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THE ROLE SCOSITY OF IN LUBRICATION PROCEEDINGS OF AN ASME SYMPOSIUM HELD MARCH 10-11, 1958
THE ROLE SCOSITY OF IN LUBRICATION PROCEEDINGS OF AN ASME SYMPOSIUM HELD MARCH 10-11, 1958
THE ROLE SCOSITY OF IN LUBRICATION PROCEEDINGS OF AN ASME SYMPOSIUM HELD MARCH 10-11, 1958
THE ROLE SCOSITY OF IN LUBRICATION PROCEEDINGS OF AN ASME SYMPOSIUM HELD MARCH 10-11, 1958
THE ROLE SCOSITY OF IN LUBRICATION PROCEEDINGS OF AN ASME SYMPOSIUM HELD MARCH 10-11, 1958
THE ROLE SCOSITY OF IN LUBRICATION PROCEEDINGS OF AN ASME SYMPOSIUM HELD MARCH 10-11, 1958
THE ROLE SCOSITY OF IN LUBRICATION PROCEEDINGS OF AN ASME SYMPOSIUM HELD MARCH 10-11, 1958

THE ROLE SCOSITY

THE ROLE SCOSITY OF IN LUBRICATION PROCEEDINGS OF AN ASME SYMPOSIUM HELD MARCH 10-11, 1958 SPONSORED

OF

IN

THE ROLE SCOSITY OF IN LUBRICATION PROCEEDINGS OF AN ASME SYMPOSIUM HELD MARCH 10-11, 1958 SPONSORED

LUBRICATION

PROCEEDINGS OF AN ASME SYMPOSIUM HELD MARCH 10-11, 1958

SPONSORED BY THE LUBRICATION DIVISION OF THE AMERICAN

50CIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS

THE 29
THE
29
OF THE AMERICAN 50CIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS THE 29 AMERICAN 39th WEST EDITED BY OSCAR C.

AMERICAN

39th

WEST

50CIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS THE 29 AMERICAN 39th WEST EDITED BY OSCAR C. BRIDGEMAN PHILLIPS PETROLEUM

EDITED BY OSCAR C. BRIDGEMAN PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY BARTLESVILL E, OKLAHOMA

SOCIETY

STREET,

OF

MECHANICAL

PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY BARTLESVILL E, OKLAHOMA SOCIETY STREET, OF MECHANICAL NEW YORK 18, ENGINEERS NEW YORK

NEW

YORK

18,

ENGINEERS

NEW

YORK

  CONTENTS   I. l ntroductory Remarks VISCOSITY CHARRCTERISTICS' OF Effect of Temperature on
 

CONTENTS

 

I.

lntroductory Remarks

VISCOSITY

I. l ntroductory Remarks VISCOSITY CHARRCTERISTICS' OF Effect of Temperature on Viscosity

CHARRCTERISTICS' OF

Effect of Temperature on Viscosity

 

3

LUBRICANTS

 

H.

H. Zuidema

Effect of Pressure on Viscosity

 
 

E.

M. Barber

XI.

Effect of Rate of Shear on Viscosity Alan Beerbower

SENSITIVITY

XI. Effect of Rate of Shear on Viscosity Alan Beerbower SENSITIVITY OPERATING Introductory Remarks TO "ISCOSIITY

OPERATING

Introductory Remarks

TO "ISCOSIITY

 

Paul C. Warner

CONDITIONS

UNDER

24

The Sensitivity of Equipment to Variation in Lubricant Viscosity

25

 

R.

C. Garretson and J. Boyd

C. Garretson and J. Boyd

Sensitivity of Machines to Lubricant Viscosity Charles A. Bailey

 

33

Lubrication of Roll Neck Bearings and Gear Drives in Continuous Rolling Mills J. H. Hitchcock

Lubrication of Roll Neck Bearings and Gear Drives in Continuous Rolling Mills J. H. Hitchcock

Effect of Viscosity on Hydraulic Systems

 
 

K.

G. Henrikson

III.

DESIGN

CRITERZA

FOR

SELECTING

VISCOSITY

Viscosity and Related Problems in Engine Design

 

53

 

W.

M. Kauffmann

Selecting Lubricant Viscosity for Design of Helical and Worm Gears

Selecting Lubricant Viscosity for Design of Helical and Worm Gears

61

 

F.

A. Thoma

Viscosity in the Lubrication Mechanisms of Rolling- Element 8earings

 

64

 

L.

B. Sibley and J. C. Bell

IV.

RESEARCH

CO~RIBUTIONSTO

APPLIED

LUBRICRTION

Gear Lubrication and Viscosity

IV. RESEARCH CO~RIBUTIONSTO APPLIED LUBRICRTION Gear Lubrication and Viscosity
 

E.

E. Shipley

Recent Research and Development Work in Rolling Bearings H. Hanau

The Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Viscosity as

85

Related to Hydrodynamic Lubrication E. Saibel

105

Author Index

Author Index

 

108

Copyright 1960 by The Amerlcan Society of Mechanical Engineers Printed In the United States of America

1 0 8 Copyright 1960 by The Amerlcan Society of Mechanical Engineers Printed In the United
.-- --- -.-
.-- --- -.-

C.

.-- --- -.- C. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS By Oscar C. Bridgeman, Phillips Petroleum Co. Ihe tour Technical
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

By Oscar C. Bridgeman, Phillips Petroleum Co.

Ihe tour Technical Committees of the ASME Lubrication Division are the Lubric- ants Technical Committee, Builders & Oper- ators Technic] a1 Committee, Design Technical Comnit ;tee and Research Technical Committee. These cornmitI tees organized and presented LIIC ~yrnpuslmon the Role of Viscosity in Lubrication at the Socony hlobil Oil Company Training Center, New York, N.Y., on March

10

ered both theory and practical applications

and 11, -1958. The papers presented cov-

the corrections for the hydrodynamic dist- urbances. Instead, most viscosity values are relative to the viscosity of some work- ing standard, and the generally accepted standard is the value for water at 68OF and normal atmospheric pressure. Thus water is used to calibrate a suitable viscometer, i which is then used for measurement of a higher viscosity fluid. In turn, this latt-

f er fluid is usedto calibrate another vis- cometer, and so on up the scale. While this procedure does not eliminate corrections for hydrodynamic disturbances, it tends to make the magnitude of these corrections smaller. On the other hand, the errors are cumulative through this step-wise procedure and hence there may be considerable lack of precision in high viscosity values. One other point should be mentioned in connection with the viscosity of water. For years, the accepted value was 1.007 centi- stokes at 68OF. About two years ago, this value was changed to 1.0038 cs at 68OF, to bring it into accord with the measurements of the National Bureau of Standards. Thus, in terms of the new working standard, all viscosity values are now about 0.3% lower for the same identica1,fluids.This change may not be of much consequence in many app- lications, but it is important to keep it in mind when comparing literature values for pure liquids. Insofar as viscosity is confined to inf- initely low shear rates, it can be consid- ered as a property of the given fluid, as long as there is no change in composition of the fluid. In other words, if the symbol p is used to designate viscosity, this means that dp is a perfect differential, with all that this connotes. One important consequence is that the rate of change of the temperature coefficient with pressure must equal the rate of change of the press- ure coefficient with temperature. Whether viscosity can continue to be considered a property of the fluid as shear rates incr- eqse is possibly a metaphysical question. From one standpoint, the answer to this question involves such matters as whether Newton's law holds at these higher shear

.

*I.-

of this subject and were followed by an active discussion. The presentations and

revised and sub-

discu ssions were later

mitte d for publication early in 1960. It is appropriate to include in this -n+-"duction a brief statement about vis- cosit y per se -- what it is and what it means I.Viscosity of a fluid is defined lurlllsrlly as the shearing stress divided by the r ate of shear. Further, Newton's law state s that this ratio is constant, or in

&

ULV1

r--

-

state s that this ratio is constant, or in & ULV1 r-- - *her C '\
*her C '\
*her
C
'\

-_- words that the viscosity is indep-

bnt of the rate of shear. Liquids obey-

ing this law are frequently called Newt- onian fluids. Measurement of viscosity therefore req- uires means for evaluating shearing stress and rate of shear, or their equivalents. Many methods are available, such as use of

a capillary tube, a rotational viscometer,

a

falling or rolling ball viscometer, and Qh nn. It will be found generally that it is ne cessary to apply corrections to the obser ved results in order to account for extra neous hydrodynamic disturbances. In IIJCUJ~ such cases, there is lack of general agreement on the precise validity of these corrections, and sometimes it almost app- ears 1 that Newton's law is being accepted by definj ition, as a basis for the corrections. Furth er, in many cases, the magnitude of cne correctj.ons changes with rate of shear, making it possible to extrapolate back to an infinitely low rate of shear. Most of the available data on viscosity of fluids es to very low shear rates. is rare in practice to make viscosity cements directly in terms of the prim- ,, variables, due to the uncertainties in

viscosity cements directly in terms of the prim- ,, variables, due to the uncertainties in --

