints

For each terminal in a snapshot, a set of correlated fades to cells is generated using the following procedure.

Note : All the random numbers mentioned below are independent and normally distributed with zero mean and unit variance.

1 Generate a random number X

2 For each site I, generate a random number

2 For each site I, generate a random number

3 For each cell J, generate a random number

3 For each cell J, generate a random number

4 The fade (in dB) to cell J on site I is then set to:

4 The fade (in dB) to cell J on site I is then set to: (15)

(15)

where is the standard deviation of the shadow fading at the pixel (in dB).

The above procedure is performed whenever a terminal is initialised at the beginning of a snapshot. Fades for different terminals are uncorrelated, even if the terminals are located in the same pixel.

UMTS Power Control Error Modelling

This section describes the power control error modelling for a UMTS network.

The simulator does not explicitly model the power control process, but it allows the simulation results to exhibit certain features one would associate with imperfect power control.

The standard deviation of power control error parameter controls the distribution of achieved values for successfully served terminals. If the standard deviation is set to

zero, the value for each successfully served terminal is

(ignoring quantisation and any lower limit on the link power). In a real system this is not the case since imperfect power control produces a (log-normal) distribution of achieved values at a cell.

The simulator models imperfect power control by including a log-normal error on the uplink and downlink transmit powers of successfully served terminals. The errors on the uplink and downlink are uncorrelated, and are applied after all other handover gains and margins have been considered. Terminals are never considered as having failed to make a connection if the resulting error makes them transmit at too high or too low a power.

error makes them transmit at too high or too low a power. achieved perfectly UMTS Service

achieved perfectly

UMTS Service Activity Modelling

The UMTS service activity affects three areas of the simulation.

Consumption of Resources

A successfully served circuit switched service will consume the same number of

resources regardless of the service activity factor. The number of resources in this case depends only on the bearer used.

A successfully served packet switched service will consume a partial number of

resources depending on the service activity factor. For example, if a PS service is served using a bearer that requires 2 resources and the activity factor is 1%, then 0.02 resources will be consumed.

Calculation of Throughput

The throughput of a successfully served service is calculated by multiplying the data rate of the bearer used, by the service activity factor.

Calculation of Interference

Equations

total

P

J

α

=+

pilot

P

J

α

+

common

P

J

α

+

sync

P

J

α

+

j

(

α β

j

+

j

)

traffic

P

Jj

α

(9)

all have a dependence on or . (10) (11) UMTS Activity Factor Calculation For Packet
all have a dependence on or . (10) (11) UMTS Activity Factor Calculation For Packet

all have a dependence on

all have a dependence on or . (10) (11) UMTS Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services

or

.
.

(10)

(11)

UMTS Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services (Web Model)

Using the same notation as given in the WWW traffic model, the activity factor formula is:

in th e WWW traffic model, the activity factor formula is: Where: = Average packet time

Where:

= Average packet time period (s)

= Average packet time period (s)

= Size of a Packet (bytes)

= Size of a Packet (bytes)

= the Max Bit Rate the particular service supports (bit/s)

= Average session time period (s)

= Average session time period (s)

= Number of packet calls per session

= Number of packet calls per session

= Reading time between packet calls (s)

= Reading time between packet calls (s)

= Number of packets within a packet call

= Number of packets within a packet call

= Inter arrival time between packets in a packet call (s)

= Inter arrival time between packets in a packet call (s)

= Retransmission factor (%)

= Retransmission factor (%)

UMTS Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling

You can indicate if a cell has an antenna system providing transmit or receive diversity by ticking the appropriate check boxes in the Site Database. Transmit

(receive) diversity on a cell effectively reduces the

downlink (uplink). When defining a service, you must specify two requirements for the downlink (uplink). One requirement is used on cells with transmit (receive) diversity and the other is used on cells without transmit (receive) diversity.

is used on cells without transmit (receive) diversity. requirement on the UMTS Terminal Speed Modelling Handover

requirement on the

UMTS Terminal Speed Modelling

Handover gains are speed-dependent, and so each terminal in the simulation is given a random speed. For each terminal type and clutter type, you must specify four

parameters that determine the speed distribution. These are the mean speed (

the standard deviation of the speed distribution (

and the maximum speed (

of the speed distribution ( and the maximum speed ( ), ) ), the minimum speed

),

)
)
of the speed distribution ( and the maximum speed ( ), ) ), the minimum speed

), the minimum speed (

( and the maximum speed ( ), ) ), the minimum speed ( ). A random

). A random speed is then given by:

) ), the minimum speed ( ). A random speed is then given by: (16) where

(16)

where is a random number taken from a normal distribution of zero mean and unit variance.

