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VMware® Education Services

VMware Infrastructure 3:
Install and Configure

Instructor Manual

ESX Server 3.5 and VirtualCenter 2.5

VMware, Inc.
education@vmware.com
ESX Server 3.5 and VirtualCenter 2.5
Part Number EDU-VI3IC-3525-IG-A
Instructor Manual

All rights reserved. This work and the computer programs to which it relates are the
property of, and embody trade secrets and confidential information proprietary to, VMware,
Inc., and may not be reproduced, copied, disclosed, transferred, adapted or modified
without the express written approval of VMware, Inc.

Copyright/Trademark

This manual and its accompanying materials copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights
reserved. Printed in U.S.A. This document may not, in whole or in part, be copied,
photocopied, reproduced, translated, transmitted, or reduced to any electronic medium or
machine-readable form without prior consent, in writing, from VMware, Inc.
Copyright © 2008 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. VMware and the VMware boxes logo
are registered trademarks of VMware, Inc. MultipleWorlds, GSX Server, and ESX Server
are trademarks of VMware, Inc. Microsoft, Windows and Windows NT are registered
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. All
other marks and names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective owners.

education@vmware.com
CONTENTS

MODULE 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
What is Virtual Infrastructure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
VMware Infrastructure 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Goals of This Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
VCP on VI3 Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Objectives for the Learner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Course Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Course Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

MODULE 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


What is Virtualization? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
What is a Virtual Machine (VM)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Benefits of a Virtual Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
How Does Virtualization Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Host Operating System-Based Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Virtualization Using a Bare-metal Hypervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
VMware Infrastructure 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
ESX Server Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
ESX Server 3i: Embedded Hypervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
VMware Infrastructure Components (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
VMware Infrastructure Components (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Using VMware Infrastructure in a Datacenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Using VDI with VMware Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Using Lab Manager with VMware Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
VMware Online Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Module Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

MODULE 3 ESX Server Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


Lesson 1: ESX Server Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
ESX Server Physical Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Hardware Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Partitioning an x86 Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure i


Mount Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Partitions Created During Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Launch ESX Server Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Early Installer Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Caution: Watch for Unpartitioned LUNs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Build Disk Partitions for the Service Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Recommended Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Advanced Options: Specify Boot Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Configure Service Console Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Perform Remaining Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Confirm and Launch the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
After Installation is Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
ESX Server Physical Console After Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Download the VI Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
VMware Infrastructure (VI) Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
VI Client: Host's Configuration Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
License Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Single-Host Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Configure ESX Server as NTP Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Configure an ESX Server User Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Install Tip #1: Choose Correct NIC for Service Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Install Tip #2: Watch Out for Unpartitioned LUNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Lab for Lesson 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Lesson 2: ESX Server Troubleshooting Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
ESX Server Troubleshooting Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
What Happens If ESX Server Crashes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
What To Do If the ESX Server Crashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Collecting Diagnostics Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Module Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

MODULE 4 Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Lesson 1: Create Virtual Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
A Networking Scenario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Virtual Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

ii VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Virtual Switch Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Example: One-Box Firewall Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Example: A High Performance Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Network Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Connection Type: Service Console Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Connection Type: VMkernel Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Connection Type: Virtual Machine Port Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Defining Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Naming Virtual Switches and Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Mapping vmnics to Physical NICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Lab for Lesson 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Lesson 2: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Virtual Switch Properties: Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Virtual Switch Properties: Network Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Virtual Switch and Connection Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Connection Policies: VLANs (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Connection Policies: VLANs (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Network Policy: Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Network Policy: Traffic Shaping (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Network Policy: Traffic Shaping (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Network Policy: NIC Teaming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Load Balancing Method: vSwitch Port-Based (Default) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Load Balancing Method: Source MAC-Based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Load Balancing Method: IP-Based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Detecting and Handling Network Failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Lab for Lesson 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Module Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

MODULE 5 Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117


Lesson 1: Fibre Channel San Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
What is Fibre Channel (FC)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
How is Fibre Channel Used with ESX Server? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Fibre Channel SAN Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Addressing and Access Control in a Fibre Channel SAN . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

Contents iii
Addressing SAN LUNs in the VMkernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Making SAN Storage Available to ESX Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Where to Find Information on SAN Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Lesson 2: iSCSI SAN Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
What is iSCSI? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
How is iSCSI Used with ESX Server? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Components of an iSCSI SAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Addressing in an iSCSI SAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
How iSCSI Targets are Discovered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
How iSCSI Storage Authenticates the ESX Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
iSCSI Software and Hardware Initiators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
iSCSI Software Initiator Network Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Enable iSCSI Traffic Through the Service Console Firewall . . . . . . . . . 141
Configure the iSCSI Software Initiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Configure Software Initiator: General Properties (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Configure Software Initiator: General Properties (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Configure Software Initiator: Dynamic Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Configure Software Initiator: CHAP Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Discover iSCSI LUNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Problem: Cannot Access iSCSI Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Lab for Lesson 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Lesson 3: VMFS Datastores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
What is a VMFS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Creating a VMFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
VMFS Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Extend a VMFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Add Extent Candidate to VMFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
VMFS Extent List Updated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Multipathing with Fibre Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Multipathing with iSCSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Manage Multiple Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Labs for Lesson 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

iv VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson 4: NAS Storage and NFS Datastores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
What is NAS and NFS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
How is NAS/NFS Used with ESX Server? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
NFS Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Addressing and Access Control with NFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Configure Networking for an NFS Datastore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Configure an NFS Datastore (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Configure an NFS Datastore (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Problem: Cannot Access NFS Datastore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Lab for Lesson 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Module Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

MODULE 6 Virtual Center Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183


Lesson 1: VirtualCenter Software Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
VirtualCenter Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Optional Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
VirtualCenter Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
VirtualCenter Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Order of Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Hardware and Software Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
VirtualCenter Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Calculating the Database Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Database Access Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
VMware License Server (Centralized Licensing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
License Server 14-day Grace Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
VirtualCenter Server Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
VMware Infrastructure (VI) Client Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
ESX Server and VirtualCenter Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Managing Across Geographies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Backup Strategy for VirtualCenter Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Problem: Cannot Login Using VI Client (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Problem: Cannot Login Using VI Client (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
VirtualCenter Server Service Fails To Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
License Server Will Not Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Lab for Lesson 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

Contents v
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
Lesson 2: VirtualCenter Inventory Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
VirtualCenter Inventory: Multiple Datacenters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
VirtualCenter Inventory: Folders and Subfolders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Organizing Objects in the Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
VirtualCenter Inventory: Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
View VirtualCenter Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Problem: Cannot Add Host to Inventory (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Problem: Cannot Add Host to Inventory (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Problem: ESX Server Not Responding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Lab for Lesson 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Lesson 3: Using VirtualCenter to Manage Hosts and VMs . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Lockdown Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Scheduled Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
System Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Plugins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Client Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Module Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

MODULE 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management . . . . . . . . . . 237


Lesson 1: Create a VM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
What is a Virtual Machine (VM)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
What Files Make Up a Virtual Machine? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Display VM's Files Using the VI Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
VM Virtual Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
CPU and Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Virtual Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Create a VM-Other Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Virtual Machine (VM) Console. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Install Guest OS into VM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

vi VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What are the VMware Tools? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
VMware Tools' Configurable Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Lab for Lesson 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Lesson 2: Create Multiple VMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
What is a Template? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Create a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Update a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
View Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Deploy VM from Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Clone a VM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Guest OS Customization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Deploying Across Datacenters (1 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Deploying Across Datacenters (2 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Deploying Across Datacenters (3 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Virtual Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Export VM with OVF Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Import Virtual Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Lab for Lesson 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Lesson 3: VMware Converter Enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
VMware Converter Enterprise Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
VMware Converter Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Installing VMware Converter Enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
VMware Converter Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Hot Cloning - Four Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Cold Cloning - Four Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Importing a Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Cloning Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Changes to Virtual Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Common Converter Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Lab for Lesson 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Lesson 4: Manage VMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Move VM Between ESX servers: Cold Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Snapshot a VM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Modify Virtual Machine Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

Contents vii
Example 1: Add Raw LUN Access to VM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Example 2: Add a Virtual NIC to VM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Example 3: Resize the Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Virtual Machine Properties Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Options - General Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Options - VMware Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Options - Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Options - Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Advanced - Boot Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Swapfile Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Labs for Lesson 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Lesson 5: Guided Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Guided Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Guided Consolidation Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
Physical System Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Add to Analysis (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Add to Analysis (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Set Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Analyze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Plan Consolidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Module Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

MODULE 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323


Lesson 1: VMware Infrastructure User Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Security Model Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Defining Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Pre-defined and Custom Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
How Permissions Are Applied: Scenario 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
How Permissions Are Applied: Scenario 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
How Permissions Are Applied: Scenario 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
How Permissions Are Applied: Scenario 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

viii VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VirtualCenter Security Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Default Permissions for VirtualCenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
ESX Server Security Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Default Permissions for ESX Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Prevent root Access to VI Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Labs for Lesson 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Lesson 2: Accessing VMs Using Web Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
What is Web Access? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Log into Web Access (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Log into Web Access (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Web Access Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Generate Remote Console URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Module Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350

MODULE 9 Resource Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351


Lesson 1: Using Resource Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
VMs' CPU Resource Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
VMs' Memory Resource Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
How VMs Compete for Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
What is a Resource Pool? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Configuring a Pool's Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Viewing Resource Pool Information (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Viewing Resource Pool Information (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Resource Pool Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Resource Pools Example: CPU Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Resource Pools Example: CPU Contention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Expandable Reservation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Example of Expandable Reservation (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Example of Expandable Reservation (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Admission Control for CPU and Memory Reservations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Lab for Lesson 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

Contents ix
Lesson 2: Migrate VMs with VMotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Move VM Between ESX Servers: VMotion Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
How VMotion Works (1 of 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
How VMotion Works (2 of 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
How VMotion Works (3 of 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
How VMotion Works (4 of 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
How VMotion Works (5 of 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
How VMotion Works (6 of 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Virtual Machine Requirements for VMotion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Host Requirements for VMotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
CPU Constraints on VMotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Enable or Disable Nx/xD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Identifying CPU Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Verify VMotion Layout: Use Maps Panel (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Verify VMotion Layout: Use Maps Panel (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Verify VMotion Layout: Use Maps Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Checking VMotion Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Problem: VMotion Fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Lab for Lesson 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Lesson 3: VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler) . . . . . . . . . . 392
What is a DRS Cluster? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Create a DRS Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
DRS Cluster Settings - Automation Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
DRS Cluster Settings - Migration Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
DRS Cluster Settings - Placement Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
DRS Cluster Settings - Automation Level per VM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
DRS Cluster Settings - VM Swapfile Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Add Hosts to Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Best Practices for DRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Lab for Lesson 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Lesson 4: Resource Pools in a VMware DRS Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Resource Pools in a DRS Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
Delegated Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Monitor Cluster Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Adding Host to DRS Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411
Planned Downtime: Maintenance Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412

x VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Problem: Cannot Power on VM (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Problem: Cannot Power on VM (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Lab for Lesson 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Module Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418

MODULE 10 Resource Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419


Lesson 1: Tools for Resource Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Systems for Optimizing VM Resource Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Virtual CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Hardware Execution Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Hyper-Threading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
VMkernel CPU Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Transparent Memory Page Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
vmmemctl: The Balloon-Driver Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
VMkernel Swap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Ballooning vs. VMkernel Swapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Lesson 2: Monitor VM Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Performance Tuning Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Monitoring VM Resource Use with Performance Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Tools for Improving VMs' CPU and Memory Performance . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Are VMs Being CPU-Constrained? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Are VMs Being Memory-Constrained? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Are VMs Being Disk-Constrained? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Are VMs Being Network-Constrained? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Lab for Lesson 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Lesson 3: Monitoring Using Performance-based Alarms. . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
What is an Alarm? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Creating a VM-Based Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Creating a Host-Based Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Alarm Reporting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Actions to Take When an Alarm is Triggered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Using Alarms to Monitor CPU and Memory Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Configure VirtualCenter Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

Contents xi
Lab for Lesson 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Module Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

M O D U L E 11 Data and Availability Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455


Lesson 1: Backup Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
What to Back Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
General Guideline for VM Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Strategies for VM Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
Strategies for Service Console Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Lesson Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Lesson 2: Virtual Machine High Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Clustering Inside VMs for High Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
What is VMware HA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
VMware HA in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
VMware HA Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
VMware HA Host Network Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Create Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Configure Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Failover Capacity Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Add Host to Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Which VMs Should Be Restarted First? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Architecture of a VMware HA Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
What if a Host is Running but Isolated? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Choose Isolation Response per VM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Troubleshooting VMware HA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Lab for Lesson 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Module Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

MODULE 12 Planning VI Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485


Lesson 1: Plan VMware Infrastructure Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
ESX Server 3 Hardware Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
ESX Server Sizing: Core Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
ESX Server Sizing: VM Load Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
ESX Server Sizing: VMkernel Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490

xii VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


ESX Server Sizing: Service Console Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Booting ESX from a Fibre Channel or iSCSI SAN LUN. . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Example: Booting ESX Server from a Fibre Channel SAN LUN . . . . . . 495
Your VirtualCenter Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
VirtualCenter Inventory Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Lesson 2: Storage Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
Storage Comparison-Fibre Channel, NAS, iSCSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
ESX Server Feature Comparison by Storage Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
Storage Considerations (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
Storage Considerations (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
General SAN Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
Two Schemes for Locating Virtual Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Lesson Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
Module Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
Questions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508

Contents xiii
xiv VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure
MODULE 1

Introduction 1

1
Introduction
Virtual Infrastructure 3:
Install and Configure
v3.5

Importance
• This module is intended to set course expectations as well as provide a
general overview for this course.

Objectives for the Learner


• Define Virtual Infrastructure and VMware Infrastructure
• Understand the course goals
• Understand the course objectives
• Get familiar with the course outline

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 1


COURSE TIMING:
This assumes an 8-hour day, which includes 6.5 hours of instruction and 1.5 hours of
breaks/lunch per day:

DAY ONE:

Module 1, Introduction (included student introductions): 30 minutes


Module 2, Virtual Infrastructure Overview: 45 minutes

BREAK: 15 minutes

Module 3, ESX Server Installation


• Lesson 1 - ESX Server Installation: 45 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 1 - Install ESX Server: 60 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 2- Troubleshooting Guidelines: 60 minutes

LUNCH: 60 minutes

Module 4, Networking
• Lesson 1 - Create Virtual Switches: 30 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 1 - Create Virtual Switches and Connections: 15 minutes
• BREAK: 15 minutes
• Lesson 2 - Modify Virtual Switch Configuration: 60 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 2 - Networking Scenario: 30 minutes

2 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


1
DAY TWO:

Introduction
Review of Module 4, Lab for Lesson 2 (Networking Scenario): 20 minutes

Module 5, Storage
• Lesson 1 - Fibre Channel SAN Storage: 25 minutes
• Lesson 2 - iSCSI SAN Storage: 30 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 2 - iSCSI SAN Storage: 30 minute
• BREAK: 15 minutes
• Lesson 3 - VMFS Datastore: 25 minutes
• Labs for Lesson 3 - Create VMFS Datastore: 20 minutes
• Lesson 4 - NAS Storage and NFS Datastores: 30 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 4 - Create NFS Datastore: 20 minutes

LUNCH: 60 minutes

Module 6, VirtualCenter Installation


• Lesson 1 - VirtualCenter Software Installation: 30 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 1 - Install VirtualCenter: 60 minutes
• BREAK: 15 minutes
• Lesson 2 - VirtualCenter Inventory Hierarchy: 20 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 2 - Add ESX Server to Inventory: 20 minutes

Module 7, VM Creation and Management


• Lesson 1 - Create a VM: 25 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 1 - Create a VM: 45 minutes

DAY THREE:

Module 7, VM Creation and Management (Continued)


• Lesson 2 - Create Multiple VMs: 25 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 2 - Template Provisioning: 35 minutes
• Lesson 3 - VMware Converter Enterprise: 30 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 3 - Use VMware Converter to Create Virtual Machines
• Lesson 4- Manage VMs: 20 minutes
• BREAK: 15 minutes
• Labs for Lesson 4: 35 minutes total
• Lesson 5 - Guided Consolidation: 30 minutes

Module 8, Virtual Infrastructure (VI) Access Control


• Lesson 1 - VMware Infrastructure - User Access: 25 minutes
• LUNCH: 60 minutes
• Labs for Lesson 1: 45 minutes total

Module 1 Introduction 3
• Lesson 2 - Accessing VMs using Web Access: 15 minutes
• Activity for Lesson 2 - Log into Web Access and Perform VM Tasks 10 minutes

Module 9, VM Resource Management


• Lesson 1 - Using Resource Pools: 30 minutes
• BREAK: 15 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 1 - Create Resource Pools on a Standalone Host: 20 minutes
• Lesson 2 - Migrate VMs using VMotion: 30 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 2 - VMotion Migrate VMs: 25 minutes
• Lesson 3 - VMware DRS: 30 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 3 - Create a DRS Cluster: 15 minutes
• Lesson 4 - Resource Pools in a DRS Cluster: 25 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 4 - Resource Pools and DRS: 20 minutes

DAY FOUR:

Module 10, VM Resource Monitoring


• Lesson 1 - Tools for Resource Optimization: 25 minutes
• Lesson 2 - Monitor VM Performance: 25 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 2 - Monitor Your Virtual Machines: 40
• BREAK: 15 minutes
• Lesson 3 - Monitoring using Performance-based Alarms: 20 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 3 - Use Alarms to Detect VM State Changes: 30

Module 11, Data and Availability Protection


• Lesson 1 - Backup Strategies: 20 minutes
• LUNCH: 60 minutes
• Lesson 2 - High Availability Strategies: 30 minutes
• Lab for Lesson 2 - Create a VMware HA Cluster: 30 minutes

Module 12, Planning VI Deployment


• BREAK: 15 minutes
• Lesson 1 - Plan ESX Server and VirtualCenter Deployment: 30 minutes
• Lesson 2 - Storage Considerations: 15 minutes

4 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What is Virtual Infrastructure?

1
Introduction
Virtual Infrastructure allows dynamic mapping of compute, storage,
and network resources to business applications
In traditional datacenters, there is a tight relationship among particular
computers, particular disk drives, particular network ports, and the
applications they support. VMware's Virtual Infrastructure allows us to
break those bonds. Virtual Infrastructure allows the dynamic mapping of
compute, storage and network resources to business applications.
A famous aspect of VMware's Virtual Infrastructure is the VMotion feature,
which allows a running virtual machine to be moved from one server to
another with minimal interruption. This is possible because VMware
detaches the operating system and its applications from the hardware they
run on. But Virtual Infrastructure enables many other flexible management
techniques, which we will learn in this course.

Module 1 Introduction 5
VMware Infrastructure 3

• A software suite for optimizing and managing


IT environments through virtualization
• VMware ESX Server or ESX Server 3i
• VMware Virtual SMP
• VMware High Availability (HA)
• VMware VMotion
• VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS)
• VMware VMFS
• VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB)
• VMware Update Manager
• VMware Storage VMotion
• VMware VirtualCenter
• Provisions, monitors and manages a virtualized IT
environment

VMware Infrastructure 3 is a suite of software for optimizing and managing


IT environments through virtualization. In this course, we will focus on
installing and configuring VMware ESX Server and VMware VirtualCenter.
We will also learn about the following additional features: VMware Virtual
SMP, VMware High Availability (HA), VMware VMotion, VMware
Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) and VMware VMFS.

NOTE

VMware Consolidated Backup, VMware Update Manager and VMware


Storage VMotion are covered in the course, VI3: Deploy, Secure and
Analyze.

6 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Goals of This Course

1
Introduction
• To prepare you to manage your virtual
infrastructure environment, with emphasis on
ESX Server and VirtualCenter
• To prepare you to achieve the status of
VMware Certified Professional (VCP on VI3)

We plan to teach you how to administer ESX Server and virtual machines
using it. We also plan to teach you how to administer VirtualCenter and
take advantage of its capabilities to manage ESX Servers and their virtual
machines.
This course is also required to achieve the status of VMware Certified
Professional on VI3.

Module 1 Introduction 7
VCP on VI3 Certification

• The VMware Certified Professional (VCP)


Program
• For technical individuals who want to
demonstrate their VI expertise and advance
their career
• Three steps to become a VCP
1. Participate in a VMware authorized course
2. Gain hands-on experience with VMware
3. Enroll and pass the certification exam

The VMware Certified Professional Program is designed for any technical


individual -- partners, end-users, resellers, and consultants - who wants to
demonstrate their expertise in virtual infrastructure and increase his
potential for career advancement.
Becoming a VMware Certified Professional is a straightforward, three-step
process:
1 Participate in a VMware authorized course that is instructor-led to learn
best practices and gain hands-on experience. If you are a current VCP,
there are no course prerequisites.
2 Gain hands-on experience with VMware. Individuals who do not have
the hands on experience find it very difficult to pass the exam.
3 Enroll and pass the certification exam. To register to take the VMware
Certified Professional examination please contact Pearson VUE, a third-
party testing center at www.pearsonvue.com/vmware.
To best prepare for this course, we recommend using the VI3 exam
blueprint as a study guide. The blueprint includes the list of topics covered
in the exam as well as references for these topics, such as the VMware
product documentation and the VMware Web site. The blueprint is available
on the VMware Certification Web page at http://mylearn1.vmware.com/
portals/certification.

NOTE

This course will give you most of the information you need for the exam,
but not everything. Use the VI3 exam blueprint as a reference tool when

8 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


preparing for the exam. Hands-on experience is also a key component to

1
passing the exam.

Introduction

Module 1 Introduction 9
Objectives for the Learner

• Install ESX Server


• Configure networking and storage for the ESX Server
• Create VMFS and NFS datastores for the ESX Server
• Install and configure VirtualCenter
• Deploy virtual machines using templates and VMware Converter
Enterprise
• Implement virtual infrastructure access policies
• Manage virtual machines’ access to resources using shares,
resource pools, VMotion, and VMware DRS
• Provide virtual machines with high availability using VMware HA
• Plan a basic Virtual Infrastructure deployment
• Troubleshoot common Virtual Infrastructure problems
This course is specifically This course discusses and demonstrates the benefits of using virtual
named "Install and
Configure" because the
infrastructure, guidelines for installing and configuring ESX Server and
main focus of this course VirtualCenter, components that make up the products; various tasks that can
is the tasks of installation be performed on virtual machines including deploying and migrating VMs,
and configuration.
and ways to monitor virtual machine and ESX Server activity. This course
It is recommended that also introduces other components of VMware Infrastructure: VMware DRS,
you get familiar with the VMware HA and VMware Consolidated Backup.
topics covered in the
VI3:Deploy, Secure and
• Installation of ESX Server
Analyze course. If a
student asks about a topic • Configuration of networking, storage, and datastores for the ESX Server
that is not in this course,
you can tell him/her if it is • Installation of VirtualCenter
covered in the DSA
course. • Configuration of virtual machines and installation of the guest OS
• Configuration of user access to virtual machines
• Configuration of shares, resource pools, VMotion and VMware DRS
• Configuration of VMware HA
• Troubleshooting common Virtual Infrastructure problems
• Planning-related topics are discussed, such as planning your ESX Server
deployment, planning your VirtualCenter deployment, and planning
your storage. These topics are presented to help users take an initial
pass at planning their Virtual Infrastructure environment.
• Backup strategies and high availability strategies are discussed in order
to get users to start thinking about these important tasks.

10 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Course Outline

1
Introduction
1. Introduction
2. Virtual Infrastructure Overview
3. ESX Server Installation
4. Networking
5. Storage
6. VirtualCenter Installation
7. VM Creation and Management
8. Virtual Infrastructure Access Control
9. Resource Management
10.Resource Monitoring
11.Data and Availability Protection
12.Planning Virtual Infrastructure Deployment
These are the modules presented in the course and are usually presented in
sequence. The daily schedule of topics will be covered by your instructor.

For course timing, see the Guidance for Instructor note on slide 1.

Module 1 Introduction 11
Course Map

Virtual Infrastructure Operations


Virtual Infrastructure
ESX Server InstallationOverview VI
ESXAccess
ServerControl
Installation

ESX Server Installation


Networking NetworkingManagement
Resource
Storage
Networking Storage
Resource Monitoring
ESX Server Installation
Storage ESX Server Installation
Data and Availability Protection
VirtualCenter Installation

VM Creation and Management Planning VI Deployment

This course's modules fall into two categories:


• Modules in the Virtual Infrastructure category discuss system-wide
technologies.
• Module in the Operations category concerns features related to ongoing
day-to-day management of a virtual infrastructure.
Each module contains one or more lessons, most of which consist of a
lecture and one or more laboratory exercises.
This course map, also referred to as the "You Are Here" diagram, will be
used throughout the course to indicate our progress.

12 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Questions?

1
Introduction
Questions?

Module 1 Introduction 13
14 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure
MODULE 2

Virtual Infrastructure
Overview 2

2
Virtual Infrastructure Overview
Importance
• Virtualization is a technology that is revolutionizing the computer
industry. It is the foundational technology for VMware Infrastructure.
This module introduces the topic to students who are new to
virtualization.

Objectives for the Learner


• Understand the concept of virtualization
• Identify the differences between host-based virtualization and bare-
metal hypervisors
• Identify the benefits of using a virtual machine

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 15


What is Virtualization?

• Virtualization is a technology that allows


you to transform hardware into software
• Virtualization allows you to run multiple
operating systems simultaneously on a
single computer
• Each copy of an operating system is
installed into a virtual machine
• Virtualization is not:
• Simulation
• Emulation

Instructor, to prepare As desktop and server processing capacity has consistently increased year
yourself to discuss
virtualization, it is
after year, virtualization has proved to be a powerful technology to simplify
recommended to read the software development and testing, to enable server consolidation, and to
white paper, enhance datacenter agility and business continuity. As it turns out, fully
Understanding Full
Virtualization, abstracting the operating system and applications from the hardware and
Paravirtualization, and encapsulating them into portable virtual machines has enabled virtual
Hardware Assist, available infrastructure features simply not possible with hardware alone. For
on the VMware Web site at
http://www.vmware.com/ example, servers can now run in extremely fault tolerant configurations on
files/pdf/ virtual infrastructure 24x7x365 with no downtime needed for backups or
VMware_paravirtualization
hardware maintenance.
.pdf, which provides a very
good discussion on x86
virtualization.
Virtualization is an architecture that allows you to run multiple operating
systems simultaneously on a single computer. Each copy of an operating
system is installed into its own virtual machine.
Virtualization is often confused with simulation and emulation. It is neither
of these things.
Simulation is something that looks like something else. A Flight Simulator
is a well known example in common usage. This is a machine (or a
computer program) that can make it look like you are flying a plane.
Virtualization is not simulation. The actual operating system is installed on
the virtualized hardware.
Emulations requires software to translate commands for the emulated
hardware into commands the real hardware can understand. This translation
process is slow, and usually causes software packages running inside an
emulator to run slowly. Also emulation packages can sometimes fail to

16 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


translate correctly some of the machine-language commands. Virtualization
is not emulation. No command translations are taking place when using
VMware virtualization products.
Additional information on simulation and emulation:
A good simulation example in the computer industry is a Cisco IOS simulator. The Cisco

2
corporation developed a special standardized operating system called IOS to run its network
routers, switches, and firewalls. Some software-based training tools for Cisco come with an

Virtual Infrastructure Overview


IOS simulator. The student starts the simulator and is able to enter IOS commands. The
simulator looks like a network router or switch running IOS. But the Cisco IOS operating
system is not really running on the computer.
Emulation is software that acts like something else. Usually emulators are hardware-
emulators. This is where a program running on one type of hardware emulates some other
hardware in order to enable you to run a specific program that requires that hardware. A well
known example is a game console emulator. This could enable you to run game software
designed for a specific hardware game system (such as X-Box, Nintendo, Playstation, etc.)
on an Intel-PC.
Another type of emulator is where computer hardware is emulated. This could allow you to
run an operating system that requires different hardware than what is installed in your
computer. For example the MAC Operating System normally requires special computer
hardware manufactured by the Apple corporation. An emulator could allow you to run the
MAC OS on an Intel-based PC. A different kind of emulator could allow you to run a copy of
Windows on a MAC. Other emulators exist for SPARC and PowerPC hardware.

Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 17


What is a Virtual Machine (VM)?

• A software platform that,


like a physical computer,
runs an operating system
and applications
• A discrete set of files, the
main files being
• Configuration file
• Virtual disk file
• File for NVRAM settings
• Log file Virtual Machine

Cover this slide briefly. Do A virtual machine is a software platform that, like a physical computer, runs
not get into a discussion of
virtual machine’s files at
an operating system and applications. An operating system that has been
this time. Defer to module virtualized is called a “guest” operating system. One supported guest
6. operating system runs in each virtual machine that is created. Each virtual
machine is completely independent and can have its own applications and
its own security.
From the perspective of the ESX Server, a virtual machine is a discrete set
of files, including a configuration file, virtual disk files, a file for NVRAM
settings, and a log file. Virtual machines are portable. They can be easily
backed up and easily cloned. They are just an encapsulated set of files.

NOTE

Virtual machines will be discussed in detail in Module 6, VM Creation and


Management.

18 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Benefits of a Virtual Machine

Physical Machine Virtual Machine

2
• Difficult to move or copy • Easy to move and copy
• Bound to a specific set of • Encapsulated into files

Virtual Infrastructure Overview


hardware • Independent of physical
• Often has short life cycle hardware
• Easy to manage
• Requires personal contact
to upgrade hardware • Isolated from other
virtual machines
• Difficult to manage remotely running on the
same physical
hardware
• Insulated from
physical-hardware
changes

In a physical machine the operating system (Windows, UNIX, Linux, etc.)


is installed directly on the hardware. This requires specific device drivers to
support specific hardware. If the computer is upgraded with new hardware
new device drivers are required. Actual hardware upgrades also require
direct hands-on contact by tech support personnel. Also, physical machines
are often difficult to manage remotely.
Virtual machines though are 100% software. The VM is nothing more that a
set of files. This includes files known as virtual disks that replace hard disk
storage. All of the files for a single VM are located in one directory. Since it
uses standardized virtual device-drivers the hardware can be upgraded
without any change to the virtual machine.
Multiple VMs are isolated from each other. So now you can have your
database server and your email server running on the same physical
computer. The isolation between the virtual machines means that software
dependency conflicts and performance tuning conflicts are not a problem.
Since a virtual machine is just a set of files it is very simple to move the
entire VM to a new server in order to perform hardware upgrades. This also
makes disaster recovery planning and testing much easier.

Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 19


How Does Virtualization Work?

• Allows multiple
operating system
instances to run
concurrently within
virtual machines on
a single computer
• A virtualization layer
is installed, which
uses either a hosted
or hypervisor
architecture

The term virtualization broadly describes the separation of a service request


from the underlying physical delivery of that service. With x86 computer
virtualization, a virtualization layer is added between the hardware and
operating system. This virtualization layer allows multiple operating system
instances to run concurrently within virtual machines on a single computer,
dynamically partitioning and sharing the available physical resources such
as CPU, storage, memory and I/O devices.
A virtualization layer or platform is installed on the physical server. For
industry standard x86 systems, virtualization approaches use either a hosted
or a hypervisor architecture.

20 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Host Operating System-Based Virtualization

2
Virtual Infrastructure Overview
A host-based virtualization system requires
an operating system (such as Windows or
Linux) to be installed on the computer
A hosted architecture, or host operating-system (host-based) virtualization,
installs and runs the virtualization layer as an application on top of an
operating system and supports the broadest range of hardware
configurations.
For example, VMware Server is a free application that can be installed on a
supported Windows or Linux system and provides host-based virtualization.
Once VMware Server is installed, virtual machines can be created and
employed.
Other VMware applications that employ a hosted architecture are VMware
Player, ACE, and Workstation.

Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 21


Virtualization Using a Bare-metal Hypervisor

A bare-metal hypervisor system does not


require an operating system. The hypervisor
is the operating system.
In contrast, a hypervisor (bare-metal) architecture installs the virtualization
layer directly on a clean x86-based system. Since it has direct access to the
hardware resources rather than going through an operating system, a
hypervisor is more efficient than a hosted architecture and delivers greater
scalability, robustness and performance.
A hypervisor is the primary component of virtualization that enables basic
computer system partitioning (i.e., simple partitioning of CPU, Memory and
I/O). ESX Server employs a hypervisor architecture on certified hardware
for datacenter class performance.

NOTE

For a very good discussion on virtualization, consult the white paper,


Understanding Full Virtualization, Paravirtualization, and Hardware Assist,
available on the VMware Web site at http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/
VMware_paravirtualization.pdf.

22 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMware Infrastructure 3

• A software suite for optimizing and managing


IT environments through virtualization

2
• VMware ESX Server or ESX Server 3i
• VMware Virtual SMP

Virtual Infrastructure Overview


• VMware High Availability (HA)
• VMware VMotion
• VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS)
• VMware VMFS
• VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB)
• VMware Update Manager
• VMware Storage VMotion
• VMware VirtualCenter
• Provisions, monitors and manages a virtualized IT
environment

VMware Infrastructure 3 is VMware’s product family designed for building The VMware Web site lists
the VMware Infrastructure
and managing virtual infrastructures. It is a suite of software that provides 3 products in this way.
virtualization, management, resource optimization, application availability Even though VirtualCenter
and operational capabilities. is not part of the VMware
Infrastructure 3 software
VMware Infrastructure 3 consists of the following products: suite, it is a key
component of the Virtual
Infrastructure.
• VMware ESX Server 3 and ESX Server 3i: Bare metal hypervisors that
partition physical servers in multiple virtual machines. They form the Also note what is NOT
foundation of the VMware Infrastructure 3 suite covered in the course. See
the Note below.
• VMware Virtual SMP: Multi-processor support (up to 4) for virtual
machines
• VMware High Availability (HA): VirtualCenter's high availability feature
for virtual machines
• VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS): VirtualCenter's feature
for dynamic balancing and allocation of resources for virtual machines
• VMware VMotion: Migration of virtual machines while they are
powered on
• VMware VMFS: Technology unique to VMware, it is the default storage
system for virtual machine files on physical SCSI disks and partitions
• VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB): Centralized backup software for
virtual machines
• VMware Update Manager: Manage tracking and patching of ESX
ServerESX Servers, as well as select Windows and Linux virtual
machines.

Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 23


• VMware Storage VMotion: Migration of virtual machines while they are
powered on and relocating virtual machine disk files between and across
shared storage locations.
VMware VirtualCenter is a centralized management tool for ESX Servers
and virtual machines. VirtualCenter lets you provision virtual machines,
monitor performance of ESX Servers and virtual machines, optimizes
resources, and ensures high availability.

NOTE

ESX Server 3i is covered in a separate, eLearning course.


VMware Consolidated Backup, VMware Update Manager and VMware
Storage VMotion are not covered in this course. They are covered in the
course, VI3: Deploy, Secure and Analyze.

24 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


ESX Server Architecture

2
Virtual Infrastructure Overview
VMkernel

x86
Architecture

Under ESX Server, applications running within virtual machines access Additional Information ==>
Does the service console
CPU, memory, disk, and network interfaces without direct access to the still manage cdrom and
underlying hardware. The ESX Server's hypervisor (virtualization layer) is floppy for the VM?
nown as the VMkernel. The VMkernel intercepts these requests and Management of the cdrom
and floppy is done by the
presents them to the physical hardware. VM's user world. In ESX
Server 3, the concept of a
The service console supports administrative functions for the ESX Server. world is broadened. Now
The service console is based on a modified version of Red Hat Enterprise VMware engineers can
create general-purpose
Linux 3 (Update 6). Users of ESX Server who use the command line find
binaries (that aren't
that Red Hat Linux experience, or experience with other versions of Unix- monitors) to run under the
family operating systems, can be very helpful to them. VMkernel. This is how
mouse, keyboard, CD-
The VMkernel always assumes that it is running on top of valid, properly ROM, and floppy are
implemented for ESX
functioning x86 hardware. Hardware failures, such as the failure of any Server 3. It's a win
physical CPU, can cause ESX Server to fail. If you are concerned about the because there's no longer
reliability of your server hardware, the best approach is to cluster either a bottleneck in the service
console.
virtual machines or ESX Servers. High availability strategies are discussed
later on in the course.
ESX 3 is supported on Intel processors, Xeon and above, or AMD Opteron
(32-bit mode) processors. ESX 3 offers support for a number of 64-bit
guest operating systems.
For the complete list of supported systems for ESX Server, consult the ESX
Server 3.x Systems Compatibility Guide, available on the VMware Web site
at http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/vi_pubs.html.

Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 25


ESX Server 3i: Embedded Hypervisor

• Compact, 32MB footprint


• Only architecture with no reliance on a general
purpose OS
• Integration in hardware eliminates installation
of ESX
• Intuitive wizard driven start up experience
dramatically reduces deployment time
• Standards-based management of the
underlying hardware
• Server boot to running virtual machines in
minutes
• Simplified management
• Increased security and reliability

Again, if a student asks, ESX Server 3i is the next generation, thin hypervisor integrated in server
this course focuses on
installing and configuring
hardware:
ESX Server, not ESX
Server 3i. • Hypervisor: on its own, ESX Server 3i offers basic partitioning of server
resources. Howerver, it also acts as the foundation for virtual
infrastructure software, enabling VMotion, DRS, etc, the keys to the
dynamic, automated datacenter
• Thin architecture: Small footprint (32 mb) for security, reliability and
simplified management
• Server integration: Default feature makes deployment easy and fast
Additional functionality on top of the hypervisor just requires the right
licenses, not any changes to the code itself. No reinstalls and no VMFS
changes to go from running a standalone instance of the hypervisor to a full
VI3 Enterprise deployment.
Management is simplified because no Linux command line skills are
required, no user accounts or passwords need to be created and maintained,
and no OS security hardening, antivirus, or backup effort is required.
Security and reliability is increased because fewer interfaces minimize the
attack profile, a locked-down, BIOS-like interface prevents users from

26 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


running arbitrary code, and there is no dependence on failure-prone hard-
drives, which enables disk-less servers.
Additional information on standalone availability:
In addition to OEM-branded/embedded hardware, customers can download a standalone,
hard disk-installable version of ESX Server 3i from VMware to install on their own rather

2
than getting it only through the hardware they buy. This standalone version may have a
smaller compatibility list as compared to ESX Server 3. ESX Server 3i is an easy way to get
started with virtualization for new customers.