--

-.a

*,." ,. L1-
*,."
,.
L1-

\

1

rates, and whether adequate account has been taken of hydrodynamic disturbances. Certainly, there are some
rates, and whether adequate account has
been taken of hydrodynamic disturbances.
Certainly, there are some fluids which show
a temporary drop in viscosity to an extent
depadent upon the shear rate. Also, at
very high rates of shear, it seems probable
that many non-polymer liquids depart from
Newton's law due to changes in molecular
orientation. A related phenomenon is the
measureable relaxation time, namely the
time for a liquid to return to its no~mal
molecular orientation a£ter being subjected
to a high rate of pressure application.
Classical hydrodynamics deals with ram-
inar flow, namely up to Reynolds numbers of
about 2000. In this regime, pressure drop
is proportiorlal to the first power of the
viscosity. At Reynolds numbers above about
4000, turbulent flow exists, and under
these conditions the pressure drop is ess-
entially proportional to the one-quarter
power of the viscosity. In the intermediate
range from 2000 to 4000 Reynolds number,
the effect of viscosity varies in unknown
manner from the 1st to the % power.
In conclusion,
viscosity
is
a very com-
plex characteristic of a fluid. As used in
hydrodynamic studies, it is a value at -9
appropriate temperature and pressure, r.,-.
ative to a fixed value for water, but app-
licable to a low rate of shear. The extent
to which this value is applicable to high
rates of shear may be uncertain. Definitely
it is apparent that design trends towards
higher temperatures, pressures, and Reyn-
olds numbers, are forcing attention to the
increasing importance of viscosity effects.
Trends in new types of lubricants are also
complicating the picture. Hence, it seems
evident that we may be out-running our
knowledge on viscosity both in theory and
in service application.
In years past each of the four Technical
Committees mentioned above normally held
individual meetings covering that subject
matter in which each was interested. On
this occasion all four groups met consec-
utively to discuss the broad subject of
viscosity in lubrication from their resp-
ective viewpoints. This resulted in the
Symposium which follows, and it is hoped
that this will be another step towards adv-
ancing our technical progress, which is the
goal of the ASME Lubrication Division.
. -
  SESSION CHAIRMAN - A.R.Black, Shell Oil Co. Chairman, Lubricants Technical Committee VISCOSITY
  SESSION CHAIRMAN - A.R.Black, Shell Oil Co. Chairman, Lubricants Technical Committee VISCOSITY
 

SESSION CHAIRMAN - A.R.Black, Shell Oil Co. Chairman, Lubricants Technical Committee

VISCOSITY

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

ZUBRICANTS

ZUBRICANTS

EFFECT

OF

TEMPERATURE

ON

VISCOSITY

 

H. H. Zuidema, Shell Oil Co.

 

EFFECT

OF

PRESSURE

ON

VISCOSITY

 

E. M. Barber, The Texas Co.

 

EFFECT

OF

RATE

OF

SHEAR

ON

VISCOSITY

Alan Beerbower, Esso Research & Engineering Co

Texas Co.   EFFECT OF RATE OF SHEAR ON VISCOSITY Alan Beerbower, Esso Research & Engineering
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON vIscasIn "--* 3 By 11. H. Zuidema, Shell Oil Co. Viscosity
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON vIscasIn
"--*
3
By 11. H. Zuidema,
Shell Oil Co.
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance
of a fluid to flow. \#en the temperature of
a liquid is changed, the distance between
molecules changes, and this in turn affects
the viscosity. Liquids with low coeffic-
ients of expansion will in general have
lower viscosity-temperature coefficients
than those which have high coefficients of
expansion.
Faust proposed a theory in 1914 that the
viscosity of a given liquid is a function
of density alone, irregardless of temper-
ature and pressure. Bridpan later proved
that this theory is an over-simplification.
He made viscosity measurements on a number
of liquids over a range of temperatures and
pressures, and found that change in density
does not account for all of the effect of
temperature on viscosity, although it is
responsible for a substantial part of the
total effect.
The magnitude of the effect of temper-
ature upon viscosity is very striking. For
example, an cil with a viscosity of 10 cs
at 210°F and a viscosity iildex of 100 will
have a viscosity of approximately 10,000 cs
at O°F. Thus, a change in temperature of
only 210°F caused a tllousand-fold change in
viscosity. Many lubricating oils are called
upon to function over a much wider temper-
ature range than this. Furthermore, if the
oil had been one of zero viscosity index
rather than of one hundred, the change in
viscosity would have been by a factor of
tea thousand instead of one thousand. Even
multigrade 10 W-30 motor oils, which are
unique in that they show a minimum variat-
ion in viscosity with temperature, suffer a
change in viscosity of approximately two
hundred-fold over this same temperature
range.
Since tlie effect of
temperature
on vis-
cosity is so pronounced, it is necessary to
control temperature very closely, and to
measure it accurately, in order to attain
good accuracy and precision in viscosity
determinations. The ASTM requires a temp
erature control of fO.OS°F in Method D-88
for Saybolt viscosity.
The same
tolerance
is required in Method D-445 for kinematic
viscosity at temperatures below 60°F. At
temperatures higher than this, the to1er-
ance is f0.02°F.
The mathematical
relationsliip between
viscosity and temperature is complex, and
many equations have been developed, both
theoretical and empirical. Perhaps the best
known and most widely used of these relat-
ions, at least in this country, is the ep
irical
Walther
equation which
was
first
published
in
1929.
It
may
be
written
as
follows:
= A + D
log
log
[V + kl
log T
where V is the kinematic viscosity in
centistokes, T is the absolute tmperati~re,
k is a 'universal constant', and A and B
are constants for a given oil. A valae of
0.6 is generally assigned to k, although
0.8 has also been used. For high values of
V, the exact value of k is of little imp-
ortance, but as V decreases, the signific-
ance of k increases.
The Walther equation has been
found to
fit the data for mineral oils quite well.
It is the basis for the ASTM
viscosity-
temperature
charts, Method D-341.
The foll-
owing five charts are available.
CHART
VISCOSITY UNITS
V~SCOSI~RANGE
TEMP.
IMNGE
SIZE
OF CHART
A
Saybolt Universal
33
to
100,000,000
-30
to +450°F
20
x
16 in.
B
Saybolt
Universal
33 to 100,000
-30
to
+350°F
8% x
11 in.
C
Centistokes
2 to 20,000,000
-30
to +450°F
20
x
16 in.
D
Centistokes
0.4 to
100
-30
t.o +450GF
20
x
20
in.
E
Centistolies
2 to 20,000,000
-100
to +450°F
24
x
16 in.
'These charts are constructed in such a CiAer that the data for a given oil
'These charts are constructed in
such a
CiAer that the data for a given oil can be
plotted linearly. Tne only serious deviat-
ion normally encountered in the case of
mineral oils or other petroleum fractions
is in the case of non-homogeneous systems,
as for example a waxy oil that has been
chilled to a temperature below its cloud
point. High-temperature viscosity data for
such an oil will plot linearly, but the
widely in this country for expressing the
viscosity-temperature effect is the viscos-
ity index, which was first published by
Dean and Davis in 1929, and which has been
an ASTM method (D-567) since 1940. It is
based on two series of reference oils. ?he
first, arbitrarily assigned viscosity index
values of 100, consists of a series of
fractions from a Pennsylvania crude. The
second is similar, except that the source
curve will bend upward at low temperatures.
Data for certain synthetic oils, on the
other hand, show a distinct curvature over
a wide temperature range. This point is
' was a Gulf Coastal crude, and the value of
viscosity index assigned was zero. The vis-
.- cosity index of an oil is calculated from
the equation:
illustrated in Fig. 1 which shows viscosity
temperature curves for two mineral oils and
three syntlletic lubricants, all plotted on
v.
I.
=
100
[L - ul
/
[L - HI
a simplified ASTM chart. Both mineral
oils and two of the synthetics produced
linear plots although the slopes varied
widely. However, the fifth line represent-
ing the polyalkylene glycol shows a decided
where U is the viscosity at 100°F of the
oil in question, and where L and H are the
respective viscosities at 100°F of the 0
V I
and
100 V I standards which match the
unknown oil in viscosity at 210°F. Values
of L
and of (L - H) are conveniently read
curvatt~re.
The method that. has been used the most
from tables published as a part of ASTM
Method D-567.
FIG.
1
EFFECT
OF
TEMPERATURE
ON
VISCOSITY
-
1. OIL
MINERAL
100
VI
- 0
2. OIL
MINERAL
VI
4
3.
SILICONE
4.
FLUOROCARBON
5.
POLYALKYLENE
GLYCOL
'The viscosity index of a mineral oil is determined primarily by its hydrocarbon composition. 'Ihe
'The viscosity index of a mineral oil is
determined primarily by its hydrocarbon
composition. 'Ihe hydrocarbons in the lub-
ricating oil range of molecular weight are
very complex, and their exact configuration
is not known. However, they may be consid-
ered as containing three basic types of
hydrocarbon groups, namely paraffinic,
naphthenic, and aromatic. All mineral oils
contain all three of these basic types, but
the proportions vary considerably. High
viscosity index is associated with a high
content of paraffinic groups. The pres,ence
of aromatics lowers the viscosity index, as
does the presence of naphthenes.
It is possihle to remove aromatics by
normal solvent extraction processes, but
these processes do not effectively separate
naphthenes from paraffins. Thus oils from
different sources differ not only in their
viscosity index prior to refining, but they
differ in the extent of improvement that
can be accomplished by refining. ?his point
is illustrated in Fig.
2.
Viscosity
index
can
be
raised by
L/
incorporation of certain polymeric addit-
ives, commonly known as V I improvers.
These polymers raise the viscosity through-
out the temperature range, but their relat-
ive effect is greater at the higher temper-
atures. Thus they flatten the viscosity-
temperature curve and raise the viscosity
index.
'The effect of
three different polymers
upon the viscosity index of three differ-
ent base oils is shown in Fig. 3. It will
be observed that the degree of improvement
in viscosity index attainahle with a given
percentage of polymer depends upon the
choice of base oil as well as the choice
of polymer.
Large quantities of VI improvers are
used in the manufacture of multigrade motor
oils which have become so popular during
the last few years.
EFFECT OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION ON
VI
(VON
FUCHS AND ANDERSON)
I
1
1
I
PENN .
RESIDUE
-
MID-CONTINENT
RESIDUE
-
GULF
COASTAL
DISTILLATE
-
-
FIG.
2
r
I
I
I
I
2
4.
6
8
STAGES OF EXTRACTION