UMTS Overview of a Snapshot

This section gives an overview of a UMTS snapshot:

The aim of a snapshot is to produce a plausible picture of the network at a particular instant in time. This picture will typically consist of a set of successfully served terminals and their states, that is the link powers and handover state, and a set of unserved terminals and their reasons for failure. Many snapshots must be performed and the results from them averaged in order to produce an overall picture of network behaviour. A snapshot involves the stages outlined in the following diagram:

Initialisation of Terminals

Initialisation of Terminals

Initialisation of Terminals
Initialisation of Terminals
in the following diagram: Initialisation of Terminals Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage Perform
Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage

Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage

Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage
Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage
Terminals Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage Perform Iterations Until Convergence Achieved Gathering of
Perform Iterations Until Convergence Achieved

Perform Iterations Until Convergence Achieved

Perform Iterations Until Convergence Achieved
Perform Iterations Until Convergence Achieved
Resource Usage Perform Iterations Until Convergence Achieved Gathering of Results UMTS Initialisation of Terminals The

Gathering of Results

UMTS Initialisation of Terminals

The first stage of a snapshot involves creating a geographical distribution of terminals attempting to connect to the network. Each pixel is allocated a random, Poisson- distributed, number of terminals, according to the mean number of terminals specified for the pixel in the terminal-density array. Also during this initialisation stage, each terminal is given a set of random log-normal fades, one for each cell that covers it, that is it has a pathloss to it. A random “power control error” is chosen for the uplink and downlink. A terminal will use the same random values (fading, power control error, speed) for the duration of its existence in a snapshot.

After all the terminals have been created, they are given a random ordering which sets the sequence in which they will be considered during an iteration.

Initialisation of System Powers and Resource Usage in UMTS

Before commencing the iterative process, the system is placed in a known state, namely the state of an unloaded network. This is simply done by setting all link powers to zero, and making all resources available at the cells.

UMTS Iterations

An iteration involves sequentially evaluating the terminals (precisely once) to see if they can make a connection to the network. After each terminal is evaluated, the noise

in the network (at cells and terminals) is updated before moving on to evaluate the

next terminal.

A terminal may connect to the network in a variety of different ways (connection

scenarios). For example a terminal may have several different cells or carriers that it

may use. Each of the connection scenarios for a terminal is evaluated in turn until one that allows a successful connection is found. If no scenario can produce a successful connection to the network, the link powers for the terminal are set to zero, and the reasons for failure of the first scenario are recorded.

Terminals which fail to make a connection in an iteration are not removed from the

simulation, since success or failure in an iteration does not necessarily ensure the same result in a subsequent iteration. In fact, the state (succeeded/failed) of a terminal

is determined purely by its state in the final iteration of a snapshot when convergence

has been achieved.

The following diagram illustrates how a snapshot converges with successive iterations. Each histogram shows the distribution of achieved uplink values for successfully served terminals. All terminals are running a service with an uplink requirement of 6 dB.

End of End of Iteration 1 Iteration 3 <4 5 6 Eb/No <4 5 6
End of
End of
Iteration 1
Iteration 3
<4
5
6
Eb/No
<4
5
6
Eb/No

End of

Iteration 5

<4 5 6 Eb/No
<4
5
6
Eb/No
End of Iteration 7 <4 5 6 Eb/No
End of
Iteration 7
<4
5
6
Eb/No

After the first iteration, the majority of “served” terminals fail to meet their requirement. This is because terminals evaluated at the beginning of the first iteration see little or no interference and so have their TX powers set to low values. By the end

of the first iteration, the noise in the system will have increased due to interference

from the newly served terminals. Hence terminals evaluated at the beginning of the first iteration will no longer attain their desired by the end of the first iteration. In fact,

only the last terminal served is guaranteed to achieve its desired.