Virtual Infrastructure Overview

Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 27


VMware Infrastructure Components (1 of 2)

This graphic shows the To run your VMware Infrastructure environment, you need at least the
VMware Infrastructure
components without
following items:
VirtualCenter. The next
graphic includes • ESX Server: A virtualization platform used to create the virtual
VirtualCenter. machines as a set of configuration and disk files that together perform
all the functions of a physical machine. The server provides
bootstrapping, management, and other services that manage your virtual
machines.
• VI Client: A graphical user interface used to access either an ESX
Server or VirtualCenter Server.
• Datastore: The storage locations for the virtual machine files specified
when creating virtual machines. Datastores hide the idiosyncrasies of
various storage options (such as VMFS volumes on local SCSI disks of
the server, the Fibre Channel SAN disk arrays, the iSCSI SAN disk
arrays, or Network Attached Storage (NAS arrays) and provide a
uniform model for various storage products required by virtual
machines.
• Host Agent: On each managed host, software that collects,
communicates, and executes the actions received through the VI Client.
It is installed as part of the ESX Server installation.

28 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMware Infrastructure Components (2 of 2)

2
Virtual Infrastructure Overview
In many environments, an additional component, VirtualCenter, is added to The purpose of this and
the previous graphic is to
manage the infrastructure: set the stage of topics to
come. This graphic shows
• VirtualCenter Management Server (VirtualCenter Server): The working the main components,
core of VirtualCenter. VirtualCenter Server is a single Windows Service which we discuss in the
and is installed to run automatically. As a Windows Service, the course.

VirtualCenter Server runs continuously in the background, performing


its monitoring and managing activities even when no VI Clients are
connected and even if nobody is logged on to the computer where it
resides. It must have network access to all the hosts it manages and be
available for network access from any machine where the VI Client is
run.
• VirtualCenter Database: A persistent storage area for maintaining status
of each virtual machine, host and user managed in the VirtualCenter
environment. The VirtualCenter database can be remote or local to the
VirtualCenter Server machine and is installed and configured during the
VirtualCenter installation. If you are accessing your ESX Server directly
through a VI Client, and not through a VirtualCenter Server and
associated VI Client, you do not use the VirtualCenter database.
• VirtualCenter License Server: A server that stores software licenses
required for most operations in VirtualCenter and ESX Server, such as
powering on a virtual machine.
• VirtualCenter Agent: On each managed host, software that collects,
communicates and executes the actions received from the VirtualCenter
Server. The VirtualCenter Agent is installed the first time any host is
added to the VirtualCenter inventory.

Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 29


• Shared Datastores: Datastores can be shared between one or more ESX
Servers. This fundamental design allows VirtualCenter features such as
VMotion, VMware DRS and VMware HA to function properly.

30 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Using VMware Infrastructure in a Datacenter

2
• Create a

Virtual Infrastructure Overview


responsive
data center
with a
virtualized IT
infrastructure

VMware Infrastructure is most commonly used in the datacenter. datacenter Now that the students
know what the VMware
administrators use VMware Infrastructure for: Infrastructure is, let’s give
them three examples of
• Solving the problems of server proliferation (lack of space, power and how it is used. The first
cooling in server rooms) by replacing single application servers with and foremost example is
virtual machines consolidated onto a much smaller number of physical using VMware
Infrastructure to virtualize
hosts, a datacenter. The VMware
Infrastructure software
• Making better use of server hardware by deploying new servers in
components are
virtual machines to avoid adding more underutilized servers to the highlighted with an orange
datacenter box.

• Provisioning new servers in virtual machines, which takes minutes


compared to days or weeks for provisioning a physical server

Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 31


Using VDI with VMware Infrastructure

The second example is to VMware Infrastructure is the foundation for the VMware Virtual Desktop
use VMware Infrastructure
to host individual desktops
infrastructure (VDI).
using VDI.
With VDI, companies can host individual desktops inside virtual machines
that are running in their datacenter. Users access these desktops remotely
from a PC or a thin client using a remote display protocol. Since
applications are managed centrally at the corporate datacenter, organizations
gain better control over their desktops. Installations, upgrades, patches and
backups can be done with more confidence without user intervention.

32 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Using Lab Manager with VMware
Infrastructure

2
Virtual Infrastructure Overview
VMware Infrastructure can be used with VMware Lab Manager to support The third example is to use
VMware Infrastructure to
the software lifecycle process. support the software
lifecycle process using
VMware Lab Manager provides the ability to: VMware Lab Manager.

• Allocate resources on an as-needed basis instead of maintaining


multiple static systems that are only used sporadically. Resources can be
pooled and shared between development and test teams for maximum
utilization.
• Provision new machines nearly instantly. Software developers and QA
engineers can fulfill their own provisioning needs, instead of IT doing it
for them.
• Quickly reproduce software defects and resolve them earlier in the
software lifecycle and ensure higher quality software and systems.

Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 33


VMware Online Resources

• VMware Technology Network (VMTN)


http://www.vmware.com/vmtn
• Start a discussion
• Access documentation
• Access the Knowledge Base
• Access technical papers and compatibility guides
• Access various communities
• VMware Technical Support
http://www.vmware.com/support

Making full use of VMware technical support resources will save you time
and money. The first place to come is VMware's extensive web-based
resources. The web site contains troubleshooting tips that are not in the
printed manuals; it also contains a constantly updated Knowledge Base.
The VMware Technology Network (VMTN) provides tools and knowledge
to help VMware users maximize their investment in VMware products and
to help them understand what is happening in virtual infrastructure. VMTN
provides information about virtualization technology through technical
papers, documentation, a knowledge base, discussion forums, user groups
and technical newsletters. It also provides virtual appliances, a collection of
free, pre-built, pre-configured and ready-to-run software applications, all
packaged within virtual machines and available for download to any user.

34 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Module Summary

• Virtualization is a revolutionary computer technology

2
that allows you to transform hardware into software

Virtual Infrastructure Overview


• Virtual machines are easy to manage, move, and
copy because they are encapsulated in a set of files
• VMware has both Bare-Metal Hypervisor and Host-
Based Hypervisor products for virtualization

Module 2 Virtual Infrastructure Overview 35


Questions?

Questions?

36 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


MODULE 3

ESX Server Installation 3

3
ESX Server Installation
Importance
• ESX Server is the platform on which virtual machines run. It provides
the virtual machine with all its CPU, memory, disk and network
resources..

Objectives for the Learner


• Install ESX Server on a local volume
• Use the VMware Infrastructure (VI) Client
• Configure single host licensing

Module Lessons
• ESX Server Installation
• ESX Server Troubleshooting Guidelines

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 37


Lesson 1

ESX Server Installation :

Lesson Topics
• ESX Server disk partitions
• ESX Server install procedure
• VMware Infrastructure (VI) Client
• Single host licensing

38 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


ESX Server Physical Setup

• Service console and VMkernel components are installed


on either local disk or storage network-based disk

3
ESX Server Installation
There are some key things to consider when planning an ESX Server
installation:
• Physical connectivity from the ESX Server to the virtual machine
network
• Physical connectivity from the ESX Server to the management network
• Installing the software components on either local disk or storage
network-based disk (such as Fibre Channel or iSCSI)
Boot from storage network-based disks are supported. This method can
provide a solution in cases where it would provide an easy means of
replication for the boot disk using storage network-based utilities and if
there is no local disk, such as in a blade server environment. Supported
hardware technologies for boot disks include local SCSI, IDE/ATA drive or
storage networks.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 39


Hardware Prerequisites

• Processor – Two 1500MHz or higher Intel or AMD x86


processors
• Memory – 1GB RAM minimum, 256 GB maximum
• Networking – 1 or more Ethernet interfaces
• 10 Gigabit Ethernet NIC cards are supported
• For best performance and security, use separate Ethernet
controllers for the service console and the virtual machines
• Disk storage
• A SCSI adapter, Fibre Channel adapter, iSCSI adapter or
internal RAID controller
• A SCSI disk, Fibre Channel LUN, iSCSI disk or RAID LUN
with unpartitioned space
Your server must meet the minimum set of requirements needed to install
ESX Server 3:
• At least two processors
• At least 1 GB of physical memory (RAM)
• One or more Ethernet interfaces
• A basic SCSI controller, Fibre Channel adapter, iSCSI adapter or
internal RAID controller:
• A SCSI disk, Fibre Channel LUN, iSCSI LUN or RAID LUN with
unpartitioned space: The ESX Server software components take up less
than 4 GB of disk space. The remainder of the space can be used to hold
virtual machines.
Storage of virtual ESX Server 3 supports installing and booting from:
machines is currently not
supported on IDE/ATA • IDE/ATA disk drive or a serial ATA (SATA) disk drive, provided they
drives or RAIDs. VMs
must be stored on VMFS are connected through supported controllers.
volumes configured on a • SCSI disk drives
SCSI or SATA drive, a
SCSI RAID, or a storage • Storage networks
network. The vmkcore
partition must also be For details on the minimum server hardware requirements for ESX Server,
located on a SCSI disk, consult the Installation Guide, available on the VMware Web site.
not an ATA/SATA disk.
For details on supported hardware, consult the Hardware Compatibility
Guide, available on the VMware Web site.

40 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Partitioning an x86 Disk

3
ESX Server Installation
• Wrong • Right

x86-based disks can have a maximum of four primary partitions. x86-based With Red Hat Linux, IDE
disks can have up to 63
operating systems use this partitioning scheme. In order to break the four- partitions and SCSI disks
partition limitation, an extended partition can be created. Within the can have up to 15.
extended partition, logical partitions further subdivide the space. It is
recommended that you create an extended partition. Creating the extended
partition is done for you by the ESX installer.
What if I deliberately make a disk with four partitions that exhaust all the
space on the disk surface - is that a wrong thing to do? No, but usually we
want the flexibility to make any number of partitions, not just four. Making
the fourth partition an extended partition gives us that flexibility with no
cost in performance.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 41


Mount Points

Physical disk Windows Linux/Unix

Disk space consumption in


each directory is capped by
the size of its partition

Unlike the Windows operating system, which uses drive letters to define
top-level "root" partitions (such as C:\, D:\ and E:\, all peers of each other),
every Linux file system is mounted on a separate directory under root (/).
This directory is called a "mount point". Linux file systems are mounted
during the boot process to create a single file system hierarchy.

42 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


The configuration file that manages the mapping of service console file
systems to mount points is /etc/fstab.
Do not use this slide as the place to discuss the details of the service console file structure.
This slide is intended to illustrate the concept of mount points in general, because many
students from a Windows background will not be familiar with mount points:
• Windows system administrators may not be familiar with the concept of mount points.
This term can actually be applied to both Windows and UNIX/Linux systems.
• A Windows mount point is used to map a disk or partition to a drive letter. You can map
multiple disks to different drive letters. The amount of disk space available in any folder
depends on what drive letter you are sitting at.

3
• UNIX and Linux do not have drive letters. So, how do you know what disk you are on?
UNIX/Linux uses the concept of mount points. These mount points are used to assemble

ESX Server Installation


a tree, basically a unified structure of files and folders that physically reside in different
partitions.
• In the example in the slide, you have a disk with different partitions, colored orange,
green and blue.
• On a Windows system, you might map the orange partition to drive letter C, the green
partition to drive letter D and the blue partition to drive letter E.
• On a UNIX or Linux system, you choose one partition to contain the root file system, in
this example, the root file system is in the green partition. Empty folders in the root file
system are created to serve as mount points to other partitions.
• For example, if you look at the second row of green folders, the 1st folder in that row is a
mount point for the orange partition and the 2nd folder in that row is the mount point for
the blue partition.
• So, if you are sitting in a blue folder, what determines the amount of disk space that that
folder will get? Answer: The size of the blue partition determines the maximum amount of
disk space.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 43


Partitions Created During Installation

Approximate
Mount point Which disk? Type Use
size
/boot Main boot 100 MB ext3 boot
/ Main boot 5 GB ext3 Service root
(none) Main boot 544 MB swap console swap
/var/log Main boot 2 GB ext3 Log files
(available under Any local or VM’s Files,
Varies VMFS-3
/vmfs/volumes) remote ISO images
VMkernel
Any local or
(none) 100 MB vmkcore core dump
remote

Note that VMFS and The following partitions are required for the installation of an ESX Server:
vmkcore partitions can
/boot, swap, /, VMFS-3 and vmkcore. The partition, /var/log, is
only live on SCSI disks,
not IDE/ATA disks, which optional. VMware recommends a separate partition for log files to prevent
service console partitions filling up the root (/) file system with large log files. The minimum size is
can reside.
500 MB, but VMware recommends 2000 MB for the log partition.
None of these file systems will be filled completely during installation. We
want to each to have free space so that the service console functions
properly over its lifespan.
The VMFS-3 partition holds a VMware File System (VMFS). A VMFS is a
file system that is optimized for storing virtual machines. The VMkernel
core dump partition is only used in the event of a serious error inside ESX
Server. If ESX Server crashes, it records a post-mortem in this partition so
that VMware Support can diagnose the problem.
ISO images provide software to virtual machines once they are mapped to
the virtual machine’s virtual CD drive. There are three locations for storing
ISO Images: VMFS datastore, NFS datastore and the /vmimages directory
on the service console. Storing ISO images on a VMFS or NFS datastore
allows you to share the ISO images across multiple ESX Servers, as long as
the datastore is visible to the ESX Server. Storing ISO images in the service
console's /vmimages directory makes images available to that ESX Server
only. Furthermore, by default, the /vmimages directory is part of the service
console's root file system. If you make /vmimages its own partition, then
that is a better alternative. In general, we recommend using a VMFS or NFS
datastore to store your ISO images.

44 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


In addition to /var/log, the /opt directory is also used to hold log files,
specifically for the VMware HA product. Therefore, you might consider
having a dedicated partition for /opt as well.

3
ESX Server Installation

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 45


Launch ESX Server Installation

• Launch the installation (default is graphical mode)

The ESX installer runs in one of two modes, graphical or text. If no key is
pressed within 1 minute, the installation will proceed in graphical mode.
Graphical mode is the typical mode to choose, however, installing in text
mode can be useful if you are accessing the ESX Server console using a
remote management network adapter and the network between the remote
console and the ESX Server is slow.

46 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Early Installer Steps

• CD media test
• Choose Install,
not Upgrade
• Use mouse or

3
TAB to move
past welcome

ESX Server Installation


screen
• Specify your
keyboard and
mouse type
• Accept license
agreement
The CD Media Test provides an opportunity to validate a downloaded ISO
image prior to installing.
Upgrade will allow preservation of an existing ESX Server install and
maintain all current configuration files and directories. Install will reformat
the boot disk and install new software and configuration files.
The keyboard and mouse options will permit additional keyboard languages
to be identified. Mouse configurations are not a critical setting. After
installation, the mouse setting is ignored since X Windows System (Linux'
graphical user interface) is not supported from the service console.
Acceptance of the license agreement is required to complete installation.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 47


Caution: Watch for Unpartitioned LUNs

• If any LUNs are unpartitioned (either local or on the


SAN), you will receive a pop-up warning for each

• Select Yes only to those disks you wish to reinstall

The installer will examine all LUNs it can see, not only on the local
controller, but out on the storage network as well. If a LUN is not
partitioned, a pop-up box for each LUN will prompt you to initialize this
LUN (because its partition table was unreadable.)
If the warning message appears during the installation, select Yes only to
those disks that you wish to reinstall with new file systems and new
software.

48 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Build Disk Partitions for the Service Console

Choose

3
volume

ESX Server Installation


Resulting
pop-up
confirmation

The Partitioning Options screen presents you with partitioning choices as


well as target install locations. The ESX Installer provides a single install
routine for both local and storage network-based disks. This makes your
choice of the target drive imperative that the appropriate selection is made.
The first thing to consider is whether you want the ESX installer to
automatically define the partitions and sizes for you or you want to define
the partitions yourself. VMware recommends letting the ESX installer
automatically define the partitions for you. Therefore, choose
"Recommended".
All available LUNs, including local and storage network-based, are listed in
the drop-down menu. It is important to make sure you correctly identify the
target location. If the target location contains existing partitions, then a
warning dialog box will prompt you for a confirmation to remove all
existing partitions.
Each LUN is identified by a device name. In the example above, the device
listed as cciss/c0d0 is the local SCSI device.
How are local disks and remote, storage network disks identified?
• The drop-down list includes a description of the disk, so from that, you can determine if a
disk is local or remote. Also, the disks are identified by a Linux-style device name. In the
examples presented in these slides, the local disk is an HP Compaq Proliant disk and has
the disk name of cciss/c0d0. The remote storage network disks are identified as "sda",
"sdb", "sdc", etc. Note, however, that "sda," "sdb", etc., do not always refer to "storage
network disks." The "s" does not stand for "storage network." Rather, the naming
sequence is something inherited from Linux. The Linux-based install environment
enumerates these disks as SCSI disks, so it uses a generic naming convention for them.
But other device drivers might enumerate those disks differently.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 49


Recommended Partitions

The Partition Disks screen allows you to partition your disk. The slide
represents the partition scheme used when choosing the Recommended
option. In this example, the partitions will be created on the local hard drive
because that is what was chosen in the Partitioning Options screen. Remote
disk drives are also shown in the list of hard drives, for example, /dev/sda
refers to a storage network-based LUN

50 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Advanced Options: Specify Boot Volume

• Boot from a local SCSI LUN, Fibre-Channel SAN LUN or


iSCSI SAN LUN

3
ESX Server Installation
If you must edit
the default
bootloader
configuration, a
warning message
appears

The Advanced Options screen presents choices for specifying the ESX In version 3.0.2, the
LBA32 option has been
Server bootloader options. Ideally, the bootloader should be placed where removed from this screen.
the service console partitions reside. It is imperative that this drive match
the first boot device as defined in the host machine's BIOS, otherwise the
ESX Server will not boot. Additionally, for legacy systems that store the
BIOS in the MBR, use the "From a partition" selection.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 51


Configure Service Console Networking

Select the appropriate network interface for management access to the


service console. Fill in the necessary TCP/IP parameters for network
operations. Although the network interface can be configured to obtain an
address from a DHCP server, VMware strongly recommends using a static
IP address for access. If the network requires a VLAN ID, enter it in the
provided field.
If you select "Create a default network for virtual machines", your virtual
machines will share a network adapter with the service console, which is
not the recommended configuration for optimum security. Since the service
console should always be on a separate, private network, this option should
never be used except in a test environment.

52 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Perform Remaining Steps

• Set local
time zone

3
ESX Server Installation
• Set the root
password

ESX Server provides three ways to input time zone information based on
the selected tab:
• Map - Shows a graphical representation of the world in which one can
select the most appropriate location for the desired time zone
• Location - Displays a text listing of various time zones located
throughout the world
• UTC Offset - Time values based on the offset hour from Greenwich
Mean Time (GMT).
There is also the option to automatically compensate for daylight saving
time, if appropriate.
ESX Server requires a minimum of six characters for the root password. As
always, this password should follow your corporate standards' password
conventions. It is considered best practice to implemment a password
strategy that introduces complexity which might include, mixed case, non-
standard characters, and numeric values.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 53


Confirm and Launch the Installation

Emphasize that it is a good Before the installer begins the software installation, the installer displays a
idea to make sure that the
volume where the Master
screen which summarizes all the selections. If changes need to be made, you
Boot Record is located can always go back. It is always a good idea to scroll through the
matches the volume where summarized information and confirm the values before installing.
the partitions will be
created.

54 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


After Installation is Complete

3
Open web

ESX Server Installation


browser and
point to ESX
Server to
proceed with
configuration

After the installation is complete, reboot the system by clicking Finish. This
screen also states how to connect to the ESX Server once it is installed
using any valid browser. You connect to the ESX Server using a URL
constructed with either its IP address or host name.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 55


ESX Server Physical Console After Install

• The ESX Server is ready for post-installation


configuration once this screen appears on the console

After rebooting, the status screen appears on the console. To log in, press
Alt-F1. To return to the status screen, press Alt-F11.

56 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Download the VI Client

Point to ESX
Server to get

3
to this screen

ESX Server Installation


Download VI
Client to
perform
configuration

Once connected to the ESX Server, this screen provides the ability to
download the VMware Infrastructure Client, or the VI Client for short. The
VI Client is the primary interface for managing all aspects of the Virtual
Infrastructure environment. For example, it allows configuration of the
ESX Servers and management of its virtual machines. Also from this
screen, it is possible to start Web Access, which can be used to manage the
virtual machines created after the ESX Server environment has been
established.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 57


VMware Infrastructure (VI) Client

• The VI Client is a graphical


user interface used to
configure the ESX Server
and manage its VMs
• At the VI Client login
screen:
• Enter ESX Server fully
qualified domain name
(FQDN) or IP address
• User root
• Password for user root

The VI Client provides direct access to an ESX Server for configuration and
virtual machine management.access.
The VI Client is also used to access VirtualCenter to provide management,
configuration, and monitoring of all ESX Servers and their virtual machines
within the Virtual Infrastructure environment. However, when using the VI
Client to connect directly to the ESX Server, no management of
VirtualCenter features is possible. For example, you cannot configure and
administer VMware DRS or VMware HA.

58 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VI Client: Host's Configuration Tab

3
ESX Server Installation
The VI Client allows you to configure the ESX Server, such as its hardware
and software. In the example above, the VI Client is used to log directly
into the ESX Server. The ESX Server is highlighted and its Configuration
tab has been selected.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 59


License Sources

• License
sources:
• Evaluation
Mode
• Serial
Number
• Centralized
License
Server
• Single host
license file

There are several ways to license your ESX Server:


• Evaluation Mode: This mode is intended for demonstration and
evaluation purposes. The software is completely operational
immediately after installation, does not require any licensing
configuration and provides full functionality for 60 days from the time
you install the software. During the 60-day trial, the software notifies
you of the time remaining until the evaluation mode expires. After the
60-day trial period expires, unless you obtain licenses for your software,
you are no longer able to perform most operations in ESX Server. For
example, you cannot power on virtual machines.
• Serial Number: The serial number is not used with ESX Server 3; rather,
the serial number is used to license the ESX Standalone edition, also
known as ESX 3i.
• License Server: This is known as centralized license server licensing
mode. Licenses are stored on a license server, which makes these
licenses available to one or more hosts.
• Host License File: This is known as single host licensing mode. License
files are stored on individual ESX Servers.
These modes also apply to licensing VirtualCenter Server, which will be
discussed in a later module.

60 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Single-Host Licensing

• License files are stored on individual ESX Server hosts


• Three license editions: Foundation, Standard and
Enterprise

3
ESX Server Installation
In general, licensing the ESX Server is required because it enables the
ability for virtual machines to be powered on.
With single host licensing, a host license file (.lic), a license file must be Single host licenses are
installed locally into a file
installed on the ESX Server. This is done from the ESX Server's named /etc/vmware/
Configuration tab in the VI Client. vmware.lic.

There are three ESX Server license editions: VI Foundation, VI Standard


and VI Enterprise can be
• VI Foundation: This edition includes access to the following features: licensed to include either
ESX Server or ESX Server
VMFS, Virtual SMP, VirtualCenter Agent, VMware Update Manager 3i.
and VMware Consolidated Backup.
• VI Standard: This edition includes all features in VI Foundation plus the
feature, VMware HA.
• VI Enterprise: This edition includes all features in VI Standard plus the
following features: VMware VMotion, VMware Storage VMotion, and
VMware DRS.
There is another edition, ESX Server 3i, which includes access to VMFS
and Virtual SMP.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 61


Configure ESX Server as NTP Client

• Synchronize
ESX Server
time
• For accurate
performance
graphs
• For accurate
timestamps
in log
messages
• So VMs
have a
source to
synchronize
with
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is an Internet-standard protocol used to
synchronize computer clock times in a network. It is important that the ESX
Server run with the correct time so that performance data can be displayed
and interpreted properly, so that accurate timestamps appear on log
messages, and so that virtual machines may synchronize their time with the
ESX Server.
The ESX Server can be set up as an NTP client, which synchronizes its time
with specific NTP servers.
Select your ESX Server, click its Configuration tab, then select Time
Configuration in the Software section. From this screen, you can enable
the NTP client software and specify NTP servers to synchronize with. The
NTP protocol port is also opened in the service console firewall. You can
also specify one or more NTP servers that the ESX Server (in other words,
the NTP Client) can synchronize time with.
For more information on configuring NTP, refer to the following links:
• http://www.ntp.org
• http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/html/accopt.html.

62 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Configure an ESX Server User Account

• Create an ESX
Server user login
• For remotely

3
accessing the
command line using

ESX Server Installation


a secure shell
• Use mainly for
troubleshooting, if
necessary

Under certain circumstances, it might be necessary to log directly into the Accessing the ESX Server
from the command line is
ESX Server in order to get to the command line, for example: covered in more detail in
the VI3: Deploy, Secure
• To view system information that cannot be viewed by the VI Client and Analyze course
• To troubleshoot a problem which cannot be resolved using information
in the VI Client
One way to log into the ESX Server (service console) is to use the physical
machine console. Alternatively, you could log into the ESX Server using a
secure shell client, such as PuTTY or SecureCRT. By default, the service
console does not allow the root user account to log in using an SSH client.
However, it does permit normal user account login access using secure
shell. If secure shell is the preferred way of connecting, it is recommended
to create a normal user account on the ESX Server to open a secure shell
and log in.
Therefore, if you need to log into the service console to troubleshoot as user
root, you need to:
• Log in as a normal user
• Use the Linux su - command (switch user command) to change to user
root.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 63


Install Tip #1: Choose Correct NIC for Service
Console

• An incorrect NIC selection will prevent remote network


management interfaces, such as the VI Client and SSH,
from working

Physical NIC
selected during
installation is
identified as
vmnic0 after
installation

The service console network connection is used for remote network


management of the ESX Server. The VI Client, VirtualCenter Server, and
other remote network management connections, such as SSH and the Web
Access console, also connect via the service console network connection.
By default, the first service console network connection is always named
service console. It is always in vSwitch0. This switch always connects to
vmnic0.
Note that the commands to The vmnic0 label is a logical label that is assigned to whatever NIC you
correct the service console
NIC are described in the
select during ESX Server installation. Just because ESX Server calls a
last part of the Installation physical NIC vmnic0 does not mean that it is the CORRECT NIC for the
Lab. It is not necessary to service console. If an administrator chooses the wrong physical NIC during
go through those
commands at this time. ESX Server installation, the virtual switch, vSwith0, will have to be
disconnected and reconnected to the correct NIC later.

64 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Install Tip #2: Watch Out for Unpartitioned
LUNs

• The ESX Installer lets you erase SAN LUNs connected to


your server!
• Zone and mask all SAN LUNs away from this server
except those for its use

3
ESX Server Installation
Unless you are installing the ESX Server to boot from a Fibre Channel
storage network, a best practice is to unplug all Fibre Channel-attached
SAN storage from the server. The installer lets you erase any accessible
disks, including Fibre Channel SAN LUNs in use by other servers.
Be careful not to intialize any LUN that might contain production data. If Can we always say that
any drive named “sd#”
the ESX Server is connected to the Fibre Channel SAN, make sure that the (e.g. sda, sdb, sdc, etc...)
Fibre Channel SAN is properly zoned and masked. The warning dialog box is always SAN-based? No.
allows you to make sure that you are initializing the correct drives. If a normal, local SCSI disk
(not a RAID controller)
were used in the chassis it
would also show up as
sd#. This is a case where
one would simply have to
be familiar with their
hardware, just like he/she
would have to be when
selecting a NIC for the
service console.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 65


Lab for Lesson 1

• Install ESX Server on Local Volume


• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
•Install the ESX Server software
•Access the ESX Server using the VI Client
•Display, then modify the ESX Server’s configuration

If you are using a VDC Kit, when the students open an iLO session to their ESX Server, it is
highly probable that their system will be booted from the ESX 3 install CD and the first
screen they will see is the CD Media Test screen. Explain to students that when you boot
from the ESX 3 install CD and no key is pressed within one minute at the initial ESX install
screen, the ESX installer will automatically enter graphical mode and will end up at the CD
Media Test, waiting for you to press a key to continue.
During the class preparation of the ESX3 upgrade / ESX3 install, the instructor should warn
the students about this issue and stress that each student should review the Installation
Configuration Summary page* before proceeding to run the installation.
Encourage the students to reset the server using iLO power control features. This way, they
can actually pay attention to the RAM/CPU configuration. In addition, the instructor should
guide the students to entering the BIOS (even demonstrate on the extra server or a student
server) and walking through how to verify/modify the hardware clock is set to UTC for our
labs. This will save everyone a LOT of headache in the performance lab.

66 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• The VMkernel allows the virtual machines as well as


the service console access to the system’s hardware
• The ESX Server can be installed to boot from a local
LUN or a remote, iSCSI or Fibre Channel LUN

3
• The VI Client is the graphical user interface used to

ESX Server Installation


configure the ESX Server

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Installation 67


Lesson 2

ESX Server Troubleshooting


Guidelines :

Lesson Topics
• ESX Server troubleshooting philosophy
• What to do if ESX Server crashes

68 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


ESX Server Troubleshooting Philosophy

• Most ESX Server problems are caused by


• Hardware problems
• Misconfigurations

3
• Inadequate planning
• Aggressively validate hardware

ESX Server Installation


• Test memory for 72 hours before deployment
• Install a temporary OS to test hardware
• Check installed items against the hardware
compatibility guides at
http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/vi_pubs.html

Troubleshooting should be a systematic process. If you use logic and your


knowledge of what depends on what, you will be able to isolate the problem
in a systematic way.
Most ESX Server problems are caused by:
• Hardware problems - For example, a faulty CPU or a bad memory card
• Misconfigurations - For example, the service console’s virtual switch is
not mapped to the proper physical NIC; or, storage network LUNs are
not visible due to incorrect zoning configuration on the storage network
• Inadequate planning- For example, insufficient memory, CPUs, network
interfaces, and/or disk space.
You can prevent these problems from occurring if you thoroughly validate
your hardware, plan for deployment and develop good data-center policies.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Troubleshooting Guidelines 69


What Happens If ESX Server Crashes?

• If ESX Server cannot continue without risk of data


loss, the system halts
• Purple Screen Of Death (PSOD) displayed on console
• Most common types of PSODs
• Machine check exception
•A general hardware problem detected by a CPU
•VMware Support can help pinpoint the failing subsystem
• NMI ECC or Parity Error
•Specifically memory failures
•VMware Support can help pinpoint the failing bank

When you collect The information in the PSOD is displayed on the video monitor connected
diagnostics data using the
VI Client or the vm-support
to the ESX Server. This information is also written to the VMkernel core
program, the VMkernel dump partition in binary (non-human-readable) format. When the ESX
core dump is collected as Server is rebooted, the core dump is written to a core file, which can then be
well.
sent to VMware support for further troubleshooting.
The most common cause of a VMkernel panic is a hardware problem,
whether general or specific. Using unsupported hardware can also cause the
VMkernel to panic. The information in the PSOD can help VMware
Support pinpoint the cause of the panic.

NOTE

NMI stands for Non-Maskable Interrupt and ECC stands for Error
Correcting Code.

70 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What To Do If the ESX Server Crashes
• Copy down the screen display, screen-grab it,
or take a photo
• If the machine had been running in a steady state,
with running virtual machines
• Check for environmental factors, especially room

3
temperature
• Check for detached external devices

ESX Server Installation


• If the machine had been recently rebooted
• Check for hardware configuration changes
• Gather information and send to VMware Support
• Use the VI Client to export the diagnostics data

The VI Client allows you to gather useful system information such as


virtual machine configuration files and log files, core files, and the system's
configuration files. It also captures the output generated by a number of
system commands. These provide information about the system's network
configuration, device configuration and file system configuration. Steps on
how to collect diagnostics data using the VI Client are found on the next
page.
Another way to gather diagnostics information is to run a script from the
service console command line named vm-support. This script gathers
similar diagnostics data as the equivalent function in the VI Client.
In either case, it is a good idea to gather diagnostics data very soon after you
encounter a problem. Otherwise, entries related to the error may be over-
written or pushed further back into the log.

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Troubleshooting Guidelines 71


Collecting Diagnostics Data

• VMware technical
support might
request several
files to help
resolve your
product issues
• Use the VI Client
to collect
diagnostics data

The VI Client has an option for exporting all or part of your log file data.
To export diagnostic data from the VI Client, select File -> Export ->
Export Diagnostic Data. Browse to a folder in which to save the file
containing the diagnostic data.
The diagnostic data is stored into a folder named VMware-VirtualCenter-
support-date@time. The contents of the folder contain:
• A folder named viclient-support, which holds all the VI Client’s log files
• A file named esx-support-date@time.tgz, which is a compressed,
archive file contain ESX Server diagnostics information.

72 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• Prevent ESX Server problems by using supported


hardware and configuring with care
• The VI Client provides a way to collect diagnostics
data in a form that can be sent to VMware Support

3
for further diagnosis

ESX Server Installation

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Troubleshooting Guidelines 73


Module Summary

• The VMkernel allows the virtual machines as well as


the service console access to the system’s hardware
• The ESX Server can be installed to boot from a local
LUN or a remote, iSCSI or Fibre Channel LUN
• The VI Client is the graphical user interface used to
configure the ESX Server

74 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Questions?

3
Questions?

ESX Server Installation

Module 3 ESX Server Installation: ESX Server Troubleshooting Guidelines 75


76 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure
MODULE 4

Networking 4

4
Networking
Importance
• The networking features of ESX Server allow virtual machines to
communicate with other virtual machines within the same box and with
the outside world, allow the service console to communicate, and allow
the VMkernel to take advantage of IP-based storage and VMotion.

Objectives for the Learner


• Understand the purpose and configuration of virtual switches
• Create virtual switches and connections
• Understand virtual switch settings and policies

Module Lessons
• Create Virtual Switches
• Modify Virtual Switch Configurations

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 77


Lesson 1

Create Virtual Switches :

Lesson Topics
• Structure of ESX Server networking
• Virtual switches
• Virtual switch connection types
• Physical connections

78 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


A Networking Scenario

4
Networking
This is a depiction of part of the networking of an ESX Server system,
showing virtual machines and their virtual NICs, the physical NICs of the
ESX Server machine, and the external physical network switches and
LANs. It is the job of the ESX Server administrator to connect these
components together. To do that, we will use a special software construct
called virtual switches.

Networking topics not currently covered in this course:


• Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP): This release of VMware Infrastructure 3 incorporates
support for CDP to help IT administrators better troubleshoot and monitor Cisco-based
environments from within VirtualCenter 2.5 and the VI Client. CDP allows VMware
Infrastructure administrators to know which Cisco switch port is connected to each virtual
switch uplink (that is, each physical NIC). CDP is mentioned in the VI3: Deploy, Secure
and Analyze course.
• Enhanced VMXNET: Enhanced VMXNET is the next version of VMware's paravirtulized
virtual networking device for guest operating systems. Enhanced VMXNET includes
several new networking I/O performance improvements including support for TCP
Segmentation Offload (TSO) and jumbo frames.
• TCP Segmentation Offload (TSO): TCP Segmentation Offload (TSO) improves
networking I/O performance by reducing the CPU overhead involved with sending large
amounts of TCP traffic. This is mentioned in the VI3: Deploy, Secure and Analyze course.
• Jumbo frames: Jumbo frames allow ESX Server 3.5 to send larger frames out onto the
physical network. The network must support jumbo frames (end-to-end) for jumbo frames
to be effective. This is mentioned in the VI3: Deploy, Secure and Analyze course.
NetQueue Support: VMware supports NetQueue, a performance technology that
significantly improves performance in 10 Gigabit Ethernet virtual environments.

Module 4 Networking: Create Virtual Switches 79


Virtual Switches

A virtual switch is a software construct, implemented in the VMkernel, that


provides networking connectivity for an ESX Server. Virtual switches allow
access to the service console, VM network connectivity and access to IP
storage.
A virtual switch provides connections for VMs to communicate with each
other, whether they are on the same host or different host. The VMkernel
connects to a virtual switch in order to access IP Storage. The service
console connects to a virtual switch for remote management of the ESX
Server. The net effect is that all networking communication, whether it is
internal or external to the ESX Server, must be defined through a virtual
switch.
Virtual switches work at Layer 2 of OSI Model. You cannot have two
virtual switches mapped to the same physical NIC, however, you can have
two or more physical NICs mapped to the same virtual switch.
In the example above, there are five virtual switches, each devoted to a
different purpose. From left to right:
• A switch with a single outbound adapter. It is being used only by VM1.
• An internal-only virtual switch, which allows VMs within a single ESX
Server to communicate. VM2 and VM3 can communicate with one
another using this switch
• A NIC team, which is simply a virtual switch connected to two or more
physical NICs. A NIC team provides automatic distribution of packets
and failover.

80 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


• A switch used by the VMkernel for accessing iSCSI or NAS-based
storage.
• A virtual switch used to give the service console access to a
management LAN.
Separate IP stacks are configured for the service console and the VMkernel.
In other words, each service console port and each VMkernel port must be
configured with its own IP address, netmask and gateway.