The viscosity index system has served a Q y useful purpose. However, it has cert- In deficiencies, particularly when applied Q y useful purpose. However, it has cert- In deficiencies, particularly when applied

to oils of high viscosity index. Two oils, for example, both of 50 cs viscosity at 100°F, but having viscosities of 10 and 45 c s a t 210°F, would have a viscosity index of approximately.150. Gross anomalies of this type do not occur in the range of VI from zero to one hundred for which the sys- tem was developed, but they do constitute a serious problem in some of the current oils. Another disadvantage of the system, throughout the viscosity index range, is that the viscosity index of a blend is not a simple function of composition. Tne ASTM has recognized the need for a better viscosity-temperature system and a cornnittee, jointly sponsored by Technical

Committee B on Lubricating Oils and Res-

V I I on Flow Properties,

earch Division

both under ASTM Comnittee %2, is working on the problem. The following methods are

being considered by

this comni ttee.

1. Slope of erature curve.

the ASTM

viscosity

temp

2.

The Viscosity-Temperature

Index

(Larson and Schwaderer) .

3.

The Rational

Viscosity

Index

(Hard-

iman and Nissen) .

4.

The Viscosity Modulus

(Blott

and

Verner) .

5.

ure Index (Cornelissan and Wateman).

The Fundamental Viscosity

Temperat-

6.

The Viscosity-Temperature

(Ramser) .

Rating

7. The Viscosi ty-Temperature Function

(Wright).

I

5

EFFECT OF POLYMER UPON VI

(EVANS AND YOUNG)

I

I I

I

 

I

FIG.

3

 

-

2

1

   

-

 

1.

POLYBUTENE

 

2 .

CONDENSATION

PRODUCT,

 
 

CHLORINATED

WAX

AND

NAPHTHALENE

 

-

3. POLYCETYL METHACRYLATE

WAX AND NAPHTHALENE   - 3. POLYCETYL METHACRYLATE 10 15 CONCENTRATION OF POLYMER, XWt . I

10

15

CONCENTRATION OF POLYMER,

XWt .

I

20

SUMMARIZED

It was pointed out that k in the Walther equation is only a 'universal constant' in an approximate sense. In other words, the value of k underlying the ASTM viscosity charts was selected so as to minimize dep- arture from linearity with typical mineral oils. Originally, the charts were based on

a .value of k = 0.8, but this was later

chan.ged to k = 0.6 as experimental inform- ation became available on a wider variety of petroleum products. Still later, &hat portion of the charts covering very low viscosities was modified so as to provide

a gradual variation in value of k. While the ASTM Viscosity Charts are adequate for many applications, numerous examples exist with precise viscosity data over a range of temperature where it is necessary to select individual values of k in the Walther equation for each specific product. In such cases, the Walther equat-

DISCUSSION

ion is of onconvenient form for analytice\r' treatment of experimental data, and there is need for a simpler form of mathematical expression for the change of viscosity with temperature, even though it may recpire use of three arbitrary constants.

The author indicated some of

the pecul-

iarities of the present Dean and Davis system for viscosity index, and mentioned that this matter is currently under study by ASTM . However, such studies are large- ly concerned with a viscosity index system, which would still require considerable manipulation before the arbitrary viscosity index value could he converted to a temper- ature coefficient at any given temperature of interest. Again, this ernpllasizes the need for an improved mathematical relation- ship covering the change of viscosity with

temperature.

EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON VISCOSITY By E.M.Barber, lie Texas Co. The viscosity of lubricants increases
EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON VISCOSITY By E.M.Barber, lie Texas Co. The viscosity of lubricants increases

EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON VISCOSITY By E.M.Barber,lie Texas Co.

The viscosity of lubricants increases markedly with increasing pressure. At the

film

pressures existing in the lubricant

of hydrodynamic bearings,

the viscosity of

in the lubricant of hydrodynamic bearings, the viscosity of the- lubricant may be many times greater

the- lubricant may be many times greater than its viscosity as measured at atmos- pheric pressure. This property of lubric- ants undoubtedly has an influence on hear- ing performance characteristics such as load-carrying capacity, friction and temp- erature rise. There is no simple method of measuring viscosity at high pressure. A program of measurement to define the pressure-visc- osity-temperature properties of a single lubricant assumes the proportions of a research program rather than of a routine physical property measurement. Consequently pressure-viscosity-temperature data are relatively scarce and the effect of press- ure-viscosity properties on bearing perf- ormance is not as well understood as may be desirable. ;'- .The falling-body type of viscometer is '.-iof the most acceptable methods for the measurement of viscosity as a function of pressure. This type of equipment was used

h i s

pioneering work in this field, and it has

been refined and extended in its usefulness in several pressure-viscosity investigat- ions sponsored and/or supported by the A SM E Research Committee on Lubrication (Kef. 2). A typical cross-section of a falling

Lubrication (Kef. 2). A typical cross-section of a falling by Prof. P. W.Bridgman (Ref. 1) i

by Prof.

P. W.Bridgman

(Ref.

1)

i n

body viscometer is illustrated by Fig.

A sinker falls vertically in a viscometer tube which contains the test fluid, and the time of fall is interpretable in terms of the viscosity of the fluid. To avoid diff-

erential compressibility and thermal eff- ects, the tube and the sinker are made of

1.

the same material. Sinkers of varying

weight and of varying clearance relative

The viscometer

tube is

to

fitted loosely into the pressure

the

tube

can be

used.

chamber so that it is completely surrounded by the pressure-transmitting fluid. Press-

' ure is transmitted to the test fluid inside the viscometer tube via a collapsible bell- ows type of reservoir fitted to one end of

a the viscometer tube. The assembly is inuner-

sed in a temperature control bath. To make a measurement, the assembly is inverted and the time for the sinker to fall is measured by electrical signals.

Fig.

2 illustrates the variation of vis-

cosity with pressure and temperature for a

typical paraffin-base mineral oil of about 250 SSU at 100°F and 100 Viscosity Index. Note the relatively large changes of vis- cosity with pressure, as for example at 210°F, a pressure increase of 20,000 psi produces almost a ten fold increase of viscosity.

viscosity

Fig.

3 shows the

changes of

with pressure at 210°F for three paraffin base mineral oils of different viscosity level. These three samples A, B and C have S SU viscosities at 100°F of approximately 250, 700 and 2500 seconds, and have approx- imately 100 Viscosity Index. The three curves are similar in trend and general slope, which suggests that level of viscos- ity does not greatly alter the trend of viscosity with pressure for oils of comp- arable molecular type. Fig. 4 shows the variation of viscosity with pressure at 210°F for an assortment of mineral oil and synthetic type lubricating fluids which are in the same general range of level of viscosity as measured by SSU

at 100°F.

fluids of Fie.

Some identification data on the

4 are given below.

of Fie. Some identification data on the 4 are given below. Symbol Identification Paraffinic hiineral Oil

Symbol

Identification Paraffinic hiineral Oil Naphthenic Mineral Oil Polybutylene Fluorocarbon Silicone Oil Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Sebacate

SSU

V.I.

