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Chapter

1 Covalent Bonding and Shapes of Molecules


Read Sec. 1.1-1.2 Homework problems: 1.1-1.7, 1.20-1.37

Organic Chemistry
Study of compounds containing carbon Organic molecules are composed mainly of carbon but may contain hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
O H H
H H H H C C C C N H H O Al O C C N C C C C C C C H H
H C C H C C C
H

C H H

H H

O H H O H C O H O O C O C C C C C H H H C H O C C O O C O H H HH H H C H H O H

C N O C

C C

H C

H C O

H N

H C C

H C N O S C C C O H

H C C

C C

C C H

C H C C

H
H

C H

C H

H H H H

C H

C H

Electronic Structure of Atoms

Shells: region of space occupied by electrons QuanLzaLon: shells occur at certain or quanLzed energies ElectrostaLc aOracLon of electrons to nucleus ElectrostaLc repulsions between electrons Prefer to delocalize: spreading of electron density over larger volume of space

Electronic Structure of Atoms


Quantum number associated with each electronic shell (1, 2, 3 etc) Shell n can hold up to 2n2 electrons Shells divided into subshells (s, p, d, f) Subshells grouped into orbitals (region of space that can hold up to 2 electrons and has specic quanLzed energy), which are orthogonal (non- overlapping) Shell 1 2 3 Subshell 1 2 3 Orbitals 1 (1s) 4 (2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz) 9 (3s, 3px, 3py, 3pz, ve d orbitals) Electrons 2 8 18

Electronic Structure of Atoms


Quantum number associated with each electronic shell (1, 2, 3 etc) Shell n can hold up to 2n2 electrons Shells divided into subshells (s, p, d, f) Subshells grouped into orbitals (region of space that can hold up to 2 electrons and has specic quanLzed energy), which are orthogonal (non- overlapping)

Electronic Structure of Atoms


Electronic conguraLon of atoms DescripLon of electronic occupancy of orbitals Ground-state (lowest energy) electron conguraLon AuYau principle: ll in order of increasing energy Pauli exclusion principle: two electrons per orbital, spins paired Hunds Rule: In case of degenerate (equal energy) orbitals, ll each orbital rst before paring electrons

Electronic Structure of Atoms


Energy (ability to do work) PotenLal energy: stored energy IonizaLon energy: energy needed to remove electron from atom/molec. Lewis dot structure Valence electrons (electron in outermost shell) involved in bonding/rxns Lewis dot structure: depicts elements (represents nuclei and inner shell electrons) surrounded number of dots equal to number of electrons in valence shell

Lewis Model of Bonding


Octet-rule: atoms (especially in second row) react such that eight valence electrons achieved Ionic interacLon: atoms held together primarily by aOracLon of oppositely charged ions Covalent bond: chemical bond formed by sharing of electrons Polar covalent bond: bond parLally ionic and covalent ElectronegaLvity (measure of ability to hold electrons) Bond dissociaLon enthalpy: energy required to break bond Bond dipole moment (): measure of polarity of covalent bond

Lewis Model of Bonding

Lewis Model of Bonding


Octet-rule: atoms (especially in second row) react such that eight valence electrons achieved Ionic interacLon: atoms held together primarily by aOracLon of oppositely charged ions Covalent bond: chemical bond formed by sharing of electrons Polar covalent bond: bond parLally ionic and covalent Bond dissociaLon enthalpy: energy required to break bond ElectronegaLvity (measure of ability to hold electrons) Bond dipole moment (): measure of polarity of covalent bond

Lewis Model of Bonding


Lewis structure for molecules 1. Determine number of valence electrons 2. Determine connecLvity 3. Connect atoms with single bonds. Arrange remaining electrons so each atom has complete valence (8 electrons) 4. Pair of bonding (ie shared) electrons shown as single line. Unshared electron pair shown as pair of dots 5. Two pairs of shared electrons = double bonds = double lines Three pairs of shared electrons = triple bonds = triple lines Formal charges Formal charge = valence electrons in neutral atom - (unshared + half of shared) electrons electrons

Sum of formal charges = total charge of molecule/ion

Lewis Model of Bonding


ExcepLons to octet rule Molecules containing Group 3A atoms Due to lack of full octet, highly reacLve