4
Networking

Module 4 Networking: Create Virtual Switches 81


Virtual Switch Characteristics

> 1 Adapter (NIC


No Adapter 1 Adapter
Teaming)

For networking VMs, the


For networking VMs, the
For networking service console and the
service console and the
between VMs on a VMkernel to the outside
VMkernel to the outside
single ESX Server world, with additional load
world
balancing and redundancy

Zero collisions Zero collisions on internal traffic

Up to 1016 ports per virtual switch

Each virtual NIC has its own MAC address

In this module, even The number of ports associated with any virtual switch is configurable by
though we have really
good slides, it helps to
the administrator. The default number of ports associated with the virtual
draw, draw, draw! And switch created during the ESX installation is 24. The default number of
encourage your students ports associated with new virtual switches is 56. There is a maximum of
to do the same. Reinforce
the fact that virtual 1016 ports per virtual switch.
networks are just like
physical networks in The MAC address of a physical NIC is not used at all. Instead, each VM's
topology. So the drawing is virtual NIC has its own MAC address.
the same as for physical
networks. On the Why wouldn't you configure your virtual switches to have the maximum number of ports?
whiteboard build a network • Overhead - the more ports you have, the more memory is used.
for them both inside and
outside of the ESX Server. • Application tidiness - this is what we think is good performance for VMs per switch

82 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Example: One-Box Firewall Environment

• Virtual switch with one


outbound adapter acts as
a DMZ
• Back-end applications are
secured behind the
firewall using the internal-

4
only switch

Networking
Here we use a virtual machine with multiple network adapters as a firewall.
The protected virtual machine is inaccessible except through the virtual
machine firewall.
In addition to creating your own firewall, note that there are existing
firewall and security VM appliances that are downloadable from VMTN at
http://www.vmware.com/vmtn/appliances.

Module 4 Networking: Create Virtual Switches 83


Example: A High Performance Application

•Automatic,
configurable network
load distribution
•Redundant network
connectivity with
automatic failover
•Configurable
active/standby NICs
and failover policies

This configuration will only A high performance application can benefit from NIC teaming, which
give more bandwidth if the
out-ip load balancing
provides more bandwidth, automatic network load balancing and network
policy is chosen. failover.
In the default configuration, this virtual machine will have its outbound
traffic mapped to only one of the NICs in the team, based on its virtual
switch port ID. You can change the configuration so that traffic is spread
across all the NICs in the team based on each IP datagram's source and
destination IP address. However, your physical switch must be prepared to
see traffic from the same MAC address on different physical ports.

84 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Network Connections

• There are three types of network connections:


• Service console port – access to ESX Server management network
• VMkernel port – access to VMotion, iSCSI and/or NFS/NAS
networks
• Virtual machine port group – access to VM networks
• More than one connection type can exist on a single virtual
switch, or each connection type can exist on its own virtual
switch

4
Networking
Before using a virtual switch, one or more connections must be defined. The Some students might
interpret the slide to mean
graphic above shows a single virtual switch with all three connection types that you should create just
defined. When designing your networking environment, you might choose one virtual switch and
this arrangement, or opt for multiple virtual switches with different place the service console,
VMkernel ports, and VM
combinations of connection type. The choice will depend partially on the port groups on to it. This is
layout of your physical networks. A key point to remember is that physical entirely valid because you
NICs are assigned at the virtual switch level, so all ports and port groups can separate the traffic by
creating at least 3
defined for a particular switch will share the same hardware (although separate VLANs, one for
which NICs are active can be configured differently for each port group). the service console, one or
more for the VMkernel
ports, and one or more for
the VM port groups.
However, if you want
potentially better
performance and better
security, place the ports/
port groups onto different
virtual switches. This could
be useful in certain cases,
for example, isolating
iSCSI traffic to its own
physical network.

Module 4 Networking: Create Virtual Switches 85


Connection Type: Service Console Port

When creating a service console port, you will define


• A network label -- a user-chosen text string identifying the port
• An optional VLAN ID
• IP settings, either static or dhcp
By defining a service console port on a virtual switch with 2 or more
outbound adapters, the service console gains the benefits of NIC teaming in
the same way that virtual machines do.
It is recommended to use a static IP address instead mainly because it
prevents the service console from having to rely on an external source for
its IP address. If the DHCP server were to go down, then the ESX Server
will not be able to connect to the network, which would impact operations.
Multiple service console connections can be configured only if they are
configured on different networks. In addition, only a single service console
gateway IP address can be defined.
This slide is a two-step slide build:
• 1st screen: Here is a picture of our complete network configuration.
• Press Enter.
• 2nd screen: Here is the service console port.

86 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Connection Type: VMkernel Port

4
Networking
A VMkernel port allows the use of iSCSI and NAS-based storage by the Regarding the network
labeled "Storage/VMotion
VMkernel, and is required for VMotion. When creating a VMkernel port, LAN": It is technically
you will define possible to have both
network-based storage
• A network label traffic and VMotion traffic
on the same LAN.
• An optional VLAN ID However, the best practice
is separate the network-
• Whether or not to enable the port for VMotion
based storage traffic from
• IP settings the VMotion traffic for both
security and performance
Multiple VMkernel connections can be configured only if they are reasons.
configured on different networks. In addition, only a single VMkernel
gateway IP address can be defined.
Again, note that separate IP stacks are configured for the service console
and the VMkernel. Each needs to be configured with an IP address, netmask
and gateway.

Module 4 Networking: Create Virtual Switches 87


Connection Type: Virtual Machine Port Group

When creating a virtual machine port group, you will define


• A network label
• An optional VLAN ID
IP settings are configured by the guest OS for each virtual NIC configured
for a virtual machine.

88 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Defining Connections

• A connection type is specified when creating a new virtual


switch
• Parameters for the connection are specified during setup
• More connections can be added later
• Existing connections can be modified

4
Networking
To create a network connection, use the VI Client. Select your ESX Server If you have time,
demonstrate how to get to
in the inventory, then click its Configuration tab. Select the Networking the Add Network wizard
link, then click the Add Networking... link. This displays the Add screen.
Networking Wizard, which steps you through adding a network connection.

Module 4 Networking: Create Virtual Switches 89


Naming Virtual Switches and Connections

• The virtual NIC on


the service console
is known as vswif0
• All virtual switches
are known as
vSwitch#
• Every port or port
group has a network
label
• Service console
ports are labelled
Service Console,
Service Console 2,
etc.
Emphasize once more that Every virtual switch is identified by the name vSwitch#, where # is a
there are separate IP
stacks for the service
sequential number, starting with 0. Every port and port group is given a
console and the VMkernel. user-defined network label when it is created. If there are multiple service
console ports, each service console port is identified by the name vswif#,
where # is a sequential number, starting with 0.
To get to this screen, use the VI Client. Select your ESX Server from the
inventory, then click the Configuration tab. Finally, click the Networking
link.

90 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Mapping vmnics to Physical NICs

• Is service console port connected to the correct network?


• To verify mapping between physical NIC and vmnic:

View properties of virtual switch, Network Adapters

4
Use the esxcfg-nics command from the service console command line

Networking
The ESX Server administrator should be familiar with what networks the
ESX Server’s physical NICs are connected to, as well as be able to identify
them using the correct vmnic#. Associating the correct vmnic with the
correct virtual switch will ensure proper network connectivity.
One way to display the mapping between a physical NIC and a vmnic# is to
use the VI Client. Select your ESX Server, then click its Configuration tab.
Click the Networking link in the Hardware section. Next to a virtual
switch, click the Properties link. In the Properties dialog box, click the
Network Adapters tab. In this display, you will see the vmnic#’s associated
with this virtual switch as well as the physical PCI address associated with
it.
If you have a physical NIC that is not yet assigned to a virtual switch, the
VI Client cannot be used to show you the mapping between physical PCI
address and vmnic#. To view this information, you must go to service
console command line and run the command esxcfg-nics -l. This
command provides information about physical NICs recognized by the
VMkernel. It lists information such as the vmnic# and its associated PCI
address.

Module 4 Networking: Create Virtual Switches 91


Lab for Lesson 1

• Create Virtual Switches


• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
•Create an internal-only virtual switch
•Create a virtual switch with one physical adapter

92 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• ESX Server uses virtual switches to implement


networking
• Physical adapters are assigned at the virtual switch
level
• There are three connection types for virtual switches
• service console port
• VMkernel port

4
• Virtual machine port group

Networking
• Multiple connections can be defined on a single
virtual switch

Module 4 Networking: Create Virtual Switches 93


Lesson 2

Modify Virtual Switch


Configurations :

Lesson Topics
• Virtual switch properties
• Number of ports
• Network adapters including speed and duplex
• Security, Traffic Shaping and NIC Teaming Policies
• Connection policies
• Label and VLAN ID
• Security, Traffic Shaping and NIC Teaming Policies

94 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Virtual Switch Properties: Ports

• Number of
Ports

4
Networking
The virtual switch Properties’ General tab allows you to change the number
of ports for the entire virtual switch
By default, the number of ports for a new virtual switch is 56. There is an
exception - the default number of ports for the virtual switch created during
the ESX installation process is 24. The maximum number of ports is 1016.
The number of ports is configurable. Virtual switch ports are used for
virtual machine connections as well as uplinks (physical NICs). Some ports
are also used for internal purposes by the VMkernel.
To get to this display, use the VI Client. Select your ESX Server in the
inventory, then click its Configuration tab. Click the Networking link,
then click the Properties... link next to the virtual switch.

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 95


Virtual Switch Properties: Network Adapters

• For each
physical
adapter, speed
and duplex can
be changed
(default is
autonegotiate)
• Might need to
set with certain
NIC/switch
combinations

To change the speed and duplex of a network adapter in any of your virtual
switches, use the VI Client. Select your ESX Server from the inventory,
then click its Configuration tab. Then, click the Networking link. Click
on the Properties... link of the virtual switch that you would like to modify.
Select the Network Adapters tab in the Properties window. Click the Edit
button to change the speed and duplex.
If you are using Gigabit Ethernet adapter, leave it at autonegotiate because it
is part of the gigabit standard. If you are using a 10/100 adapter, you might
need to manually set speed and duplex settings. These days, Gigabit
Ethernet adapters are common, therefore, it is less frequent that we have to
modify this setting.
Additional Information ==>
When we attach a NIC to a virtual switch in the VI Client, the virtual switch properties
displays a range of IP addresses. Where does the ESX sever get these from?
• The VMkernel learns the IP addresses by snooping the traffic on the network. As various
computers send broadcast packets with their own IP address as the sender, the
VMkernel remembers them and presents them in this user interface. This is not a
security issue. The VMkernel does not need to snoop on all packets, and of course it's
connected externally to a physical switch--probably not a hub! So the only packets that
come in from the outside world are broadcast packets plus unicast packets that are
addressed to some particular VM. The purpose of this behavior is to help administrators
get things connected to the right networks. Just as with physical LANs, you have to plug
the Ethernet cables in correctly! Sure, the cables are virtual in this case, but it's still
important.

96 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Virtual Switch and Connection Policies

• There are three network policies:


• Security
• Traffic shaping
• NIC teaming
• Policies are defined
• At the virtual switch level
•Default policies for all the ports on the virtual switch

4
• At the port or port group level
•Effective policies: Policies defined at this level override

Networking
the default policies set at the virtual switch level

There are three network policies: Security, traffic shaping and NIC teaming. More than one policy can
be assigned to a port
These policies are defined for the entire virtual switch and they can also be group. Examples of this
defined for the service console port, the VMkernel port or a VM port group. are provided in the VI3:
When a policy is defined for an individual port or port group, the policy at Deploy, Secure and
Analyze course.
this level overrides the default policies defined for the virtual switch.

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 97


Connection Policies: VLANs (1 of 2)

• Virtual LANs (VLANs) allow the creation of multiple


logical LANs within or across physical network
segments
• VLANs free network administrators from the
limitations of physical network configuration
• VLANs provide several important benefits
• Improved security: the switch only presents frames to
those stations in the right VLANs
• Improved performance: each VLAN is its own broadcast
domain
• Lower cost: less hardware required for multiple LANs
• ESX Server includes support for IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
Tagging
Further information on VLANs are not a VMware invention, but an entirely independent
understanding the tag:
The last two bytes of the 4-
networking concept, for which ESX Server provides support. VLANs were
byte VLAN tag frame originally designed to segment switches into multiple collision domains. It
contain 3 802.1p priority was quickly recognized that VLANs could simplify a number of common
bits (that ESX 3 does not
use), the Canonical networking tasks such as moves, adds and changes, and could provide
Format Indicator (CFI), segmentation in an otherwise flat network.
and then the 12-bit VLAN
ID number. A 12 bit Early VLAN solutions were proprietary and distinctly non-standard. The
number yields VLAN IDs in
IEEE 802.1Q is the industry standard for VLAN implementation. ESX
the range of 0-4095.
Server has provided support for IEEE 802.1Q VLANs since version 2.1.
VLANs are a network layer 2 concept (the same layer at which MAC
addresses and Ethernet live, one layer below IP addressing and routing.)
Physical VLAN compatible switches that can keep track of which ports
belong to which VLANs are required. In order to extend VLANs across
physical switches, a "trunk link" must interconnect the physical switches.
Frames on the trunk are encapsulated in the IEEE 802.1Q format and
contain an extra four bytes inserted after the source and destination MAC
address. In the four-byte 802.1Q tag, the first two bytes (0x8100) are an
indicator that the following frame is an 802.1Q frame and the next two
bytes contain the 12-bit VLAN ID number.

98 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Connection Policies: VLANs (2 of 2)

• Virtual switch
tagging
• Packets from a VM
are tagged as they
exit the virtual
switch
• Packets are cleared
(untagged) as they

4
return to the VM
• Little impact on

Networking
performance

ESX Server provides VLAN support through virtual switch tagging, which
is provided by giving a port group a VLAN ID (by default, a VLAN ID is
optional.) The VMkernel then takes care of all tagging and untagging as the
packets pass through the virtual switch.
To define a VLAN ID for a port group, use the VI Client. Select your ESX
Server from the inventory, then click its Configuration tab. Click the
Networking link, then click the Properties... link next to the virtual switch.
Select the port group listed in the Ports tab, then click the Edit button.
Enter a VLAN ID in the field provided.
A switch port on the physical ESX Server must be defined as a static trunk
port. A trunk port is a port on a physical Ethernet switch configured to send
and receive packets tagged with a VLAN ID. No VLAN configuration is
required in the virtual machine. In fact, the virtual machine does not know it
is connected to a VLAN.
For more information on how ESX Server has implemented VLANs,
consult the white paper, VMware ESX Server 3 802.1Q VLAN Solutions,
available on the VMware Web site at http://www.vmware.com/pdf/
esx3_vlan_wp.pdf.

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 99


Network Policy: Security

• Administrators can configure Layer 2 Ethernet security


options at the virtual switch and at the port groups

These options are Network policies are defined at either the virtual switch level or at the port
discussed in detail in the
VI3: Deploy, Secure and
group level. In the example above, the network security policy is being
Analyze course, so do not defined for the port group named Production.
spend too much time on
this slide. The network security policy contains the following exceptions:
• Promiscuous Mode: When set to "Reject", placing a guest adapter in
promiscuous mode has no effect on which frames are received by the
adapter (default is "Reject")
• MAC Address Changes: When set to "Reject", if the guest attempts to
change the MAC address assigned to the virtual NIC, it stops receiving
frames (default is "Accept")
• Forged Transmits: When set to "Reject", drop any frames which the
guest sends where the source address field contains a MAC address
other than the assigned virtual NIC MAC address (default is "Accept")
To accept or reject the security policy exceptions, use the VI Client. Select
your ESX Server from the inventory, then click its Configuration tab.
Click the Networking link, then click the Properties... link next to the
virtual switch. Select the port group listed in the Ports tab, then click the
Edit button. Click the Security tab and make the desired changes.
In general, these policies give you the option of disallowing certain
behavior that could compromise security. For example, A hacker might use
a promiscuous mode device to capture network traffic for unscrupulous
activities. Or someone could impersonate a node and gain unauthorized
access by spoofing its MAC address.

100 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Why did VMware add
these security options to
ESX 3?
Set promiscuous mode to Accept if you want to use an application in a --> These security options
were developed as a
virtual machine that sniffs packets, such as a network-based Intrusion response to a 3rd party
Detection System (IDS). security audit that was
performed on ESX 2.x.
Set MAC Address Changes and Forged Transmits to Reject to help protect Neohapsis is the company
against certain attacks launched by a rogue guest OS. VMware hired to audit the
ESX Server code in the 2.x
timeframe. These security
Leave MAC Address Changes and Forged Transmits at its default value,
options were added due to
accept, because it keeps certain guest applications functions if these a weakness that was
applications normally change the mapped MAC address, such as some guest pointed out by them in the
"disallow promiscuous"
OS-based firewalls. option implemented in

4
ESX 2.x. The ESX 3
A potential scenario for wanting to set these policies would be for a host security options here are
which has "public exposure", such as a web server. One might be our response to that audit.

Networking
concerned with the potential of its being compromised and subsequently
used as a "launching point" for attacks either on other hosts owned/operated
by the owner or possibly against other hosts owned by others. By changing
the originator information they could either intend to spoof another system
into allowing unauthorized access and/or they might wish to not easily bring
attention to their intrusion.
In general, most people will not change these security options, and leave them at their
defaults. The important thing to note about these options, though, is that these options do
not exist in the physical world. You cannot control these behaviors on physical machines on
the network. For example, if someone has root access to your physical machine, like
everyone usually does to their desktop, you cannot stop someone from doing any of these
things. And, none of the physical NICs used today allow you to disable these behaviors.
But with virtual switches, you can stop the person with administrative control to the machine
from performing these types of insecure behavior.The security policy gives administrators a
level of control beyond what is usually possible in most physical environments.

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 101


Network Policy: Traffic Shaping (1 of 2)

• Network traffic shaping is a mechanism for controlling a


VM’s outbound network bandwidth
• Average rate, peak rate, and burst size are configurable

A VM's network bandwidth can be controlled by enabling the Network


Traffic Shaper. The Network Traffic Shaper shapes outbound network
traffic only. To control inbound traffic, use a load-balancing system, or turn
on rate-limiting features of your router.

102 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Network Policy: Traffic Shaping (2 of 2)

• Disabled by
default
• Shaping
parameters apply
to each virtual
NIC in the virtual
switch

4
Networking
ESX Server shapes traffic by establishing parameters for three outbound These options are
discussed in detail in the
traffic characteristics: average bandwidth, burst size, and peak bandwidth. VI3: Deploy, Secure and
You can set values for these characteristics through the VI Client, Analyze course, so do not
establishing a traffic shaping policy for each uplink adapter. spend too much time on
this slide
• Average Bandwidth establishes the number of bits per second to allow
Although traffic shaping is
across the vSwitch averaged over time--the allowed average load. no longer DEFINED per-
VM, emphasize to the
• Peak Bandwidth is the maximum bandwidth the vSwitch can absorb
student that traffic shaping
without dropping packets. If traffic exceeds the peak bandwidth you is still APPLIED on a per-
establish, excess packets are queued for later transmission after traffic VM basis. For example, if I
set the average bandwidth
on the connection has returned to the average and there are enough spare at 32000 Kbps, then any
cycles to handle the queued packets. If the queue is full, the packets are VM connected to the port
dropped. Even if you have spare bandwidth because the connection has group can use an average
bandwidth of 32000 Kbps.
been idle, the peak bandwidth parameter limits transmission to no more
than peak until traffic returns to the allowed average load.
• Burst Size establishes the maximum number of bytes to allow in a burst.
If a burst exceeds the burst size parameter, excess packets are queued
for later transmission. If the queue is full, the packets are dropped.
When you specify values for these two characteristics, you indicate
what you expect the vSwitch to handle during normal operation.
Average bandwidth and peak bandwidth are specified in Kbps (kilobits per
second), and the burst size is specified in KB (kilobytes).
Network traffic shaping is off by default.

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 103


In the example above, the network traffic shaping policy is not defined at
the virtual switch. Rather, it is being defined for the port group named
Production.
There is no reason to modify with the traffic shaping parameters unless you know more
about the behavior of the application in the VM you're trying to control the bandwidth usage
of. If you know from analysis that this VM, every so often, needs to transmit 1 MB of data
now and then, you can let it do so faster. Set the burst size to 1 MB, and specify some
higher bandwidth. How much higher? Well, what do you want to achieve? You're trying to
reserve bandwidth for other VMs, right? So just how much bandwidth are you willing to steal
from them now and then? The answer to this question is determined by analysis of actual
applications and traffic loads.

104 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Network Policy: NIC Teaming

• NIC Teaming settings:


• Load Balancing
(outbound only)
• Network Failure
Detection
• Notify Switches
• Rolling Failover

4
• Failover Order

Networking
NIC teaming policies, which include load balancing and failover settings,
allow you to determine how network traffic is distributed between adapters
and how to re-route traffic in the event of an adapter failure. Default NIC
teaming policies are set for the entire virtual switch. These default settings
can be overidden at the port group level.
To modify NIC teaming policies of a port group, click your ESX Server's
Configuration tab, then click the Networking link. Click the Properties...
link next to the virtual switch on which the port group is located. Select the
port group in the list of ports, then click the Edit... In the port group
properties window, click the NIC Teaming tab.
In the example above, the network NIC teaming policy is not defined at the
virtual switch. Rather, it is being defined for the port group named
Production.

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 105


Load Balancing Method: vSwitch Port-Based
(Default)

Point out that VMkernel


load balancing affects
outbound load distribution
only.
An alternative for As each IP packet leaves its virtual NIC the VMkernel must decide which
presenting this slide is to
illustrate the diagram using
uplink (physical NIC) will carry that packet to the outside world. The load
the whiteboard instead of balancing options are:
presenting the slide as is.
One reason for this is that • Route based on the originating port ID (the default): Choose an uplink
students might ask, "Why based on the virtual port where the traffic entered the virtual switch
are the ports not accessed
sequentially, why are there • Route based on source MAC hash: Choose an uplink based on a hash of
some spare ports between
the source Ethernet address
the two adapters?" This
diagram might work better • Route based on IP hash: Choose an uplink based on a hash of the source
for you if it is drawn on a
whiteboard by developing
and destination IP addresses of each packet
it while explaining the The example above shows routing based on the originating port ID, also
different mechanisms.
known as the vSwitch port-based load balancing method. With this method,
a virtual machine's outbound traffic is mapped to a specific physical NIC
based on ID of the virtual port to which this virtual machine is connected.
This method is simple and fast and does not require the VMkernel to
examine the frame for necessary information.

106 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


When the load is distributed in the NIC team using the port-based method,
no single-NIC VM will ever get more bandwidth than can be provided by a
single physical adapter.
This slide builds:
• 1st screen: This slide illustrates how the VMkernel uses the default port-based method to
balance network traffic across NICs.
• Press Enter
• Red line represents traffic from VM0, using the first NIC
• Press Enter
• Green line represents traffic from first VNIC in VM1, using the second NIC
• Press Enter
• Blue line represents traffic from second VNIC in VM1, using the third NIC

4
• Press Enter
• Purple line represents traffic from VM2, using the first NIC

Networking
• Press Enter
• Black line represents traffic from VM3, using the second NIC

How does the VMkernel balance the load? I.e. how does it determine what NIC to use to
route the VM's packets?
• Depending on the policy you choose, a "load balancing value" (for lack of a better term) is
calculated. The load balancing value differs based on algorithm. For example, with the
Source MAC based algorithm, the load balancing value is the least significant bit (LSB) of
the source MAC address in the frame. With the vswitch port-based algorithm, the load
balancing value is the source of the port ID.
• The VMkernel performs the calculation, which is "load balancing value" MOD "number of
NICs that are up" = The NIC to use
• For example, let's say you have 4 active NICs (NIC 0, NIC 1, NIC 2 and NIC 3). And let's
say that you are using the vswitch port-based algorithm (or any policy for that matter).
The VMkernel runs through the calculation to determine what NIC to use. So if the load
balancing value is 1, then 1 MOD 4 (number of NICs UP) = 1, which means NIC 1 is
used. 2 MOD 4 = 2, so NIC 2 is used. 3 MOD 4 = 3, so NIC 3 is used, and so on.

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 107


Load Balancing Method: Source MAC-Based

The example above shows routing based on source MAC hash. In this load
balancing method, each virtual machine's outbound traffic is mapped to a
specific physical NIC based on the virtual NIC's MAC address. This
method has low overhead, is compatible with all switches, but might not
spread traffic out evenly across the physical NICs.
When the load is distributed in the NIC team using the MAC-based method,
no single-NIC VM will ever get more bandwidth than can be provided by a
single physical adapter.
This slide builds:
• 1st screen: This slide illustrates how the VMkernel uses the source MAC-based method
to balance network traffic across NICs.
• Press Enter
• Blue line drawn to first NIC
• Press Enter
• Purple line drawn to first NIC. Collisions occur.
• Press Enter
• Green line drawn to second NIC
• Press Enter
• Red line drawn to second NIC. The third NIC never gets used.

108 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Load Balancing Method: IP-Based

4
Networking
The example above shows routing based on IP hash. In this load balancing
method, a NIC for each outbound packet is chosen based on its source and
destination IP address. This method has higher CPU overhead, is not
compatible with all switches (requires 802.3ad link aggregation support,
also known as EtherChannel), but has a better distribution of traffic across
physical NICs.
When the load is distributed in the NIC team using the IP-based method, a
single-NIC VM might use the bandwidth of multiple physical adapters.
What if the packet is not an IP packet, but, for example, a Novell packet
instead? The VMkernel looks in the place in the packet where the IP
address would be if it were an IP packet and uses those bits.
When one VM communicates to different clients, it chooses different NICs.
On the return traffic, it can come in on multiple paths since more than two
NICs might be teamed. That is why link aggregation must be supported on

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 109


the physical switch. Note that none of this deals with any inbound traffic,
just the outbound traffic is affected.
This slide builds:
• 1st screen: This slide illustrates how the VMkernel uses the IP-based method to balance
network traffic across NICs. With this method, the VMkernel snoops inside the packets.
• Press Enter
• Blue line drawn to first NIC
• Press Enter
• Purple line drawn to second NIC.
• Press Enter
• Red line drawn to third NIC
• Press Enter
• Green line drawn to second NIC.

110 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Detecting and Handling Network Failure

• Network failure is detected by the VMkernel, which monitors


• Link state only
• Link state + beaconing
• Switches can be notified whenever
• There is a failover event
• A new virtual NIC is connected to the virtual switch
• Failover implemented by the VMkernel based on configurable
parameters

4
• Load Balancing option: Use explicit failover order
• Always use the highest order uplink from the list of Active adapters which

Networking
passes failover detection criteria
• Rolling Failover
• Determines how a physical adapter is returned to active duty after
recovering from a failure
The VMkernel can use link status and/or beaconing to detect a network Cable pulls or the loss of
link status on the other
failure. Monitoring the link status provided by the network adapter will side of the switch might be
detect failures such as cable pulls and physical switch power failures, but forwarded to the ESX
not configuration errors such as a physical switch port being blocked by Server if the physical
switch supports port
spanning tree or misconfigured to the wrong VLAN. It will also not detect groups. This is covered in
cable pulls or any type of link failure on the other side of the physical the DSA course.
switch.
When beaconing is activated, the VMkernel sends out and listens for probe Beaconing introduces a
load of a 62-byte packet
packets on all NICs in the team. This technique can detect failures that every ~10 seconds per
link-status monitoring alone cannot. physical NIC.

Whenever a virtual NIC is connected to a virtual switch, or whenever a


failover event causes a virtual NIC's traffic to be routed over a different
physical NIC, a notification is sent out over the network to update the
lookup tables on physical switches. In most cases, this is desirable, because
otherwise virtual machines would experience greater latency after failovers
and VMotion. However, do not use this option when the virtual machines
using the port group are using unicast-mode Microsoft Network Load
Balancing. (NLB in multicast mode is unaffected). For more details on the
NLB issue, see Knowledge Base article 1556 (http://kb.vmware.com/kb/
1556).
When using explicit failover order, always use the highest order uplink from
the list of Active adapters which passes failover detection criteria.
Rolling failover determines how a physical adapter is returned to active
duty after recovering from a failure. If rolling is set to No, the adapter is

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 111


returned to active duty immediately upon recovery, displacing the standby
adapter that took over its slot. If rolling is set to Yes, a failed adapter is left
inactive even after recovery until another currently active adapter fails,
requiring its placement.
Additional Information ==>
Enabling the Notify Switches option causes the VMkernel to send a Reverse ARP
(RARP) request for each virtual NIC's MAC over it's currently favored uplink whenever there
is a failover event, or whenever there is a (re)connect of a virtual NIC to the virtual switch.
The purpose of this is to update the MAC->port lookup tables on the physical switches. If
this is not done, these MAC->port entries can take some time to expire on their own and
update after a link failover (or VMotion) event.
One reason not to do this is if you are using Microsoft's unicast Network Load Balancing,
which works by hiding the adapter's MAC address. Therefore, doing the RARPs will break
it. To my knowledge, MS unicast NLB is the only thing that has a problem with our switch
notification mechanism. MS multicast NLB works fine with switch notification. For more
information on unicast NLB, see the forum thread, http://www.vmware.com/community/
thread.jspa?messageID=346965.

112 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lab for Lesson 2

• Design networking
• In this lab, you will perform the following task:
•Based on a given scenario, design the network
configuration for an ESX Server system, specifying virtual
switches, ports and port groups, port group policies, and
physical connections

4
Networking

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 113


Lesson Summary

• Network adapter properties


• Port group policies
• VLAN tagging
• Security
• Traffic shaping
• NIC teaming

114 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Module Review

• What are the three virtual switch connection types?


Describe the purpose of each type.
• What is an "internal-only" virtual switch?
• What are the uses for a VMkernel port?
• Name the different load-balancing algorithms that
can be used by a NIC team.

4
Networking

Module 4 Networking: Modify Virtual Switch Configurations 115


Questions?

Questions?

116 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


MODULE 5

Storage 5

5
Storage
Importance
• Storage options give you the flexibility to set up your storage based on
your cost, performance, and manageability requirements
• Shared storage is useful for disaster recovery, high availability and
moving VMs between ESX Servers

Objectives for the Learner


• Understand the purpose and configuration of virtual switches
• Create virtual switches and connections
• Understand virtual switch settings and policies

Module Lessons
• Fibre Channel San Storage
• iSCSI SAN Storage
• VMFS Datastores
• NAS Storage and NFS Datastores

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 117


Lesson 1

Fibre Channel San Storage :

Lesson Topics
• Fibre Channel SAN components and addressing
• Configuring Fibre Channel SAN storage

118 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What is Fibre Channel (FC)?

• A high-speed SCSI transport protocol used for


Storage Area Networking (SAN)
• Fibre Channel switches interconnect multiple nodes
to form the “fabric” in a Fibre Channel SAN
• Standard first ratified by ANSI in 1988

Block storage

Fibre
Channel

5
Storage
Fibre Channel is a high-speed transport protocol used for Storage Area
Networks (SANs). Fibre Channel encapsulates SCSI commands, which are
transmitted between Fibre Channel nodes. In general, a Fibre Channel node
is a server, storage system or a tape drive. A Fibre Channel switch
interconnects multiple nodes, forming the "fabric" in a Fibre Channel
network. Transmission speeds in a Fibre Channel SAN can reach up to 4
Gbps..
Fibre Channel is a standard that was first ratified by the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1988. This standard was adopted by storage
vendors due to high transfer rates, as well as low latency and overhead.

Not covered in this course is N-Port ID Virtualization (NPIV): ESX Server 3.5 introduces
support for NPIV for Fibre Channel SANs. Each virtual machine can now have its own World
Wide Port Name (WWPN). This is covered in the VI3: Deploy, Secure and Analyze course.

Module 5 Storage: Fibre Channel San Storage 119


How is Fibre Channel Used with ESX Server?

• Boot ESX Server from Fibre Channel SAN LUN


• Create a VMFS on a Fibre Channel SAN LUN
• To hold VMs’ files, ISO images, and templates
• Allow VM access to a raw Fibre Channel SAN LUN
• Allow VMotion migration of a VM whose files
reside on a Fibre Channel SAN LUN

All of these points will be Installing and booting the ESX Server on Fibre Channel SAN storage is
covered later on in the
course, so please refrain
supported. To boot from SAN, the BIOS of the Fibre Channel adapter must
from discussing them in be configured with the WWN and LUN number of the boot device and the
detail at this time. system BIOS must designate the Fibre Channel adapter as a boot controller.
VMs’ files are the virtual It is common to use Fibre Channel SAN storage for VMFS datastores.
disks, VM's swap file,
nvram, snapshot files,
VMFS datastores are used to hold virtual machines’ files, ISO images, and
configuration file and log templates.
files.
It is also possible to assign a raw Fibre Channel SAN LUN to a virtual
machine, for example, to hold an application’s data.
VMotion is supported with virtual machines on Fibre Channel SAN storage.

NOTE

Using raw LUNs and VMotion is covered later in the course.

120 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Fibre Channel SAN Components

5
Storage
ESX Server requires the use of a Fibre Channel switch for connection to
storage; the use of more than one allows for redundancy.
A Fibre Channel SAN consists of the following:
• Storage System: This is the hardware that consists of a set of physical
hard disks, or disk array, and one or more intelligent controllers. The
storage system supports the creation of LUNs. Disk arrays' storage
processors aggregate physical disks into logical volumes, or LUNs, each
with a LUN number identifier.
• LUN: Logical Unit Number, it is the address of a Logical Unit (LU). An
LU is a unit of storage access. An LU can be a JBOD (just a bunch of
disks) or a part of a JBOD, a RAID set, also referred to as a "storage
container", or a part of a storage container. Both a JBOD and a storage
container can be partitioned into multiple LUNs. An LU can also be a
control function like an array gatekeeper LUN or tape controller.
• SP: Storage Processor, it can partition a JBOD or RAID set into one or
more than one Logical Units (LUNs). It can restrict access of a
particular LUN to one or more server connections. Each connection is
referenced by the server HBA's WWN (World-Wide Name), and might
also require defining the operating system in the connection tables to
adjust how the storage array controller presents Fibre Channel and SCSI
commands to a particular server.

Module 5 Storage: Fibre Channel San Storage 121


The SP can define read, • HBA: Host Bus Adapter connects the ESX Server to the Fibre Channel
read-ahead, and write-
back cache, stripe size,
network and is required along with cables attached to the Fibre Channel
controller redundancy, switch ports. A minimum of two HBA adapters is used for fault tolerant
multi-pathing and a variety configurations. Virtual machines see standard SCSI connections and are
of other options. You
might have to update the not aware of the underlying storage area network being accessed.
firmware version to get the • FC Switches: One or more Fibre Channel (FC) switches form the Fibre
system to work, or to
enable new features, or to Channel fabric. The Fibre Channel fabric interconnects multiple nodes.
resolve compatibility The FC switches form packets from the FC messages and add the source
issues.
and destination addresses to each packet. The Fibre Channel switch
might have to be updated by flash upgrade to firmware to resolve
interoperability issues and to add new features.

Additional Information:
Theoretically, you can have up to 239 switches in the fabric, but vendor certified solutions
are considerably less (typically 5-30)! Different vendors' switches will provide basic
interoperability although vendor specific enhancements often cannot be shared.
Why only 239 switches?
• Internally generated N-Port ID addresses are used to route packets within the FC
network. The 24 bit N-Port ID address is broken into three 8-bit parts known as the
Domain, Area, and Port. The Domain field is the address of the switch. The Area field is
the port number on the switch. The Port field contains the Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop
(FCAL) address of any loop devices attached to the fabric. Since we do not support
FCAL, the address in the Port field will be 00. Vendors limit the number of switches to
less than 239 due to switch Inter-Switch Links (ISL) traversals (AKA "Hops"),
convergence traffic, latencies introduced, etc.
A "node" (mentioned in the descriptions above) generally is a server, storage or a tape drive.
A switch COULD be a node, but only from a fabric management perspective, as that is
about all their WWN can be used for. Most storage folks do not consider them to be nodes.
The 24 bit N-Port ID address is broken into 3 8-bit parts known as Domain, Area, and Port.
The Domain field is the address of the switch. The Area field is the port number on the
switch. The Port field contains the Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FCAL) address of any
loop devices attached to the fabric. Since we do not support FCAL, the address in the Port
field will be 00.

122 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Addressing and Access Control in a Fibre
Channel SAN

5
Storage
There are several mechanisms for controlling hosts' access to LUNs. Soft
zoning, which is done on a Fibre Channel switch, controls LUN visibility on
a per-WWN basis. The Fibre Channel switch might also implement hard
zoning, which is the control of storage-processor visibility on a per-switch-
port basis. Fabric zoning controls target presentation, and tells an ESX
Server that a target exists or not. If the host can't get to the target, it can't
see the LUNs
World Wide Names (WWNs) are assigned by the manufacturer of the SAN
equipment. HBAs and SPs have WWNs. WWNs are used by SAN
administrators to identify your equipment for zoning purposes.
In many well-managed SAN environments, both soft and hard zoning are in
use. The purpose of using both is to make accidental access to volumes by
servers very unlikely.
Zoning is especially important in environments where physical Windows
servers are accessing the SAN, because Windows operating systems
typically write a disk signature on any storage volumes they see. These
volumes might in fact be in use by non-Windows systems.
The storage processor or the hosts themselves might also implement LUN
masking, which controls LUN visibility on a per-host basis. ESX Server
offers a mechanism for LUN masking. Although LUN masking can be done
within the ESX Server, LUN masking is normally performed at the storage
processor (SP) level, and, with newer switches, can also be done at a switch/

Module 5 Storage: Fibre Channel San Storage 123


fabric level. Though it could be done at the host level, it normally is not,
for security and data integrity sake. If a LUN is masked, the SP does not
tell the host the LUN exists nor does it allow any communication with it.
ESX Server doesn't have to obey it. It has no choice. It can't "see" it (as it
is not presented, and is barred from any communication with it.