96

23

30

-178

152

13

154

There is a tendency for the fluids of high Viscosity Index, namely those fluids that
There is a tendency for the fluids of
high Viscosity Index, namely those fluids
that undergo the least change of viscosity
with temperature, also to show the least
change with pressure. However, this is not
a universal tendency and there are except-
ions. Even for the limited selection of
samples shorn on Fig. 4, note the exception
in samples F and G which show parallel
changes of viscosity with pressure but a
large difference in Viscosity Index.
The effect of these differences in the
pressure-viscosity c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f
fluids on the performance of bearings is a
question that is not entirely resolved. ?he
present evidence seems to suggest however
that fluids having a greater increase of
viscosity with pressure will tend to prod-
uct a somewhat higher load-carrying capac-
i ty, friction and operating temperature.
Instead of
attempting to draw concl~~,
i
ions from the foregoing material, it seems
appropriate to suggest several areas for
future development that could appreciably
improve our understanding of the pressure-
viscosity problem in lubrication.
(1) A simple 'routine' type measurement
technique that would make pressure-viscos-
ity data readily available.
(2) A correlation whereby a small number
of measurements could be used to predict
the whole pattern of a lthricant's behavior
under pressure.
(3) A study of the effects, on the lub-
rication performance of a variety of bear-
ings, of
differences
in
cosity characteristics of
the pressilre-vis-
lubricants.
REFERENCES
1.
High Hydrostatic Pressure, ASME Trans., 59,
of
The Effect of Pressure on the Viscosity
Forty-Three Pure Liquids, by P. W. Bridg-
l(1928).
man, Proc.Am.Acad.Arts Sci., 61, 57 (1926).
2. (a)
Fluids
Viscosity and Density of Lubricating
from 0 to 150, 000 PSIG and 32 to
425'~, by Bradbury, Mark and Kleinschnidt,
ASME Trans.,
72,
667
(1951).
(b) Progress in Lubrication Research,
Fourth Report of the Special Research Comrn-
ittee on Lubrication, Appendix No. 1.
(c) Experiments
by
R.
V.
Kleinschmidt
on
3. Data for Fig. 2, 3 and 4 were selected
from Viscosity and Density of Over 40 Lub-
ricating Fluids of Known Composition at
Pressures to 150,000 PSI and Temperatu
to 42~~~.A Report of the ASME
Committee on Lubrication, obtainable from
the Research Department, The American Soc-
iety of Mechanical Engineers, 29 West 39th
Street, New York, N. Y.
the Viscosity of Lubricating Oils under
SUMMARIZED
DISCUSSION
The point was raised that the author
presented curves for a number of oils sliow-
ing the change of viscosity with pressure,
but he did not present any mathematical
relations applicable to this effect. It was
indicated that Bradbury, Mark and Iclein-
srhmidt (loc. cit.) had presented a math-
ematical treatment of the ASME pressure-
viscosity data, but it is necessary to
consult the original doctoral thesis for
the values of the parameters for the var-
ious oils. Reference was made to the fact
that no mathematical expression for the
pressure coefficient of viscosity can pre-
dict the freezing point of the oil under
pressure, and many cases of lubricant
freezing were encountered in the ASME
work. However, this is no Inore of a problem
than with many phenomena where a phase
change occurs.
If
viscosity is
considered to be a prop-
erty of a fluid, then the temperature and
pressure coefficients are inter-related.
This leads to the possibility of develop-
ing a pressure-viscosity chart analogous to
the
A STM , temperature-viscosity chart, or
even a chart covering all three variables.
In this connection, it was indicated that
the ASTM chart had been found suitahle in
some cases for reproducing the change of
viscosity
with
temperature at elevated
pressures.
In response to questions regarding the
effects of viscosity increases under press-
ure in machine elements,
the author stated
that there is currently under discussion an
A Shl E proposed research program aimec
evaluating the magnitude of
these effects.
1 FIGURE I CROSS SECTION OF VISCOMETER TRANSMITTING FLUID INLET TIME OF FALL CONTACTS VISCOMETER
1
FIGURE I
CROSS SECTION OF VISCOMETER
TRANSMITTING
FLUID INLET
TIME OF FALL
CONTACTS
VISCOMETER TUBE
- i FIGURE 2 VISCOSITY - PRESSURE -TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS OF A PARAFFIN BASE MINERAL OIL
-
i
FIGURE 2
VISCOSITY - PRESSURE -TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS
OF A PARAFFIN BASE MINERAL OIL
I
L
S
100,000 -
S
tcSOLIDIFIED
b
I
I
I
I
I
I
I.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
PRESSURE- 1000's OF P.S. I.
FIGURE 3 PRESSURE- VISCOSITY CHARACTERISTICS AT 210°E FOR THREE PARAFFIN BASE MINERAL OILS r .
FIGURE
3
PRESSURE- VISCOSITY CHARACTERISTICS AT 210°E
FOR THREE
PARAFFIN BASE MINERAL OILS
r
.
!00,000-
I
>
I
I
I
I
I
I
I,
I
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
PRESSURE- 1000'9 OF f?S.I.
1
- - FIGURE 4 PRESSURE VlSCOS ITY CHARACTERISTICS AT 210°F. FOR A VARIETY OF LUBRICATING
-
-
FIGURE 4
PRESSURE VlSCOS ITY CHARACTERISTICS AT 210°F.
FOR A VARIETY OF LUBRICATING FLUIDS
I
I
,.
l00,000 -
a:
I
I-
I
I
I
I
I
1
I,
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
PRESSURE- 1000 OF P. S.I.
EFFECT OF RATE OF SHEAR ON VISCOSITY By Alan Beerbower, Esso Research & Engineering Cb.
EFFECT
OF
RATE
OF
SHEAR
ON
VISCOSITY
By Alan Beerbower,
Esso Research & Engineering Cb.
\-.>I
In comparison with
the effects of
temp-
erature and pressure on lubricant viscosity
the effects of shearing stresses are relat-
ively
ill-defined.
A great
deal
of
data
have been
and are being obtained
in
this
field, but have not yet led even to empir-
ical equations that can be proposed to
cover the phenomena in general. Continuing
study is important, since the effects of
shear are significant and in some cases as
important as those of the more commonly
studied variables. H'hi.le natural and synth-
etic oils above their pour points usually
show no effects, greases and polyner-blend-
essed in poises.
Anotlier idealized type of material shown
is the plastic solid according to Bingham.
Mere the slope of the line is considered to
be constant hut to start at a distance
remote from t!le origin on the shearing
stress axis. This displacement is known as
the yield value. Relow the yield value,
these materials are considered to act as
ed oils give a variety of phenomena. The
following discussion covers these as they
apply too lubrication problems.
The science of Rheology, or the general
study of the flow of materials, is a spec-
ialized one, and in order to discuss the
subject at all, it is necessary to define
certain special terms which appear const-
a normal solids, merely resisting movement
elastically until the critical value is
reached. In actuality, vcry few materials
obey the J3ingham Law, and the dotted curved
line marked pseudo-plastic grease is more
typical of this class of substances. First,
some flow begins at a shearing stress app-
reciably below the yield value which would
be predicted by extrapolating back from the
shearing stress at high rates of shear on
the Bingham theory. Flow then increases in
a non-linear relation to shearing stress.
antly.
Apparent
Viscosity
is
defined by
<--
I
. relationship:
,
PR/SL
Shearing
Stress
Ta
=-
-
4ijln~~-
Rate
of
Shear
This is essentially based on Newton's def-
inition of viscosity as the ratio of shear-
ing stress to rate of shear. However, in
this case, the definition has been extended
to cover non-Newtonian fluids by using the
variable term apparent viscosity in place
of viscosity (which is constant for a Newt-
onian fluid). In the equation shown, the
ordinary equation for flow through a cap-
illary is broken into two parts represent-
ing the shearing stress and the rate of
shear at the wall of the tube. \#en rearr-
anged, this is probably familiar to the
reader as the Hagen-Poiseuille equation
77 = TP R~ / 8 QL, established in 1846.
The significance of the factors is ill-
ustrated in Fig. 1, which shows the behav-
ior of different types of materials plotted
with shearing stress and rate of shear as
coordinates. The true fluid oil exhibits
Newtonian behavior in that a line of const-
ant slope is formed, passing through the
. The reciprocal of the slope is the
Newtonian viscosity, normally expr-
Eventually a linear condition is reached
which essentially is the Bingham type of
flow. The viscosity of the material can
then be spoken of properly as the recip-
rocal of this line (often called tile mobil-
i ty) . However, the term apparent viscosit.y
as defined in the preceding equation does
not represent this slope, but is a variable
illustrated by the dashed line going from
the origin
to
any point
on
the
curve.
It
starts
at
an
initial
value of
infinity
in
all cases, and its rate of decrease is a
function of both yield value and mobility.
There has been considerable criticism
of the use of apparent viscos.ity as being
a confusing term. Ilowever, if apparent
viscosity is defined in terms of the rate
of shear at which it was talten, it is
possible to reconstruct the entire Binrham
diagram (neglecting the pseudo-pl astic
region) from two sets of readings. The
mobility is assumed to be constant and is
a fnnction of
the viscosity of
the Newton-
ian base oil used in the product. The app-
arent viscosity approaches this constant
value at very high rates of shear due to
the decreased angle between the lines, and
therefore is frequently stated to equal
the base oil viscosity at infinite rate of
shear.
FIG. 1 - OIL AND GREASE FLOW DIAGRAMS TRUE FLUID OIL (NEWTONIAN), PLASTIC SOLID (
FIG. 1 - OIL AND GREASE FLOW DIAGRAMS
TRUE
FLUID
OIL
(NEWTONIAN),
PLASTIC
SOLID
( BINGHAM)
I
Yield
Value
I
SHEARING STRESS
In rheology, the Newtonian and Bingham
types of materials are only special cases.
Because Newtonian
fluids
are
we tend to
common
in
petroleum lahoratories,
forget
how very rarely it is that a material ex-
hibi ts such simple behavior. Actually,
the
vast majority of materials in industrial
work are non-Newtonian. A large number of
other classes of non-Rewtonian materials
exist including dilatant ones, which thick-
e;! under shear, and the visco-elastic type,
obtained by extrapolating the viscosity
from the ASTM chart, as the wax structure
is broken dorm by flow.
Another type of anomalous behavior is
shown by polymer blends. At a somewhat
higher rate of shear, these begin to show
appreciable deviation downward from the
-
-
viscosity
at
low
rates
of
shear.
This
phenomenon,
which
is
a
form of
visco-
which includes those lubricating oils cont-
aining elastomer-type polymers. Fig. 2 ill-
ustrates the behavior of lubricating oils
under several conditions of non-Newtonian
flow. Oils below the pour point essentially
have the characteristics of greases in that
they show finite yield values. For this
reason, the example shown starts with an
apparent viscosity of infinity at zero rate
of shear. This apparent viscosity soon
drops to the normal value, which would be
elastic behavior, is known usually as
temporary viscosity loss and is caused
apparently by an orientation phenomenon in
the polymer molecules. This part of the
curve will Le discussed in more detail
later on. Another effect know as permanent
viscosity loss is shown on the lowest line
of Fig. 2. Here an oil containing a high
molecular weight polymer which has been
subjected for some time to a high rate of
shear is allowed to return to low rates of
shear. It is foilnd that the viscosity
permanently decreased, and that the oil 1s
FIG. 2 - BEHAVIOR OF OILS UNDER SHEAR now somewhat more stable against temporary viscosity