Successive iterations produce increasingly accurate pictures of network noise, and a larger proportion of the terminals meet their requirement. By the seventh iteration in the example above, practically all the served terminals meet their requirement, and the system noise no longer changes significantly between iterations. The iterations have converged to produce a plausible picture of served and failed terminals in the network. Any remaining distribution in the achieved values of served terminals is largely due to quantisation of link powers, or from specifying a non-zero power control error standard deviation.

Convergence Criteria for UMTS

A good practical measure of convergence is to examine how the total uplink

interference from terminals (summed over all cells) changes between iterations. This

is

considerably faster than measuring the distribution of achieved values.

If

the percentage change in total uplink interference changes by an amount smaller

than the threshold that you have specified then the iterations are deemed to have converged. The default threshold is a 1% change in the interference between iterations. You also sets the maximum number of iterations that may be performed in any one snapshot (default = 10).

Gathering of Results in UMTS

The final stage of a snapshot involves gathering results from the current snapshot and combining them with the results from previous snapshots, so that average values for the geographic output arrays and Excel reports may be calculated. The information gathered includes cell information such as resource and power usage, information about the states of successfully served terminals, and the reasons for failure of terminals which failed to be served.

UMTS Scenario Prioritisation

A UMTS Connection Scenario consists of the following pieces of information.

Carrier

Carrier load status (overloaded/underloaded). If any covering cell uses the above carrier and exceeds its “load balance threshold”, then the carrier load status is set to overloaded. Otherwise the carrier load status is set to underloaded.

Primary cell

carrier load status is set to underloaded. • Primary cell • of primary cell • UL

of primary cell

UL bearer

DL bearer

The rules for prioritising scenarios during connection evaluation are (in order of decreasing importance):

Underloaded (before overloaded) carriers

Higher (before lower) priority carriers (with respect to service)

(before lower) priority carriers (with respect to service) • Higher (before lower) • Higher (before lower)

Higher (before lower)

Higher (before lower) priority DL bearers (with respect to service-carrier)

Higher (before lower) priority UL bearers (with respect to service-carrier)

UMTS Connection Evaluation

There are three stages to evaluating a UMTS connection scenario to see if a terminal may be served.

Production of a candidate active set for the terminal

Uplink evaluation

Downlink evaluation

Production of a Candidate Active Set in UMTS

In order for a cell to be in the candidate active set of a terminal, it must have an

adequate number of primary or handover resources available, and the pilot SIR for the cell must also be of an acceptable level. It is necessary to produce a candidate active set before the uplink and downlink can be evaluated. A candidate active set is produced by the following steps:

A candidate active set is produced by the following steps: Check primary resource availability & pilot
Check primary resource availability & pilot SIR level for candidate primary cell.

Check primary resource availability & pilot SIR level for candidate primary cell.

Check primary resource availability & pilot SIR level for candidate primary cell.
Check primary resource availability & pilot SIR level for candidate primary cell.
& pilot SIR level for candidate primary cell. Check handover resource availability & pilot candidate

Check handover resource availability & pilot candidate handover cells.

Check handover resource availability & pilot candidate handover cells. E I c o levels for

E I

c

o

levels for

or

The connection scenario being examined sets the candidate primary cell. This cell is checked to see if it has a sufficient number of primary resources available, and to see if it provides an adequate pilot SIR level at the terminal. If these conditions are met, the cell is flagged as the primary cell of the candidate active set.

The remaining covering cells are evaluated to see if they can be handover cells. Cells with a low downlink linkloss are checked before cells with a higher downlink linkloss. A handover cell must have a sufficient number of handover resources available, and provide an level that is within the handover margin of the level of the primary cell. Each cell that satisfies these requirements is flagged as a handover cell of the candidate active set unless the active set size limit specified by the primary cell has been reached.

Uplink Evaluation for UMTS

This is the process of determining the terminal transmit power required to meet the uplink requirement. It is necessary to consider several effects here, such as handover gains, power control headroom, and noise rise limits on cells. The uplink evaluation carries out the following procedure:

Calculate required terminal power to meet cell in candidate active set.

Calculate required terminal power to meet cell in candidate active set. E N b

E N

b

o

for each

cell in candidate active set. E N b o for each Temporarily set terminal power to

Temporarily set terminal power to the lowest possible power

that will achieve a satisfactory

the lowest possible power that will achieve a satisfactory E N b o value. Calculate difference

E N

b

o

value.

power that will achieve a satisfactory E N b o value. Calculate difference between two best

Calculate difference between two best

E N b o value. Calculate difference between two best E N b o values achieved

E N

b

o

values achieved

on cells in the candidate active set.