It's important to stress that WWNs are both WWNNs (world-wide node names) and WWPNs
(world-wide port names). The VI class (and this) don't make the distinction.
t is good to reinforce to students that the storage processor "presents" LUNS to the servers
on the SAN according to the configuration made by the SAN administrator. The SAN
administrator gets the WWN of a particular HBA on the SAN and then uses a configuration
utility to present a particular LUN# to this HBA. The net result is that the server that contains
the HBA is the server that the storage is being presented to. Once the LUN has been
presented to the server by the SAN administrator, it is now up to the server to scan for
storage on the SAN so that it will see only those LUNS that have been presented to it. This
scanning for storage will be seen later in the module.

Additional Information:
How to mask LUNs on an ESX Server:
• In the VI Client, in the Configuration tab of the ESX Server, select Advanced Settings,
then select Disk. Disk.MaskLUNs is the fourth parameter in the list. To set the value, you
may list one or more ranges of LUNs for the VMkernel to ignore on boot. Use the
following syntax: adapter:target:comma_separated_LUN_range_list, for example,
vmhba0:0:0-6;
• If you wish to mask several ranges, separate them with semicolons, for example,
vmhba0:0:0-6;vmhba1:0:0-4,7;
• And, always place a semicolon at the end of the line.
Soft zoning requires cooperation by hosts; a few HBAs are "bad citizens" and do not respect
it. On the other hand, hard zoning is enforced by the Fibre Channel switch.
The debate of hard vs soft zoning is a big deal. Soft zoning is more convenient, in that if
you move to a different port on the fabric, it preserves the zoning info, as it is based on the
FC-HBA WWN. However, if you change FC-HBA's the zoning info is lost, due to the WWN
changing. The biggest danger of soft zoning is that it DOES NOT prevent communications
with known targets, that the host already knows about or can otherwise discovers. Hard
zoning prevents, through hardware enforcement, ports on different zones from
communicating. The example I use for soft zoning is like having an unlisted phone number.
It doesn't stop calls IF somebody already has your number or can find it out by other means.
The S_ID is assigned to HBAs and SPs and is done at the Fibre Channel switch level. It's
mostly important to SAN administrators. The S_ID is the Source ID field in the Fibre
Channel packet. What it contains is the 24-bit N-Port ID that is the Domain/Area/Port
address.
More information on Zoning:
• Zoning can be used to segment the fabric by OS, function, responsible group, etc. It is
similar in concept to VLANs.
• Zoning is used to create barriers between different operating environments.
• It is used to deploy logical Fabric subsets by creating defined user groups
• It is used to create test and/or maintenance areas that are separate within the Fabric
• It allows finer segmentation of Storage Area Networks by creating Logical Subsets of
devices within a Server-Storage Area Network

124 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Addressing SAN LUNs in the VMkernel

VMkernel addresses disk partitions as follows:

Examples: LUN addresses Partition addresses

5
vmhba0:0:11 vmhba0:0:11:3
vmhba1:1:12 vmhba1:1:12:1

Storage
The VMkernel disk partition addressing scheme is as follows: It is a good idea to help
students remember this
• vmhba: Standard label that identifies a physical host bus adapter physical scsi addressing
scheme with the
• Adapter: Adapter ID, assigned to each HBA expression "c-t-l-p" as in,
"The vmkernel addresses
• Target: Represents the SCSI target that the Storage Processor presents the physical storage it
sees as 'Control-Target-
• LUN: Logical Unit Number
Lun-Partition'" Furthermore
• Partition: Partition on the LUN, identified by a number it is good to reinforce that
just because the vmkernel
If you have multiple disk arrays in your SAN fabric, each must be can see a LUN does not
configured with a different target ID, and each will appear to ESX Server as mean there is a VMFS on
it. One must format the
a different target number. If one of your disk arrays has multiple storage LUN with a VMFS if there
processors, each will also have a different target ID. is none. This will be seen
later in the module.
For any given “disk” the same LUN number must be presented to all ESX
Servers accessing it.

Module 5 Storage: Fibre Channel San Storage 125


The terms Target ID and SCSI ID can, traditionally, be used interchangeably, but there is a
danger: The Target ID (i.e. VMHBA0:1), represents the SAN target that the Storage
Processor presents, and the LUN's are underneath it. The SCSI ID (i.e. VMHBA0:1),
represents the SCSI device number on a SCSI bus (0-15), when the HBA is a SCSI Host
Bus Adapter. This would be if you had a JBOD on a SCSI Adapter, and normally, the LUN
number would be 0. What is the danger in using the term SCSI ID? The term SCSI ID,
COULD also refer to the SCSI ID number the disk presents (physical or virtualized disk) that
is used to insure uniqueness, though the better term is SCSI Serial Number, though in proc,
I think it is referred to as a SCSI ID, and is a hex number.
Why do we care about the SCSI Serial number (SCSI ID) ??? It is used when the VMkernel
sees a LUN and mounts it. It uses that to determine whether it is seeing a unique LUN, or a
different LUN, and is critical to RDM and multipath operations. If it sees a given LUN SCSI
Serial Number, RDM uses it to determine what metadata file to use, as part of dynamic
name resolution. Path management uses it to figure out that it is seeing the same LUN
through multiple paths, regardless of the volume name, as opposed to thinking it is the same
LUN.
Original SCSI had 8 devices on the bus (0-7, with 7 being the controller itself). This was
inadequate, so they added a "Logical Unit Number" below the SCSI ID to increase the
number of possible addressable devices, originally for disk libraries.
With SCSI-2, it increased the number of devices on the bus (0-15, with 7 STILL being
reserved for the controller itself). The LUN Number remained in the standard, though rarely
used.
Port ID is a very different thing from the Target ID, as you have to factor in path
management, as there could be multiple paths to the same target, depending on the switch
configuration, and that could get VERY confusing.

126 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Making SAN Storage Available to ESX Server

• The Fibre Channel storage adapter is recognized by


the VMkernel during the boot sequence

• At boot up, the VMkernel scans up to 256 LUNs


• The Rescan link allows the VMkernel to scan the
Fibre Channel SAN for additional LUNs

5
Storage
All supported PCI devices (SCSI, FC, Ethernet, iSCSI, etc.) are assigned to The VMkernel parameter,
Disk.MaxLUN, is now 255
the VMkernel, and are recognized by the VMkernel when the ESX Server by default.
boots. ESX 3 supports 256 LUNs found in the range of 0-255. However, Disk.SupportSparseLUNs
during installation, the ESX installer can only see the first 128 LUNs. still sets noncontiguous
order by default.
This is a display from the VI Client interface. To get to this display, select
the ESX Server, click its Configuration tab, then select the Storage
Adapters link.

Module 5 Storage: Fibre Channel San Storage 127


Where to Find Information on SAN
Troubleshooting

• Keys to successfully troubleshooting SAN and storage


subsystems
• Understanding the components of the SAN
•Fibre Channel, SCSI protocol, Fibre Channel fabric switch
commands
• Having a working knowledge of the SAN components’
specifications and limitations
• Keeping accurate documentation of system architecture
and configuration
• Consult the SAN System Design and Deployment
Guide, Chapter 10, Common Problems and
Troubleshooting
• http://www.vmware.com/pdf/vi3_san_design_deploy.pdf
Troubleshooting SAN and storage subsystems is both a science and an art.
The science of troubleshooting relies on understanding the components of
your SAN or storage subsystems and obtaining a working knowledge of
component specifications and limitations. Using your experience to
troubleshoot a problem, and more specifically, identify where in the overall
system to focus your investigation first, is the art.
It is also extremely helpful to have a record of your SAN fabric
infrastructure architecture and component configuration.
For a detailed discussion on how to troubleshoot and resolve issues in
systems using the VMware Infrastructure with SAN, consult the SAN
System Design and Deployment Guide, Chapter 10, Common Problems and
Troubleshooting, available on the VMware Web site at http://
www.vmware.com/pdf/vi3_san_design_deploy.pdf.

128 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• The worldwide name (WWN) uniquely identifies a node


in the Fibre Channel network
• LUN masking and zoning make a LUN invisible when a
target is scanned, and is usually set at the SP level
• The VMkernel addresses LUNs using the following
syntax:
vmhbaadapter#:target#:LUN#:partition#
• Fibre Channel networks can be dynamically rescanned
to find newly added LUNs

5
Storage

Module 5 Storage: Fibre Channel San Storage 129


Lesson 2

iSCSI SAN Storage :

Lesson Topics
• iSCSI components and addressing
• iSCSI hardware and software initiators
• Configuring the iSCSI software initiator
• Configure access to iSCSI storage

130 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What is iSCSI?

• A SCSI transport protocol, enabling access to


storage devices over standard TCP/IP networks
• Maps SCSI block-oriented storage over TCP/IP
• Similar to mapping SCSI over Fibre Channel
• “Initiators”, such as an iSCSI HBA in an ESX Server,
send SCSI commands to “targets”, located in iSCSI
storage systems

Block storage

IP

5
Storage
iSCSI (Small Computer System Interface over IP) provides alternatives to
Fibre Channel SANs:
• Cost: iSCSI is less expensive than Fibre Channel and you can use the
NICs that already exist in your system. And, Ethernet switches cost less
than Fibre Channel switches.
• Infrastructure: Use your existing infrastructure and existing network
knowledge as well; network administrators know about iSCSI routing
and switching since it uses the same methods as regular office Ethernet
traffic.
• Routing: IP routing is mature and well understood.
• Internet: iSCSI is Internet ready. Since iSCSI is based on IP, transfers of
information can more easily take place over WAN architectures in
addition to LAN environments.

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 131


How is iSCSI Used with ESX Server?

• Boot ESX Server from iSCSI storage


• Using hardware initiator only
• Create a VMFS on an iSCSI LUN
• To hold VMs’ files, ISO images, and templates
• Allow VM access to a raw iSCSI LUN
• Allow VMotion migration of a VM whose files
reside on an iSCSI LUN

Installing and booting the ESX Server from iSCSI storage is supported. To
boot from SAN, the BIOS of the iSCSI adapter must be configured with the
WWN and LUN number of the boot device and the system BIOS must
designate the iSCSI adapter as a boot controller.
VMs’ files are the virtual Use iSCSI storage for VMFS datastores. VMFS datastores are used to hold
disks, VM's swap file,
nvram, snapshot files,
virtual machines’ files, ISO images, and templates.
configuration file and log
files. It is also possible to assign an iSCSI LUN to a virtual machine, for example,
to hold an application’s data.
VMotion is supported with virtual machines on iSCSI storage.

NOTE

Using raw LUNs and VMotion is covered later in the course.

132 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Components of an iSCSI SAN

Targets

IP Network

Initiators

5
* Software initiator

Storage
An initiator transmits SCSI commands over the IP network. A target
receives SCSI commands from the IP network. You can have multiple
initiators and targets in your iSCSI network. iSCSI is SAN-oriented in that
the initiator finds one or more targets, a target presents LUNs to the
initiator, and the initiator sends it SCSI commands. An initiator resides in
the ESX Server while targets reside in the storage arrays supported by the
ESX Server.
LUN masking is also available in iSCSI and works like it does in Fibre
Channel. Ethernet switches do not implement zoning like Fibre Channel
switches. Instead, you can create zones using VLANs.

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 133


Addressing in an iSCSI SAN

iSCSI target name


iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:stor1

iSCSI alias
stor1

IP address
192.168.36.101

iSCSI initiator name


iqn.1998-01.com.vmware:train1 IP Network

iSCSI alias
train1

IP address
192.168.36.88
* Software initiator
The main addressable, discoverable entity in iSCSI is an iSCSI Node. An
iSCSI node can be either an initiator, a target, or both. Both targets and
initiators require names for the purpose of identification, so that iSCSI
storage resources can be managed regardless of location (address). The
rules for constructing an iSCSI name are specified in RFC 3720 (see http://
www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3720.html).
The IQN (iSCSI Qualified Name) naming convention is as follows:
• The string "iqn."
• A date code specifying the year and month in which the organization
registered the domain or sub-domain name used as the naming authority
string
• The organizational naming authority string, which consists of a valid,
reversed domain or subdomain name
• Optionally, a ':', followed by a string of the assigning organization's
choosing, which must make each assigned iSCSI name unique

134 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Additional Information:
An iSCSI node also has one or more addresses. An iSCSI address specifies a single path to
an iSCSI node and consists of the iSCSI name, plus a transport (TCP) address which uses
the following format: [:] The default port 3260, assigned by IANA, will be assumed.
An iSCSI Name is a location-independent, permanent identifier for an iSCSI node. An iSCSI
node has one iSCSI name, which stays constant for the life of the node.
An iSCSI Address specifies not only the iSCSI name of an iSCSI node, but also a location of
that node. The address consists of a host name or IP address, a TCP port number (for the
target), and the iSCSI Name of the node.
The alias strings are communicated between the initiator and target at login, and can be
displayed by a user interface on either end, helping the user tell at a glance whether the
initiators and/or targets at the other end appear to be correct. The alias is a variable length
string, between 0 and 255 characters.
An iSCSI node can have any number of addresses, which can change at any time. To assist
in providing a more human-readable user interface for devices that contain iSCSI targets
and initiators, a target or initiator may also provide an alias.
Note that this means iSCSI names are independent of location. Furthermore, iSCSI names

5
are associated with iSCSI nodes instead of with network adapter cards to ensure the free
movement of network HBAs between hosts without loss of SCSI state information
(reservations, mode page settings etc) and authorization configuration.

Storage
The following is an example of an iSCSI qualified name from an equipment vendor:
iqn.2001-04.com.example:diskarrays-sn-a8675309
The following is an example of an iSCSI name string from a storage service provider:
iqn.1995-11.com.example.ssp:customers.4567.disks.107
Note that when reversing these domain names, the first component (after the "iqn.") will
always be a top-level domain name, which includes "com", "edu", "gov", "org", "net", "mil", or
one of the two-letter country codes. The use of anything else as the first component of these
names is not allowed.
What if you do not know the year and month in which the organization registered the
domain?
• Then, make one up. The reason why the year and month is part of the IQN is for
uniqueness. Of course, it is always preferable that you try to use the correct year and
month when possible.
Another iSCSI naming convention is the EUI. format:
• The iSCSI EUI. naming format allows a naming authority to use IEEE EUI-64 identifiers in
constructing iSCSI names. The details of constructing EUI-64 identifiers are specified by
the IEEE Registration Authority (see [EUI64]).
• Example iSCSI name: eui.02004567A425678D
The EUI naming convention should not be used because it is not supported in the current
iSCSI implementation.
This slide (iSCSI Name/Alias) and the next two slides (Discovery Methods and CHAP
Authentication) should be used to explain iSCSI concepts to the student. After the concepts
are explained, then the next sequence of slides describes how to configure the iSCSI
software initiator. Present this sequence of slides with this thought in mind: Concepts first,
then "How To" next.

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 135


How iSCSI Targets are Discovered

• Two discovery
methods are
supported:
• Static
Configuration
• SendTargets
192.168.36.101:3260
• SendTargets
response returns IP Network
IQN and all
available IP SendTargets
request
SendTargets
response
addresses
iSCSI target
192.168.36.101:3260

In order for an iSCSI initiator to establish an iSCSI session with an iSCSI


target, the initiator needs the IP address, TCP port number and iSCSI target
name information. The goal of iSCSI discovery is to allow an initiator to
find the targets to which it has access, and at least one address at which each
target may be accessed. This should generally be done using as little
configuration as possible. The iSCSI discovery mechanisms listed here only
deal with target discovery and one still needs to use the SCSI protocol for
LUN discovery.
The ESX Server implementation of iSCSI supports the following discovery
mechanisms:
• Static Configuration: IP address, TCP port and the iSCSI target name
are already available to the initiator. No target discovery is necessary.
This discovery option is convenient for small iSCSI setups.
• SendTargets: Initiator uses target's IP address and TCP port information
to establish a discovery session to the IP address. The initiator then
issues the SCSI SendTargets command to query information about the
iSCSI targets available at the particular IP address.
Hardware initiators suppport both the static and SendTargets configuration,
whereas software initiators support only SendTargets.

136 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


An iSCSI discovery method not supported in ESX 3:
• Zero-Configuration: This mechanism assumes that the initiator does not have any
information about the target. In this option, the initiator can either multicast discovery
messages directly to the targets or it can send discovery messages to storage name
servers. Currently, the main discovery frameworks available are SLP and iSNS.
The administrator must manually provide the IP address of one or more iSCSI targets, then
SendTargets does the rest by discovering that target's information.

5
Storage

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 137


How iSCSI Storage Authenticates the ESX
Server

• CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication


Protocol)
• Allows a password to be verified without sending the
password (in cleartext) over the network

CHAP password: K CHAP password: K

Create random hash/computation value


Log into target
“C” and send value back to ESX Server;
C perform local computation against K
Computes using
formula against using C to come up with R.
K using C and
R
sends result R Compares local R against returned R;
If match, then ESX Server is
Accept or Reject
authenticated.

CHAP authentication is a mechanism in which the target (the storage


resource) authenticates the initiator trying to access it (in this case, the ESX
Server.) CHAP can be enabled on either a hardware or software initiator. By
default, CHAP is disabled.
It is a best practice to create a separate, isolated IP network for iSCSI traffic
since transmitted data is unencrypted. If the network is to be shared between
iSCSI traffic and other traffic, then enable CHAP authentication. Using
different CHAP passwords for different storage devices also prevents you or
your co-workers from accidentally reformatting the wrong storage. An
isolated network is the only way VMware supports iSCSI.
ESX Server implements RFC 1994.

Security-related functionality not yet supported in ESX Server:


• Bi-directional CHAP authentication
• Bi-directional mutual authentication
• Data encryption (IPSec)

138 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


iSCSI Software and Hardware Initiators

ESX Server provides full support for


software and hardware initiators
Software Initiator Hardware Initiator

e.g. QLogic QLA4050C

5
Storage
The software initiator is a port of the Cisco iSCSI Initiator Command
Reference implementation. VMware has modified it to work with ESX 3
and the VMkernel networking stack. The software initiator works with the
vmkiscsid daemon that runs in the service console. Therefore, the service
console and VMkernel NICs both need access to the iSCSI storage since the
iSCSI daemon initiates the session and handles login and authentication.
The actual I/O goes through the VMkernel.
The hardware initiator provides access to storage like other types of SCSI
adapters. SCSI LUNs are made available to the ESX Server from the iSCSI
adapter. The hardware initiator offloads the iSCSI network traffic load from
the VMkernel’s networking stack.
For both initiators, hardware and software, the guest OS never specifically
sees iSCSI network traffic. Since the guest OS is not aware of the
underlying storage, the guest OS sees only virtual disk SCSI I/O traffic.
ESX Server does not support both hardware and software initiators running
simultaneously.
For a list of iSCSI storage arrays supported for iSCSI software and/or
hardware initiators, consult the Storage/SAN Compatibility Guide, available
on the VMware Web site.

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 139


iSCSI Software Initiator Network
Configuration

• Both service console and VMkernel need to access the


iSCSI storage
• Two ways to do this:
1. Have the service console port and VMkernel port
share a virtual switch and be in the same subnet

2. Have the service console port and the VMkernel port


on different networks, but have routing in place

The software initiator works with a daemon called vmkiscsid that runs in
the service console. Therefore, the service console and VMkernel NICs both
need access to the iSCSI storage since the iSCSI daemon initiates the
session and handles login and authentication. The actual I/O goes through
the VMkernel.
To get to the virtual switch display (shown above), in the VI Client
inventory list, select your ESX Server, click its Configuration tab, then
click the Networking link.

140 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Enable iSCSI Traffic Through the Service
Console Firewall

5
Storage
In order for the iSCSI software initiator to communicate with its target
iSCSI storage, outgoing port 3260 needs to be opened in the service console
firewall.
Use the VI Client to open the port. Select your ESX Server in the
inventory, then click its Configuration tab. Click the Security Profile link,
then click the Properties link to display the Firewall Properties window.
Locate the Software iSCSI Client service. Select the check box next to this
service to open this firewall port in the service console.

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 141


Configure the iSCSI Software Initiator

To configure the iSCSI software initiator, use the VI Client. Select your
ESX Server, click the Configuration tab, select the Storage Adapters link.
A list of available storage adapters is displayed. Select iSCSI Software
Adapter, then click the Properties... link.

142 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Configure Software Initiator: General
Properties (1 of 2)

• Enable the
iSCSI initiator

5
Storage
The iSCSI Initiator Properties window displays. Click the Configure
button in the General tab. The General Properties window displays. Select
the check box, Enabled, then click OK.

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 143


Configure Software Initiator: General
Properties (2 of 2)

• The iSCSI name and alias are automatically filled in


after initiator is enabled

By enabling the software initiator, a default iSCSI name and alias is chosen
for you. The iSCSI name follows the IQN naming convention and the
iSCSI alias is the fully-qualified domain name of your ESX Server. You
can change these defaults if you wish, however, it is recommended to
always use the IQN naming convention when defining the iSCSI name. This
is because most iSCSI storage arrays know how to recognize that name. If
an IQN is not used, it is possible that an iSCSI array might not recognize it.

144 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Configure Software Initiator: Dynamic
Discovery

• In the Dynamic
Discovery tab,
enter the IP
address of each
target server for
initiator to
establish a
discovery session

5
Storage
The iSCSI Initiator Properties window has two tabs, Dynamic Discovery
and Static Discovery. To use the SendTargets method of discovery, enter
the address of the target device (referred to as the Send Targets server) in
the Dynamic Discovery tab. The initiator will establish a discovery session
with this target. The target device responds by forwarding a complete list of
additional targets that the initiator is allowed to access. The target device
responds with a list of available targets, which is displayed in the Dynamic
Discovery tab. The Static Discovery tab allows you to manually add IP
addresses of any targets you identify as accessible to your ESX Server.
However, adding static target IP addresses is only available with the
hardware initiator, not the software initiator.
To define the Send Targets server, click the Dynamic Discovery tab in the
iSCSI Initiator Properties window and create an entry for each target server
to discover.

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 145


Configure Software Initiator: CHAP
Authentication

• By default, CHAP
is disabled
• Enable CHAP
and enter CHAP
name and secret

To set a CHAP login name and password, click the CHAP Authentication
tab, then click the Configure... button. Type in a CHAP name and a CHAP
secret. You can choose to use the name of the initiator as the CHAP login
name. The CHAP secret must match the CHAP secret set at the target you
wish to establish communication with.
CHAP secrets (or shared secrets) are pre-shared keys (PSKs) that have been
allocated to the communicating parties prior to the communication process
starting. A shared secret is a string of text that a VPN service expects to get
before it receives any other credentials (such as a username and password).
Windows XP calls this string the "pre-shared key for authentication", but in
most operating systems it is known as a "shared secret". The VPN server
will not allow the authentication process to continue until the correct string
of text is given. Unless the VPN server receives the shared secret, a
username and password cannot be sent, and the connection will be refused.
In a sense, a shared secret is sort of a password, albeit a weak one known by
a large number of people.

146 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Discover iSCSI LUNs

• Rescan to find new LUNs

5
Storage
After configuring the properties of the iSCSI software adapter, you are
ready to scan for iSCSI target LUNs. Click the Rescan link to start the
rescan.
The iSCSI software adapter is identified as vmhba32. An iSCSI hardware
adapter is identified using an available vmhba. For example, if an iSCSI
hardware adapter were added to the system above, the VMkernel would
name that adapter vmhba2.

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 147


Problem: Cannot Access iSCSI Storage

• Is the VMKernel port configured and on the same LAN


as the storage array?
• Is a second Service Console port required?
• Is there an error in network configuration (storage array
IP address, routing, etc.)?
• Is Send Targets correctly configured?
• Is CHAP authentication required?
• If CHAP is required, has the firewall port been opened
on the Service Console?

If you are having problems accessing your iSCSI storage, check your
network configuration and iSCSI configuration.
Is the VMKernel port configured and on the same LAN as the storage
array?
• Examine the network configuration of your ESX Server.
• Make sure that you have a VMKernel port on a switch that is connected
to the same LAN as the iSCSI or NAS storage array.
• Make sure the IP address and subnet mask of the VMKernel port is
correct for the storage LAN.
• You should be able to ping the VMKernel address from the network
storage device.
Is a second service console port required?
• Examine the network configuration of your ESX Server.
• Is it possible for some other service console port on this ESX Server to
connect to the storage array (possibly via a router)? You should be able
to connect to your service console via SSH and ping the address of the
network storage device. If you cannot reach it with the ping command,
then you will need a second service console port.
• Make sure your storage device will respond to ping requests
• Make sure that no firewalls between the ESX Server service console
NIC and the storage array are blocking the ping requests.

148 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


• Make sure that any ports required by the service console (such as iSCSI
3260) are not blocked by firewalls if they are needed.
Is there an error in the network configuration (storage array IP address,
routing, etc.)?
• Your network storage device configuration under ESX Server requires
that you enter either an IP address or an FQDN for the storage array.
Make sure this address and/or FQDN is correct.
• If you connect to your storage via a routed network (not recommended),
is your default router set for that network? Each ESX Server has a
default router gateway set for all VMKernel and service console traffic.
The gateway set for VMKernel does not have to be the same as the one
for the service console, but there can only be one for each. All
VMKernel ports use the same router and all service console ports use
the same router. If you are adding a new VMKernel or service console
port that is on a new subnet and the defined gateway address is not on

5
that subnet, you must already have a defined VMKernel and/or service
console port on the subnet on which the gateway is defined. For

Storage
example, if your new VMKernel port is on subnet 10.1.161.x and your
gateway address for VMKernel traffic is 192.168.161.1, you must
already have a VMKernel port defined somewhere on 192.168.161.x.
• You must also make sure that the designated VMKernel and service
console routers are online and functioning properly.
Is Send Targets correctly configured for the Software Initiator?
• Your iSCSI storage device configuration requires that you enter either
an IP address or an FQDN for the storage array. If you are using a
hardware adapter, consult your vendor documentation on the correct
procedure to configure the iSCSI storage adapter. If you are using the
ESX Server's software initiator, you must correctly configure Send
Targets.
Is CHAP authentication required?
• Some iSCSI storage devices are configured to require Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) authentication. If you are
using a hardware iSCSI adapter, consult your vendor documentation to
determine how to configure CHAP authentication.
If CHAP is required, has the Software iSCSI Client firewall port been
opened on the service console?
• An open service console firewall port is required when you are using the
ESX Server's built-in iSCSI software initiator and CHAP authentication
is required by the storage array
• An open service console firewall port is NOT required when you are
using a hardware iSCSI initiator card, or you are using the ESX Server's

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 149


built-in iSCSI software initiator, but CHAP authentication is NOT
required by the storage array.

150 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lab for Lesson 2

• Configure iSCSI storage


• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
•Configure a VMkernel port to access iSCSI storage
•Configure the iSCSI software adapter
•Rescan the storage adapter to detect the iSCSI storage

5
Storage

Module 5 Storage: iSCSI SAN Storage 151


Lesson Summary

• ESX Server provides full support for the iSCSI


software initiator and hardware initiator (qualified
iSCSI HBAs only)
• iSCSI targets and initiators are identified by an IQN
(iSCSI qualified name)
• The sendTargets discovery method is the only
method for a software initiator to discover LUNs in
an iSCSI target

152 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson 3

VMFS Datastores :

5
Storage
Lesson Topics
• Creating a VMFS datastore
• Extending a VMFS datastore
• Multipathing

Module 5 Storage: VMFS Datastores 153


What is a VMFS?

• Repository of virtual machines and virtual machine state


• Each virtual machine’s files are located in its own
subdirectory
• Repository for other files
• Templates
• ISO images
• VMFS volumes are addressed by a volume label, a
datastore name and physical address
(e.g. vmhba1:0:0:1)
• VMFS volumes are accessible in the service console
underneath /vmfs/volumes

The VMware File System (VMFS) is a file systemfile system optimized for
storing ESX Server virtual machines. VMFS can be deployed on a variety
of SCSI-based storage devices, including Fibre Channel and iSCSI SAN
equipment. A virtual disk stored on a VMFS always appears to the virtual
machine as a mounted SCSI device. The virtual disk hides a physical
storage layer from the virtual machine's operating system. This allows you
to run even operating systems not certified for SAN inside the virtual
machine.
Specific features of VMFS-3:
• Distributed journaling
• Faster file system recovery, independent of volume size or number of
hosts connected
• Scalable distributed locking-survives short and long SAN interruptions
much better
• Support for small files-small files allocated from sub-block resource
pool
VMFS volumes are accessible in the service console underneath the /vmfs/
volumes directory. This directory contains a subdirectory for each VMFS.
The serial number of the disk on which the VMFS resides is used as the
name of the subdirectory.
The maximum number of hosts allowed to access a single VMFS at the
same time is 32. This is a soft limit and a general recommendation.

154 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMFS-3 supports a maximum of 30720 files per-VMFS-3 directory and
30720 files per-VMFS-3 volume.

Additional Information:
Locking Contention in VMFS-3: For those of you familiar with the locking contention issues
experienced in ESX 2/VMFS-2, here is the scoop on locking in VMFS-3: Locking contention
has in fact increased with VMFS-3 because VMFS-3 stores many more virtual machine files
than VMFS-2, such as log files, swap file, config file, snapshot file(s), etc. However, VMFS-
3 locking is scalable for a large number of files, so the behavior has improved because
locking overhead has decreased. VMware cannot disclose exactly how scalability has been
achieved in VMFS-3. Does locking contention still exist when snapshot files of multiple VMs
exist in the same VMFS? Yes, that is still true, but since locking is better now, we can
possibly host a bunch of snapshots on the same LUN. How many? We don't know yet. We
have yet to conduct the requisite experiments to figure out a number.
The command vmkfstools -R can be used to release SCSI locks.

5
Storage

Module 5 Storage: VMFS Datastores 155


Creating a VMFS

• Select device location (iSCSI or Fibre Channel LUN)

• Specify datastore name

• Change maximum file size/disk capacity, if desired

When you create a VMFS, you can edit its properties. To create a VMFS
datastore, go to the ESX Server's Configuration tab, then select the Storage
link under the Hardware section. The screenshots in the slide are screens
from the Add Storage wizard, which is launched when you click the Add
Storage... link to create a VMFS.
VMware only supports a single VMFS on a single partition on a LUN.
A single-LUN VMFS must be at least 1.2 GB in size, but due to a limitation
of the SCSI-2 protocol, a VMFS cannot exceed 2 TBs in size.

156 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMFS Properties

5
Storage
The Storage display lists all datastores currently configured for the ESX In terms of the file system
block size, the VMFS-3 file
Server. Selecting a datastore from the list allows you to view its Details. system does automatic
To get to this display, go to ESX Server's Configuration tab, then click the sub-block to file block
Storage link. conversion. Small files
start by using sub-blocks,
and as they grow larger,
VMFS changes them to
use file blocks. However,
the file block size doesn't
change.

Module 5 Storage: VMFS Datastores 157


Question

How can you


tell if the VMFS
is on a Fibre
Channel device
or an iSCSI
device?

In answer to this question, there are a couple of ways to determine this:


• By looking at the vmhba# in the device address. This screenshot was taken from an ESX
Server where vmhba0 is the local HBA and vmhba1 is the Fibre Channel HBA. On any
ESX Server, go to the Storage Adapters link in the Configuration tab to see the vmhba
references.
• By the datastore name. If the administrator uses a naming convention descriptive of
storage type/location, then it will be quite easy to determine whether a datastore is on a
Fibre Channel SAN or an iSCSI SAN.
The student may or may not know this at this stage. However, we already discussed the
device address (vmhba#:#:#:#) as well as datastore names, so chances are good that the
student might take this info and apply it to this question.

By the way, the answer is obvious if the software iSCSI initiator is being used because the
vmhba will always be vmhba32. The answer is not so obvious if the hardware iSCSI initiator
is used because you cannot readily tell if the vmhba is referring to a Fibre Channel adapter
or an iSCSI adapter. Since the screenshot shows that vmhba32 is not being used, then the
answer to this question is "It depends what vmhba0 and vmhba1 refer to."

158 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Extend a VMFS

• The size of a VMFS can be extended dynamically


• Why extend a VMFS?
• To give a VMFS more space without taking it offline
• To create a VMFS > 2TB
• In some cases, to improve overall I/O performance of the VMFS
• If the master extent is lost, it could cause data loss on the
entire VMFS
Before spanning After spanning

5
vmhba0:0:3:1 vmhba0:0:6:1 vmhba0:0:3:1 vmhba0:0:6:1
Extent

Storage
In the ESX Server context, an extent is a hard disk partition on a physical
storage device that can be added to an existing VMFS-based datastore
dynamically, while the VMFS is in use. The datastore can stretch over
multiple extents, yet appear as a single volume (analogous to a spanned
volume.)
One reason for extending a VMFS is to give it more space. It is also used to
create a VMFS greater than 2TB in size. An extent must be added because
the maximum size of a VMFS extent, including the original LUN, is 2TB.
For example, to create a VMFS that is 6TB in size, create a VMFS 2TB in
size, then add 2 extents (each extent is 2TB) to make a 6TB VMFS.
A physical extent can be a maximum of 2 TB. A VMFS can have up to 32
physical extents for a maximum VMFS size of approximately 64 TB.
See the ESX Server Requirements section, "Maximum Configuration for
ESX Server" in the VMware Virtual Infrastructure Installation and Upgrade
Guide for more information on the maximum configuration.
Another reason for using extents is to improve performance. In some cases,
by having multiple VMkernel queues (one per LUN) and setting manual
load distribution to divide the traffic between multiple paths going to
multiple LUNs, overall I/O performance could improve for large VMFS
volumes with a single Virtual Disk file.
Be aware that when using extents with multiple LUNs, the master extent
member, which is the first LUN in the set, contains the metadata for the

Module 5 Storage: VMFS Datastores 159


entire extent set. If that master LUN is lost, it could cause a loss of all data
on the entire extent set!

160 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Add Extent Candidate to VMFS

• The list of possible extent candidates will not include


LUNs with existing VMFSes
• If you choose a candidate with existing data (e.g. an
NTFS), you are warned that data will be permanently
lost if you use it

5
Storage
To add an extent to a VMFS, go to the ESX Server's Configuration tab, then
select the Storage link. Select the VMFS to extend from the displayed list,
then click on the Properties... link. In the VMFS's Properties window,
click the Add Extent... button to launch the Add Extent wizard.
The only way to increase the size of an existing VMFS volume is to span it
to another LUN. If you enlarge the disk partition that contains the VMFS
volume, you will not be able to grow the volume to use the new space in the
partition.

Module 5 Storage: VMFS Datastores 161


VMFS Extent List Updated

“Test_Dev_22”
has two extents

A VMFS consists of one or more extents. These extents form an extent


group. The first extent refers to the original VMFS partition and is known as
the extent master. The rest of the extents in the extent group are known as
extent members. In the example above, the VMFS named Test_Dev_22 has
two extents, an extent master and one extent member.
A VMFS that has not been extended is simply a VMFS with one extent.
To remove an extent, you must remove the entire VMFS. To remove a
VMFS, select the VMFS from the list of storage devices, then click the
Remove button. The entire VMFS will be deleted, including all of its data.

162 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Multipathing with Fibre Channel

• Multipathing allows
continued access to
SAN LUNs in the
event of hardware
failure
• Exactly one path is
active (in use) to
any LUN at any time
• Two multipathing
policies exist:
• MRU (Most
Recently Used)

5
• Fixed (Preferred
path)

Storage
The following multipathing policies are currently supported: The links between the
HBAs and the SPs are
• Fixed: The ESX Server always uses the preferred path to the disk when intended to show the
physical paths that ESX
that path is available. If it cannot access the disk through the preferred Server has a choice
path, then it tries the alternate paths. Fixed is the default policy for among. Make clear to the
active/active storage devices. students that ESX Server
uses exactly one path at a
• MRU (Most Recently Used): The ESX Server uses the most recent path time to any given LUN.
to the disk until this path becomes unavailable. That is, the ESX Server
ESX Server 3.5 enhances
does not automatically revert back to the original path. MRU is the native load balancing by
default policy for active/passive storage devices and is required for providing experimental
support for round-robin
those devices. load balancing of HBAs.

Manually changing Most Recently Used to Fixed is not recommended. The MRU is needed to prevent
ping-pong’ing LUN
VMkernel sets this policy for those arrays that require it. ownership in the Storage
Array when a given host
The ESX Server automatically sets the multipathing policy according to the experiences path failure.
make and model of the array it detects. If the detected array is not
supported, it is treated as active/active. For a list of supported arrays, see the
SAN Compatibility Guide.
ESX Server supports failover with any supported Fibre Channel adapter.
The BIOS of the Fibre Channel adapter allows you to configure the failover
delay. ESX Server multipathing is only supported for failover, not automatic
load balancing. However, manual load balancing can also be achieved.

Module 5 Storage: VMFS Datastores 163


Multipathing with iSCSI

• SendTargets advertises
multiple routes
• It reports different IP
addresses
to allow different paths to
the iSCSI LUNs
• Routing done via IP
network
IP Network
• For the software initiator
• Counts as one network
interface
• NIC teaming and multiple
SPs allow for multiple paths
IP networking already has multipath support built in (e.g. IP networking
does routing, if you're using dynamic routing protocols). Therefore, it
provides a simpler multipath structure than Fibre Channel networks. iSCSI
initiators recognize multiple paths from a SendTargets discovery. Like our
support with SANs, ESX uses multipathing for failover purposes only. The
failover polices of fixed and MRU (most recently used) are the same
policies used with SAN multipathing.
ESX Server supports supports an active/passive configuration only. It also
supports only one type of multipathing at a time, either software initiator
multipathing or hardware initiator multipathing, but not both at the same
time.
Since the software initiator counts as only one "HBA", it relies on the
underlying network to provide it with multiple paths to the iSCSI LUNs.
This is accomplished by placing the VMkernel port used for iSCSI storage
access on a virtual switch that has NIC teaming in place.
There is no heterogeneous multipathing. In other words, you cannot use a
NIC and an iSCSI adapter to access the same iSCSI storage. The software
initiator only supports a single storage interface, in other words, the
software initiator looks like a single iSCSI HBA. However, keep in mind
that the software initiator sits on top of multiple NICs and therefore,
multipathing can be performed through the networking layer in the
VMkernel via NIC teaming.