FIG. 2 - BEHAVIOR OF OILS UNDER SHEAR

FIG. 2 - BEHAVIOR OF OILS UNDER SHEAR now somewhat more stable against temporary viscosity loss.

now somewhat more stable against temporary viscosity loss. This phenomenon has been experimentally determined, by separation of the polymer, to be due t,o degradation of the polymer to a lower average molecular weight. Thus, even a lubricating oil can S~IOW three types of anomalous rheological behavior if it contains polymer. In the rheology of greases (which incl- udes oils below their pour point) another phenomenon known as tliixotropy appears. Thixotropy can be defined as a loss of con- sistency upon agitation, which may be rev- ersible upon aging. It is associated with loss of yield value rather than loss of mobility, and appears when the grease is worked. Fig. 3 illustrates two typical cycles of a grease under shear. On the first cycle, no flow occurs until a cert-

Flow then takes

a'ce at an increasing rate of shear as the

-.

in
in

yield value is reached.

stress is increased. On reducing the rate of shear, it is found that the shearing stress and apparent viscosity are substant- ially less for any given rate of shear than on the up cycle. As a result, the yield value obtained after the test is substant-

ially

'Ihis

some materials

lower

than

that

at

the beginning.

is thixotropy in its simplest form.

A complication is

that

recover yield .value on standing to a great-

er or less extent. In the example shorn, recovery during the time lapse (which might be as little as an hour) amounts to about 50% of the value lost. The second cycle then starts from a lower yield value than the first and on returning down a new low in yield value is reached. This loss in turn would be partially recoverable, and so cycling would produce a gradual decrease in yield value. This may go to zero, or more commonly may stabilize at some finite

FIG. 3 - THIXOTROPY OF GREASES SECOND CYCLE I FIRST CYCLE TIME LAPSE 0 SHEARING
FIG. 3 - THIXOTROPY OF GREASES
SECOND
CYCLE
I
FIRST
CYCLE
TIME
LAPSE
0
SHEARING
SmESS
value. Thixotropy is a phenomenon which is
very *?asy to observe but not so easy to
express in rational mathematical terms. In
general, there have been no generally
accepted attempts to rationalize this
particular property in terms of empirical
equations. Each group of substances appears
to be a law unto itself, though some corr-
elations on an energy input per unit volume
basis appear promising.
The special case of oils blended with
polymers is of considerable interest at the
present time because of the high viscosity
index of these products and their very wide
use for motor oils, hydraulic fluids and so
forth. Shear effects in solutions of high
polymers have been studied widely and some
blends of
three comnercially used polymers,
A,
B and
C.
It
is
important
to note
the
terms in which the figure is plotted. The
ordinate is the % Temporary Viscosity Loss
or ratio of viscosity change of the blend
under test conditions to the viscosity
contributed by the polymer at low shear
rates. The shearing stress divided by the
concentration is used as the abscissa, thus
removing another variable. This procedure
is similar to the reduced variable proced-
ure used by Ferry in his studies on the
dynamic viscosities and rigidities of poly-
mer solutions.
Although most
rheological
correlations
are based on the use of
the rate of
shear
work has been done on the actual V.I.
imp
rover polymers in comnercial use in typical
as a parameter, it was found experimentally
that this did not serve to correlate the
data at different temperatures on the three
mineral oils.
Correlations based on limited
data have been proposed.
Horowitz
(Ref.
1)
has
given a complete method
for reducine
blends. However, the use of shearing stress
as a parameter permitted the reduction of
the nine curves obtained to the three which
data on these oils to standard conditions.
Fig.
4 presents
his
data on oil
showr~. Tilus, the effect of temperature
was eliminated. Superficially, the inter
are
some of
FIG. 4 - PERCENT TEMPORARY VISCOSITY LOSS FOR DIFFERENT V.I. IMPROVERS SHEAR STRESS I \!T.%
FIG.
4
-
PERCENT
TEMPORARY
VISCOSITY
LOSS
FOR
DIFFERENT
V.I.
IMPROVERS
SHEAR STRESS I
\!T.% POLYMER IN BLEND
( DYNES/CM~/% ACTIVE IKGREDI ENT)
'- %ptof the three lines on the specific
conditions of
temperature
and pressure,
,.,scosity
axis appear to have the character
they can be modified to accomodate correct-
of the ~ieldvalue, This however
is merely
ions for rate of
shear.
(3-1the other hand,
due to
the use of
a logarithmic scale,
and
in reality
the tendency to lose viscosity
begins to appear even at quite low rates of
shear, so that the sharp intercept does not
have any true significance. In brief, all
temperature and rate of shear effects can
be correlated by the technique using empir-
ical equations to reduce the effects of
polymer to a predictable system. The work
was extended to actual verification in test
engines on cold-starting so that the method
is validated by practical experiment.
In general, the effects of shearing on
lubricant viscosity are so varied and so
complicated that there is little hope that
a general correlation will be developed and
generally accepted in the near future for
all materials. This unfortunate situation
does not af course apply to all specific
types of composition but to the field of
lubricants in general. It may be that when
adequate equations are obtained which will
the inclusion of even the simplest greases
in such a system appears to be vastly more
difficult.
An illustration of the type of problem
which is not yet solved, or for that matter
even very thoroughly considered, is the
effect of shear rate in different direct-
ions. Fig. 5 illustrates a sleeve bearing
running at a high rate of shear in the
circ~unferentialdirection. It a1so contains
a component of
low shear
rate
due to
the
feed of
lubricant
from the center
to the
ends. The interaction of these two shear
rates upon the viscosity is a complicated
problem which, to the best of our knowledge
has not yet been attempted for anything
less simple than a Newtonian fluid. A gen-
eral mathematical solution of this simple
everyday problem for non-Newtonian fluids
is a major problem for the future.
REFERENCE
e;
1. It. H. Horowitz, Ind. Eng.
Chem.,
50,
redict the viscosity of oils under any
1089
(1958).
FIG. 5 - SHEAR IN A SLEEVE BEARING HIGH SHEAR RATE INLET LUBRICANT LOW SHEAR
FIG. 5 - SHEAR IN A SLEEVE BEARING
HIGH
SHEAR
RATE
INLET
LUBRICANT
LOW
SHEAR
RATE
SUMMARIZED DISCUSSION
With regard to Fig. 4, the lines for the
three polymer blends are extended so close
to the apparent
intercept
that
they
could
readily
be
interpreted
to mean
that
an
intercept exists in reality. Several pers-
ons indicated that precise viscosity rneas-
urements showed temporary viscosity loss
even at low values of shear stress, so that
the intercept must be at minus infinity on
the logarithmic scale.
The author states that oils below the
pour point essentially have the character-
ini,ics of greases in that they show finite
yield values. In the first place, many
greases do not have well-defined yield
values, but rather behave in the pseudo-
plastic manner shown in Fig. 1. Secondly,
for a considerable range of temperature
below the pour point of some oils, the beh-
avior can be classed as pseudo-plastic and
not that of a plastic solid. With a wax-
free oil below its pour point, the behavior
might even be Newtonian in character. It
was also indicated that many o i l s s t a r t t o
exhibit nonaewtonian behavior at temperat-
ures as high as 30°F above the pour point.
'There was some discussion on the signif-
icance of characterizing oils as Newtoni
or non-Newtonian, since the character of
any given oil may change dependent upon
conditions of temperature, pressure, and
rate of shear. Examples are given in the
paper where a Newtonian oil in a given reg-
ime could exhibit nondewtonian behavior as
the temperature was lowered, and it is
known that pressure increase can cause sim-
ilar transitions in behavior. It seems
probable also that, at a given temperature
and pressure, an oil can be Newtonian over
wide ranges of rate of shear, but still
depart from Newtonian character at very
high rates of shear.
The correlations exhibited in Fig. 4
give promise of permitting some generalized
mathematical treatment of polymer-blended
oils, insofar as shear effects are concern-
ed. More experimental evidence would be
desirable on a wider range of V.I. improv-
ers, with variation both in molecular type
and in molecular weight. If composition can
be adequately defined, and if the experim-
ental
data are reproducible,
it is logical
to expect
that generalized correlations 1
be developed.