N b o values achieved on cells in the candidate active set. Calculate handover gains, power
Calculate handover gains, power rise, and power control headroom.

Calculate handover gains, power rise, and power control headroom.

Calculate handover gains, power rise, and power control headroom.
Calculate handover gains, power rise, and power control headroom.
handover gains, power rise, and power control headroom. See if terminal has sufficient power to make
See if terminal has sufficient power to make link.

See if terminal has sufficient power to make link.

See if terminal has sufficient power to make link.
See if terminal has sufficient power to make link.
headroom. See if terminal has sufficient power to make link. Check terminal power does not br
Check terminal power does not br eak noise rise limit on any cells.

Check terminal power does not break noise rise limit on any cells.

Check terminal power does not br eak noise rise limit on any cells.
Check terminal power does not br eak noise rise limit on any cells.
power does not br eak noise rise limit on any cells. Apply log-normal error to uplink

Apply log-normal error to uplink power, ensuring that all cell noise-rise and terminal power limits are not broken.

For each cell in the candidate active set, the terminal transmit power required to meet the uplink is calculated. This lowest of these values is then quantised according to the quantisation level specified for the terminal. We call the resulting power. The terminal transmit power is temporarily set to, and the two best values on cells in the candidate active set are calculated. The difference between these two values (in dB), together with the terminal speed, allows the following quantities to be determined from the tables that you supply in the Services dialog box

Terminal Power Reduction

Terminal Power Reduction The terminal power reduction ( transmit power of the terminal. It is eq

The terminal power reduction (

transmit power of the terminal. It is equivalent to a reduction in the uplink

requirement.

) is a gain that reduces the required

Average Power Rise

The Average Power Rise (

control can compensate for fading in a channel and keep the received power (from a terminal) fairly constant in the cell providing the power control. However this compensation for fades causes peaks in the terminal transmission power. This results in a rise in the average interference experienced in other cells. This is modelled in the simulator by adding an average transmit power rise to the terminal transmit power when calculating the uplink interference caused in other cells. When calculating the interference a terminal causes to its own cell, the average power rise is not added.

P power rise

) effect is due to fast power control. Fast power

Power Control Headroom

The Power Control Headroom (

overhead on the transmit power a terminal requires to make the uplink. It is a function of terminal speed, and the overhead is largest for slow moving terminals.

The overhead ensures that the uplink power control is able to compensate for deep fades at a cell border.

H pch

) is also called shadow fade margin. This is an

Soft Handover Gain against Average Power Rise

The Soft Handover Gain against Average Power Rise (

power rise for soft handover cells. For non-handover cells,

G power rise

) reduces the average

= 1.

G power rise

Soft Handover Gain against Power Control Headroom

The Soft Handover Gain against Power Control Headroom ( control headroom when a terminal is in soft handover.

After all the above quantities have been calculated, the terminal is checked to see if it has sufficient power to make the uplink. The actual transmit power of the terminal

) reduces the power

G pch

(
(

) is given by

of the terminal ) reduces the power G pch ( ) is given by (17) The

(17)

The uplink

) reduces the power G pch ( ) is given by (17) The uplink requirement can

requirement can be satisfied if

is given by (17) The uplink requirement can be satisfied if (18) where is the maximum

(18)

where

(17) The uplink requirement can be satisfied if (18) where is the maximum possible tran smit

is the maximum possible transmit power of the terminal.

The terminal is also checked to see if it will break the noise rise limit on any of the

covering cells. When calculating the interference, the terminal power is taken as When calculating the interference produced on other cells, the terminal power is

taken as

.
.
produced on other cells, the terminal power is taken as . . If the terminal cannot

. If the terminal cannot meet the uplink

power is taken as . . If the terminal cannot meet the uplink requirement without breaking

requirement without breaking a noise rise limit, then the terminal fails to be

is finally given a random (log-breaking a noise rise limit, then the terminal fails to be served. If the uplink can

served. If the uplink can be successfully achieved,

normal) adjustment to model the effect of imperfect power control.

Downlink Evaluation for UMTS

This is the process of determining the cell transmit powers required to meet the downlink requirement at the terminal. It is necessary to consider the effect of maximal ratio combining when there are multiple links. The downlink evaluation carries out the following procedure.