164 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


It is possible to have both Fibre Channel and iSCSI HBAs in the same ESX
Server. However, having the Fibre Channel and iSCSI HBAs point to the
same LUN is not a supported configuration.

5
Storage

Module 5 Storage: VMFS Datastores 165


Manage Multiple Paths

Manage paths using the Storage Properties window

Pathing information can be managed, for example, you can set a preferred
path to be used for a particular LUN. You can also enable or disable a path
to a particular LUN. To manage paths, use the VI Client. Select your ESX
Server in the inventory, then click its Configuration tab. Select the
Storage link, select the desired storage from the Storage list, then click its
Properties... link. In the Storage Properties window, click the Manage
Paths button to change your path configuration.
If a LUN is not formatted, you can set the preferred path; however, the
active path will not be switched to the preferred path until the LUN is
formatted. Preferred paths can only be used with a Fixed policy.

166 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Labs for Lesson 3

1. Create VMFS Datastore


• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
• Display information about your fibre channel adapter
• Create a VMFS datastore on a fibre channel SAN LUN
• Change the name of your local VMFS
2. (OPTIONAL) Extend a VMFS
• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
• Add an extent to a VMFS datastore
• Remove an extent from a VMFS datastore

5
Storage

Module 5 Storage: VMFS Datastores 167


Lesson Summary

• A VMFS datastore is used to hold templates, ISO


images and the files that make up a VM
• The size of a VMFS can be dynamically extended
• Multipathing in either a Fibre Channel or iSCSI LUN
is used for path failover

168 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson 4

NAS Storage and NFS

5
Datastores :

Storage
Lesson Topics
• NAS storage
• NFS components and addressing
• Configuring an NFS datastore

Module 5 Storage: NAS Storage and NFS Datastores 169


What is NAS and NFS?

• What is NAS (Network-Attached Storage?


• Storage shared over the network at a filesystem level
• Why use NAS?
• Lower cost, lesser infrastructure investment required than Fibre
Channel
• There are two key NAS protocols:
• NFS (Network File System)
• SMB (Windows networking, also known as CIFS)
• Major NAS appliances and server OSes support both NFS and
SMB
• ESX Server supports NFS only
• Specifically, NFS version 3 carried over TCP

NAS (network-attached storage) is a specialized storage device that


connects to a network and can provide file access services to an ESX
Server. ESX Servers use the NFS protocol to communicate with NAS
servers. ESX Server supports NFS Version 3 over TCP only.
CIFS stands for Common Internet File System.

170 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


How is NAS/NFS Used with ESX Server?

• NFS volumes are treated just like VMFS volumes in


Fibre Channel or iSCSI storage
• Any can hold VMs’ files
• Any can hold ISO images
• Any can hold VM templates
• Allow VMotion migration of a VM whose files
reside on an NFS datastore

5
Storage
ESX Server supports the following shared storage capabilities on NFS
volumes:
• Use VMotion
• Create virtual machines
• Boot virtual machines
• Mount ISO files, which are presented as CD-ROMs to virtual machines
The NFS client built into ESX Server lets you access the NFS server and
use NFS volumes to store virtual machine disks.

Module 5 Storage: NAS Storage and NFS Datastores 171


NFS Components

The ESX Server must be configured with a VMkernel port defined on a


virtual switch. The VMkernel port must be able to access the NFS Server
over the network. The NFS Server contains the directory to share with the
ESX Server.

172 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Addressing and Access Control with NFS

5
Storage
/etc/exports defines the systems allowed to access the shared directory.
The options used in this file are:
• Name of directory to be shared
• Subnet(s) allowed to access the share
• rw: Allows both read and write requests on this NFS volume.
• no_root_squash: By default, the root user (whose UID is 0) is given
the least amount of access to an NFS volume. This option turns off this
behavior because the VMkernel needs to access the NFS volume using
UID 0.
• sync: All file writes must be committed to the disk before the write
request by the client is actually completed.

Module 5 Storage: NAS Storage and NFS Datastores 173


Configure Networking for an NFS Datastore

Create a VMkernel port on a virtual switch

You must define a new IP address for NAS use, different


from the Service Console’s IP address

For the ESX Server to access the NFS datastore over the network, a
VMkernel port must be configured manually. The name of this port can be
anything you want. In the example above, it is named "NFS Access." The
VMkernel port can be created as either another connection on an existing
virtual switch or as a new connection on a new virtual switch.

174 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Configure an NFS Datastore (1 of 2)

Describe the NFS share

5
Storage
To configure an NFS datastore, select your ESX Server in the inventory,
then click its Configuration tab. Select the Storage link. Click the Add
Storage... link, then select Network File System as the storage type. Enter
the properties of your NFS datastore, as shown above.
There are various reasons for mounting an NFS as a read-only file system:
• You want the NFS to be a library of files, such as ISO images
• You do not want this file system to be space for users to place their
personal files
• You have a limited amount of space in the NFS and you do not want
users accidentally filling up the NFS file system

Module 5 Storage: NAS Storage and NFS Datastores 175


Configure an NFS Datastore (2 of 2)

Verify that the NFS datastore has been added


and display the datastore contents, if desired

After creation, the NFS datastore shows up in the Storage display of the
server's Configuration tab. From this screen, you can also display the
contents of the datastore: right-click the datastore, then select Browse
Datastore... from the menu.

176 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Problem: Cannot Access NFS Datastore

• Is the VMKernel port configured and on the same LAN as


the storage array?
• Is a second Service Console port required?
• Is there an error in network configuration (storage array
IP address, routing, etc.)?
• Is the NAS Share name correct?
• Has NFS been correctly configured
(rw, no_root_squash, sync)?
• Are network problems preventing access to NAS
storage?

5
Storage
If you are having problems accessing your NFS datastore, check your
network configuration and NFS configuration.
Is the VMKernel port configured and on the same LAN as the storage
array?
• Examine the network configuration of your ESX Server.
• Make sure that you have a VMKernel port on a switch that is connected
to the same LAN as the NAS storage array.
• Make sure the IP address and subnet mask of the VMKernel port is
correct for the storage LAN.
• You should be able to ping the VMKernel address from the network
storage device.
Is there an error in the network configuration (storage array IP address,
routing, etc.)?
• Your network storage device configuration under ESX Server requires
that you enter either an IP address or an FQDN for the storage array.
Make sure this address and/or FQDN is correct.
• If you connect to your storage via a routed network (not recommended),
is your default router set for that network? Each ESX Server has a
default router gateway set for all VMKernel and service console traffic.
The gateway set for VMKernel does not have to be the same as the one
for the service console, but there can only be one for each. All
VMKernel ports use the same router and all service console ports use
the same router. If you are adding a new VMKernel or service console

Module 5 Storage: NAS Storage and NFS Datastores 177


port that is on a new subnet and the defined gateway address is not on
that subnet, you must already have a defined VMKernel and/or service
console port on the subnet on which the gateway is defined. For
example, if your new VMKernel port is on subnet 10.1.161.x and your
gateway address for VMKernel traffic is 192.168.161.1, you must
already have a VMKernel port defined somewhere on 192.168.161.x.
• You must also make sure that the designated VMKernel and service
console routers are online and functioning properly.
Is the NFS share name correct?
• If you do not correctly configure the share name that the NFS server is
using, you will not be able to connect to NFS storage. ESX Server will
not allow you to create NFS storage if you enter an incorrect share
name. Make sure your share name is correct, including the direction of
the slash mark. Many Windows administrators are used to using the
backwards slash ("\") in storage and directory names, but most NFS
storage arrays require the UNIX forward slash ("/"). The NFS share
name appears as Folder in the NFS add storage wizard.
Has NFS been correctly configured (rw, no_root_squash, sync)?
• The NFS storage array must be configured correctly. Many of these
arrays are UNIX or Linux servers. The NFS storage must be shared with
the rw, no_root_squash, and sync flags in order for the ESX Server to
utilize it. If the storage administrator has left one of these flags off, NFS
storage may work temporarily, but it will not be stable.
Are network problems preventing access to NAS storage?
• Network problems can prevent access to any storage array. A common
problem is that other systems on the network may accidentally configure
TCP/IP addresses that are identical to the NFS storage array, which will
take the storage array off-line. Most NFS storage servers will answer a
ping request (check with the NFS system administrator to verify this). If
the NFS server answers ping requests, then you should be able to ping it
from the service console. Even more importantly, the NFS storage
system should be able to ping both your service console address and the
VMKernel port address.

178 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lab for Lesson 4

• Create an NFS datastore


• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
•Create a VMkernel port to access NFS storage
•Create an NFS datastore

5
Storage
After students create their NFS datastore, encourage them to view the contents of the NFS
datastore. To do this, right-click the NFS datastore, then select Browse Datastore.

Module 5 Storage: NAS Storage and NFS Datastores 179


Lesson Summary

• An NFS datastore can be used to hold templates,


ISO images and the files that make up a VM
• ESX Server supports NFS version 3 over TCP
• A VMkernel port must be configured in order for the
VMkernel to access the IP-based storage

180 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Module Summary

• A LUN is addressed by the VMkernel using the


following syntax:
vmhbaadapterID:targetID:LUN:partition
• A VMFS datastore holds virtual machines’ files, ISO
images and templates
• A VMkernel port must be configured for IP storage
networking, needed to access iSCSI and NAS
storage
• An IQN and a WWN uniquely identify nodes in an
iSCSI SAN and Fibre Channel SAN, respectively

5
Storage

Module 5 Storage: NAS Storage and NFS Datastores 181


Questions?

Questions?

182 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


MODULE 6

Virtual Center Installation 6

6
Virtual Center Installation
Importance
• VirtualCenter Server allows you to centrally manage multiple ESX
Servers and VMs. VirtualCenter Server also gives large-scale
environments added functionality in the areas of resource balancing and
high availability.

Objectives for the Learner


• To install VirtualCenter components
• To manage an ESX Server using VirtualCenter

Module Lessons
• VirtualCenter Software Installation
• VirtualCenter Inventory Hierarchy
• Using VirtualCenter to Manage Hosts and VMs

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 183


Lesson 1

VirtualCenter Software
Installation :

Lesson Topics
• VirtualCenter Components
• VirtualCenter Architecture
• VirtualCenter Database
• VMware License Server
• VirtualCenter Server
• VMware Infrastructure (VI) Client

184 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VirtualCenter Components

The VMware VirtualCenter Server is the management server for ESX

6
Servers and virtual machines. It is a software product consisting of
numerous services and modules that is installed on a Windows server. The

Virtual Center Installation


Windows server may be either a physical machine or a virtual machine.
The same VI Client that is used as a graphical interface to manage ESX
Servers is what is used to connect to VirtualCenter. Once an ESX Server is
being managed by a VirtualCenter server, administrators should always use
the VirtualCenter server to manage the ESX Server. The VI Client should be
used to directly connect to the ESX Server in unusual circumstances, for
example, the VirtualCenter Server is down or for command-line
troubleshooting.
It is highly recommended that the VMware License Server be installed on
the same Windows server as the VirtualCenter Server. The license server
provides licenses for all ESX Servers being managed by the VirtualCenter
Server.
The most critical component of VirtualCenter is the database. The actual
VirtualCenter Server software can be installed fairly quickly. It is the
database that stores the inventory items, security roles, resource pools,
performance data and other critical information.
Also shown is an ActiveDirectory (AD) domain. The VirtualCenter Server
must be installed on a Windows platform. This means that security for the
VirtualCenter Server is built on Windows security. The VirtualCenter Server
is not required to belong to an ActiveDirectory domain. However, if the
server VirtualCenter is running on is a member of an ActiveDirectory

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 185


domain, then user accounts and groups from the domain will be available on
the VirtualCenter Server. If the VirtualCenter server is NOT a member of a
domain, the Windows security architecture is still in force. Only now the
users and groups that can use VirtualCenter will be local Windows users
and groups.
This has profound security implications for administration of the Virtual
Infrastructure. For example, by default, anyone with Domain Administrator
privileges in the AD domain will have full administrative powers over all
ESX Servers and virtual machines that are being managed by VirtualCenter.
Virtual Infrastructure administrators will need to plan and coordinate
security carefully with Windows ActiveDirectory administrators.
During normal operations, VirtualCenter is listening for data from its
managed hosts and clients on designated ports. The VirtualCenter Server
must communicate with the database server and the license server. If there
is a firewall between any of these elements, ports must be opened to allow
communications.
Some default ports include:
• VirtualCenter to License Server: 27000 and 27010
• VirtualCenter to Database Server: Oracle, use 1521; SQL, use 1433
• WebAccess and SDK Clients to VirtualCenter: 443 and 80
• VirtualCenter to managed hosts: 902
• VI Client to VirtualCenter: 443
Many of these default settings can be changed. Other services such as NFS
and iSCSI require other open ports.
For more information, consult the Installation and Upgrade Guide and the
Basic System Administration Guide, available on the VMware Web site.

186 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Optional Features

• Included with VirtualCenter Server, but require a


separate license to activate:
• VMware VMotion
•Allows migration of running Virtual Machines
• VMware HA
•High Availability
•Fault-Tolerance
• VMware DRS
•Dynamic Resource
Scheduler
•Load Balancing

VirtualCenter Server also has some optional features. These are packaged

6
and installed with the base product, but require a separate license. Optional
features include:

Virtual Center Installation


• VMware VMotion – A feature that enables you to move running virtual
machines from one ESX Server to another without service interruption.
It requires licensing on both the source and target host. The
VirtualCenter Server centrally coordinates all VMotion activities.
• VMware HA – A feature that enables a cluster with high availability. If a
host goes down, all virtual machines that were running on the host are
promptly restarted on different hosts in the same cluster.
• VMware DRS – A feature that helps improve resource allocation across
all hosts and resource pools. VMware DRS collects resource usage
information for all hosts and virtual machines in the cluster and gives
recommendations for VM migration or actually migrates the virtual
machines (depending on automation settings).

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 187


VirtualCenter Architecture
ActiveDirectory
Distributed Active Directory Domain
Services Interface

Additional
Services
User VMware
Core Third-party
Access Web Applications
Services Control SDK
Modules
Third-party
Applications
Database
Interface
Third-party
Applications
ESX Server Management

VirtualCenter
Database

ESX Hosts

The VirtualCenter architecture consists of the following services and


interfaces:
• Core services: The core functionality of the VirtualCenter server, such
as management of resources and virtual machines, task scheduler,
statistics logging, management of alarms and events, VM provisioning
and host and VM configuration
• Distributed services: Additional functionality of the VirtualCenter
server, for example, VMotion, VMware DRS and VMware HA. They
are installed with the VirtualCenter Server, but require a separate license
to activate.
• Additional services: Additional functionality, packaged separately from
the base product and require separate installation. No additional license
is necessary.
• Database interface: Provides access to the VirtualCenter database
• ESX Server management: The VirtualCenter Server provides access to
the ESX Server using a VirtualCenter Agent, which is installed on the
ESX Server when it is added to VirtualCenter’s inventory. The
VirtualCenter Agent communicates with the Host Agent to relay the
tasks to perform on the ESX Server. The Host Agent, like the
VirtualCenter Agent, reside on the ESX Server.
• Active Directory interface: Provides access to domain user accounts
• VI API: Along with VI SDK, provides an interface for writing custom
applications that access VirtualCenter functionality.

188 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VirtualCenter Modules

• Applications that provide additional features and


functionality to VirtualCenter
• Examples
• VMware Update Manager
• VMware Converter Enterprise for VirtualCenter
• Include a server component and a client component.
• Client component is available to VirtualCenter clients for
download after module installed on VirtualCenter Server
• Alters the interface by adding items related to the
enhanced functionality
• Can be upgraded independently

VirtualCenter modules are applications that provide additional features and

6
functionality to VirtualCenter. The VirtualCenter modules are:
• VMware Update Manager – Enables security administrators to enforce

Virtual Center Installation


security standards across ESX Servers and all managed virtual
machines. This module provides the ability to create user-defined
security baselines which represent a set of security standards. Security
administrators can compare hosts and virtual machines against these
baselines to identify and remediate systems that are not in compliance.
• VMware Converter Enterprise for VirtualCenter – Enables users to
convert physical machines, and virtual machines in a variety of formats,
to ESX Server virtual machines. Converted systems can be imported
into any location in the VirtualCenter inventory.
Typically, modules are comprised of a server component and a client
component. After the server component of a module is installed, it is
registered with the VirtualCenter Server and the client component is
available to VirtualCenter clients for download. The client component is
also known as a “plug-in”. After a plug-in is installed on a VirtualCenter
client, it might alter the interface by adding views, tabs, toolbar buttons, or
menu options related to the enhanced functionality.
Modules leverage core VirtualCenter capabilities, such as authentication
and permission management, but can have their own types of events, tasks,
metadata, and privileges. Modules require VirtualCenter and they can be
installed anytime after VirtualCenter has been installed. Modules and
VirtualCenter can be upgraded independently.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 189


Order of Installation

• Check Hardware and Software prerequisites


• Database Server
• Create database connection to either SQL Server or
Oracle database
• License Server
• VirtualCenter Server
• VMware Infrastructure Client

This is the recommended There is an order you must follow during the VirtualCenter Server
order of installation. If you
are using either SQL
installation:
Server or Oracle, the
database instance must be 1 Begin by sure your hardware and software meet the required
created for VirtualCenter prerequisites.
before performing the
installation. The 2 Create a database on either a supported Microsoft SQL or Oracle
VirtualCenter installer Database server.
populates the database
with VirtualCenter tables 3 Create a database connection to your database, either SQL Server or
and views. The License Oracle.
Server can be installed
before or during the 4 Install the VMware License Server.
VirtualCenter Server
installation (the 5 Install the VirtualCenter Server.
VirtualCenter Server 6 Install the VMware Infrastructure Client.
installer wizard prompts for
and will install a license
server if one is not already
installed.) The Virtual
Infrastructure Client can be
installed at any time.

190 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Hardware and Software Prerequisites

• Hardware Requirements
• Processor – 2.0GHz or higher Intel or AMD x86 processor
• Memory – 2GB RAM minimum
• Disk storage – 560MB minimum, 2GB recommended
• Networking – 10/100 Ethernet adapter minimum (Gigabit
recommended)
• May be run in a Virtual Machine
• Software Requirements
• 32-bit version operating system only:
• Windows 2000 Server SP4 with Update Rollup 1
• Windows XP Pro SP2
• Windows 2003 Server SP1
• Windows 2003 Server R2
VirtualCenter Server hardware must meet the following requirements:

6
• Processor – 2.0GHz or higher Intel or AMD x86 processor. Processor
requirements can be larger if your database is run on the same hardware.

Virtual Center Installation


• Memory – 2GB RAM minimum. RAM requirements can be larger if
your database is run on the same hardware.
• Disk storage – 560MB minimum, 2GB recommended. You must have
245MB free on the destination drive for installation of the program, and
you must have 315MB free on the drive containing your %temp%
directory.
• Networking – 10/100 Ethernet adapter minimum (Gigabit
recommended).
The VirtualCenter Server is supported as a service on the 32-bit versions of
these operating systems:
• Windows 2000 Server SP4 with Update Rollup 1 (Update Rollup 1 can
be downloaded from http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/server/
evaluation/news/bulletins/rollup.mspx)
• Windows XP Pro SP2
• Windows 2003 Server SP1
• Windows 2003 Server R2

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 191


VirtualCenter Database

• Storage area for maintaining VirtualCenter inventory as well as


the status of each VM and each managed host
• Oracle
• 9iR2
• 10gR1 (versions 10.1.0.3 and higher)
• 10gR2
• Microsoft SQL
• SQL Server 2000 (SP4 or Enterprise)
• SQL Server 2005 (Enterprise SP1 or SP2)
• Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express
• Default evaluation/demo database
• Used for demonstration installations
• Bundled with VirtualCenter
MSDE is no longer Before you install VirtualCenter Server make sure you have your database
supported. It have been
replaced with SQL Server
ready. The following is a list of the supported databases and their
2005 Express. requirements:
SQL Server 2005 Express • Oracle 9iR2, 10gR1 (versions 10.1.0.3 and higher), 10gR2
should be used only in a
demo environment. When • Microsoft SQL Server 2000 (Standard SP4 or Enterprise): This will
the database size is limit is require MDAC 2.8 on the client. The SQL Server driver will be required
reached, performance
on the client.
issues and general
“weirdness” will occur, • All versions of Microsoft SQL Server 2005 (Enterprise SP1, SP2, and
such as VMs powering off,
stats not being collected,
Express) are supported. All require MDAC 2.8 on the client and the
and VMs no longer SQL native client driver on the client.
registered.
• Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express: SQL Server 2005 Express should
With that said, SQL Server only be used in demonstration environments, not production
Express Edition is typically environments. The database size limit of SQL Server 2005 Express is 4
for small environments, for
example, <= 5 ESX GB. When the limit is reached, VirtualCenter will experience
Servers. This topic comes performance issues.
up occasionally in class.
Users are running small For more details on the VirtualCenter software and hardware requirements,
environments without a consult the ESX Server 3 Installation Guide, available on the VMware Web
regular database server
who do not want to spend
site.
money to get a database
for VirtualCenter.

192 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Calculating the Database Size

•VirtualCenter has a
built-in database
calculator
•Administration ->
VirtualCenter
Management Server
Configuration
•Select Statistics
•Noactual database
changes are made
•This is a “what-if”
calculator

The size of the database varies with the number of hosts and virtual

6
machines you manage. To ensure your database can handle the statistics
collection you configure, the VI Client provides you with a database

Virtual Center Installation


estimation calculator in which you enter the number of hosts and virtual
machines in your inventory. The calculator uses these numbers to determine
how much database space is required for the collection interval
configuration you defined. This ensures you have necessary resources.
To use the calculator:
• Select the Administration from the menu bar.
• Select VirtualCenter Management Server Configuration from the
menu bar.
• Select the Statistics option in the left window.
• Make your changes in the right-hand window.
The calculator will automatically make an estimate based on your changes.
Remember that this is a “what-if” calculator. No actual changes are being
made to the size of the VirtualCenter database.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 193


Database Access Requirements

• If you are using Microsoft SQL Server


• Database user needs either a sysadmin server role or
the db_owner fixed database role on the VirtualCenter
database
• Create an ODBC connection of type, System DSN
• Use SQL Server Authentication unless the SQL Server
is installed on the same server as VirtualCenter

If you are using Microsoft SQL Server the database user must be assigned
either a sysadmin server role or the db_owner fixed database role. For
Microsoft SQL Server, you will need to create an ODBC connection. This
needs to be done prior to starting the VirtualCenter installation process. The
ODBC connection should be created as a System DSN connection.
If you are using Microsoft SQL Server, always use SQL Server
Authentication unless the SQL Server is running on the same system as the
VirtualCenter Server. If both your Microsoft SQL database server and your
VirtualCenter server are running on the same computer, you may use
Windows Authentication. Installing the database on the same system as the
VirtualCenter Server is not recommended unless the hardware (either virtual
or physical) is sized with enough capacity to handle both applications.
For details on setting up an Oracle database for VirtualCenter, consult the
ESX Server 3 Installation Guide, available on the VMware Web site.

194 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMware License Server (Centralized
Licensing)

License Server

ESX Servers
VirtualCenter
Server

• Simplifies license management


• Licenses are stored on a license server
• Makes licenses available to one or more ESX hosts
• License Editions: VirtualCenter Foundation and VirtualCenter
• Single-host and centralized licensing can be combined
• 14-day grace period

6
The VMware License Server can be installed at the same time the The VMware License
Server is a distributed
VirtualCenter Server is installed. VMware strongly recommends that you license system, based on

Virtual Center Installation


follow the default installation and place your license server on the same technology licensed from
machine as your VirtualCenter Server. This has the advantage of simplicity industry-standard FlexNet.
A license server can be set
of setup, as well as guaranteeing VirtualCenter-to-license server up in your datacenter for
communications. Change this only if you have a good reason, such as an your VMware software.
existing FLEXnet license server.
It is also possible to run VirtualCenter using a 60-day evaluation license.
There are two VirtualCenter editions: There is also a la carte
add-ons: DRS, VMotion,
• VirtualCenter Foundation: This edition lets you manage up to three Storage VMotion and HA.
ESX Servers. If you need to manage more than three hosts, upgrade to
VirtualCenter edition.
• VirtualCenter: This enterprise-level edition lets you manage up to the
system maximum number of hosts.
Using single host licenses for ESX Server features and centralized license Transition to the next slide
with the last bullet, 14-day
server licensing for VirtualCenter features in the same environment is grace period.
permitted. However, doing so requires changes to the default VirtualCenter
configuration settings. If you do not change the VirtualCenter settings, the
settings can override single host license files:
• When the VirtualCenter Server restarts
• When the single host ESX Server machines are added to inventory again

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 195


Any single host license file on the ESX Server machine remains unchanged
but ignored. For more details on this, consult the Installation Guide,
available on the VMware web site.

Additional Information on Licensing:


For most VMware Infrastructure products, you purchase licenses on a per-processor basis,
which means that you need to indicate the total number of processors, not hosts, that will
run the products. You can then deploy and redeploy the purchased processor capacity, sold
in increments of two processors, on any combination of hosts.
Special considerations include:
• Dual-core and quad-core processors, such as Intel x86 processors that combine two or
four independent central processing units on a single chip, count as one processor.
• You cannot partially license a multiprocessor host. For example, a 4-CPU host requires a
license with the capacity for four processors.
For example, suppose you were to purchase ESX Server licenses for ten processors and
VMotion licenses for six processors. You can then deploy those licenses on any of the
following combinations of servers:
• ESX Server on five 2-processor hosts. Enable VMotion on three hosts.
• ESX Server on three 2-processor hosts and a 4-processor host. Enable VMotion on three
2-processor hosts, or on one 2-processor host and a 4-processor host.
• ESX Server on two 4-processor hosts and one 2-processor host. Enable VMotion on one
4-processor host and one 2-processor host.
• ESX Server on one 8-processor host and one 2-processor host. VMotion between these
two hosts cannot be enabled unless you purchase an additional 4-processor VMotion
license.

196 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


License Server 14-day Grace Period

Component Attempted Action Grace Period After Grace Period


Power On Permitted Not Permitted
Virtual Create/Delete Permitted Permitted
Machine Suspend/Resume Permitted Permitted
Configure Virtual Machine with VI Client Permitted Permitted
Continue Operations Permitted Permitted
ESX Server Power On/Power Off Permitted Permitted
Host Configure ESX Server Host with VI Client Permitted Permitted
Modify Host-Based License File Permitted Permitted
Remove an ESX Server Host from Inventory Permitted Permitted
Add an ESX Server Host to Inventory Not Permitted Not Permitted
Connect/Reconnect to an ESX Server Host in
Permitted Permitted
Inventory
Cold Migrate a VM Between Hosts Permitted Permitted
VirtualCenter Move an ESX Server Host Among Folders Permitted Permitted
Server Move an ESX Server Host into/out of Cluster Not Permitted Not Permitted
Configure VirtualCenter with VI Client Permitted Permitted
Hot Migrate (VMotion) a VM Between Hosts Permitted Not Permitted
Continue Load Balancing within VMware DRS
Permitted Not Permitted
Cluster
Restart VMs within Failed Host’s VMware HA Cluster Permitted Not Permitted
Any Add or Remove License Keys Not Permitted Not Permitted
Component Upgrade Not Permitted Not Permitted

There is a 14-day grace period during which hosts continue operation, The VMware License
Server is a distributed

6
relying on a cached version of the license state, even across reboots. After license system, based on
the grace period expires, certain ESX Server operations, such as powering technology licensed from
industry-standard FlexNet.

Virtual Center Installation


on virtual machines, become unavailable. The table above shows you what
A license server can be set
operations are permitted during and after the grace period. up in your datacenter for
your VMware software.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 197


VirtualCenter Server Services

• VirtualCenter Server is installed on a Windows system


• Once installed, services can be managed from the
Windows control panel or Administrative Tools / Services

Once you have your database setup and your license server configured you
may install VirtualCenter Server. Once VirtualCenter Server is installed, a
number of new services will appear in the Windows system:
• VMware Capacity Planner Service
• VMware Converter Enterprise Service
• VMware Infrastructure Web Access: Allows users to manage VMs
using a web browser
• VMware License Server
• VMware Mount Service for VirtualCenter: Service used during guest
OS customization (during cloning a VM or deploying a VM from a
template)
• VMware Update Manager Service
• VMware VirtualCenter Server: The heart of VirtualCenter, it centrally
manages all tasks performed on the ESX Server and virtual machines
If the Windows OS that VirtualCenter Server is running on top of is a
member of a Windows Domain (either NT4 or Active Directory), it will
automatically access all Windows user and group accounts in that (and any
trusted) Windows Domains.

198 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Additional Information on the VMware Virtual Mount Manager Extended Service:
The VMware Virtual Mount Manager Extended service does not get started by default. It is
started the first time a guest OS customization is done. The VMware VirtualCenter Server
service is the main service. It starts vpxd.exe. If this service is not started, then the
management server is considered to be down and unavailable.
During the guest OS customization procedure, the VM needs to be configured with unique
system information (such as network identity, timezone, ownership, license information,
etc.). VirtualCenter uses sysprep to perform the customization. After the VM is cloned or
deployed from a template, the virtual machine's virtual disk is remotely mounted onto the
VirtualCenter Server to allow file system modification, specifically, the sysprep-related files
need to be copied into the guest OS. The VMware Virtual Mount Manager Extended service
is responsible for mounting the virtual disk so that it accessible by the VirtualCenter Server.

6
Virtual Center Installation

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 199


VMware Infrastructure (VI) Client Overview

• The VI Client is a graphical


user interface used to
access VirtualCenter
• Access to VirtualCenter
• Full VirtualCenter
functionality
• Access directly to ESX
Server
• Single host management
only
• Connect directly to
managed ESX host only in
unusual circumstances

The VI Client is the interface used to communicate with the VirtualCenter


server, just as it was used to communicate directly with an individual ESX
Server. The VirtualCenter Server then passes commands to the managed
ESX Server.
For example, It is possible Once an ESX Server is being managed by a VirtualCenter Server, it is a
to corrupt a cluster’s
configuration by making
good practice not to connect the VI Client directly to the ESX Server except
changes directly on a host in unusual circumstances, for example, the VirtualCenter Server is down or
that is being managed by a for command-line troubleshooting.
VirtualCenter server. This
will be discussed later on.

200 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


ESX Server and VirtualCenter
Communication

6
The VI Client and the Web Client are the user interfaces used to access
either the VirtualCenter Server or the ESX Server directly. The Web Client

Virtual Center Installation


provides a browser-based interface for managing VMs. The Web Client
connects to Web Access, which is available on both the VirtualCenter
Server and the ESX Server.
The VirtualCenter Server passes commands to the ESX Servers via the vpxa
daemon. A daemon is found on Linux and UNIX systems and is similar to a
Windows service. If you are using the VI Client to communicate directly
with an ESX Server the vpxa daemon is not used. Instead, communications
go directly to the vmware-hostd daemon. vmware-hostd is often referred
to as the host agent.

NOTE

In the example above, hostd represents the host agent and is an


abbreviation for vmware-hostd.
The following ports are used for communication:
• VI Client to ESX Server traffic: 443
• VI Client to VirtualCenter traffic: 443
• VI Web Access Client to either VirtualCenter or ESX Server: 443
• Authentication traffic for the ESX Server: 902
• ESX Server-to-ESX Server access for migration and provisioning: 902

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 201


For more details on TCP and UDP ports used for management access,
consult for ESX Server 3 Configuration Guide, available on the VMware
Web site.

202 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Managing Across Geographies

A single VirtualCenter Server can manage ESX Servers that are located in

6
different geographical locations but connected by a WAN link or VPN link.
The bandwidth required for communications between the VirtualCenter

Virtual Center Installation


server and the hosts is very small. Likewise, administrators who are using
the VI Client do not have to be in the same geographical location that the
VirtualCenter server is located in.
When you manage ESX Servers separated by WAN and VPN links make
sure that any firewalls in-between are configured to allow the required TCP
ports to be open.
Communication links between the clients and the VirtualCenter Server are
encrypted.
For more information on the required TCP ports that need to be open,
consult the Installation Guide, section “Configuring Communication
Between VirtualCenter Components”, available on the VMware Web site.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 203


Backup Strategy for VirtualCenter Server

• If primary management server fails:


• Power off primary management server
• Power on standby management server

The standby server must If the VirtualCenter Server fails, it will not affect the runtime behavior of
be an exact copy of the
primary server. Host name,
the virtual machines and the ESX Servers. The ESX Servers and virtual
IP address, and SSL machines continue to run normally. When the VirtualCenter Server comes
identity must be the same. back up, it can reconnect to running hosts and re-synchronize the state of
This is becaue the
VirtualCenter configuration the hosts and their virtual machines.
file, /etc/vmware/vpxa.cfg
contains a hard reference One possible strategy for VirtualCenter Server high availability is to create
to the IP address of the a standby VirtualCenter Server, either on a physical machine or in a virtual
VirtualCenter Server.
machine. The standby VirtualCenter Server is an exact copy of the primary
VirtualCenter Server. Leave it powered off, until it needs to take the place of
the primary VirtualCenter Server. Multiple VirtualCenter Servers are not
allowed to manage the same inventory at the same time.
You can also use clustering software so the VirtualCenter server process is
automatically restarted on a standby server if the primary server fails. For
more information, consult the technical paper, Using MSCS to Cluster
VirtualCenter, available on the VMware website at
http://www.vmware.com/pdf/VC_MSCS.pdf.
Another strategy is to use the clustering capabilities of the database itself,
which both SQL Server and Oracle provide.

204 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Problem: Cannot Login Using VI Client (1 of
2)

• One reason:
VMware
VirtualCenter
Server service is
not running

6
If you try to login to your VirtualCenter Server using the VI Client and are
unable to, there are several possible reasons:

Virtual Center Installation


• You are using an incorrect VirtualCenter Server hostname or IP address
• You are using an incorrect user account and/or password
• Local station has no IP connectivity to the VirtualCenter Server - Try to
ping the VirtualCenter Server from the system on which you are running
the VI Client
• VirtualCenter Server Service (vpxd) is not running - Check that this
service is running on the VirtualCenter server

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 205


Problem: Cannot Login Using VI Client (2 of
2)

• Check the Windows Services


• Start the VirtualCenter Server service if it has stopped

VirtualCenter Server service


is currently stopped
To verify whether or not the VirtualCenter Server service is started, view the
Windows services panel on the VirtualCenter Server system. The VMware
VirtualCenter Server service should be started. If it is not, then start it at this
time by clicking the Start link in the Services window.

206 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VirtualCenter Server Service Fails To Start

• Use the Windows Event Viewer on the VirtualCenter


Server to check the event logs
• View the VirtualCenter Server log file, vpxd-#.log
• Look for messages of type “error”

• Check the VirtualCenter Server database log files


(Oracle or SQL Server)
• Service failure could be caused by database problems

By default, the VirtualCenter Server service (vpxd) starts automatically

6
when the VirtualCenter Server boots up. However, if the VirtualCenter
Server service fails to start, this problem must be resolved. Without this

Virtual Center Installation


service, you cannot manage your ESX Servers and virtual machines using
VirtualCenter. However, you will still be able to manage your ESX Servers
and their virtual machines if you use the VI Client and log directly into the
ESX Server.
Use the Windows event viewer to view the application log. VirtualCenter
events are always identified with event ID 1000 and they are always
prefixed with a warning that this event description is missing in the local
computer. The text of the VirtualCenter event message itself follows this
warning. Also, check the Windows system log in the event viewer for any
messages on starting, stopping or recovering the VirtualCenter Server
service
The VirtualCenter Server service has log files that you can view using the
VI Client. There is one catch - in order to use the VI Client, the
VirtualCenter Server service must be started!
The VirtualCenter Server log files are named vpxd-#.log, where # is a
number from 0 to 9. VirtualCenter keeps a maximum of 10 log files and
rotates through them. The file vpxd-index.log always lists the number of
the current log. If the Windows administrator account was used to install
and run VirtualCenter, then the log files and index file are located in
C:\Windows\temp\vpx.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 207


Failure of the VirtualCenter Server service can also be caused by problems
accessing the VirtualCenter database. Check the following:
• You are using a supported database with VirtualCenter.
• The VirtualCenter database is accessible. Network issues, operating
system issue, and authentication issues on the database server can
prevent VirtualCenter from accessing its database.
• The VirtualCenter Server can connect successfully to its database.
• If you are using a SQL Server database, the ODBC connection is
working properly.
• The database’s transaction logs are not full.

208 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


License Server Will Not Start

• Use the VMware License Server Tools


• Stop/start the service, apply or re-read license file

If the license server does not start, the most likely cause is an incorrect or The link to any KB article
is http://kb.vmware.com/

6
corrupt license file. Knowledge Base article 1013698 provides the syntax kb/#######, where
description for your license files, both host- and server-based. The link to ####### is the KB article
ID.