SESSION CHAIRMAN - P.C.Warner, Wes tinghouse Electric Corp. Vice-Chairman, Builders & Operators Technical Committee

m a n , Builders & Operators Technical Committee I. / - SENSITIVITY TO &~~DER OPERATING

I./ -

SENSITIVITY

TO

&~~DEROPERATING

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

- SENSITIVITY TO &~~DER OPERATING INTRODUCTORY REMARKS VISCOSITY CONDITIONS Paul C. Warner, Westinghouse Electric

VISCOSITY

CONDITIONS

Paul C. Warner, Westinghouse Electric Corp.

THE SENSITIVITY OF EQUIPMENT TO VARIATION IN LUBRICANT VISCOSITY

R. C. Garretson and J. Boyd, Westinghouse Electric Corp.

SENSITIVITY OF MACHINES TO LUBRICANT VISCOSITY

Charles A. Bailey, National Tube Division, U. S. Steel Corporation

LUBRICATION OF ROLL NECK BEARINGS AND GEAR DRIVES IN CONTINUOUS ROLLING MILLS

J. H. Hitchcock, Morgan Construction Co.

EFFECT OF VISCOSITY ON HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

K. G. Henrikson, Socony Mobil Oil Co.

H. Hitchcock, Morgan Construction Co. EFFECT OF VISCOSITY ON HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS K. G. Henrikson, Socony Mobil
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS By Paul C. Warner, Westinghouse Electric Corp. This section deals with the role

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

By Paul C. Warner, Westinghouse Electric Corp.

This section deals with the role of viscos- ity in lubrication from the viewpoint of the person working in the field of design, const- ruction, or operation of equipment employing lubricated parts. One might infer from the prev- ious section that the properties of real lubric- ants are imperfectly known and thus any theory of lubrication must necessarily have unknown areas of appreciahle size. It is also true that even with the assumption of an ideal lubricant, many important phases of lubrication have not as yet been satisfactorily investigated. From this

standpoint at least, lubrication is an art rath- er than a science, and thus our working know- ledge of the subject is dependent in some degree on experience. The papers in this section are written from the standpoint of experience, and give us insight on the practical range of sens- itivity of machines and machine elements to lubricant viscosity.

FVE SENSITIVITY OF EQUIPMENT TO VARIATION IN LUBRICANT VISCOSITY

(>;
(>;

By H.C.Garretson

and J.Boyd,

Westingllouse Electric Corp.

As is true in most large companies, we

at ~'estinghouseare vitally concerned with the problem of specifying the right lubric- ant for each application and with the ass- ociated problem of keeping the number of lubricant pades to a minimum. Since viscosity is probably a lubric- ant's [nost important property and since this property is one which can be readily defined and ~neasured, we are particularly interested in the influence of viscosity

on

simple

matter to ::nlculate the performance of a typical machine element, such as a bearing, if an oil of a given viscosity is selected. It is equally simple to calculate the per- formance with oils of various viscosities. The real problem is to decide what range of

culation

the manner

in

which

viscosity

affects

performance.

variation in This will be

done for

the case of

a simple bearing,

but

it will be assumed that

machine elements wi 11 be

the effect on other

the

these performance

qualitatively

same.

We will

interpret

changes in

i ty Classification (I VC) , proposed at the ASTM Symposium on Viscosity Classificat- ion held in Atlantic City, June 1957. We will also consider the I VC system on the basis of the allowable viscosity variations deterrrlined from a survey of the recommend- ations of various machine builders.

terms of

the Industrial Viscos-

EFFECT OF CHANGING VISCOSITY

evaluate

viscosity

element, such as a bearing, we determine how its operating characteristics are aff- ected by changing the viscosity of the

a machine

the performance

In

order

on

to

the

effect

of

of

lubricant

supplied

to it.

To do this,

con-

sider

the

bearing

shown diagrammatically

in Figure

1.

If

we want

to

carry

a given

the performance

of

It

is,

of

course,

a

equipment.

relatively

viscosity

is acceptable for a desired per-

formance in a given application.

ediately introduces the subject of viscos-

ity grades and a system for their class- :?ation. --in this discussion, we will show by cal-

Ikis

inun-

and a system for their class- :?ation. --in this discussion, we will show by cal- Ikis

FIG.

1

Oil

In

Thickness

FIG. 2 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I
FIG. 2
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
I
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
I8
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
IVC
Grade
FIG. 3
IVC
Grade
Soybolt
Seconds
u I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I0
20
40
60
80
100
200
400
600
1000
Centistokes
Oil
Viscosity
at
100°F
lor'
lor'

mid wish

to operate at

to

a given

speed,

the

learing will perform when supplied with a

,Ckoblem will be

deternine how

lubricant of some assumed viscosity and how

:his

performance will be

altered if

a

lub-

ricant

i Luted. In judging the performance, the

,erformance

:oncerned

less, the power loss, the temperature tise (where temperature rise = outlet temp. -

inlet temp.)

readily

of

a different

factors we

with

are

viscosity

are most

is

apt

subst-

to

be

the minimum film thick-

and the mean film temperature.

All

of

these quantities can be

evaluated once the bearing load, speed, and size are determined and the lubricant and the inlet temperature selected. As an ex- ample, consider a 10 in. diameter x 10 in. long turbine bearing with a diametral clearance of 0.020 in., operating at 3600 rpm with a load of 200 psi. Let us pick the inlet temperature to be 100°F and determine the minimum film thickness, the power loss, the temperature rise, and the mean film temperature, when supplied with oils having viscosity grades corresponding to I VC 20,

21, 22, etc.

show how

the viscosity of

the

each of

cosity and while

what upon the temperature at which the com- parison is made, the percentage increase is

lsually considerably less than the percent- age increase in viscosity. The dependence of the performance fact-

a new

idea. Everyone knows that viscosity infl-

~encesperformance. The important problkm

is far as we are concerned is the influen-

machine

3,

4,

and

5 will

be

tljS 1 gures quantities vary with

3, 4, and 5 will be tljS 1 gures quantities vary with oil 21 supplied. It

oil

21

supplied.

It

will

noted

that

the quantities increases with vis-

the change depends

some-

lrs upon

viscosity

is

by

no means

:e

of

viscosity

variations

upon

of any system which proposes to set up vis- cosity steps or grades. It is obviously desirable to arrange the steps with a definite and rational relat- ionship to one another. This is inherent in the I VC system in which the nominal vis- cosity of each grade is approximately 25% higher than the preceding grade. This is also equivalent to the viscosity doubling every third step. The important question

,is,

each

grade. In other words, what is the largest *difference in the performance factors one might expect in using an oil from the lower and frorr~the upper limit of a given grade. It will be seen from Fig. 2 that an oil

what

is

the effect

the viscosity

on

the performance

variation

in

factors of

from the

will

lower end of

IVC 20,

for example,

6.4

give a minimum film

thickness of

mils and one from the upper end will give EI

minimum film thickness of 6.7 mils. Thus, the maximum change in lubricant viscosity possible within the grade results in a change of only about 5% in the film thick- ness. The corresponding change for the power loss is about 16% and about 9% for the temperature rise.

EFFECT

OF

CHANGING

INLET

TEMPERATURE

To illi~stratethe size of an I VC grade in another way, we can look at the matter from the point of view of the temperature change which would be necessary to produce the same change in viscosity as that enc- ountered in going from the low end to the

high

do

by making a calculation similar to the one

above but keeping the lubricant the same and varying the inlet temperature.

end of

a

given

grade.

This we can

Fig.

6

shows how the minimum film thick-

lerformance as related to the establishment

ness

is

affected if

the

inlet

temperature

~f a rational, standard viscosity clAssi f-

is varied from 80°F to 120°F.

Similar cur-

cation system to replace the many arbit-

ves can,

of

course,

be drawn

for

the other

ary and unrelated systems which

oday. If this symposium helps to event-

ally bring

eel

are in use

we

will

about

such

a

system,

that it has been highly

successful.

VISCOSITY

IVC

VARIATION

CLASSIFICATION

AND

SYSTEM

THE

have shown above how the performance

Tne same cur- the efficacy

/.

