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Adverbs & preposition

Italian French German Italian a aber ma mais als bis col, colla, colle, con avec mit assai Trs molto sehr assez come comme quasi come prima come sopra da doch e,ed et und fine fin troppo tanto ein too much so much a end as before as above from however and enough as very than twice with but French German English Meaning at

alla wieder moins meno wenig peu poco pochettino poch. Pochissimo pochiss subito viel zu etwas mezzo plus pi per non nicht poi noch sino sotto niente gal equale sans ohne immer sempre sul ossia alt bene

In the style of again less little

rather little very little suddenly much too,to rather half more by not then still until below nothing equal without always on the or high well, very

Words for performance direction


Italian French a cappella deux a2 ad libitum la pointe au talon am Froshch al tallone colla parte colla voce coll ottava col legno una corda dtach div enlevez flatterzunge flzg sec secco loco marcato natural obbligato pausa voll rinforzando rfz, rf risoluto sautill schleppen schwach bold, strong springing dragging weak at the normal pitch accented in the ordinary way essential, obligated pause full reinforcing crisp keep with the soloist keep with singer with the octave with the wood ( for strings players) use one string detached divided take up flutter- tonguing at choice use the bow at the point use the bow at the heel German English Meaning unaccompanied for two performers

sonoramente sonore smorz sord sostennuto sotto voce spiccato stark sul tasto tenuto unis. inquieto morendo perdendosi moto mouvt muta pizz ponticello portamento attacca da capo dal segno martellato sfz gebunden glissando mano

with rich tone dying away in tone and speed mute sustained in a undertone detached strong on the fingerboard held in unsion restless dying away movement change (e.g. tuning) plucked bridge (for strings instruments) slide form one note to the next go straight on from the beginning from the sign strongly accented accented connected slide hand

Words for style/character


Italian French affettuoso agitato amabile amoroso amore amour anima animato animando apais appassionato bestimmt bewegt brio calmato cantando cantabile capriccioso capricieux deciso dolce doux einfach semplice dolente dolore duolo Empfindung estinto felice feroce emotion lifeless, soft happy fierce sad sorrow (sad) simple with determination sweet spirit lively more lively calmed with passion definite with movement vigour calm singing in a singing syle imaginative German English Meaning tenderly agitated pleasant loving love

feurig flessible fliessend flottant forza frei fretta frisch frohlich giojoso fuoco giocoso giusto gracieux grandioso grazioso impetuoso innig in relievo joyeux kraftig lacrimoso lamentoso lebhaft leicht leggiero legerement leid Leidenschaft leise lieblich lontanto lointain lourd lugubre lunga

fiery flexible smooth floating force free hurryed vigorous joyful fire playful exact graceful grandly graceful impetuous sincere prominent joyful strong sad lamenting (sorrow) lively light

grief (sorrow) passion soft lovely distant heavy mournful long

lusingando lustig mancando marziale mesto misterioso munter nobilmente nuovo parlando patetico pesante piacevole pietoso placido primo replica rigoroso ruhig slancio soave solenne stark strepitoso suss tacet spiritoso tenerzmente tenerezza tranquillo traurig triste vif vigoroso zart bravura

in a sweet style cheerful fading away in a military style sad mysterious lively nobly() new speaking with deep feeling heavy pleasant tenderly calm first repetition strict peaceful passionate gentle grave strong noisy seet silent spirited tenderly tenderness calm sad sad lively vigorous tender skill, brilliance

calando facile furioso piangevole slancio sospirando trionfale vorgetragen

getting sofer easy fursious plaintive(sorrow) passionate sighing joyful prominent

Words for tempo


Italian French adagietto adagio allegretto allegro andante andantino a piacere breit a tempo cdez comodo doppio movimento en pressant en retenant en serrant gehend geschwind grave incalzando larghetto largo lento librement German English Meaning rather slow slow fairly quick quick at a walking peace slightly faster than andante at pleasure broad in time relax the speed convenient twice as fast hurrying on holding back becoming quicker at a steady speed quick very slow getting quicker rather slow slow slow freely

licenza listesso massig moderato nach und nach perrsser presto ralentir rall. rasch rit. ritmico rubato schnell serrer simile, sim. slentando stringendo tempo vite ziemlich alla breve allargando misura presser stretto largamente precipitando retenu volante volta

freedom the same at a moderate speed gradually hurry fast slow down Getting slower quick Held back rhythmically with some freedom of time fast hurry Continue in the same way getting slower gradually getting faster speed quick moderately with a minim beat broadening measure hurry quickening the speed broadly rushing held back (rit.) fast time