Virtual Center Installation


this article is http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1013698.
To check the configuration and status of your license file, use the VMware
License Server Tools utility, also known as LMTOOLS. To launch this
utility on the license server, click Start -> All Programs -> VMware ->
VMware License Server -> VMware License Server Tools.
If you are having license server problems, here are some things to check
using LMTOOLS:
• Click the Server Status tab to check the status of the license server, and
verify the path to the license file being used is correct.
• Click the Perform Status Enquiry button and view the messages about
your licensing.
• If the wrong license file is being used, click the Config Services tab. In
the “Path to the license file” field, browse to the correct license file.
Click the Save Service button after making the change. Go to the Start/
Stop/Reread tab to re-read the license file.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 209


Lab for Lesson 1

• Install VirtualCenter
• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
•Open a Remote Desktop Connection (RDC) to your
VirtualCenter Server
•Create an ODBC connection to the SQL Server
VirtualCenter database
•Install the VMware License Server
•Install the VirtualCenter Server
•Install the VMware Infrastructure Client (Optional)

Tips for all lab environments:


• If a student is working in their VirtualCenter VM and they cannot use their mouse to select
something in the VM's toolbar, then student might need to type CTRL-ALT to release the
mouse from the VM's console window.
Tips for classes that use a VDC Kit only:
• After the lab is over, remind students that they will get better performance if they use the
VI Client installed on the Citrix desktop instead of the desktop of their VirtualCenter VM.
• Show the students how to access their VirtualCenter VM using a Remote Desktop
Connection: In the Citrix desktop, click Start -> Utilities -> Remote Desktop Connection.
Provide each student with the IP address of their VirtualCenter VM.
• A common error in setting up the ODBC connection is to overlook the step to change the
default database from 'master' to the new data source being created (usually 'kitnamexx').
• Another common error is to not switch from the User DSN tab to the System DSN tab
when creating the ODBC connection.

210 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• Oracle and SQL Server are the recommended


databases to use for VirtualCenter in a production
environment
• The VMware License Server and VirtualCenter
Server typically reside on the same system
• If the license server fails, licenses remain unaffected
for a 14-day grace period

6
Virtual Center Installation

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Software Installation 211


Lesson 2

VirtualCenter Inventory
Hierarchy :

Lesson Topics
• VirtualCenter inventory hierarchy
• Adding ESX Server to inventory

212 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VirtualCenter Inventory: Multiple Datacenters

Where networks
and datastores
are configured

The VirtualCenter inventory is a hierarchy of objects. These objects are

6
either containers of other objects, such as folders, or objects that you
manage, such as hosts and virtual machines. The inventory hierarchy is

Virtual Center Installation


used to group your hosts and virtual machines in a meaningful way. It also
provides a natural structure upon which to apply permissions.
The topmost object in the inventory is a folder, also known as the root
folder or root. By default, the root folder has the name “Hosts and
Clusters” or “Virtual Machines and Templates”, depending upon the current
inventory view.
Under the root folder, one or more datacenter objects are created. A
datacenter is the primary container of inventory objects such as hosts and
virtual machines. From the datacenter you can add and organize inventory
objects. Typically you will add hosts, folders, and clusters to a datacenter.
VirtualCenter Server can contain multiple datacenters. Large companies
might use multiple datacenters to represent organizations or business units
within the corporation.
Inventory objects can interact within datacenters, but have only limited In 3.5, you can clone a
virtual machine from one
interaction across datacenters. For example, you can VMotion a virtual datacenter to a different
machine from one host to another within a datacenter, but not to a host in a datacenter. This is covered
different datacenter. On the other hand, you can clone a virtual machine in module 6, VM Creation
and Management.
within a datacenter and to a different datacenter.
In the example above, datacenters are based on their geographical location,
where each geographical location might have its own team of IT

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Inventory Hierarchy 213


administrators, its own set of customers and its own set of ESX Servers,
virtual machines, networks and datastores for which it is responsible.

214 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VirtualCenter Inventory: Folders and
Subfolders

6
Items within the inventory may be placed into folders. Folders and sub-
folders may be created to better organize systems.

Virtual Center Installation


In the example above, datacenters are grouped by areas in the world, such
as the Americas and Europe. By doing this, you create a structure upon
which appropriate access can be assigned to administrators.
Take care when you design your inventory. Too many sub-levels and too
complicated a hierarchy can make management harder instead of easier.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Inventory Hierarchy 215


Organizing Objects in the Inventory

Here is a datacenter that contains a collection of virtual machines,


templates, and ESX Servers that have been placed into folders for
organizational purposes. Note that hosts are being separated by CPU
architecture. This is will make organizing DRS cluster configurations easier.
It is not possible to VMotion a virtual machine from a host running one
CPU architecture to a host with a different architecture. This will be covered
in depth during the module on Resource Management.

216 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VirtualCenter Inventory: Clusters

run
nin Cluster for VMware HA
g on

on
g
nin Cluster for VMware DRS
n
ru

An ESX Server serves as the platform on which virtual machines run. Hosts

6
that are not grouped together are known as standalone hosts. Hosts that are
grouped together are referred to as a cluster.

Virtual Center Installation


Even though resources can be pooled together in clusters, bear in mind that
a VM can only run on a single host at a time. The example above shows two
clusters, one which is a VMware HA cluster and one which is a VMware
DRS cluster. In best practice, most clusters are both VMware HA-enabled
and VMware DRS-enabled.
VirtualCenter Server can support VMware DRS and VMware HA clusters As of version 2.5, 32 hosts
are supported.
which contain up to 32 ESX Servers.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Inventory Hierarchy 217


View VirtualCenter Inventory
Hosts & Clusters View Virtual Machine & Templates View

This graphic shows the two most common views used in the VirtualCenter
Inventory: the Hosts & Clusters view and the Virtual Machines &
Templates view. The other two views are the Networks view and the
Datastores view.
To display a view in the VI Client, select the desired view in the Inventory
panel’s drop-down menu.
Note that you cannot see templates in the Hosts & Clusters view. It is
possible to see templates in this view by selecting the Hosts & Clusters
folder and selecting the Virtual Machines tab.
Also note that you cannot see hosts or clusters in Virtual Machines &
Templates view. It is possible to see hosts in this view by selecting the
Virtual Machines & Templates folder and clicking on the Hosts tab.

218 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Problem: Cannot Add Host to Inventory (1 of
2)

• ESX Server management agent (vmware-hostd) may


not be running

6
If you cannot add an ESX Server to the VirtualCenter inventory, here are
some possible reasons:

Virtual Center Installation


• You are using an incorrect ESX Server IP address or hostname - Try to
ping the IP address or host name that you are using.
• You are using an incorrect user name and/or password - Make sure you
are using the root user account and password.
• The ESX Server management agent (vmware-hostd) is not running - Checking to see if
vmware-hostd is running is
Check that vmware-hostd is running. discussed on the next
slide.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Inventory Hierarchy 219


Problem: Cannot Add Host to Inventory (2 of
2)

• Check that hostd is running


• Run ps –ef | grep hostd from the ESX Server
command line
• If hostd is not running
• Run service mgmt-vmware start to restart hostd

To check if vmware-hostd is running, you must use the service console


command line.
Log into the ESX Server from the ESX Server machine console or a secure
shell session. Log in as a normal user account, then use the su - command
to switch to user root.
Run the command, ps -ef | grep hostd. This command line lists the
processes currently running on the ESX Server but only displays entries that
contain the word “hostd”. In the example above, there were two entries that
contained the word “hostd” (Note these are long entries that span two lines).
The second entry shows that vmware-hostd is indeed running.
If vmware-hostd is not running, run the command, service mgmt-vmware
start to restart vmware-hostd.

220 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Problem: ESX Server Not Responding

• If you are in the VI Client and the ESX Server’s state


changes to “not responding”

• The VirtualCenter Server lost connection to the ESX Server


•Check service console network connectivity

• If you are in the VI Client and you get the error message:

• The VirtualCenter Server Service may have stopped


If you are working in the VI Client and an ESX Server’s state changes to

6
“not responding”, here are possible reasons:
• The VirtualCenter Server lost network connection to the ESX Server. If

Virtual Center Installation


this is the case, check the service console network connectivity as well
as the network connectivity on the VirtualCenter Server.
• The VI Client may have lost connection to the VirtualCenter Server. If
this is the case, check network connectivity from the system where the
VI Client is running to the VirtualCenter Server.
• The VirtualCenter Server Service may have stopped.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Inventory Hierarchy 221


Lab for Lesson 2

• Add ESX Server to VirtualCenter Inventory


• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
•Add an ESX Server to the VirtualCenter inventory
•Configure the ESX Server to use the License Server
•View general information about the ESX Server

222 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• A datacenter object is the primary organizational


structure in the inventory
• Folders can be used to organize ESX Servers in the
datacenter

6
Virtual Center Installation

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: VirtualCenter Inventory Hierarchy 223


Lesson 3

Using VirtualCenter to Manage


Hosts and VMs :

Lesson Topics
• Lockdown Mode
• Scheduled Tasks
• Administration
• Events
• System Logs
• Maps
• Consolidation
• Plugins
• Client Settings

224 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lockdown Mode

• Prevents administrators from trying to directly


manage ESX hosts that are already being managed
by a VirtualCenter Server

Use the VI Client to directly manage ESX Servers that are under

6
VirtualCenter administration only in case of unusual circumstances, for
example, for command-line troubleshooting. Making changes on an

Virtual Center Installation


individual ESX Server’s configuration when it is under VirtualCenter Server
administration can cause major problems. These include causing clusters
and resource pools to become internally inconsistent.
Once an ESX Server is being managed by a VirtualCenter server, you may
prevent anyone from managing it directly by placing it into Lockdown
Mode. This can be done when the host is first added to the VirtualCenter
Server’s inventory, or later by modifying the Security Profile.
To modify the Security Profile, select your ESX Server from the inventory,
then click its Configuration tab. In the Software section, click the Security
Profile link, then click Edit... next to the Lockdown Mode section. A check
box allows you to either enable or disable lockdown mode.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: Using VirtualCenter to Manage Hosts and VMs 225
Scheduled Tasks

• Scheduled Tasks
can schedule many
key operations on
virtual machines and
hosts

Click on the Scheduled Tasks panel to see the scheduled tasks. If you right-
click anywhere in the Scheduled Tasks window, you may add a new task.
Tasks include operations like powering down a virtual machine at a specific
time. You can also schedule resource-intensive operations such as the
deployment of new virtual machines from templates at off-hours.

226 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Administration

• Determine who has logged-in to this VirtualCenter Server


• Send messages to other administrators

The Sessions tab is located in the Administration panel. It is a very

6
convenient way to see who is logged into this VirtualCenter Server. It is also
possible to send real-time message broadcasts to all VI Clients that are

Virtual Center Installation


connected to this VirtualCenter Server.
Other tabs available from the Administration button include Roles,
Licenses, and System Logs. Roles will be covered later in the discussion on
security.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: Using VirtualCenter to Manage Hosts and VMs 227
Events

Event Search

Details of selected event

An event is the outcome or result of running a VirtualCenter task.


The Events panel can show you recent events in VirtualCenter. The search
option allows you to search for specific events that are not on the screen.
Once you select an event, the details window shows you more detailed
information about the event.
Another way to display events is to select any object in the inventory, then
click its Tasks & Events tab. This view allows you to see the tasks and
events related to that specific object.
Being able to view VirtualCenter events can be very useful when
troubleshooting problems.

228 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


System Logs

vpxd-index identifies
the current log file
Log Search

The System Logs tab is another important tab on the Administration button. If the VI Client were
connected directly to the

6
Logs can be searched in the same manner as events. Like events, the system ESX Server, then local
logs can be useful when troubleshooting problems. ESX Server logs will be
available instead.

Virtual Center Installation


In the drop-down list at the top of the System Logs tab, you will see all the
logs that are currently available for viewing. The file named vpxd-index is
a file that contains the number, or index, of the most current log. Look at
this file first to determine the most current log that VirtualCenter is using.
In the example above, vpxd-index contains the number 3. This means that
the most current log file is vpxd-3.log.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: Using VirtualCenter to Manage Hosts and VMs 229
Maps

• The Maps button shows relationships between virtual


machines, hosts, datastores, and networks

The Maps panel provides a visual understanding of the relationships


between the virtual and physical resources available in VirtualCenter
inventory. These inventory maps show a selected item's relationships with
relevant hosts, virtual machines, networks and datastores. Maps make it
easy to understand what items are affected or attached to the item in
question. Maps are a visual way of verifying that the VMotion requirements
relating to networks and datastores are met by a particular set of hosts.
You can zoom in and out of the topology map. In the Overview window, use
the mouse to select all or part of the map. You can also hold the mouse
button down in that window to move the box cursor over the part of the map
that you would like to enlarge.
Examples of using maps will be discussed in a later module.

230 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Consolidation

• The Consolidation button will launch the Guided


Consolidation feature

The Consolidation panel will launch the Guided Consolidation feature. This

6
feature enables you to consolidate physical systems in your datacenter by
converting them to virtual machines and importing them into VirtualCenter.

Virtual Center Installation


Multiple virtual machines can be hosted on a single physical system,
enabling more efficient use of computing resources. Consolidating your
datacenter involves the following process:
• Discover – In this phase, physical systems in your datacenter are
discovered and you select the systems you want analyzed.
• Analyze – In this phase, the selected physical systems are analyzed for
their potential as candidates to be converted to virtual machines.
Performance data on each selected system is collected. The performance
data is compared to the resources available on the virtual machine host
systems to determine the degree to which a physical system makes a
good candidate for consolidation into the virtual environment.
Generally, the longer the duration of the analysis phase the higher the
confidence in the VirtualCenter’s recommendations.
• Consolidate – In this phase, the consolidation plan is executed. The
selected physical systems are converted to virtual machines and
imported into VirtualCenter onto the recommended hosts where they are
managed along with other components of your virtual environment. The
VMware Converter Enterprise plug-in is necessary to do the conversion.
NOTE

Guided Consolidation will be covered later in the course.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: Using VirtualCenter to Manage Hosts and VMs 231
Plugins

Use the Plugins /


Manage Plugins…
to launch the
Plugin Manager

A plug-in is an optional application that provides additional capabilities and


features, in this case, to VirtualCenter. Examples of plug-ins are VMware
Update Manager and VMware Converter Enterprise.
Generally, plug-ins are released separately, install on top of VirtualCenter,
and can be upgraded independently. You may download and install them or
manage them with the Plugin Manager in VirtualCenter. Launch the Plugins
Manager by clicking Plugins in the menu bar, then selecting Manage
Plugins. After the server component of a plug-in is installed, you can
activate the plug-in’s client component, which enhances the VI Client with
appropriate UI options.

232 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Client Settings

• Client Settings

Client Settings can


set things like timeout
values for slow WAN
connections

You may adjust the VI Client settings by clicking Edit in the menu bar, then

6
selecting Client Settings... from the drop-down menu. This is important for
things like adjusting the timeout values for slow WAN connections. Other

Virtual Center Installation


items are also controlled such as the maximum number of virtual machine
consoles, Hint Messages, and Getting Started tabs. The Lists tab controls
things like the maximum number of Tasks and Events displayed.

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: Using VirtualCenter to Manage Hosts and VMs 233
Lesson Summary

• Use lockdown mode to prevent administrators from


trying to directly manage ESX hosts that are already
being managed by a VirtualCenter Server
• Scheduled Tasks can schedule many key operations
on virtual machines and hosts
• Use the Events panel and the System Logs tab in
the Administration panel to help in the
troubleshooting process

234 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Module Summary

• The VirtualCenter Server, License Server and Web


Access Server are located on the same system
• The VI Client can be used to access the
VirtualCenter Server as well as the ESX Server
• The datacenter is the primary organizational
structure in the VirtualCenter inventory
• VirtualCenter Server has many controls and buttons
in the VI Client that can make administration easier

6
Virtual Center Installation

Module 6 Virtual Center Installation: Using VirtualCenter to Manage Hosts and VMs 235
Questions?

Questions?

236 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


MODULE 7

Virtual Machine Creation


and Management 7

7
Importance

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


• The most efficient way to use ESX Server is to create a base image
virtual machine. Once you have a base image virtual machine, you can
create a template and deploy additional virtual machines from the
template. This saves time and prevents mistakes.

Objectives for the Learner


• Create a virtual machine
• Modify a virtual machine
• Create a template
• Deploy a virtual machine from a template
• Use VMware Converter Enterprise to deploy virtual machines
• Understand how Guided Consolidation works

Module Lessons
• Create a VM

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 237


• Create Multiple VMs
• VMware Converter Enterprise
• Manage VMs
• Guided Consolidation

238 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson 1

Create a VM :

Lesson Topics
• VM virtual hardware

7
• Create a VM
• Installing a guest OS into a VM

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


• VMware Tools

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create a VM 239


What is a Virtual Machine (VM)?

• Set of virtual hardware


on which a supported
guest OS and its
applications run
• A set of discrete files
• A VM’s configuration file
describes the VM’s
configuration, including
its virtual hardware Virtual Machine
MyVM.vmx
• Avoid using special
guestOS = “winnetstandard”
characters and spaces displayName = “MyVM”
in VM’s display name (etc.)

A virtual machine is configured with a set of virtual hardware on which a


supported guest OS and its applications run. The virtual machine is a set of
discrete files. The virtual machine's configuration file describes the VM's
configuration, which includes the virtual hardware such as CPU, memory,
disk, network interface, CD-ROM drive, floppy drive, etc.
Emphasize to students not The virtual machine's display name is used to name the files that make up
to use special characters,
including spaces, in the
the virtual machine itself. Therefore, a good practice is to avoid using
VM display name. The special characters, including spaces, in the virtual machine's display name.
display name is used to
name the files that make The VI Client interface has no problems with special characters and spaces
up the VM. Filenames in a virtual machine’s display name. It is only service console command line
with special characters can
cause errors when administration that might cause issues.
performing tasks. For
example, if you have
special characters in the
VM's configuration file
name, an error will occur
when attempting to display
the VM's console in Web
Access. In general, it is a
good practice to not use
special characters and
spaces in the VM's display
name.

240 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What Files Make Up a Virtual Machine?

File name Description


VM_name.vmx Virtual machine configuration file
VM_name.vmdk File describing virtual disk characteristics

VM_name-flat.vmdk Preallocated virtual disk file that contains the


data
VM_name.nvram Virtual machine BIOS
vmware.log Virtual machine log file
vmware-#.log
(where # is number Files containing old virtual machine log entries
starting with 1)
VM_name.vswp Virtual machine swap file
VM_name.vmsd File that describes virtual machine’s snapshots
Additional files may exist if snapshots are taken or raw disk mappings are added
(to be discussed later)

The table above lists the files that make up a virtual machine. Except for
the log files, the name of each file starts with the virtual machine's name
(VM_name). A virtual machine consists of the following files:
• A configuration file (.vmx)

7
• One or more virtual disk files (first virtual disk has files VM_name.vmdk
and VM_name-flat.vmdk; subsequent virtual disks are named

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


VM_name_#.vmdk and VM_name_#-flat.vmdk, where # is the next
number in the sequence, starting with 1)
• A file containing the virtual machine's BIOS (.nvram)
• A log file (.log)
• A set of files used to archive old log entries (-#.log); 6 of these files are
maintained at any time)
• A swap file (.vswp)
• A snapshot description file (.vmsd); this file is empty if the virtual
machine has no snapshots.
A virtual machine may have additional files if one or more snapshots have
been taken or if raw disk mappings have been added. This is discussed later
on in the module.
If the VM has more than one disk file, the file pair for the second disk file
and on is named VM_name_#.vmdk and VM_name_#-flat.vmdk, where # is
the next number in sequence, starting with 1. For example, if the VM
named "Test01" has two virtual disks, then this VM will have the files
Test01.vmdk, Test01-flat.vmdk, Test01_1.vmdk and Test01_1-flat.vmdk.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create a VM 241


Regarding the archive log files, 6 of these files are maintained at any time.
For example, -1.log to -6.log may exist at first. The next time an archive
log file is created (e.g. when the VM is powered off and powered back on),
-2.log to -7.log are maintained (-1.log is deleted), then -3.log to -8.log, etc.

242 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Display VM's Files Using the VI Client

• Right-click Datastore to
browse its files

A virtual machine’s files are located in either a VMFS datastore or an NFS


datastore. You can display a virtual machine’s files using the VI Client, if
you know the datastore on which the virtual machine is located.
To find out what datastore(s) your virtual machine is using, select your

7
virtual machine in the inventory and view its Summary tab. The list of
datastores used by the virtual machine is shown in the Resources section.

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


To display the virtual machine’s files on a datastore, select your ESX Server
from the inventory, then click its Summary tab. The list of datastores
accessible by the ESX Server is shown in the Resources section. Right-click
a datastore, then select Browse Datastore from the drop-down menu. The
contents of the datastore are displayed. Double-click into any virtual
machine’s folder to display its files.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create a VM 243


VM Virtual Hardware
Up to 2 ports Up to 2 ports

Up to 4
CD-ROMs 1-2 drives

Up to
64GB
RAM

1-4 adapters
VM Chipset
1 CPU (2 or 4 CPUs
with VMware SMP) 1-4 adapters;
1-15 devices each
Make sure it is clear to the Each guest OS sees ordinary hardware devices; it does not know that these
student that this is "virtual"
hardware. The
devices are actually virtual. Furthermore, all virtual machines have uniform
administrator of the ESX hardware (except for a small number of variations the system administrator
Server gets to manage the can apply). This makes virtual machines uniform and portable across
mapping between virtual
and physical hardware. platforms.
ESX Server VMs lack USB and lack sound adapters.
Each virtual machine has a total of 6 virtual PCI slots; one is used for the
virtual video adapter. Therefore the total number of virtual adapters, SCSI
plus Ethernet, cannot be greater than 5. The virtual chipset is an Intel
440BX-based motherboard with an NS338 SIO chip. This chipset ensures
compatibility for a wide range of supported guest operating systems
(including legacy OSs such as Windows NT). A virtual machine can have
up to 2 IDE controllers, which means up to 4 CD-ROM drives are supported
per virtual machine.

244 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


CPU and Memory

• 1, 2 or 4 virtual CPUs
(VCPUs)
• Virtual SMP license required
for 2- and 4-VCPU VMs
• Specify maximum memory
size (up to 64GB)
• Amount the guest OS will be
told it has
Virtual Machine

Although the VI Client interface may provide a default memory size for
your VM at the time of creation, understand the memory needs of your
application and guest OS and size accordingly. The maximum memory size
allowed for any VM is 64 GB. Memory size is the maximum amount of
physical memory that the virtual machine can use.

7
If you have purchased the Virtual SMP product, you may take advantage of
that purchase by selecting one-, two- or four- processors. Many guest OS/

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


application combinations are not enhanced by the additional CPU. Two- or
four- VCPU VMs should be created only in the comparatively infrequent
instances where they are of benefit, not as a standard configuration.
Not every computer can host virtual machines with multiple virtual CPUs.
In a later module, we will discuss the relationship between a virtual
machine's number of virtual CPUs and the physical processors on the
computer that hosts it.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create a VM 245


Virtual Disk

Datastore

Virtual Machine

Parameter Sample value


Virtual disk size 4 GB
Datastore MyVMFS
Virtual disk node 0:0
Virtual storage adapter LSILogic (or BusLogic)
Virtual disk files VM_name.vmdk and VM_name-flat.vmdk
Advanced setting: Mode Independent – Persistent or non-persistent
A virtual machine has at least one virtual disk. Adding the first virtual disk
implicitly adds a virtual SCSI adapter for it to be connected to. ESX Server
offers a choice of either a virtual LSILogic adapter or a virtual BusLogic
adapter. The virtual machine creation wizard in the VI Client automatically
selects the type of virtual SCSI adapter based on the choice of guest OS.
Select a VMFS to hold the new, blank virtual disk, and specify the disk's
size. Choose a descriptive filename for the virtual disk. You may also site
the disk at a specific virtual SCSI target ID and LUN if you wish. Finally,
choose the appropriate disk mode. You can change the disk mode anytime
the virtual machine is powered off.
ESX Server virtual disks are monolithic and pre-extended. In other words, if
you make a 6 GB virtual disk under ESX Server, the result will be a single
file of size 6 GB.

246 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Create a VM-Other Devices

• Network adapter
• Connect to virtual switch
• CD-ROM drive
• Connect to CD-ROM or
ISO image
• Floppy drive
• Connect to floppy or
floppy image
• Generic SCSI devices Virtual Machine
(such as tape libraries)
• May be connected to
additional SCSI adapters
Virtual CPU, virtual memory and virtual disk are your required virtual
hardware. Additional virtual hardware that you can add to your virtual
machine are virtual NIC(s), a virtual CD-ROM drive, a virtual floppy drive
and generic virtual SCSI devices. The virtual CD-ROM drive or floppy
drive can point to either the CD-ROM drive or floppy drive located on the

7
ESX Server, a CD ISO image (.iso) or floppy (.flp) images, or even the CD-
ROM or floppy drive on your local system.

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


You can map the VM's CD-ROM drive to either a physical drive or an ISO
file for your CD-ROM drive. An ISO file is a CD-ROM that has been
"ripped": its file system copied byte-for-byte to the disk surface. These
virtual CDs can be accessed remotely and are usually faster than physical
CDs.
Just as you can make ISO files to serve as virtual CDs, you can make .flp
files to serve as virtual floppies. In the service console, rip the floppy as
follows:
dd if=/dev/fd0 of=pathname/myfloppy.flp bs=1k count=1440

The popular Windows freeware utility rawread.exe will also serve this
purpose.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create a VM 247


Virtual Machine (VM) Console

• Send power
changes to VM VM Console
icon

• Access VM’s
guest OS
• Send Ctrl+Alt+Del
to guest OS
• Press
Ctrl+Alt+Ins in
VM console
• Press Ctrl+Alt to
release cursor
from VM console

The virtual machine's console, available in the VI Client, provides the


mouse, keyboard and screen functionality. To install an operating system,
you must use the virtual machine's console. The VM console allows access
to the BIOS of the virtual machine, and offers the ability to power on and
off and to reset the virtual machine.
The VM console is normally not used to connect to the VM for daily tasks.
Tools such as RDP, Citrix, or VNC, for example, are normally used to
connect to the VM. The VM console is used for tasks such as power
cycling, configuring hardware, and troubleshooting network issues.
The VM console allows you to send the Ctrl+Alt+Del key sequence
specifically to the virtual machine. This is accomplished by pressing
Ctrl+Alt+Ins in the VM console or by selecting VM in the VM console
menu bar and clicking Send Ctrl+Alt+Del from the drop-down menu.
Likewise, to release the cursor from the VM console so that you can use it
in other windows, press Ctrl+Alt.
An alternative way to view the VM's console is to select the virtual machine
in the inventory, then click its Console tab. However, the "free-standing"
VM console provides you with three new menus - File, View and VM - that
do not exist on the Console tab.
View the VM's console by clicking the VM console icon, located in the VI
Client's toolbar, or right-click the virtual machine in the inventory, then
select Open Console from the menu.

248 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Install Guest OS into VM

VM Console

Install from ISO image (mounted on virtual


CD-ROM drive) to virtual disk

Local

We interact with the VM through the VM console, accessible in the VI


Client, to do the guest operating system's standard install routine.
Note that ISO Images can be stored on either a VMFS datastore or an NFS
datastore. Storing ISO images on a VMFS or NFS datastore allows you to

7
share the ISO images across multiple ESX Servers, as long as the datastore
is visible to the ESX Server.

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


For details on the supported guest OSes, consult the Guest Operating
System Installation Guide, available on the VMware website at
http://www.vmware.com/pdf/GuestOS_guide.pdf.

Key points to make on this slide:


• We are installing the guest OS, represented by the middle, blue box in the virtual machine
icon in the slide.
• Mount the guest OS install CD or an ISO image of the physical CD.
• Boot from the CD.
• Run through the guest OS install program to install the guest OS into the virtual disk.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create a VM 249


What are the VMware Tools?

VMware Tools installs into guest OS like an application


Features include:
• Device drivers
• Manual connection and VMware SVGA II
disconnection of some VMware Pointing Device
VMware SCSI Driver
devices while powered vmmemctl
on
• Improved mouse
• Memory management
VMware Tools
• Support for quiescing a
file system
• Time synchronization
• Ability to gracefully shut
down virtual machine
Once you have installed your operating system you should install VMware
Tools. VMware Tools is a software package that you install into the guest
OS after you have finished installing it. It gives you device drivers specific
to VMware virtual devices where those are necessary, and it also installs
several communication conduits between the VM and the VMkernel for
specific applications. VMware Tools provides the ability to gracefully shut
down a VM from the VM's right-click menu.
To install VMware Tools in a virtual machine, right-click on the virtual
machine name in the inventory and select “Install/Upgrade VMware Tools”.
The virtual machine must be powered on and you must be logged in with an
administrative or root-level account.
Additional Information on VMware Tools:
You can tell that a VM has VMware Tools installed if the VMware Tools icon appears in the
desk tray (Windows only). If you are on a Linux system, an additional daemon (process) for
VMware Tools appears on the system.
Before you install VMware Tools, the only driver that any guest OS will have for the video
card is its generic SVGA driver. So that's what it'll use. The VMware Tools install puts the
custom driver for the VMware virtual video card into the right place, and then reconfigures
the guest OS to use it.
Linux users must arrange to have vmware-toolbox run while they are logged in, probably by
adding it to their GNOME or KDE environment. For instance, in Red Hat 9.0 running
GNOME, click the Red Hat logo, choose Preferences, then Window. In the resulting control-
panel list, choose More Preferences, then Settings. In the resulting start-up box, add a
startup program entry for /usr/bin/X11/vmware-toolbox .

250 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


To install VMware Tools on one or more virtual machines:
• Select the Virtual Machines tab for a datacenter, cluster, resource
pool or host.
• Select on or more virtual machines onto which you want to install
VMware Tools.
• Right-click the selection, then select Install/Upgrade VMware
Tools from the drop-down menu.
• Click OK to begin the installation process.

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create a VM 251


VMware Tools' Configurable Features

Options Scripts

Right-click to open

Devices

The most visible benefit of VMware Tools are that you get better video
performance and that you can move your mouse pointer freely into and out
of the VM console window. On VMware's server platforms, VMware Tools
also installs other important system services such as virtual machine
heartbeat monitoring and time synchronization.
If you right-click (or double-click) the VMware icon (located in the lower-
right hand corner of the screen on Windows guests) you may open the
VMware Tools Properties window. This allows you to control Options,
Scripts, and Devices:
• Options: There are three options:
• Enable time synchronization between the virtual machine and the
ESX Server. Enabling this is best-practice, but will require you to
disable any internal time-synchronization within the guest operating
system.
• Show VMware Tools in the toolbar. Without this, the VMware Tools
icon is not shown.
• Notify if a VMware Tools upgrade is available.
• Scripts: Scripts allow you to specify scripts that may be run during
power-state changes for the virtual machine. You may use either a
default script (included with VMware Tools) or specify a custom script.
• Devices: Devices may be connected and disconnected while the VM is
powered on. These include CD-ROM and floppy media, and network
connections.

252 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMware Tools Properties also has tabs for Shared Folders and Shrink. But
those features are not available on VMs being hosted on ESX Servers.

NFS, the Unix/Linux equivalent of Windows shares, requires that server and client keep their
clocks in synchronization. Even if you are using Windows shares, there are many
applications that suffer if systems' clocks are not synchronized. For example, in a software
development environment, we rely on files' timestamps to determine whether they are out of
date; if files are stored on a server with a clock set in the future, files will appear current
when they are not.
For more information on time synchronization, there is a white paper on this subject named
"Timekeeping in VMware Virtual Machines", located at http://www.vmware.com/pdf/
vmware_timekeeping.pdf.

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create a VM 253


Lab for Lesson 1

• Create a Virtual Machine Using VirtualCenter


• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
•Create a virtual machine
•Install a guest OS into a virtual machine
•Install VMware Tools into the guest OS
•Verify network connectivity from your virtual machine

254 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• A VM can be configured with up to 4 virtual CPUs


and 64 GB of memory
• It is a best practice to install VMware Tools in every
virtual machine
• Use Ctrl+Alt+Ins in the VM’s console to send
Ctrl+Alt+Del to the guest OS

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create a VM 255


Lesson 2

Create Multiple VMs :

Lesson Topics
• Templates
• Creating and deploying VMs from a template
• Cloning a VM
• Customizing a guest OS
• Deploying across datacenters
• Importing and exporting Virtual Appliances

256 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What is a Template?

• A VirtualCenter
feature used to
create commonly-
deployed VMs
• A VM marked as
never to be
powered on
• Disk files stored in
either normal or
compact disk
format
• All files can be
stored in a VMFS
or NFS datastore

A template is a master image of a virtual machine that can be used to create


and provision new virtual machines. This image typically includes a
specified operating system, a set of applications, and configuration that
provides virtual counterparts to hardware components. A template can be
stored in either normal or compact disk format. With normal disk format,

7
the virtual machine's disk files remain untouched. Use this option if you
want to convert the template back into a running machine. With compact

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


disk format, the virtual disk files are compressed to remove redundant
information and save space. This is only supported on VMFS-3 datastores,
and the server may ignore this for disks on other types of datastores.
Templates can be stored in a VMFS datastore or an NFS datastore.
Templates are a VirtualCenter feature. Standalone ESX Servers do not
provide the templating feature.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create Multiple VMs 257
Create a Template

• Two methods:
• Clone to Template
• Convert to Template
• Choose Clone to
Template if the
original VM is still
needed

There are two ways to create a template: Clone to Template and Convert to
Template. When you clone a VM to template, the original VM is retained.
When you convert a VM to template, the original VM goes away.

258 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Update a Template

• Use the “Convert


to Virtual Machine”
task
• Place VM on
isolated network to
prevent user
access
• Make changes to
VM
• Convert VM back
to template

If you need to update your template to include new patches or software, it is


not necessary to create a brand new template. Instead, first convert the
template back to a virtual machine. This allows you to power on the virtual
machine. Log into the VM's guest OS and apply the patch or install
additional software, whatever is necessary. When that is done, convert the

7
VM back to a template.
To convert a template back to a virtual machine, in the VI Client, display

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


the Virtual Machines and Templates Inventory view. Right-click the
template, then select Convert to Virtual Machine... from the menu.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create Multiple VMs 259
View Templates

• Use the “Virtual Machines & Templates” view


• From the “Hosts & Clusters” view, use the Virtual
Machines tab

To view all templates, use the VI Client. Go to the Virtual Machines &
Templates view by clicking the Inventory panel’s drop-down list and
selecting Virtual Machines and Templates. You can also view templates
from the Inventory panel’s Hosts & Clusters view: select the Hosts &
Clusters folder and click its Virtual Machines tab.
Templates are distinguished from virtual machines by their icon.

260 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Deploy VM from Template

• To deploy a virtual machine, provide information such as


virtual machine name, inventory location, host, datastore
and guest OS customization data

To deploy a VM from a template, connect to VirtualCenter using the VI


Client. Display the Virtual Machines and Templates Inventory view. Right-
click the template, then select Deploy Virtual Machine from this
Template. The Deploy Template wizard asks you for VM deployment
information. You also have the option of having VirtualCenter customize

7
the guest OS for you.

Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create Multiple VMs 261
Clone a VM

• An alternate method
of deploying a VM
• Exact copy of VM
• Customization of a
clone’s guest OS is
recommended to
prevent software and
network conflicts
• It is also possible to
Clone a Template

Cloning a VM is an alternative to deploying a VM from a template. Like


deploying from template, when you clone, you have the option of
customizing the guest OS in the clone. To clone a VM, in the VI Client,
right-click your virtual machine in the inventory, then select Clone....

262 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Guest OS Customization

• VirtualCenter can apply unique system information to a


VM when it is cloned or deployed from template
• For guest OS customization to work, it must be enabled in
VirtualCenter
• To enable for Windows VMs, install sysprep files on
VirtualCenter Server
• Already enabled for Linux VMs (Open Source components
are installed on the VirtualCenter Server)

To enable guest OS customization, VirtualCenter must first be configured


for this task. To customize Windows VMs, install Microsoft sysprep files on
the VirtualCenter Server.
For example, for Windows 2003:

7
• Retrieve the installer for Microsoft Windows 2003 sysprep from the
Microsoft web site.

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


• Copy the files from the .cab file, WindowsServer2003-KB892778-SP1-
DeployTools-x86-ENU.cab, to C:\Documents and
Settings\ALLUSERSPROFILE\Application Data\VMware\VMware
VirtualCenter\sysprep\svr2003
VirtualCenter supports guest OS customization for Windows 2000,
Windows XP and Windows 2003.
To customize Linux VMs, the Open Source components are used during
guest OS customization. The Open Source components are installed when
you install the VirtualCenter Server. The following values can be set when
customizing a Linux guest OS:
• Computer name
• Domain name
• IP settings (DHCP-assigned or static IP)
• DNS server(s)
For more details on how to prepare for guest customization, consult the
Basic System Administration Guide, available on the VMware website.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create Multiple VMs 263
Deploying Across Datacenters (1 of 3)

• VM deployment is
allowed across
datacenters
• Clone a VM from
one datacenter to
another
• Deploy from a
template located in
one datacenter to a
VM in a different
datacenter
• For example
• Clone Prod01 from Datacenter A to Datacenter B

VirtualCenter allows you to provision virtual machines across datacenters.


As a result, VMware Infrastructure administrators can now clone a virtual
machine from one datacenter to another datacenter. Administrators can also
create a template in one datacenter, then deploy a VM from that template,
placing the VM in a different datacenter.

264 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Deploying Across Datacenters (2 of 3)

• Example
(continued)
• Right-click
Prod01
• Select Clone
from the drop-
down menu
• Work through
the Clone
Virtual Machine
Wizard

The Clone Virtual Machine Wizard is used to clone any virtual machine,
whether within the same datacenter or across datacenters. The Inventory
Location area in the wizard shows the datacenters available. Choose the
appropriate datacenter.