L ks vary with

can be used

viscosity.

to help decide

performance factors.

one

thickness

lower

limit of say, I V C 20 grade,

with a viscosity corresponding to the upper limit of the I VC 20 grade at 106°F. The difference between these temperatures of 6O can be thought of as the temperature eguiv- alettt of the difference or spread in vis-

with o viscosity

100°F as

It

will

will

get

be noted

the

from Fig.

film

6

that

same minimum

corresponding to the

at

LL

'

al

In

.-

CK

z

- 3

2

al

c

120 1

too

-

80-

60-

40-

20

O.

-

1

60

1

10

I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 1
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
1
I
I
-
FIG.
4
-
-
-
B
-
Ill 112113114i151611711811920
21 122123i241251261271281291

I

80

IVC

Grade

I VC

Grade

I

I

I

I

I 80 IVC Grade I VC Grade I I I I FIG. 5 I 200 I

FIG.

5

I
I

200

I

40

I

 

400

600

1000

Soybolt

Seconds

1

I

1

I

60

80

100

200

Centistokes

Oil

Viscosity

at

100°F

I

2000

I

400

I

600

I

4000

I

1000

c ' to get -ty within an a given idea of grade. the Thus, we

c' to get

-ty within

an

a given

idea

of

grade.

the

Thus,

we

the

viscosity

if

of

effect

viscosity spread within

a given

grade, we can say that the change would be the same as that of altering the inlet tem- perature by the amount of the temperature equivalent. The temperature equivalent var- ies with the I VC grade for which the comp- arison is made, going from 10°F for the low numbered grades to 5'F for the high numb- ered grades. The above analysis indicates that, reg- ardless of what viscosity is desired for a given application, one can choose an IVC grade which wi 11 fit his requirements with-

out producing a change of operating cond- i tions greater than the change equivalent to altering the inlet temperature 10°F. As we are greatly interested in keeping the number of viscosity grades to a minimum in the adoption of a standard rational sys- tem of viscosity classificatio~~,we feel that the IVC system is entirely adequate for our general requirements but we realize

that there may be a few cases which will require special consideration.

SURVEY

OF

BUILDERS

RECOMMENDATIONS

Having concluded

that

a

classification

of viscosities on the IVC system was ad- equate from a design standpoint, we decided

to determine how well it agreed with the lubrication requirements set down by the 'manufacturers of the various machine tools which we use in our plants. To do this, we wrote to a number of rep resentative manufacturers and asked them to advise us if they felt that a f20% change in viscosity from the nominal value which they specified for their equipment would be an acceptable tolerance. We carefully exp lained in our letter that our question had

no

reference

to

quality,

but

only

to

the

acceptability limits on viscosity.

We

fur-

ther stated that our present specifications for various 150 second oils now lirnit us to

products having a viscosity in Saybolt seo

lirnit us to products having a viscosity in Saybolt seo - VI -2 lo- I C

- VI

-2lo-

I

C

r

1

"7

VI

a

C

Y:

8-

.- 0

E 6-

-.- E

LL

5

4

-

-

b

60

.- E

.C 2

I

O

I

I

1

I

I

I
I

I

I

 

-

-

 
  -

-

 

-

 

FIG.

6

 

-

  -   -   FIG. 6   - I ~1112113114115116117118119 20 I 80 I 100

I ~111211311411511611711811920

I

80

I

100

I

I

200

I

40

I

I VC

I

400

Saybol t

I GO
I
GO

I

80

211221231241251261271281291*

Grade

I

I

600

I

Seconds

I

100

211221231241251261271281291* Grade I I 600 I Seconds I 100 I 1000 I 200 I I 2000

I

1000

I

200

I

I

2000

I

400

I

I

600

I

4 000

1

1000

10 2 0

Centistokes

Oil

Viscosity

at

100°F

10

20

20

10

20

MAXIMUM PERCENTAGE VARIATION (PLUS OR MINUS)

WORMS

20

20

10

11

10

GEARS

HYDRAULICS

20

10

10

20

20

20

11

5

12

10

20

20

20

10

--

20

20

10

--

10

20

AT PUMP INLET

20

10

20

IS CRITICAL

20

30

20

20

FACTOR)

10

20

20

20

20

20

20 10 20 IS CRITICAL 20 30 20 20 FACTOR) 10 20 20 20 20 20

WAYS

20

20

7

20 20

,

20

20

10

20

20

20

MANUFAC-

TURER

GEE RAL

SPINDLES

5

20

9

22

20

10

20

20

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

0

P

Q

R

S

T

U

---

--

--

-

(ACTUAL VISCOS~TY

20

20

20

30

20

( WYQN

20

20

20

30

20

WAYS

v

W

X

20

20

z 20

Y

60 ssu OILSDOWN TO ~3x0~500 ssu OILS)

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

MAXIMUM PERCEKTAGE VARIATION IN VISCOSITY APPROVEDBYMACHINETOOLMANUFACTURERS FOR VARIOUS MACHINE ELEMENTS

FIGURE 7

PERCENTAGE

VARIATIONS

PERCENTAGE OF MANUFACTURERS APPROVING VISCOSITY VARIATIONS SHOWN IN FIRST COLUMN

WORMS

GEARS

HYDRAULICS

IN

VISCOSITY

GENERAL

SPlmES

512-

1/2 O/o

OR OVER

LESS THAN

+12-1/2

O/O

82 90 18 10
82
90
18
10

50

50

83

17

63

37

73

27

SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURERS'

ALLOWABLE RANGE OF VISCOSITIES

FOR VARIOUS MACHIW ELEMENTS

0 83 17 63 37 73 27 SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURERS' ALLOWABLE RANGE OF VISCOSITIES FOR VARIOUS

FIGURE 8

0 83 17 63 37 73 27 SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURERS' ALLOWABLE RANGE OF VISCOSITIES FOR VARIOUS

d

.

c~heir opinion, their equipment would

operate satisfactorily if

the oil were as low as 120 or as high as 180 SSU. If they felt that a f20% deviat- ion from the nominal was too high, they were asked to state what percent deviation would be acceptable. Similar questions were asked about a nominal 1700 second oil. The answers to the questionnaire are

is seen that in the

great majority of cases the manufacturers will accept percent viscosity variations

that are greater than the f12.5% variation that exists within each pade of the prop osed I VC classification system.

actual practice

in the field, indicate that the specificat-

ion of viscosity grades having a f12.5% variation in viscosity should not be expec- ted to cause significant changes in the performance 3f machine elements. Further study of the data will show that

rec- smaller variation

evident

s at 100°F of 140 to 175, and asked if,

the viscosity of

tabulated in Fig. 7. It

'Kese

results,

based on

in most instances where a manufacturer

ommended a significantly

in viscosity,

c?is recommendations.

example,

significantly in viscosity, c? is recommendations. example, For inconsistencies hlannfacturer are W wants to limit the

For

inconsistencies

hlannfacturer

are

W wants

to

limit the range of viscosities for oils used in his equipment to f10 Saybolt sec- onds for oils having viscosities of 60 to 200 seconds, and f15 seconds for oils hav-

ing viscosities of

is generally agreed that a larger variation is permissible in the higher viscosity oils

and, on the face of it, that is exactly what has been done. However, a simple calc- ulation will disclose that actually this manufacturer will tolerate a f17 percent deviation in a 60 second spindle oil, but only a f5 percent deviation in a 200 sec- ond machine oil. On the heavier oils, 200 to 500 SSU, this same manufacturer places limits of f7.5 percent on the 200 second oil, but only f3 percent on the 500 second

200 to 500 seconds.

It

oil.

of Manufacturer I who will approve t20 per-

cent for the oils used in his equipment, which is similar to that manufactured by W. Manufacturer I incidentally is quite fussy about the lubricants he specifies.

the column headed General

Comptre this with the re commendations

. ,
.
,

Glancing down

. will note that Manufacturer D limits general purpose machine oils used in

his machines

to f5 percent.

However,

Manuf-.

acturers A, R,

and T,

who produce

the same

type of machine

as Manufacturer

D,

all app

rove SO percent viscosity variation. On this basis, it is felt quite certainly that

Manufacturer D could actually accept a greater variation in viscosity without exp eriencing any performance difficulty. Manufacturer P states that the actual viscosity of the oil as it enters the pump inlet is the critical factor. He then goes on to state that the maximum allowable vis- e cosity range, based upon conditions at the pump inlet, is 65 to 4000 SSU, which is certainly more than 320 percent. ?his same manufacturer advises that a light hydraulic

the ambient temperature

the ambient

say

the use of

we assume that

these

recomnenda tions can be interpreted to imply that in any plant where the ambient temper-

atures range from 40 to 13s0F, either oil

If we allow a tolerance of

only 10% on each of these two oils, then the permissible range of viscosities is

SS U,

of

oil

be

used when

falls betwen 25 and 13S°F.

temperature

is

only

from 40

to

160°F,

If

slightly higher,

then

he recommends

oil.

If

SSU oil,

a medium hydraulic

this

denotes

a

300

may

from

be

used.

135

to

330

or

a

deviation

540 percent from the mean.

The results shown in Fig.