Iterate

until

Eb/No

achieved

or not

changing

between

iterations

Calculate difference between two best

Calculate difference between two best E I

E I

 

values from

c

cells in the candidate active set.

o

o
o

Read downlink

E N

b

target reduction.

set. o o Read downlink E N b target reduction. Calculate the lowest cell TX power

Calculate the lowest cell TX power ( T ) that will achieve a

satisfactory

Calculate the lowest cell TX power ( T ) that will achieve a satisfactory E N

E N

b

o

value.

) that will achieve a satisfactory E N b o value. Set TX powers for cells
Set TX powers for cells in candidate active set to T .

Set TX powers for cells in candidate active set to T .

Set TX powers for cells in candidate active set to T .
Set TX powers for cells in candidate active set to T .
Set TX powers for cells in candidate active set to T . Calculate total achieved E
Set TX powers for cells in candidate active set to T . Calculate total achieved E

Calculate total achieved

Calculate total achieved E N b o at terminal assuming maximal ratio combining of links.

E N

b

o

at terminal assuming maximal

ratio combining of links.

o at terminal assuming maximal ratio combining of links. Increase/Decrease T if total achieved too low/high.

Increase/Decrease T if total achieved

too low/high.

Increase/Decrease T if total achieved too low/high. E N b o at terminal is

E N

b

o

at terminal is

ratio combining of links. Increase/Decrease T if total achieved too low/high. E N b o at

Apply log-normal error to all downlink powers, ensuring that all downlink power limits and cell power limits are not broken.

all downlink power limits and cell power limits are not broken. Page 38 ASSET3g Technical Reference
all downlink power limits and cell power limits are not broken. Page 38 ASSET3g Technical Reference

The difference between the two best values of cells in the candidate active set is calculated. This figure, together with the terminal speed, determines the downlink target reduction in soft handover. This is found by linear interpolation of the values that you supply in the Services dialog box.

The downlink powers for cells in the candidate active set are calculated iteratively. The iterative procedure involves setting all downlink powers to the same (non-zero) value . The total achieved is then calculated by summing the values for individual downlinks. If the total achieved is too low (high) by a factor of , then is increased (decreased) by a factor of . This process continues until ceases to change between iterations, or the downlink requirement is achieved.

Note : Individual downlink powers are kept within the limits that you supply throughout the iterative procedure outlined above, so cells will never be allowed to transmit more power than they have available.

If the downlink requirement can not be achieved, then the terminal fails to be served, and all downlink powers are set to zero.

UMTS Blocking Probability

This section describes the following:

Calculation of Blocking Probability in the Blocking Report

Blocking Probability and Failure Rate

Coverage Probability Array in the Map View Window

Calculation of Blocking Probability in the Blocking Report for UMTS

The blocking probabilities for cells (shown in the blocking report) cannot be found by simply averaging the blocking probabilities at pixels in the Map View window for the following reasons:

Pixels with high traffic should have more influence on cell blocking probability than pixels with low traffic.

Pixels in coverage holes should not influence cell blocking probability, even if they contain high traffic.

A service may use some bearers more frequently than others. Frequently used bearers should have more influence on the blocking probability than infrequently used bearers.

Several cells may serve the traffic at a pixel.

A measure of blocking probability that is sensibly weighted is needed with respect to

these factors. Such a measure can be found by selective passive-scanning at the end of

a snapshot. This is different to the usual (global) passive-scanning that the user selects

in the simulation wizard. Global passive-scanning tests all pixels and allows all

scenarios to be evaluated, whereas selective passive-scanning only tests a subset of pixels and scenarios at the end of each snapshot. To determine which pixels and scenarios to check, the successfully served terminals are taken from the previous snapshot and used to check for blocking at the end of the current snapshot. Each

terminal is placed at the location it had in the previous snapshot, and checked to see if

it can connect to the cell that previously served it, using the previous UL and DL

bearer. This automatically ensures that the cell blocking probability is correctly

weighted, since the most likely terminal locations and connection scenarios are checked.

Blocking Probability and Failure Rate for UMTS

The blocking probability measured in the tool is more similar to a Lost Call Held blocking probability than a Lost Call Cleared (Erlang-B) blocking probability. This is a consequence of the way the simulator works. The simulator simply tries to serve as much of the offered traffic as possible. The following formulae show how these probabilities are related in a simple situation.