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create Multiple VMs 265
Deploying Across Datacenters (3 of 3)

You may receive one or more


warning messages, however, you
may still proceed with the clone

Since the operation you are performing is being done across datacenters,
you may receive a warning message. In the example above, the warning
message is about the network named “Production”, which is being used by
the source VM. This network may not actually be the same network on the
source and destination. This is because network names are only unique
within a datacenter.

266 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Virtual Appliances

• Pre-configured
virtual machines
http://www.vmware.com/appliances/
• Usually designed
for a single
purpose
• Examples:
•Safe-browser
•Firewalls
• Import from web-
sites such as the
Virtual Appliance
Marketplace
• Export your own
VMs as Virtual
Appliances
Appliances in your home include devices such as a washing machines,
refrigerators, table lamps, and televisions. These are all devices that have
basically one function and are designed to be used by almost anyone with
little or no training. The same things are true about virtual appliances.
Virtual Appliances should be simple to use and designed primarily for a

7
single purpose.
Virtual Appliances are pre-configured virtual machines that typically

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


include a preinstalled guest operating system and other software. These
appliances are often built with public-domain or open-source software if
they are designed to be shared outside of a corporation. Virtual Appliances
can be imported from web-sites such as http://www.vmware.com/
appliances/. You can also export your own VMs as Virtual Appliances.
Appliances can also be similar to templates. For example, it is possible to
create a standardized VM with a pre-configured operating system and
VMware Tools already installed. This VM can then be exported as an
appliance from the ESX Server it was created on and easily moved to a
central directory or web-site for easy importation by other ESX Servers.
This allows a corporation to set up a central repository of standard VM
starting points that can be accessed by ESX Servers
Importing virtual appliances allows you to add pre-configured virtual
machines to your VirtualCenter or ESX Server inventory. Importing a
virtual appliance is similar to deploying a virtual machine from a template.
However, you can import a virtual appliance from any local file system
accessible from the VI Client machine, or from a remote web server. The

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create Multiple VMs 267
local file systems can include local disks (such as C:), removable media
(such as CDs or USB keychain drives), and shared network drives.
Exporting virtual machines allows you to create virtual appliances that can
be imported by other users. You can use the export function to distribute
pre-installed software as a virtual appliance, or as a means of distributing
template virtual machines to users, including users who cannot directly
access and use the templates in your VirtualCenter inventory.

268 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Export VM with OVF Format

• Select VM
• Use File menu
• Export Storage
on VI Client
host folders

OVF (Open Virtual machine Format) is a file format that allows for the
exchange of virtual appliances across products and platforms. The OVF
format offers the following advantages:
• OVF files are compressed, allowing for faster downloads.

7
• The VI Client validates a OVF file before importing it, and ensures that
it is compatible with the intended destination server. If the appliance is

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


incompatible with the selected host, it cannot be imported and an error
message is displayed.
To Export a VM with OVF simply use the following procedure:
1 Select the VM within the VI Client
2 VM must be powered off.
3 VM must not have connections to local devices like CD-ROMs.
4 Use the File pull-down menu. Select Virtual Appliances/ Export.
5 The locations offered to store the appliance on will be any storage
available to the PC that the VI Client is running on. This includes
mapped drives.
For more informaton about the OVF format, consult the technical paper,
VMware OVF Tool, available on the VMware web site.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create Multiple VMs 269
Import Virtual Appliance

•Select host or cluster


•Import from Virtual Appliance Marketplace, file, or URL
•Appliance validated for ESX prior to import

Importing a Virtual Appliance in OVF format is just as easy:


1 Select the host or cluster you plan to run the appliance on within the VI
Client.
2 Use the File pull-down menu. Select Virtual Machines / Import.
3 The locations offered to import the appliance from include:
• The Virtual Appliance Marketplace on VMware.com
• An OVF file in some storage area accessible to the PC that VI Client
is running on. This includes mapped drives.
• A URL that is hosting OVF files

270 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lab for Lesson 2

• Template Provisioning
• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
•Configure guest OS customization on the VirtualCenter
Server
•Convert a virtual machine to a template
•Convert a template back to a virtual machine
•Clone a virtual machine to a template
•Deploy a virtual machine from a template

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Create Multiple VMs 271
Lesson Summary

• A template’s virtual disk files can be stored in either


normal or compact disk format
• A template can be converted back to a VM; this is
useful if you need to update your template with new
software
• When you clone a VM or deploy a VM from a
template, VirtualCenter can automatically customize
the guest OS for you
• A virtual appliance is a pre-configured virtual
machine, designed for a specific purpose, and
available from the VMware website

272 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson 3

VMware Converter Enterprise :

Lesson Topics
• VMware Converter Enterprise:

7
• Capabilities
• Components

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


• Concepts
• Hot cloning
• Cold cloning
• Cloning modes
• Changes to virtual hardware

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: VMware Converter Enterprise 273
VMware Converter Enterprise Capabilities

• VMware Converter is a productivity tool that allows


you to
• Import physical machines to VMs
• Import non-ESX VMware VMs
• Import Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 VMs
• Convert 3rd-party backup or disk images to VMs
• Restore VCB images to VMs
• Export VirtualCenter VMs to other non-ESX VMware
VM formats
• Reconfigure VirtualCenter VMs so they are bootable
• Customize VirtualCenter VMs

VMware Converter Enterprise is a tool integrated with VirtualCenter that


allows administrators to convert almost any type of physical machine or
virtual machine that is running a Windows operating system into a VM that
runs on ESX Servers.
Physical machine to virtual machine (P2V) conversions help during server
consolidation, testing and troubleshooting, and disaster recovery. Virtual
machine to virtual machine conversions allow VM mobility across VMware
platforms as well as the ability to import Microsoft Virtual PC/Server VMs.
VMware Converter Enterprise lets you move VMware virtual machines
between VMware Workstation, VMware Fusion, VMware Player, VMware
ACE, ESX Server, VMware Server and .Microsoft Virtual Server and
Virtual PC
For VMware virtual machines whose disks have been populated by
restoring from a backup of a physical host or by some other direct means of
copying, VMware Converter Enterprise prepares the image to run on
VMware virtual hardware.
Converter Enterprise supports restoring VMware Consolidated Backup
images of any guest operating system type.
For Windows, Converter Enterprise enables users to select and resize
volumes, and customize the identity for the restored virtual machine.
For all other guest operating systems, Converter Enterprise supports only
restoring the disks as-is.

274 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMware Converter Components

VI-Clients with
Converter Enterprise
Client Plug-in

PCs and Servers to be


converted
(either physical or virtual),
with Converter Enterprise
Agent present VC Server ESX Hosts

Converter Agent is only Converter Enterprise Server


present during conversion may be installed directly on
VC Server
Converter Enterprise Server
Converter Enterprise CLI

VMware Converter Enterprise is a client/server architecture, which includes


three components:
• Server: Enables import and export of VMs through VI Client or CLI
• CLI: Command line interface that connects to a Converter Enterprise

7
Server and submits Converter tasks
• Agent: Prepares a physical machine for import

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


VMware Converter Enterprise Server works with VMware Converter
Enterprise Client, which consists of:
• Plug-in: Provides access to Converter Enterprise’s import, export and
reconfigure wizards from within a VI Client
In addition, for cold cloning of physical machines, VMware Converter
Enterprise includes a Boot CD with standalone VMware Converter
Enterprise.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: VMware Converter Enterprise 275
Installing VMware Converter Enterprise

• To install the Converter Server:


• Install VirtualCenter Server and Converter Server will be
installed as well
• Run the VMware Converter installer on a standalone server
•Installer bundled with VirtualCenter Server software
• To install the Converter Client:
• Install the VI Client plug-in:
•Log into VirtualCenter using the VI Client
•From the VI Client menu bar, click Plugins -> Manage Plugins
•Select under Available Plugins and install

The Vista and Longhorn The Converter Server is a Windows-based application capable of running
support only applies if
installing Converter on a
on Windows 2000, XP/2003 (32-bit and 64-bit), Vista (32-bit and 64-bit),
standalone server. Windows Longhorn (32-bit and 64-bit). Its install options include:
• Installing locally on the VirtualCenter Server
• Installing on a standalone physical server
• Installing in a VM
VMware will have the With the last two option, Converter Server requires a connection to a
ability to release Converter
asynchronously from
VirtualCenter Server running VirtualCenter Server 2.5 or later.
VCESX releases.

The VI Client plug-in is The Converter Client is a VI Client plug-in which adds new menu items to
based on the standalone
Converter’s wizard Some
the interface, both in the VI Client’s menu bar and right-click objects. Install
fields, such as the Converter Client from the VMware Infrastructure Client Plugins menu.
VirtualCenter credentials,
will not be required. Other Install the Converter Enterprise CLI on the same machine as Converter
fields will be pre-populated Enterprise Server, or on a different machine with access to a Converter
based on how it is
launched Enterprise Server.
Converter Enterprise Agent prepares a physical machine for import from a
remote machine running Converter Enterprise Server. Converter Enterprise
Server installs Converter Enterprise Agent on physical machines as needed,
in order to import them as virtual machines. Users have the option to
automatically remove Converter Enterprise Agent from the source physical
machine after the import is complete.

276 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMware Converter Concepts

• Cloning - To create an exact copy of a disk


• System Reconfiguration - The replacement of physical
hardware drivers with virtual hardware drivers
• Hot Cloning - Cloning a system while it is running
• Cold Cloning - Cloning a system while it is not running
• Remote Cloning - Cloning a system using an agent
without having to physically touch it
• Local Cloning - Conversion performed using standalone
VMware Converter Enterprise running on the source
machine

Converter Enterprise uses cloning and system reconfiguration to create a


virtual machine that is compatible with ESX Server.
Cloning is the process of creating a cloned disk, where the cloned disk is a
virtual disk that is an exact copy of the source physical disk. This involves

7
copying the data on the source machine’s hard disk and transferring that
data to a target virtual disk (the new cloned disk).

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


System reconfiguration is the process of adjusting the migrated operating
system to enable it to function on virtual hardware. This adjustment is
performed on the target virtual disk after cloning and enables the target
virtual disk to function as a bootable system disk in a virtual machine.
The process is nondestructive, so you can continue to use the original
source machine after the import completes. If you plan to run an imported
virtual machine on the same network as the source physical machine,
modify the network name and IP address on one of the machines, so the
physical and virtual machines can coexist properly.
Hot cloning, also called live cloning or online cloning, entails cloning the
source machine while it is running its operating system.
Cold cloning, also called offline cloning, entails cloning the source machine
when it is not running its operating system. With cold cloning, the user
reboots the source machine from a CD that has its own operating system
and includes the standalone VMware Converter Enterprise application.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: VMware Converter Enterprise 277
For remote cloning, the source machine can be accessed via an agent
without having to physically touch it, as long as it is running and network-
accessible. Remote cloning installs, uses, then deinstalls an agent.
With local cloning, the migration is performed using standalone VMware
Converter Enterprise running on the source machine.

278 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Hot Cloning - Four Stages

VI Client with Converter


Client Plug-in

VirtualCenter Server with


Converter Enterprise Server

Running
physical machine

ESX Server
Source
volumes

source
destination

Here are the general steps that occur during a remote hot cloning operation. Volumes can be resized
during hot cloning.
All steps are automated, in other words, they are performed by Converter
Enterprise without user involvement after the user has created and initiated
the task.
Stage 1: Preparing source machine for conversion

7
• Converter Enterprise Server installs Enterprise Agent on source machine

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


• Converter Enterprise Agent takes a snapshot of the source volumes
Stage 2: Preparing the virtual machine on the destination machine
• Converter Enterprise Server creates a new virtual machine on the
destination machine, in other words, a destination ESX Server
• Converter Enterprise Agent copies volumes from the source machine to
the destination ESX Server
Stage 3: Completing the conversion process
• Converter Enterprise Agent installs required drivers to allow OS to boot
in virtual machine
• Converter Enterprise Agent customizes the virtual machine, for
example, changes IP information
Stage 4: Cleaning up
• Agent removes all traces from the source machine. In other words, the
snapshot created in stage 1 is deleted and the Converter Enterprise
Agent is uninstalled from the source machine. You have the option of
uninstalling the agent automatically or manually.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: VMware Converter Enterprise 279
Cold Cloning - Four Stages

ESX Server managed by


VirtualCenter
physical machine

VMware Converter
Enterprise Boot CD

Source
destination
volumes

source

Standalone VMware Here are the general steps that occur during a cold cloning operation. After
Converter Enterprise
application is located on
the user boots from the Converter Enterprise Boot CD and uses the wizard
the Converter Enterprise to set up and run the task, standalone Converter Enterprise performs the
Boot CD, which a user remaining steps without user involvement.
reboots the source
machine from in order to Stage 1: Preparing the source machine image
perform cold cloning.
• User boots the source machine from the Converter Enterprise Boot CD
Volumes can be resized
during cold cloning. and uses Standalone VMware Converter Enterprise to define and start
the migration.
• Standalone Converter Enterprise copies the source volumes into a RAM
disk.
Stage 2: Preparing the virtual machine on the destination machine
• Standalone Converter Enterprise creates a new virtual machine on the
destination machine.
• Standalone Converter Enterprise copies volumes from the source
machine to the destination machine.

280 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Stage 3: Completing the conversion process
• Standalone Converter Enterprise installs the required drivers to allow
the operating system to boot in a virtual machine.
• Standalone Converter Enterprise customizes the virtual machine, for
example, it changes the IP configuration.
Stage 4: Cleaning up
• User removes Boot CD and reboots the source physical machine into its
own operating system. The virtual machine is ready to run on the
destination machine.

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Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: VMware Converter Enterprise 281
Importing a Server

The VMware Converter Enterprise Import Wizard allows you to import


physical machines, virtual machines or backup/disk images.
To launch the import wizard, in the VI Client, right-click your ESX Server
in the inventory, then select Import Machine in the drop-down menu. The
Import Machine selection in the drop-down menu will be grayed out if you
do not install and enable the VMware Converter plug-in into the VI Client.
The import wizard is also launched when you use standalone VMware
Converter Enterprise, which is available when you perform a cold clone
using the Convert boot CD.

282 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Cloning Modes

• Hot cloning uses


volume-based disk
cloning
• Take all or selected
volumes on disk(s)
• Maintain or resize
volumes
• Cold cloning or VM
conversion uses
• Volume-based disk
cloning or
• Disk-based cloning
•Copy disk(s) as is
and maintain size
VMware Converter Enterprise supports two cloning modes: volume-based
cloning and disk-based cloning.
Converter Enterprise supports volume-based cloning for hot and cold
cloning and for importing existing virtual machines.

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With volume-based cloning, all volumes in the destination virtual machine
are basic volumes (primary partitions or logical drives that can be accessed

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


by all Windows-based operating systems), regardless of the type in the
corresponding source volume. Cloning is done on a block-level basis if you
maintain the volume size. However, if you resize the volumes to be smaller
than its original size, cloning is done on a file-level basis which can result in
slower performance of the cloning operation.
With disk-based cloning, if the size of the volume is maintained (not
resized) the entire disk is copied as is. Disk-based cloning transfers all
sectors from all disks, preserving all volume metadata. The destination
virtual machine receives exactly the same volumes, of the same type, as
those of the source virtual machine. Disk-based cloning supports all types of
basic and dynamic disks.
Disk-based cloning is only available with cold cloning and VM imports, it
is not available with hot cloning.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: VMware Converter Enterprise 283
Changes to Virtual Hardware

• Most applications function correctly


• Watch for applications that depend on:
• Specific hardware characteristics
• Different serial numbers
• Software licensed to MAC addresses
• Applications that depend on special graphics cards

Most applications should function correctly in the VMware virtual machine


because their configuration and data files have the same location as they did
on the source virtual machine. However, applications might not work if they
depend on specific characteristics of the underlying hardware such as the
serial number or the device manufacturer.
When troubleshooting after virtual machine migration, notice the following
potential hardware changes:
• CPU model and serial numbers (if activated) can be different after the
migration. They correspond to the physical computer hosting the
VMware virtual machine.
• Ethernet adapter can be different (AMD PCNet or VMXnet) with a
different MAC address. Each interface’s IP address must be individually
reconfigured.
• Graphics card can be different (VMware SVGA card).
• Numbers of disks and partitions are the same, but each disk device can
have a different model and different manufacturer strings.
• Primary disk controllers can be different from the source machine’s
controllers.
• Applications might not work if they depend on devices that are not
available from within a virtual machine.
Settings that remain identical include operating system configuration,
computer name, SID, user accounts, profiles, preferences, applications and
data files and the volume serial number of each disk partition.

284 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Common Converter Problems

• Converter agent cannot install or run properly


• Insufficient privileges to install and run agent as a service
• Dependent services are disabled
• Windows NT4/2000 failed to reboot
• Converter Server cannot connect to remote system to
import
• Correct ports are not open
• Physical switch configuration is not configured properly
• Converter agent cannot detect OS on remote system
• Unsupported OS
• Windows 2003 software mirroring is enabled
• boot.ini is set to read-only
If VMware Converter Enterprise fails during the import process, here are
some possible causes:
• Converter Enterprise Agent cannot install or run properly on the remote
system:

7

• Verify that your user account has administrative privileges in order

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


to install and run the agent as a service. Converter Enterprise Agent
runs on the remote system as a Windows service named VMware
Converter Enterprise service.
• Verify that none of the VMware Converter Enterprise service’s
dependencies are disabled. View what service’s dependencies by
displaying the Dependencies tab in the service’s Properties window.
• If you installed Converter Enterprise Agent on a Windows 2000 or
Windows NT machine, Windows prompts you to restart your
system. Verify that the system rebooted successfully after agent
installation.
• Converter Enterprise Server cannot connect to the remote system to
import:
• Verify that the correct ports are open in your firewall, which are
ports 445, 139, 902 and 443. Ports 445 and 139 are used by the
Converter Enterprise Server to communicate to the remote system
during the initial discovery. Ports 902 and 443 are used by the
Converter Enterprise Agent on the remote system to communicate
back to the VirtualCenter Server (902) or the ESX Server (443).

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: VMware Converter Enterprise 285
• Verify that the physical network switches on the source machine’s
network are configured properly, for example, the speed and duplex
settings are set correctly.
• Converter Enterprise Agent cannot detect the OS on the remote system:
• VMware Converter Enterprise can import any physical machine
running one of the following operating systems: Windows NT 4
Workstation/Server SP4+, Windows 2000 Professional/Server/
Advanced, Windows XP Home (cold cloning only), Windows XP
Professional (32-bit and 64-bit), Windows 2003 Standard/Web/
Enterprise (32-bit and 64-bit) and Windows Vista (32-bit and 64-
bit).
• If you attempt to hot-clone a Windows physical machine, and this
machine uses Windows software mirroring, the import fails with the
error message, “Unable to determine guest operating system”. If this
is the case, break the software mirror before attempting the hot-
clone.
• From practical experience, it has been found that sometimes
changing the boot.ini file’s permissions from read-only to read/
write fixed conversion problems.
For more details on the VMware Converter Enterprise product, consult the
VMware Converter Enterprise Administration Guide, available on the
VMware Web site.

286 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lab for Lesson 3

• Use VMware Converter to Create Virtual Machines


• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
•Hot clone a system
•Cold clone a system

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: VMware Converter Enterprise 287
Lesson Summary

• VMware Enterprise Converter can convert most


physical and virtual machines that are running
Windows-based operating systems into ESX-hosted
virtual machines
• Cloning can be done in a “hot” mode, while the
original machine continues to run
• “Remote” cloning converts the system on-line over
the network

288 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson 4

Manage VMs :

Lesson Topics
• Move VM to a different ESX Server

7
• Snapshot a VM
• Modify a VM’s configuration

Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Manage VMs 289


Move VM Between ESX servers: Cold
Migration

• A cold migration moves a VM that is powered off


• May or may not involve movement of virtual disk
• Perform a cold migration when
• Moving VM to an ESX Server with a local (non-shared) datastore
• Moving VMs between ESX Servers using different CPU families

VM files are not moved VM files are moved

A cold migration is used to move a virtual machine from one ESX Server to
another while the VM is powered off. With a cold migration, all the VM's
files may or may not move. Keep in mind that the VM's files are located in
a subdirectory on either a VMFS datastore or an NFS datastore. When the
destination ESX Server is not able to see the VM's files (because, for
example, the VM's files are located in a local datastore on the source ESX
Server), then the files must be moved to a datastore visible to the destination
ESX Server in order for the VM to be migrated. The migration wizard
offers the choice to move the VM from one host to another, or move just the
VM files from one datastore to another, or both.
You can also use cold migration to move a VM's files from its current
datastore to a different datastore, without moving it to a different ESX
Server.

290 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Snapshot a VM

• Snapshots
• Useful when you need to revert
repeatedly to the same state,
without creating new VMs
• Useful in test/dev, training
scenarios
• Snapshot manager manages
your snapshots
•Right-click virtual machine in
inventory
•Select Snapshot -> Snapshot
Manager from menu

Snapshot Manager

Snapshots let you preserve the state of a virtual machine so you can return
to the same state repeatedly. A snapshot captures the entire state of a virtual
machine at the time you take the snapshot. This includes the settings state,
the disk state and the memory state. The settings state contains the virtual
machine settings. The disk state contains the state of all the virtual

7
machine's virtual disks. The memory state represents the contents of the
virtual machine's memory. Memory state is captured only if you are

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


snapshotting a virtual machine that is powered on. When taking a snapshot,
the user has the option of snapshotting the virtual machine’s memory or not.
By default, the option to capture the virtual machine’s memory state is
selected.
A virtual machine can have one or more snapshots. Each snapshot consists
of the following files:
• Snapshot differences file: VM_name-00000#-delta.vmdk, where # is the
next number in the sequence, starting with 1
• Snapshot description file: VM_name-00000#.vmdk
• Memory state file: VM_name-Snapshot#.vmsn; size of this file is the size
of the VM's maximum memory (only if memory is captured, else the
file is much smaller.)
To display the Snapshot Manager, right-click the virtual machine in the
inventory, then select Snapshot -> Snapshot Manager... from the menu.
The Snapshot Manager window allows you to perform three tasks:

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Manage VMs 291


• Delete: This task commits the snapshot data to the parent snapshot, then
removes the selected snapshot.
• Delete All: This task commits all the immediate snapshots before the
current state icon (“You are here”) to the base disk and removes all
existing snapshots for that virtual machine.
• Go to: Ths task allows you to restore a particular snapshot. The snapshot
that you restore becomes the current snapshot. In the example above, the
current snapshot is Snapshot 2. If you restored Snapshot 1, Snapshot 1
would become the current snapshot and he You are here icon would be
positioned under Snapshot 1.

292 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Modify Virtual Machine Settings

• Many Virtual Machine settings can be customized


and / or modified
• Many of these can only be changed while the VM is
powered off
• These settings are controlled by three tabs:
• Hardware Tab
• Options Tab
• Resources Tab

It is possible to make customizations and modifications to an existing


virtual machine, for example, adding an additional virtual NIC or additional
virtual disk. All of these items can be changed when the VM is powered off.
A virtual disk can be added to the VM while it is powered on. This is
known as a "hot pluggable" device.

7
Use the following procedure to launch the Virtual Machine Properties
window:

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


1 Power off the VM.
2 When the power-off state change is complete, right-click on the VM and
select Edit Settings. You may also just click the “Edit Settings” button in
the right window.
The properties window will open. It has three tabs on it: Hardware, Options,
and Resources.
Use the Hardware tab to modify the hardware on the virtual machine. This
allows you to do things like add more hard disks and network adapters. It
also allows you to connect hardware like CD-ROMs and Floppy Drives to
specific hardware either on the host or on the VI Client PC, or to a .iso or
.flp image file. You may also make changes to the virtual network adapter
by controlling whether or not they are connected when the VM is first
powered on and which virtual machine port group they are connected to.
The Options tab will be covered later on in this lesson.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Manage VMs 293


The Resources tab will be covered in detail during the Resource
Management module of the course. The next several pages will focus on
the Hardware tab.

294 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Example 1: Add Raw LUN Access to VM

• Why use a raw LUN with a VM?


• To allow VM clustering—across
boxes, or physical-to-virtual
• To enable use of SAN
management
software inside guest OS
• Can be added while VM is
powered on
• A VM can access a raw SAN
LUN using an RDM
(Raw Device Mapping)
• An RDM allows a special file in a
VMFS volume to act as a proxy
for a raw device
An example of adding virtual hardware to a VM is adding another disk to
the VM. There are two types of virtual disks that can be added to a VM: a
virtual disk file or a raw disk mapping. A virtual disk file is a file in a
datastore (VMFS or NFS.) A raw disk mapping gives your virtual machine
direct access to any LUN - SAN, iSCSI or local. The raw disk mapping

7
(RDM) is a special file that lives in a datastore (VMFS and NFS) and points
to the actual SAN LUN. The VM is able to access its SCSI LUN through

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


this RDM. Both virtual disks and raw disk mappings are hot-pluggable
devices. They can be added while the VM is powered on.
A raw disk mapping runs in one of two modes: physical compatibility mode
and virtual compatibility mode. Physical compatiblity mode allows the
guest operating system to directly access the hardware and is useful if you
are using SAN-aware applications in the virtual machine. Virtual
compatibility mode allows the LUN to behave as if it were a virtual disk, so
you can use features like snapshotting, cloning and creating templates.
With physical compatibility mode, a LUN configured for physical
compatibility cannot be cloned, made into a template, or migrated if the
migration involves copying the disk.
Raw disk mappings are made up of the following files: If using virtual
compatibility mode, the files are VM_name_#.vmdk and VM_name_#-
rdm.vmdk (where VM_name is the name of the virtual machine and "#" is
the next number in the sequence). If using physical compatibility mode, the
files are VM_name_#.vmdk and _#-rdmp.vmdk.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Manage VMs 295


Example 2: Add a Virtual NIC to VM

• Why add an
additional NIC?
• To allow a VM to
access multiple
networks
• To create a firewall
environment
• Must be added while
VM is powered off

Another example of adding virtual hardware to a VM is adding another


virtual NIC. In this case, the VM must be powered off in order to add the
virtual NIC, since virtual NICs are not hot-pluggable devices. In the
example above, a second NIC is added to the virtual machine in order to
create a firewalled environment.

296 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Example 3: Resize the Disk

Increased
from 7 GB
to 9 GB

Format new space within the guest


operating system

It is possible to expand the size a virtual disk. This task can only be
performed while the VM is powered off.
To resize a VM’s disk, right-click your VM in the inventory, then select
Edit Settings from the drop-down menu. Select the desired hard disk and

7
enter a new size. The virtual hard disk will expand to the new size.
This is similar to increasing the size of a LUN. If the VM were a physical

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


machine it would suddenly think the hard disk was bigger, leaving
unallocated space on the disk. This is the same in the virtual world and you
will need to add a partition from within the guest OS.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Manage VMs 297


Virtual Machine Properties Options

• General
• VMware Tools
• Power Management
• Advanced

The Options tab in the Virtual Machine Properties window allows you to
change a VM’s options. It has several powerful features that are broken
down into four categories:
• General
• VMware Tools
• Power Management
• Advanced
The next several pages will cover some of the important things you can do
to modify a VM from the Options tab.

298 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Options - General Options

VM display name

.VMX file location

VM directory

Guest operating
system type

The General Options can be used to modify things like the display name
used for the VM and the type of guest operating system installed. The
location and name of the configuration file (.vmx file) is displayed and the
location of the virtual machine’s directory is also shown. You can select the
text for the configuration file and working location if you need to cut and

7
paste them into a document. But only the display name and the guest
operating system type may be modified.

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


NOTE

If you change the display name, that is not going to change the names of all
of the VM files or the directory the VM is stored in. When a VM is first
created, the file names and the directory name associated with the VM are
based on its display name. But changing the display name later does not
modify these file and directory names.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Manage VMs 299


Options - VMware Tools

Customize power
button actions

When to run
VMware Tools
scripts

Update checks
and time synch

The VMware Tools options window controls how the VMware Tools inside
the virtual machine respond to certain external events. You can use these to
customize the power buttons on the VM. For example, the red square
power-off button for a VM can be set to always perform a guest shutdown.
This is far safer for the VM. It is like the difference between using the Start
/ Shutdown command within Windows as opposed to just unplugging the
PC.
The VMware Tools program can be set to run certain scripts when specific
events (like a power-off) occur. That has to be set from within the guest OS
though by opening the VMware Tools window. Once those scripts are
selected and enabled this screen controls when the VM checks to see if
scripts should actually be run. This gives you the advantage of enabling or
disabling script operations from outside the VM while it is powered-off.
The Advanced box has two important functions. One is to check possibly
update VMware Tools automatically if a newer version becomes available.
The other is to enable time synchronization with the host. As a best practice
time synchronization with the host should always be enabled. However, if
the VM is forcing its clock to synch to the ESX Server you must ensure two
other things have been configured:
The ESX Server should have its time synch’ed to some external source,
preferably via NTP.
The Guest OS should NOT be trying to synchronize time on its own. Most
Windows systems automatically synchronize to a Windows Active
Directory Domain Controller. Many UNIX and Linux systems are

300 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


configured to synchronize to external NTP servers. Best practice is to let
VMware Tools synchronize time to the host – and disable these other time
synchronization systems within the guest OS. If you configure the VM to
synchronize time to the ESX Server and also allow the guest to try to
synchronize time to something else time on the virtual machine will become
unstable and erratic.

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Manage VMs 301


Options - Power Management

Suspend or
standby the
guest OS
gracefully.
Wake on LAN

The Power Management options allow you to choose how the virtual
machine should respond when it is placed in the Standby power state. The
VM can either be suspended or the guest OS can be placed into standby
mode, leaving the virtual machine powered on.
If you opt for placing the guest OS into Standby mode you can enable Wake
on LAN. This is not available on all guest operating systems.

302 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Options - Advanced

Advanced
options
usually do
not need
to be set

The group of options known as “Advanced” cover things that usually do not
need to be set for a virtual machine. Some of these can improve
performance, allow VMotion between CPUs with minor differences, and
adjust logging and debugging settings. We will specifically cover two of
these advanced options here – boot options and swapfile location.

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Manage VMs 303


Advanced - Boot Options

Delay power-on

Boot into BIOS

The Advanced Boot options allow you to do two things. One is to delay a
power-on. This may be useful to help stagger VM startup when several
VMs are being powered on. It is also possible to actually specify a power-
on order within the VI Client by selecting an ESX Server and then going to
the Configuration tab and selecting Virtual Machine Startup/Shutdown.
The “Boot into BIOS” option is extremely useful for making changes to the
BIOS settings such as forcing a VM to boot off of a CD-ROM. The next
time the VM powers-on, it goes straight into BIOS. This is much easier than
powering the VM on, opening a console, and quickly trying to hit the F2
key to go into BIOS.

304 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Swapfile Location

Each host
or cluster
can have a
custom
“swapfile
datastore”
location
defined

Each virtual machine has its own swapfile. These are normally stored in the
same location that the other virtual machine files are located in. However, if
the VM’s files are stored on a network storage location that has poor
performance (such as a slow NFS server) you may see a performance boost
by storing the VM’s swap file on faster storage. To facilitate this “swapfile

7
datastores” can be defined for each ESX Server and/or cluster.

Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Manage VMs 305


Labs for Lesson 4

1. Create a Firewalled Virtual Machine Environment


• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
• Create a Linux virtual machine that functions as a NAT Router
• Configure an existing virtual machine as a NAT Client that
uses the NAT Router to access the external network
2. (OPTIONAL) Allow Virtual Machine Access to a Raw
LUN
• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
• Add a raw LUN to a virtual machine’s configuration
• Verify that the virtual machine can access its new LUN

306 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• VirtualCenter allows automatic guest OS


customization when cloning a VM or deploying a VM
from a template
• It is possible to resize a VM’s hard disk, provided the
VM is powered off
• It is possible to add a hard disk to your VM while the
VM is up and running

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Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Manage VMs 307


Lesson 5

Guided Consolidation :

Lesson Topics
• Guided Consolidation
• Capabilities
• Architecture
• Discovery
• Analysis
• Consolidation

308 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Guided Consolidation

• Automatically discovers
physical servers
Discover
• Analyzes utilization and
usage patterns
• Converts physical servers
to VMs placed intelligently
based on user response Analyze

• Lowers training
requirements for new
virtualization user
• Steers users through the Convert
entire consolidation
process
For first time virtualization users, a new feature in VirtualCenter 2.5 guides
users through the process of server consolidation. Recommended for
smaller, simpler environments, this feature steers users through discovering
physical servers, collecting performance data from these servers and
converting these servers to virtual machines placed intelligently on the most

7
appropriate hosts. Guided Consolidation allows new users to quickly realize
the benefits from server consolidation and reduces the training requirements

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


for first time “virtualizers”.
Guided Consolidation automatically consolidates existing servers by
discovering existing servers in the environment, either physical servers or
virtual machines. Guided Consolidation can discover and analyze only
Windows server-family OSes. Servers are analyzed to determine whether
or not they are suitable for consolidation. Servers’ usage patterns are
discovered and analyzed. No agent software is involved to perform these
tasks. Recommendations are made based on the utilization metrics that
have been collected. Guided Consolidation recommends a consolidation
plan, matching discovered systems to candidate ESX Servers. Finally,
physical machines are converted into virtual machines while these servers
continue to run.
Guided Consolidation is a tool intended for small-to-medium businesses,
with approximately 100 physical servers or less. Its architecture assumes a
small environment. For example, it assumes that you have only one Active
Directory server and a limited number of domains in the environment. It is
not appropriate for large-scale enterprises, since the user interface does not
provide a good way to deal with hundreds of physical servers.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Guided Consolidation 309


If you do not want Guided Consolidation installed, it can be omitted when
installing VirtualCenter.

Additional Information about current constraints in Guided Consolidation:


Guided Consolidation currently requires default username and password (needed for
discovery) to only contain ASCII strings. As such the discovery feature may not work on
non-English OSes. This is essentially a bug in collector which currently does not support
Unicode. (we hope to fix this by GA)
Users cannot limit discovery to a certain IP range or filter search results based on wildcards
or other search criteria
Guided consolidation does not discover across multiple AD sources as the collector engine
can only discover and report on domains managed by a single AD source
Guided Consolidation relies on AD and/or lanman to discover machines on the network and
gather data on the same. Systems that have lanman service disabled (typical in larger
enterprise environments) will not show up in discovery in the absence of AD. In such a
scenario, VC needs to be installed on a system that is part of an AD domain and the user
needs to provide credentials that has read access on the AD domain to begin discovery and
data gather.
Needless to say in the absence of both lanman and AD, guided consolidation will not be
able to discover any physical systems

310 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Guided Consolidation Architecture

• Guided Consolidation depends on two services,


Data Collector and VMware Converter

VMware Data
vpxd
Converter Collector

VMware Converter
Service Data Collector
(can run on VC Service
VirtualCenter Server Database (CapacityPlanner is
or on separate automatically installed
machine) on VirtualCenter
VirtualCenter Server Server)

The Guided Consolidation architecture consists of two services, Data


Collector and VMware. These services are installed together with
VirtualCenter Server.
The Data Collector Service runs under the name of “VMware Capacity The Data Collector Service
is based on the Capacity

7
Planner Service”. It is responsible for discovering existing systems in the Planner product. It is not
environment, getting their hardware information and probing them exactly the same, so if you
periodically to collect their performance information. It uses a “hidden” are familiar with Capacity

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


Planner, you will notice
database, in other words, a database that is not intended to be managed by that the results will differ.
end users and used for storing results as they are collected.
The Data Collector Service uses LAN Manager (lanman) or Active
Directory (AD). In the case of LAN Manager, the Data Collector Service
needs individual systems to be visible by lanman. Systems are reported as
present when queried. If LAN Manager is not present and Active Directory
is, the Data Collector Service must be installed on a member of the domain.
The user running the Data Collector Service must have read permissions on
the Active Directory.
The VMware Converter service runs under the name of “VMware
Converter Enterprise Service”. It converts physical systems to virtual
machines. VirtualCenter provides this service with information about the
destination and other parameters, and VMware Converter Enterprise
Service handles the conversion operation. This service can be installed on a
separate machine.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Guided Consolidation 311


Physical System Discovery

Click the Start Analysis


button to begin discovering
physical (and virtual) systems

To start the discovery process, click the Consolidation panel in the VI


Client, then click the Start Analysis button. VirtualCenter credentials will
be requested at this point and authentication is required to search the
domains for physical computers.
The Data Collector Service is required when initiating the consolidation
analysis. If this service is not running, VirtualCenter will ask for user
credentials and try to start it. The user must have Windows Administrator
privilege and read privileges on Active Directory, if Active Directory is
being used.

312 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Add to Analysis (1 of 2)

• Select a Domain or Workgroup for discovery


• The list of Domains and Workgroups is concatenated
from AD and Lanman results

The Add to Analysis dialog box enables you to discover systems on your
network and select the ones you want to analyze. This dialog box lists the
systems found on the network for the domain selected in the Show domain
drop-down menu. The first time this dialog box is launched, the domain
where the VirtualCenter server is located is selected by default. After that,

7
the menu defaults to the previously selected domain. The first time a
domain is selected, it might take some time for VirtualCenter to discover

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


and list the systems it finds. After that, the list is cached so that subsequent
searches take less time. The list can also be sorted.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Guided Consolidation 313


Add to Analysis (2 of 2)

• Select Hosts from the list


to analyze
• Discovery of systems is
repeated periodically
• Newly added systems will
be discovered
automatically.
• Every ½ hour: check for new
servers
• Every day: check for new
domains

From Add to Analysis dialog box, you can select hosts from a particular
domain or workgroup to analyze. System discovery is repeated periodically,
just in case new systems come on-line. Every half hour, new systems will be
discovered in each domain, and every day, there will be a check for new
domains.