7 are sunmar-

ized for easier reference in Fig. 8 which shows that the majority of the 26 manuf- acturers who replied to our questionnaire have approved deviations in viscosity of 12.5 percent, or more, from the mean. Many

have

of

as

was

the

percent

f10

and in all probability would accept

approved

shown

in

a

range

of

SO percent

Most

the previous Figure.

remaining manufacturers

approved

the slightly higher

cent.

less than f10 percent

ances,

variation

of

12.5

per-

of

inst-

The few who

specified variations

could,

in most

be shown to be inconsistent.

CASE HISTORIES

These comments indicate that perhaps equipment is not quite as sensitive to differences in viscosity as some people

this

case histories might

would have us believe.

contention,

be cited. About 10 years ago,

the

In

support

of

several

while

one of

authors was

employed by

another

firm,

 

he

sure, that a great many gear reducers 0-9

and

a very high VI of about 200. 'Ihese oils

had a lubrication survey made by one of

the

lubricated with the most readily availq .

major oil companies. During the preparation of this survey, the question was asked whether the number of hydraulic oils req-

lubricants, and that these may differ 'by several SAE grades. In fact, even greases have been used in some cases. And yet, many

uired could be reduced. When the survey was completed, and it was determined that only

of these units have operated for years. Still another example can be cited of

a

very small percentage of the total number

small gear reducers being operated at temp

of hydrar~licsystems in the plant required

eratures ranging from -60' to +180°F. The

a

300 second oil,

it was decided that

a

150

oils recommended for this service have a

second oil for all hydraulic systems aould be standardized upon. This was done with

low viscosity of around 70 Saybolt seconds,

the understanding that in a few cases some- what higher maintenance costs inigl~tresult from using an oil lighter than that recomm- ended by the manufacturer. Since this prac- tice removed any doubt as to what was in

are far more than 20 percent lighter in viscosity than the oils recommended for this type of unit when used under ambient temperature conditions of 40' to 100°F.

the hydraulic system, and simplified stor- age and handling problems, it was felt to be fully justified. This author was assoc- iated with the plant for the next six years and to the best of his knowledge, the poss- ible increase in maintenance costs failed to materialize and performance was fully satisfactory.

we may call

a

who replied to

our questionnaire by stating that a maxi~rium

deviation in viscosity of only f10 percent was permissible. Most of us realize, I am

?he

second case history,

involves

if

it

that,

the recommendation

of

supplier of

speed reducers,

CONCLUSIONS

To conclude, the authors believe that from the design and practical considerat- ions which have been discussed, the 10- step I VC classification system would amply satisfy the requirements of our machine tool builders, and would be acc- eptable in equipment manufactured in our

own plants.

be of considerable value to us in our L .- rication program and in our dealings with suppliers, customers, designers, engineers and maintenance personnel.

We are convinced that

our dealings with suppliers, customers, designers, engineers and maintenance personnel. We are convinced that it a

it

a

- 1

(- ;i
(- ;i

SENSITIVITY OF MACHINES TO LUBRICANT VISCOSITY

By Charles A. Bailey,

National Tube Division, U.S.

Steel Corporation

for

60 ml

of

Ihe design of an oil for a given machine

selection

is

one of

the

Tne

first

The unit of measure is

uired

standard orifice under a standard falling head and at a given temperature. 100°F and

210°F are common temperatures

viscosity.

ained with the same instrument with a larg- er orifice producing results approximately

one-tenth those of the Universal orifice readings. It can now be observed that the two methods vary in instrumental accuracy and

for reporting

time in seconds req-

to flow through a

is obt-

requires a selection of viscosity or vis- cosity range for that machine, giving cons-

ideration to its operating environmerit.

viscosity

properties t.o be given consideratio~i. It is not necessariiy the most important, because of many related factors. Tile change in vis- cosity, high temperature, pour point, or other independent properties may alter .the problem drastically. The 20th Century demand for increase in speed, pressures, and greater precision of machine parts, affects viscosity selection and will affect it to a greater degree in the future. Before determining the degree of sensitivity of machines to lubricant viscosity, the two principal methods of measurement should be reviewed.

all oil

Saybolt Fur01 Viscosity

.

that

both methods

are far more accurate

than

can be detected by

machines.

There-

fore,

machines are only

sensitive

to vis-

cosity ranges and not to single units of

measurement of

any of

Spindle Oil: - It

the known methods.

is believed

that

the

category of high speed spindle oils requir- ing low viscosities leads in machine sens- itivity. Nominal viscosities of 32, 40, 52 and 60 SSU at 100°F with ranges of 10% are required because temperature effects in the machine parts can easily be observed. Engine Oil: - Engine oil is one of the least sensitive categories and can use nom- inal viscosities of 200, 300, 500 and 1200 SSU at 100°F in which the range tolerances may be as liberal as e5%. Turbine Oi 1: - hbst turbine oil require nlents are met with three nominal viscos-

100°F

and

ities of

150,

300

500

S SU

at

1. Kinematic

2.

and Absolute - Precise

Methods. Saybolt - Conventional Method.

-* Kinematic viscosity (ASTM Method m45) ,' ',the most ~recisemeasurement of a fluid -h.;d is commonly referred to as the scient- ific method, because its value is the near- est to absolute viscosity. Kinematic viscosity is the property measured when a fixed amount of an oil flows thr~li~fia capillary tube under the force of gravity. An intermediate measure- ment in seconds is taken and then convert- ed by the viscometer constant for the fin- al answer. The unit of kinematic viscosity

is the stoke or centistoke designated as cs, where cs = Ct, namely the Viscometer Constant C mu1tiplied by the observed flow time t in seconds. Absolute viscosity is the kinematic viscosity corrected to overcome the var- iations caused by differences in specific gravity. The centipoise is one-hundredth of a poise and is the unit of absolute viscosity more comn~onlyused. The relation betwen absolute and kinematic viscosity is as follows. Centipoises = centistokes

with tolerances equal to the man~lfacturin~

viscosity range. Circulatirlg Oi 2: - 'fie category of cir-

culating oils extends frorn 700 seconds to 3000 seconds and is very controversial in viscosity selection. However, we find that nominal viscosities of 700, 900, 1100,

the ranges

established by the lbstep viscosity class-

ification system (Table I), are adequate.

1400,

1800, 2300,

and 2900,

with

In conclusion,

the sensitivity of mach-

that

and statistical

ines to lubricant viscosity can best be defined by viscosity classification applied

to lubricants currently in use. Our exper-

ience has proven

technical

can be used

purposes without interfering with existing

nomenclature (Table 11).

this classification

x specific gravity. Saybolt viscosity (A S'TM Method D88) .-;.th its wide usage is in reality a measure

at

a definite ten~iperature.

for

." flowability

TABLE I VISCOSITY CLASSIFICATION SAYBOLT VISCOSITY SAYBOLT CENTISTOKES Code No. UNIVERSAL UNIVERSAL KINEMATIC Mi
TABLE I
VISCOSITY CLASSIFICATION
SAYBOLT
VISCOSITY
SAYBOLT
CENTISTOKES
Code No.
UNIVERSAL
UNIVERSAL
KINEMATIC
Mi n .
Max.
Nominal
Vis.
Nominal
Vis.
at
10O0F
at
100°F
This
table
may
be
extended
by
each
centistoke
number
increasing
ten-fold
every
ten
steps.
Saybolt
seconds
at
100°F = Centistokes
(above
70)
x 4.635.
Req.No. APPLIED TO TABLE I1 VISCOSITY CLASSIFICATION UNITED STATES STEEL APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Identification Code

Req.No.

Req.No. APPLIED TO TABLE I1 VISCOSITY CLASSIFICATION UNITED STATES STEEL APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Identification Code

APPLIED

TO

TABLE

I1

VISCOSITY

CLASSIFICATION

UNITED

STATES

STEEL

APPLICATION

REQUIREMENTS

Identification

Code No.

Related

to S.S.U.

@ lOOF

Engine Oil

16

18

20

22

24

Turbine Oil

15

18

20

Way Lubricant

15

18

23

Circulating Turbine Oil

15

18

20

22

23

Circulating Engine Oil

16

18

20

Circulating Oil

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

Btergent Motor Oils

16

18

20

22

24

 

SAE'~IO) (20)

 

(30)

(40)

(50)

 

Locomotive Diesel Engine Oil

20

22

 

SAE (30)

(40)

 

Pale Paraffin Slushing Oil

10

12

13

Sendzirnir Mill Roll Oil

10

14

Mineral Metalworking Fluid

13

15

16

Heavy Duty Min, Metalworking F1.

13

15

16

18

Soluble Metalworking Fluid

18

21

23

Heavy Duty Sol. kletalworking F1.

03

15

18

23

27

Inverted Type Water Emulsion

18

19

Phosphate Ester Type

10

13

15

18

21

23

Glycol Water Base

13

15

16

18

23

Insulating Oi 1

10

Pneumatic Tool Oil

15

16

Uncompounded Cylinder Stock

22

25

27

29

32

Compounded Cylinder Stoclc

27

28

32

Extreme Pressure Oil

16

18

19

20

22

25

27

29

Hypoid Gear Oil

20

24

27

 

S AE (80)

(90)

(140)