Note : These formulae are not used to explicitly calculate blocking probabilities in the tool, since the probabilities in the tool are all found by sampling snapshots.

in the tool are all found by sampling snapshots. . Take a system with fixed capacity
.
.

Take a system with fixed capacity

second and mean holding time

, and Poisson traffic with arrival rate

users per

seconds. The mean offered traffic is

arrival rate users per seconds. The mean offered traffic is ( 1 9 ) The probability

(19)

The probability that exactly C users are offered.

( 1 9 ) The probability that exactly C users are offered. (20) The probability that

(20)

The probability that more than C users are offered.

(20) The probability that more than C users are offered. (21) The probability that less than

(21)

The probability that less than C users are offered.

Lost Call Cleared: In an LCC system, blocked users do not try again.

Cleared: In an LCC system, blocked users do not try again. (22) Lost Call Held: In

(22)

Lost Call Held: In an LCH system, blocked users persistently retry until connected.

system, blocked users persistently retry until connected. (23) It to Note : The “Failure Rate” (

(23)

blocked users persistently retry until connected. (23) It to Note : The “Failure Rate” ( terminals

It

to

Note : The “Failure Rate” ( terminals that fail.

is easy to show that

each other for low blocking probabilities.

easy to show that each other for low blocking probabilities. . The two probabilities are most

. The two probabilities are most similar

) in the failure report is the proportion of offered

(24) This is NOT a blocking probability and it sh ould never be treated as

(24)

This is NOT a blocking probability and it should never be treated as one. The failure rate can be an order of magnitude lower than both the LCC and LCH blocking probabilities.

UMTS Coverage Probability Array in the Map View

The meaning of “coverage probability” shown in the Map View is dependent on whether the (global) passive-scan terminal is being used to test every pixel at the end of a snapshot.

When running a simulation with passive-scan disabled, the coverage probability in

the Map View is determined by the connection attempts made by the randomly scattered terminals. It gives the proportion of offered terminals at the pixel that were successfully served. This is not related to the blocking probability at the pixel. In fact

it is more like the complement of the “failure rate” given in the reports. For example,

a cell with a coverage probability of 20% at most pixels would give a failure rate of

about 80% in the report.

When running a simulation with passive-scan enabled, the coverage probability at each pixel in the Map View is determined largely by the connection attempts of passive-scan terminals at the end of the snapshot. In this case, the coverage probability is simply the complement of the blocking probability at the pixel that is, the two probabilities sum to 1.

To summarise, if want to see blocking (and its causes) in the Map View, then the passive-scan should be enabled. If you would only like to view the reports, then the passive-scan terminal may be disabled.

Note : The blocking probability report is always calculated using the selective passive- scanning technique, which is totally independent of the global passive-scanning used for the Map View.

A PPENDIX

C

CDMA2000 Algorithms

This chapter describes the following topics:

In This Section

CDMA2000 Notation List of Principal Symbols for CDMA2000 CDMA2000 Basic Formulae CDMA2000 Uplink Noise Rise CDMA2000 Uplink Load CDMA2000 Frequency Re-Use Efficiency CDMA2000 Air Interface and User Bitrates CDMA2000 Shadow Fade Modelling CDMA2000 Power Control Error Modelling CDMA2000 Service Activity Modelling CDMA2000 Activity Factor Calculation For Packet Services (Web Model) CDMA2000 Transmit/Receive Diversity Modelling CDMA2000 Terminal Speed Modelling PN Code Assignment Algorithm for CDMA2000 CDMA2000 Overview of a Snapshot CDMA2000 Scenario Prioritisation CDMA2000 Connection Evaluation Calculation of Equivalent Control Overhead Factors for CDMA2000 CDMA2000 Blocking Probability

CDMA2000 Notation

This list describes the notation symbols used in this section:

A Greek subscript always indexes a carrier.

indicates a sum over all carriers.section: • A Greek subscript always indexes a carrier. • An uppercase Roman subscript always indexes

An uppercase Roman subscript always indexes a sector.

indicates a sum over all sectors• An uppercase Roman subscript always indexes a sector. . • A lowercase Roman subscript always

.
.

A lowercase Roman subscript always indexes a terminal.

indicates a sum over all terminals.

indicates a sum over all terminals.

indicates a sum over all terminals in sector J.

indicates a sum over all terminals in sector J.

indicate if a quantity is uplink or downlink.indicates a sum over all terminals in sector J. • Up and down arrows • All

Up and down arrows

All quantities are in standard SI units, never in dB.

• All quantities are in standard SI units, never in dB. As an example. The quantity

As an example. The quantity

between terminal j and sector K using carrier α.

represents the

terminal j and sector K using carrier α . represents the for the uplink List of

for the uplink

List of Principal Symbols for CDMA2000

The following table describes the list of principal symbols for CDMA2000:

Symbol

Description

,
,

Uplink (downlink) adjacent carrier interference ratio. Gives fractional power leakage from

carrier β to carrier α. (

)
)

Uplinkpower leakage from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing

power leakage from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink)

Downlinkpower leakage from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing

from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing gain

Pilotfrom carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Uplink (downlink) processing gain Sector

from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing gain
from carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing gain

Uplink (downlink) processing gainfrom carrier β to carrier α . ( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Sector antenna gain Terminal

Sector antenna gain( ) Uplink Downlink Pilot Uplink (downlink) processing gain Terminal antenna gain Mast head amplifier gain

Terminal antenna gainPilot Uplink (downlink) processing gain Sector antenna gain Mast head amplifier gain Boltzmann constant Page 44

processing gain Sector antenna gain Terminal antenna gain Mast head amplifier gain Boltzmann constant Page 44

Mast head amplifier gain

antenna gain Terminal antenna gain Mast head amplifier gain Boltzmann constant Page 44 ASSET3g Technical Reference

Boltzmann constant

Mast head amplifier (downlink) insertion loss Uplink (downlink) linkloss between sector and terminal Pathloss between

Mast head amplifier (downlink) insertion loss

Mast head amplifier (downlink) insertion loss Uplink (downlink) linkloss between sector and terminal Pathloss between

Uplink (downlink) linkloss between sector and terminalMast head amplifier (downlink) insertion loss Pathloss between sector and terminal Antenna masking loss Cable

Pathloss between sector and terminal

Pathloss between sector and terminal

Antenna masking loss

Antenna masking loss

Cable (feeder) loss

Cable (feeder) loss

TX combiner loss (downlink)

TX combiner loss (downlink)

RX splitter loss (uplink)

RX splitter loss (uplink)

Terminal body loss

Terminal body loss

Thermal noise at terminal

Thermal noise at terminal

Thermal noise at sector

Thermal noise at sector

Excess noise at sector

Excess noise at sector

Terminal TX power

Terminal TX power

Downlink broadcast channel TX powerat sector Excess noise at sector Terminal TX power Downlink common-assignment channel TX power Downlink

Downlink common-assignment channel TX powerTerminal TX power Downlink broadcast channel TX power Downlink common-control channel TX power Downlink

Downlink common-control channel TX powerchannel TX power Downlink common-assignment channel TX power Downlink common-power-control channel TX power Downlink

Downlink common-power-control channel TX powerchannel TX power Downlink common-control channel TX power Downlink dedicated-control channel TX power Sector pilot

Downlink dedicated-control channel TX powerTX power Downlink common-power-control channel TX power Sector pilot channel TX power Sector paging channel TX

Sector pilot channel TX powerchannel TX power Downlink dedicated-control channel TX power Sector paging channel TX power (summed over all

Sector paging channel TX power (summed over all paging channels)channel TX power Sector pilot channel TX power Downlink quick-paging channel TX power Sector

Downlink quick-paging channel TX powerpaging channel TX power (summed over all paging channels) Sector synchronisation channel TX power Downlink traffic

Sector synchronisation channel TX power

Sector synchronisation channel TX power

Downlink traffic channel TX power

Downlink traffic channel TX power

Total output TX power of sector

Total output TX power of sector

Total received power at terminal

Total received power at terminal

Total received power at sector

Total received power at sector

Temperature

Temperature

Chip rate

Chip rate

,
,

Uplink (downlink) service activity factor,  

 
,
,

Uplink (downlink) bearer control-overhead factor,

Terminal noise figure

Terminal noise figure

Base station noise figure

Base station noise figure

Mast head amplifier noise figure  

Mast head amplifier noise figure