314 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Set Authentication

• Enter Windows Administrator user and password


• Enter here if same for all/most hosts
• Next screen lets you specify per-host credentials

VirtualCenter requires administrator access to the systems selected for


analysis before it can begin to analyze them. You can specify credentials on
a system-by-system basis, and you can specify default credentials that
VirtualCenter can use when credentials have not been explicitly specified.

7
To set credentials per system, in the Add to Analysis dialog box, select the
systems you want to analyze. Click the Add to Analysis button. The Set
Authentication dialog box is displayed, shown above. Enter authentication

Virtual Machine Creation and Management


credentials and click OK.
Default credentials can also be set through the Consolidation Settings dialog
box. To set default credentials using Consolidation Settings, select
Administration from the VI Client menu bar, then select Consolidation
Settings -> Credentials tab.

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Guided Consolidation 315


Analyze

• Statistics collected on each host


• Metrics collected once per hour
• 10-12 metrics total: CPU, Memory, Disk, Network
• Columns populated as information obtained
• Data put into table in VirtualCenter database
• Confidence level
• Based on the number of performance samples that VC has collected
• As VC collects more performance samples, the confidence goes up

The selected systems are analyzed and results are displayed in the Analysis
tab. In the example above, MKTG1 and MKTG2 were selected for analysis
from the previous step. You can right-click a host to set per-host credentials
if necessary.
The Data Collector starts collecting data once per hour on each host. 10-12
metrics are collected on CPU, memory, disk and network usage, and the
columns in the display are populated, such as CPU Usage and Memory
Usage, as information is obtained. All data is stored into tables in the
VirtualCenter database.
The Data Collector is agentless and does not install any software on target
machines. Information is collected using remote data retrieval methods,
such as WMI and Remote Registry. This is why the service must run with
administrator privileges.
If target systems are protected by a firewall, then ports need to be opened to
allow incoming WMI, Perfmon and Remote Registry requests to pass
through (ports 135, 137, 138, 139 and 445).
The Confidence Level indicates the degree to which VirtualCenter is able to
gather performance data about the system and how good a candidate the
system is for consolidation based on the available data. The confidence
level is based on the number of performance samples that VirtualCenter has
collected. The more performance samples that VirtualCenter collects, the
higher its confidence level.

316 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


One important metric displayed in the Analysis tab is the Confidence
metric. During the analysis phase, performance data about each selected
system is collected. This data is compared to host resources to determine a
recommendation for each candidate. The recommendation indicates how
well suited, based on the collected data, a candidate is to a particular virtual
machine host system. Confidence refers to the reliability of the
recommendation and it is a function of the duration of the analysis.
Recommendations based on longer periods of analysis – and therefore more
performance data – receive a higher level of confidence.

NOTE

After 24 hours of analysis, VirtualCenter indicates a high level of


confidence in its recommendations. However, this can be misleading if a
system’s workload varies significantly over weeks or months. To ensure a
high level of confidence in a recommendation, allow the duration of the
analysis phase to encompass an amount of time that includes representative
peaks and troughs in the systems’ workload. Analysis

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Guided Consolidation 317


Plan Consolidation

• Choose “Plan Consolidation”


• Select systems to import, then click Consolidate

After the Analysis phase, you are ready to plan consolidation. In the
Analysis tab select the systems you want to consolidate, then click the Plan
Consolidation button (not shown above). A list of analyzed systems is
presented. For each system, a drop-down menu exists identifying the
candidate destination ESX Servers. A destination rating (or star rating) is
also displayed.
The star rating is used to determine suitability of the destination server for
consolidation. Each candidate destination host gets a separate star rating and
is based on the destination server’s compatibility with the ESX Server.
Compatibility is considered for things such as sufficient number of CPUs
and the ability to run the guest OS. The rating is based on the average CPU
usage, memory usage and disk space usage of the destination host. The
networking check only verifies the number of NICs, not network usage.
The lower the resource usage, the higher the star rating. The higher the star
rating, the better suited that destination host is for consolidation.
When ready, select the systems to import. For each one, select the
destination ESX Server. Click the Consolidate button when ready. The
import process is performed by the VMware Converter Enterprise Service.

318 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• Guided Consolidation is a tool intended for small to


medium businesses
• Guided Consolidation consists of two services: Data
Collector service and the Converter service
• The Consolidation services automatically discovers
physical servers, analyzes utilization and usage
patterns, and converts them into virtual machines

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Guided Consolidation 319


Module Summary

• A virtual machine can be created from scratch or


deployed from a template
• A virtual appliance is a pre-configured virtual
machine, designed for a specific purpose, and
available from the VMware website
• VMware Converter allows hot cloning or cold cloning
of physical servers to virtual machines
• A VM snapshot is useful when you need to revert
repeatedly to the same state, without creating new
VMs
• Guided Consolidation allows the discovery and
consolidation of physical servers to virtual machines

320 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Questions?

Questions?

7
Virtual Machine Creation and Management

Module 7 Virtual Machine Creation and Management: Guided Consolidation 321


322 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure
MODULE 8

Virtual Infrastructure
Access Control 8

Importance
• When there are multiple users accessing the virtual infrastructure, it is a

8
good idea to give each user only the necessary permissions, nothing
more. VirtualCenter access controls allow flexible assignment of

Virtual Infrastructure Access Control


permissions.

Objectives for the Learner


• Configure VirtualCenter permissions
• Configure ESX Server permissions
• Manage access to VMs using Web Access

Module Lessons
• VMware Infrastructure User Access
• Accessing VMs Using Web Access

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 323


Lesson 1

VMware Infrastructure User


Access :

Lesson Topics
• Security model
• VirtualCenter permissions
• ESX Server permissions

324 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Security Model Overview

User/Group Role Privileges

Inventory
Permission Objects

The main components of the Virtual Infrastructure security model are the
following:
• User/Group - User/group account with access to the Virtual
Infrastructure
• Role - A set of one or more privileges
• Privilege - Specifies a task that a user/group is authorized to perform
• Permission - The pairing of a user/group and role (which consists of a

8
set of privileges)
Users or groups are granted permission to the inventory based on the roles

Virtual Infrastructure Access Control


that they are assigned. Roles are made up of one or more privileges, each
privilege allowing access to perform a specific task.
There are approximately 100 defined privileges. Some tasks require only a
single privilege while other tasks require multiple privileges.

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: VMware Infrastructure User Access 325
Defining Users and Groups

VirtualCenter users and groups are those


defined in the VirtualCenter Server’s Windows domain

ESX Server users and groups are those


defined in its service console

No attempt is made to reconcile these users and groups

Using the VI Client, you have access to either the VirtualCenter server or
the ESX Server using the same user interface. The same security model
applies to both VirtualCenter users and ESX users, however, the
permissions are different and there is no synchronization of permissions
between VirtualCenter and ESX Server.

326 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Privileges

• Privileges are the


building blocks of
roles
• They allow users to
perform tasks
• They are grouped in
categories

A role is a set of one or more privileges. A privilege allows access to a


specific task and is grouped with other privileges related to it. For example,
the role named "Virtual Machine User" consists of several privileges in
categories such as Global, Virtual Machine, Scheduled Task. A role is
assigned to a user or group and determines that user or group's level of
access.
To get to the screen shown above, use the VI Client to connect to the
VirtualCenter Server. Select an object in the VirtualCenter inventory, for

8
example, the Hosts & Clusters folder. Right-click the object, then select
Add Permission... from the menu. In the Assigned Role section, select

Virtual Infrastructure Access Control


Virtual Machine User from the drop-down list. Expand the Virtual
Machine category, then the Interaction subcategory.

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: VMware Infrastructure User Access 327
Roles

The VI Client
displays
users/groups
associated
with a given role

• Roles are collections of privileges


• Can be optionally propagated to child objects in the
inventory
A role consists of one or more privileges managed through the VI Client.
The VI Client will display all users and/or groups associated with a given
role. To display this information, go to the Admin panel, then view the
Roles tab. Select any role to view the users and/or groups, if any,
associated with that role.
Roles are not hierarchically organized, in other words, a role is neither
superior to or subordinate to another role. All roles are independent of each
other.
Role propagation is the act of passing along permissions. Roles can be
optionally propagated to its child objects in the inventory.

328 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Pre-defined and Custom Roles

Roles
Default No Access
ESX Server user Read-Only
and group roles Administrator
Default
Virtual Machine Administrator VirtualCenter user
Datacenter Administrator and group roles
Virtual Machine Power User
Virtual Machine User
Resource Pool Administrator
VMware Consolidated Backup User
Create your own
roles for either Night-shift Operator
ESX Server or Backup Administrator
VirtualCenter
users and groups

ESX Server provides the following default roles: No Access, Read-Only,


and Administrator.
VirtualCenter provides the following default roles: No Access, Read-Only, Instructor, for background
information and possibly
Administrator, Virtual Machine Administrator, Datacenter Administrator, adding value to your class,
Virtual Machine Power User, Virtual Machine User, Resource Pool consider reading the Best
Administrator and VMware Consolidated Backup User. Practices paper, Managing
VMware VirtualCenter
You cannot modify the default roles No Access, Read-Only and Roles and Permissions,
availabe on the VMware
Administrator. You will be able to modify the other default roles, however,

8
Web site at http://
it is recommended to create a custom role instead. www.vmware.com/pdf/
vi3_vc_roles.pdf

Virtual Infrastructure Access Control


Custom roles can be created for either ESX Server or VirtualCenter, such as
Night-shift Operator and Backup Administrator.
Custom roles cannot be shared between ESX Server and VirtualCenter. It is
a good practice to manage your ESX Servers and virtual machines through
VirtualCenter. Therefore, create any necessary custom roles in VirtualCenter
instead of directly on the ESX Server.

NOTE

The Best Practices paper, Managing VMware VirtualCenter Roles and


Permissions provides some very good recommendations for custom
VirtualCenter roles that you might consider for your environment. This
paper is availabe on the VMware Web site at http://www.vmware.com/pdf/
vi3_vc_roles.pdf.

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: VMware Infrastructure User Access 329
Permissions

• Permissions are granted by pairing a user (or group) with


a role and assigning them to an inventory object

Greg – Datacenter Administrator

Susan – Resource Pool Administrator

Greg– No Access

Carla – Virtual Machine Power User

What happens if a user is The permissions that a user is given is a combination of the user (or group)
granted different roles in
different areas of the
account, the role assigned to the user (or group) and the position in the
inventory tree? For inventory to which the user/role combination applies. Roles can also be
example, does a propagated downwards through the inventory, if you choose. Permissions
permission for Carla set at
"Hosts & Clusters" can be overridden at a lower level by adding a new permission to the same
override a permission for user.
Carla set at "Carla04VM",
or vice versa? In most cases, propagation should be enabled when building a role. When it
--> Permissions can be
comes to assigning the permission, propagation helps insure consistency if
overridden at a lower level
by adding a new and when new objects are inserted as child objects in the inventory. For
permission to the same example, if permissions are assigned on a folder which contains VMs, you
user. Also, roles will only
flow down if propagation is
typically want the same permissions on all VMs that are contained in that
turned on. folder.
If propagation is not desired, consider limiting the extent of propagation
with the No Access (built-in) role directly on the object that should be left
out of the propagation. In the example above, Greg has been assigned the
Datacenter Administrator role at the Training datacenter level and all the
objects below it, assuming the role has been propagated to the child objects.
However, Greg is not assigned the Datacenter Administrator role on the Test
and Dev resource pool and all the objects under it. For these objects, he has
no access.

330 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


How Permissions Are Applied: Scenario 1

• If a user is a member of multiple groups with


permissions on different objects
• For each object on which the group has permissions, the
same permissions apply as if granted to the user directly

Group1 – VM Administrator

Group2 – Read-Only

Members of Group1: Members of Group2:


Greg Greg
Susan Carla

If a user is a member of multiple groups, and has permissions on different


objects in the inventory, then for each object on which the group has
permissions, the same permissions apply as if they were granted to the user
directly.
In the example above, there are two groups, Group1 and Group2. Group1 is
assigned the VM Administrator role at the Training datacenter and Group2
is assigned the Read-Only role on the virtual machine object, Prod03-1.
Both roles propagate to their child objects. Let's say that user Greg is a

8
member of both Group1 and Group2. If this is the case, then Greg gets
Virtual Machine Administrator privileges on the entire Training Datacenter,

Virtual Infrastructure Access Control


except for the virtual machine named Prod03-1. For this particular object,
Greg gets Read-Only access.

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: VMware Infrastructure User Access 331
How Permissions Are Applied: Scenario 2

• If a user is a member of multiple groups with


permissions on the same object
• The user is assigned the union of privileges assigned to
the groups for that object

Group1 – VM_Power_On (custom role)


Group2 – Take_Snapshots (custom role)

Members of Group1: Members of Group2:


Greg Greg
Susan Carla

If a user is a member of multiple groups, and these groups have permissions


on the same object in the inventory, then the user is assigned the union of
privileges assigned to the groups for that object.
In the example above, there are two groups, Group1 and Group2. Group1 is
assigned the role, VM_Power_On, a custom role that contains only one
privilege, the ability to power on a VM. Group2 is assigned the role,
Take_Snapshots, another custom role that contains the privileges to create
and remove snapshots. Both roles propagate to the child objects. Let's say
that Greg belongs to both Group1 and Group2. If this is the case, then Greg
gets both VM_Power_On and Take_Snapshots privileges for objects within
the Training datacenter.

332 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


How Permissions Are Applied: Scenario 3

• Permissions defined explicitly for the user on an object


take precedence over all group permissions on that
same object

Group1 – VM_Power_On (custom role)


Group2 – Take_Snapshots (custom role)
Greg – Read-Only

Members of Group1: Members of Group2:


Greg Greg
Susan Carla

Permissions defined explicitly for the user on an object take precedence This example falls under
the category of “the
over a user’s group permissions on that same object. particular taking
precedence over the
In the example above, three permissions are assigned to the Training general”.
datacenter: Group1 is assigned the VM_Power_On role, Group2 is assigned
the Take_Snapshots role, and user Greg is assigned the Read-Only role.
Let's say Greg is a member of both Group1 and Group2. Let’s also assume
that propagation to child objects is enabled on all roles. In this case, even
though Greg is a member of both Group1 and Group2, Greg gets Read-Only

8
privilege to the Training datacenter and all objects under it. This is because
explicit user permissions on an object take precedence over all group

Virtual Infrastructure Access Control


permissions on that same object.

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: VMware Infrastructure User Access 333
How Permissions Are Applied: Scenario 4

• Permissions applied directly to an object override


inherited permissions

Greg – VM User

Greg – Administrator

This is another example Permissions applied directly to an object in the inventory take precedence
that falls under the
category of “the particular
over permissions inherited from roles that are propagated down to child
taking precedence over objects.
the general”.
In the example above, user Greg is given the VM User role at the Training
datacenter. This role is propagated to all child objects except one, Prod03-
1. For the virtual machine object, Prod03-1, Greg has Administrator
privileges instead.

334 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VirtualCenter Security Model

Active Directory or
Local Windows VirtualCenter
User/Group

user role privileges


permission

In the VirtualCenter security model, the VirtualCenter user is a Windows


user account, either local or domain. The user is assigned a role. The user/
role combination is applied to an object in the VirtualCenter inventory.

8
Virtual Infrastructure Access Control

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: VMware Infrastructure User Access 335
Default Permissions for VirtualCenter

• Local Windows Administrators group is assigned the


Administrator role at the topmost level in the inventory

By default, the local Windows group, Administrators, is assigned the


Administrator role at the topmost level of the Hosts & Clusters view and the
Virtual Machines & Templates view.

336 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


ESX Server Security Model

Service console ESX Server

user role privileges


permission

In the ESX Server security model, the ESX user is a service console (Linux)
user account. The ESX user is assigned either a default role or a custom,
ESX Server role. The user/role combination is applied to a level in the ESX
inventory (host, VM or resource pool level.)
User accounts, roles and permissions can be configured using the VI Client
connected directly to the ESX Server.

8
Virtual Infrastructure Access Control

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: VMware Infrastructure User Access 337
Default Permissions for ESX Server

• ESX Server users, root and vpxuser, are assigned the


Administrator role at the ESX Server level

By default, the service console users, vpxuser and root, are assigned the
Administrator role at the ESX Server level in the inventory. root is the
administrator account on any Linux/UNIX system.
vpxuser is created when an ESX Server is added to the VirtualCenter
inventory. vpxuser is the user account used by the VirtualCenter Server to
authenticate itself when sending pre-approved task requests to the ESX
Server. Only pre-approved task requests are sent to the ESX Server. Tasks
are pre-approved by VirtualCenter based on user and group permissions.
vmware-hostd, running as root, performs the tasks requested by
VirtualCenter

CAUTION

Do not change vpxuser and do not change its permissions. If you do so,
you might experience problems working with the ESX Server through
VirtualCenter.

338 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Prevent root Access to VI Client

• Enable Lockdown Mode


• Prevents ESX user root from logging directly into the ESX
Server using the VI Client
• Normal ESX user accounts can still use VI Client

To prohibit ESX Server administration by direct VI Client login as root,


enable Lockdown Mode on that ESX Server. Lockdown mode can be used
to ensure that the ESX Server is managed only through VirtualCenter.
To enable Lockdown Mode, select your ESX Server from the inventory,
then click its Configuration tab. In the Software section, click the Security
Profile link, then click Edit... next to the Lockdown Mode section. A check
box allows you to either enable or disable lockdown mode.
Although user root will be prevented from logging directly into the ESX If VirtualCenter becomes

8
unavailable (e.g. the
Server using the VI Client, a normal, non-administrator ESX Server account service stopped) and
will still be able to log in. User root will still have the ability to log into the

Virtual Infrastructure Access Control


lockdown is enabled on an
ESX Server using a secure shell. ESX Server, root is not
able to log into the ESX
Server using the VI Client.
However, a normal ESX
Server user account will
still be able to log in.

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: VMware Infrastructure User Access 339
Labs for Lesson 1

1. Accessing Virtual Machines in VirtualCenter


• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
• Configure a VirtualCenter permission using an existing role
• Configure a VirtualCenter permission using a custom role
2. Multi-Role Users
• In this lab, you will perform the following task:
• Determine the effects of individual user permissions vs. group
permissions at different levels of the inventory
3. (Optional) Accessing Virtual Machines in ESX Server
• In this lab, you will perform the following task:
• Configure an ESX Server permission using an existing role

340 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• A VirtualCenter user is a Windows user, either local


or domain-based
• An ESX Server user is a Linux user, defined in the
service console
• Permissions, composed of user/group role
assignments, are assigned to objects in the
inventory and control what users can do

8
Virtual Infrastructure Access Control

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: VMware Infrastructure User Access 341
Lesson 2

Accessing VMs Using Web


Access :

Lesson Topics
• Logging into Web Access
• Web Access functionality

342 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What is Web Access?

• A browser-based application that focuses on managing


VMs on ESX Server and VirtualCenter deployments
• Benefits:
• Administrators can provide end users browser-based access
to VMs without the need to install the VI client on their
desktop
• Client Devices allow VMs to access media on the user’s local
floppy and CD/DVD drives
•Reduces the need to access these drives on the ESX Server host
Web
Access

Web Access
Web (Apache Tomcat
Access Service) installed here

VMware Virtual Infrastructure Web Access (Web Access for short) is a way
to allow end users to access VMs without needing to install the VI Client
onto their desktop. Web Access is a Web application running under the
Apache Tomcat Web server, which is started on either the VirtualCenter
Server or the ESX Server.

8
Virtual Infrastructure Access Control

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: Accessing VMs Using Web Access 343
Log into Web Access (1 of 2)

Users access Web Access via a web browser. Use a URL based on either
the VirtualCenter’s or ESX Server’s host name or IP address.
In VirtualCenter environments, one should normally login and use Web
Access through the VirtualCenter Server and not the ESX Server. The
reason is that in VirtualCenter environments, VMs might move from ESX
Server to ESX Server due to VMotion and VMware DRS cluster software.
To VI Web Access client is designed for these browsers:
• Windows:
• Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher
• Netscape Navigator 7.0
• Mozilla 1.x
• Firefox 1.0.7and higher
• Linux:
• Netscape Navigator 7.0 or later
• Mozilla 1.x
• Firefox 1.0.7 and higher

344 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Log into Web Access (2 of 2)

• If logging into VirtualCenter, enter a VirtualCenter


user account and password

Before using Web Access, users must use either a valid user name and
password to access the VirtualCenter Server or a valid user name and
password to access the ESX Server. This user name and password
information will be used to log into Web Access.
When a user logs into Web Access on the ESX Server, the user will be able
to manage only the virtual machines found on that ESX Server, as long as
the user has the appropriate permissions. When a user logs into Web
Access on the VirtualCenter Server, the user will be able to manage virtual

8
machines found on all ESX Servers in the VirtualCenter inventory, provided
that user has the appropriate permissions.

Virtual Infrastructure Access Control

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: Accessing VMs Using Web Access 345
Web Access Tasks

View a VM’s console

View VMs
and their
details

Perform select
VM tasks

Whereas the VI Client can be used to manage ESX Servers and VMs, Web
Access is used to manage VMs only. From Web Access, you can display a
list of VMs, view a VM's console, view a VM's status, perform power
operations and edit a VM's configuration. The list of VMs displayed
depends on what you are logging into. If you log into Web Access on an
ESX Server, you will see a list of all VMs located on this server. If you log
into Web Access on the VirtualCenter Server, you will see a list of all VMs
located on all ESX Servers managed by VirtualCenter.
You cannot create new VMs using Web Access. Creating new VMs must
be done using the VI Client instead.
In order to access a virtual machine's console from the Web Access
interface, the VMware Virtual Infrastructure Plug-In needs to be added to
your browser. See the Virtual Infrastructure Web Access Administrator's
Guide for details on installing the plug-in.

346 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Generate Remote Console URL

• Way to provide
access to a VM
through a URL
• Useful for including in
an e-mail message

Using Web Access, you can create a remote console URL of a virtual Since the generated URL
is quite long, it might be
machine using ordinary Web browser URLs. When creating a remote useful to mention using
console URL, you can customize the Web Access user interface controls, or http://www.tinyurl.com to
use the remote console URL for personal use. If desired, you can disable shorten the URL and avoid
wrap issues when inserting
nonessential controls permanently. This allows a remote console URL user the URL into e-mails.
to concentrate on using the guest operating system.
Using remote console URLs, you can:
• Add the remote console URL to a list of favorite Web pages

8
• Share the remote console URL with one or more users in an e-mail

Virtual Infrastructure Access Control


message
Let's say you no longer want a user to access a remote console URL of a
particular virtual machine. To disable this remote console URL, create a
second remote console URL to the same virtual machine. This new URL is
now required to access the virtual machine.

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: Accessing VMs Using Web Access 347
Activity

• Using Web Access


• Take a few minutes to explore the Web Access
interface:
•Log into Web Access on the VirtualCenter Server and
perform a few tasks on your virtual machines
•Log into Web Access on the ESX Server and perform a
few tasks on your virtual machines

This is an informal lab activity that allows you to login and explore Web
Access. Web Access is installed on both the VirtualCenter Server and the
ESX Server. Use a web browser to access each one.
If you are unable to access Web Access on your VirtualCenter Server, verify
that the VMware Virtual Infrastructure Web Access is started: on your
VirtualCenter Server, select Start -> Administrative Tools -> Services.
If students are unable to access Web Access on VirtualCenter, have them enter the
following URL as a workaround: https://IP_Address_of_VC_Server/ui/

348 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Module Summary

• A permission is a pairing of a user and a role


• A role is a set of pre-defined privileges
• VirtualCenter users are different from ESX Server
users
• Web Access is used to manage VMs, not ESX
Server hosts

8
Virtual Infrastructure Access Control

Module 8 Virtual Infrastructure Access Control: Accessing VMs Using Web Access 349
Questions?

Questions?

350 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


MODULE 9

Resource Management 9

Importance
• Resource pools allow CPU and memory resources to be hierarchically
assigned. VMotion is a valuable tool for availability and resource
management. VMware DRS-enabled clusters provide automated
resource management for multiple ESX Servers

Objectives for the Learner

9
• To use resource pools for single-host resource policy control
• To migrate virtual machines with VMotion

Resource Management
• To create and configure a DRS cluster
• To create resource pools in a DRS cluster for multi-host resource policy
control

Module Lessons
• Using Resource Pools
• Migrate VMs with VMotion
• VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler)
• Resource Pools in a VMware DRS Cluster

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 351


Lesson 1

Using Resource Pools :

Lesson Topics
• How are VMs’ CPU and memory resources managed?
• What is a resource pool?
• Managing a pool’s resources
• A resource pool example
• An expandable reservations example
• Admission control

352 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMs' CPU Resource Settings

• Limit
• A cap on the consumption of CPU time by this
VM, measured in MHz
• Reservation
• A certain number of CPU cycles reserved for
this VM, measured in MHz
• The VMkernel chooses which CPU(s), and
may migrate
• Shares
• More shares means that this VM will win
competitions for CPU time more often
• All the VCPUs in a VM must be
simultaneously scheduled
• Therefore, a reservation of 1000 MHz might
be generous for a 1-VCPU VM, but not for a
4-VCPU VM
A virtual machine has three user-defined settings that affect its CPU
resource allocation: CPU limit, CPU reservation and CPU shares. CPU
limit defines the maximum amount of CPU, measured in MHz, that this
virtual machine is allowed. CPU reservation defines the amount of CPU,
measured in MHz, reserved for this virtual machine when CPU contention
occurs. If the virtual machine does not use the total amount of its CPU
reservation, then the unused portion is available for use by other virtual
machines, until the virtual machine needs it. Each virtual machine is
granted a number of CPU shares. The more shares a VM has, the more
often it gets a timeslice of a CPU when there is no CPU idle time.
All the virtual CPUs (VCPUs) in a virtual machine must be scheduled at the
same time. Therefore, a CPU reservation of 1000 MHz might be generous

9
for a 1-VCPU virtual machine, but not for a 4-VCPU virtual machine (250
MHz per VCPU.)

Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Using Resource Pools 353


VMs' Memory Resource Settings

• Available Memory
• Memory size defined when the VM was
created
• Limit
• A cap on the consumption of physical memory
by this VM, measured in MB
• Reservation
• A certain amount of physical memory
reserved for this VM, measured in MB
• Shares
• More shares means that this VM will win
competitions for physical memory more often
• VMkernel allocates a per-VM swap file to
cover each VM’s range between available
memory and reservation

A virtual machine has four user-defined memory settings that affect its
memory resource allocation: available memory, memory limit, memory
reservation and memory shares.
Available memory is the amount of memory given to the virtual machine at
the time it was created. It is the maximum amount of memory the virtual
machine supplies to the guest OS. The VM cannot address a larger memory
area than this size of available memory, unless it is powered down and more
memory is configured for the VM.
Memory limit defines the maximum amount of virtual machine memory
that can reside in RAM, not to exceed available memory. By default,
available memory and memory limit are initially the same value. Memory
reservation is the amount of RAM reserved for that virtual machine
memory.
Unused memory reservations, like CPU reservations, are not wasted. If a
VM does not consume all of the RAM that is reserved for it, other VMs can
use that RAM. But once the VM uses that RAM, no portion of the VM’s
reservation will ever be ballooned or swapped, even if that RAM is
completely idle. Transparent page sharing, however, is not prevented from
reclaiming reserved memory.
Memory shares are separate from CPU shares but are applied in the same
way. A virtual machine's memory shares controls how often it wins
competition for RAM when RAM is scarce. Virtual machines that lose must
wait until RAM becomes available.

354 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


If the values for available memory and memory reservation differ, the
VMkernel allocates a per-VM swap file to cover the difference between
available memory and the memory reservation. During periods of RAM
shortage, the virtual machine’s available memory could consist of physical
RAM and disk space.

If necessary, here is information to explore the ramifications of setting reservation and limit
for memory. Students tend to get confused with cases 3 and 4. You might write this on the
board and make it clear that they are valid (but rare) settings:
Case1: Memory is not overcommitted (less common)
• VM built with: X amount of memory
• Reservation: X amount of memory
• Limit: X amount of memory
• Size of VMkernel swap file: 0
Case 2: Memory is overcommitted (most common case)
• VM built with: X amount of memory
• Reservation: less than (<) X amount of memory
• Limit: X amount of memory
• Size of VMkernel swap file: (X - < X)
Case 3: Memory limit is set by Administrator planning for possible future growth of VM
memory (rarely used)
• VM built with: X amount of memory
• Reservation: X amount of memory or < X amount of memory
• Limit: Greater than (>) X amount of memory
Case 4: Memory limit is set by Administrator to sacrifice performance in a VM temporarily
(rarely used)
• VM built with: X amount of memory
• Reservation: < X amount of memory
• Limit: < X amount of memory

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Using Resource Pools 355


How VMs Compete for Resources

• Proportional-share system for relative resource management


• Applied during resource contention
• Prevents VMs from monopolizing resources
• Guarantees predictable resource shares
Number of Shares

• Change number of
shares

• Power on VM

• Power off VM

The proportional share mechanism applies to CPU and RAM allocation, and
only operates when virtual machines are contending for the same resource.
Shares guarantee that a virtual machine be given a certain amount of a
resource (CPU or RAM.) For example, consider the third line of the
example on the slide, where VM D has just been powered on with 1000
shares. Beforehand, there were 5000 total shares, but D's addition increases
the total shares to 6000. This means that all other virtual machines' shares
decline in value. However, each virtual machine's share value still
represents a minimum guarantee. VM A is still guaranteed one-sixth of the
resource, because it owns one-sixth of the shares.
We can add shares to a VM while it is running, and it will get more access
to that resource (assuming there was competition). When we add a new
VM, it gets shares too. Its share amount factors into the total number of
shares; but the existing VMs are guaranteed not to be starved for the
resource. When we delete or power off a VM, there are fewer total shares,
so the surviving VMs get more access.
When configuring shares for a VM, you specify High, Normal, Low or
Custom.
For CPU shares:
• High: # shares = 2000 * (# of vCPUs)
• Normal: # shares = 1000 * (# of vCPUs)
• Low: # shares = 500 * (# of vCPUs)
• Custom: # shares = user-specified value

356 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


For memory shares:
• High: # shares = 20 * size of VM’s available memory
• Normal: # shares = 10 * size of VM’s available memory
• Low: # shares = 5 * size of VM’s available memory
• Custom: # shares = user-specified value

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Using Resource Pools 357


What is a Resource Pool?

• A logical abstraction
for hierarchically
managing CPU and
memory resources
• Used on a stand-
alone hosts or
VMware DRS-
enabled clusters
Root
• Provides resources Resource
Pool
for VMs and child Resource
Pools
pools

Defer the discussion of A resource pool allows you as the administrator to divide and allocate
DRS clusters to Lesson 3.
resources to VMs and other resource pools. A resource pool allows you to
control the aggregate CPU and memory resources of the compute resource,
which is either a standalone host or a VMware DRS cluster. Resource pools
are also used to delegate privileges to other users and groups.
The topmost resource pool is known as the root resource pool. The root
resource pool consists of the CPU and memory resources of a particular
ESX Server or VMware DRS cluster.

358 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Configuring a Pool's Resources

• Resource pools have the


following attributes:
• Shares
• Low, Normal, High, Custom
• Reservations, in MHz and MB
• Limits, in MHz and MB
• Unlimited access, by default (up to
maximum amount of resource
accessible)
• Expandable Reservation?
• Yes: VMs and sub-pools may
draw from this pool’s parent
• No: VMs and sub-pools may only
draw from this pool, even if its
parent has free resources

Each resource pool has reservation (minimum), limit (maximum) and share
values for both CPU and memory resources.
A resource pool has the following attributes:
• Shares: Shares guarantee that the resource pool be given a certain
amount of CPU and memory resources.
• Reservation: This is the minimum amount of resources required by the
resource pool. For example, you can set a CPU reservation, which is the
minimum amount of CPU that this pool must have.
• Limit: This is the maximum amount of resources given to this resource
pool. By default, the resource pool is given "unlimited" access to the
maximum amount of resource (specified by the limit.) The Limit is

9
adjustable. You can limit a resource pool to a specific amount of
resource, which is less than the absolute maximum.

Resource Management
• Expandable Reservation: This allows a resource pool that cannot satisfy
a reservation request to search through its hierarchy to find unreserved
capacity to satisfy the reservation request.
Shares, reservations and limits can also be applied at the virtual machine
level, and are constrained by the resources of the resource pool to which the
virtual machine belongs. Virtual machines do not have expandable
reservation. Expandable reservations can only be set at the resource pool
level. Expandable reservations will be covered in more detail later on in the
module.

Module 9 Resource Management: Using Resource Pools 359


Viewing Resource Pool Information (1 of 2)

• Display the resource pool’s


Summary tab

Get information about your resource pool by viewing the Summary tab.
This tab displays the current values for Shares, Reservation, Expanded
Reservation and Limit.

360 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Viewing Resource Pool Information (2 of 2)

• Display the resource pool’s


Resource Allocation tab

Get further information about your resource pool by viewing the Resource
Allocation tab. This tab displays information about how the CPU and
memory resources are being used by the virtual machines and child pools in
the resource pool.

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Using Resource Pools 361


Scenario

• Company X’s IT department has two internal


customers
• The finance department supplies 2/3 of the budget
• The engineering department supplies 1/3 of the budget
• Each internal customer has both production and
test/dev virtual machines
• We must cap the test/dev VMs’ resource
consumption

To explain how resource pools work, let's take an example. Company X's
IT department has two internal customers, finance and engineering. Both
departments have production virtual machines as well as virtual machines
for testing and application development. The finance department provides
the majority of IT's budget and therefore gets the majority of resources
provided by IT. Resource pools can be used to control resource
consumption between the two departments and ensure that the finance
department gets the resources that it is entitled to.

362 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Resource Pool Example

stand-alone host – Svr001


(root resource pool)
CPU: 12000 MHz
Memory: 4 GB

Engineering (Resource Pool)


CPU Shares: 1000
Reservation: 1000 MHz
Limit: 4000 MHz
Expandable Reservation: Yes

Eng-Test (VM) Eng-Prod (VM)


CPU Shares: 1000 CPU Shares: 2000
Reservation: 0 MHz Reservation: 250 MHz
Limit: 4000 MHz Limit: 4000 MHz

Let's take a look at an example where resource attributes are set on a


resource pool.
Resource pools can be organized hierarchically.
The root resource pool is the topmost resource pool and is comprised of the
sum of all MHz for all CPUs and the sum of all the installed RAM (in MB)
available in the compute environment (standalone host or cluster). In this
example, the root resource pool is a standalone host named Svr001. It has
12000 MHz of CPU and 4 GB of RAM, available for use by other resource
pools or VMs.
Except for the root resource pool, every resource pool has a parent resource
pool. A resource pool might contain child resource pools or just VMs that

9
are powered on within it.

Resource Management
A child resource pool is used to allocate resources from the parent resource
pool for the child’s consumers. Administrative control can also be delegated
to various individuals or organizations. A child resource pool cannot exceed
the capacity of the parent resource pool. Creating a child pool actively
reserves resources from the parent pool, whether or not any VMs in the
child pool are powered on.

Module 9 Resource Management: Using Resource Pools 363


Resource Pools Example: CPU Shares

stand-alone host – Svr001


(root resource pool)

Engineering (Resource Pool) Finance (Resource Pool)

CPU Shares: 1000 CPU Shares: 2000

Eng-Test (VM) Eng-Prod (VM) Fin-Test (VM) Fin-Prod (VM)

CPU Shares: 1000 CPU Shares: 2000 CPU Shares: 1000 CPU Shares: 2000

Shares specify the relative priority or importance of either a resource pool


or virtual machine. If a resource pool has twice as many shares of a resource
as another resource pool, it is entitled to consume twice as much of that
resource. The same thing can be applied to virtual machines. In the
example above, the Finance resource pool has twice as many CPU shares as
the Engineering resource pool and therefore, is entitled to twice as much
CPU resources as the Engineering resource pool. The next slide further
explains this concept.

364 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Resource Pools Example: CPU Contention

Svr001
All VMs below are running on
same physical CPU (PCPU)

Engineering Finance
CPU Shares: 1000 CPU Shares: 2000
~33% of PCPU ~67% of PCPU

Eng-Test Eng-Prod Fin-Test Fin-Prod


CPU Shares: CPU Shares: CPU Shares: CPU Shares: Engineering
1000 2000 1000 2000 ~33%
11%

22%
45%

22%

Eng-Test gets ~33% of Engineering’s Finance


CPU allocation = Approximately 11% of ~67%
the PCPU
% of PCPU allocation
As an example, let's assume that all four virtual machines have been
scheduled by the VMkernel onto the same physical CPU. Thus they are all
in direct competition.
Engineering gets 33% of that CPU, then splits up its 33% allotment between
virtual machines Eng-Test and Eng-Prod. Likewise, Finance gets 67% of
that CPU, then splits up its 67% allotment between virtual machines Fin-
Test and Fin-Prod.
The virtual machine, Eng-Test, gets ~33% of the CPU allocation of the
Engineering resource pool, [1000/(1000+2000)]. This works out to about
11% of the physical CPU (33% of 33% equals ~11%). Each of the virtual
machines get a percentage of the physical CPU allocated to its resource pool

9
based on its individual share allocation.
Note that the example above uses general approximations to explain how

Resource Management
the number of shares affects the amount of CPU allocated to a virtual
machine.

Module 9 Resource Management: Using Resource Pools 365


Expandable Reservation

Root Resource Pool


• Borrowing resources occurs
Total CPU: 10200 MHz
Total Memory: 3000 MB
recursively from the ancestors of
the current resource pool
• As long as the Expandable
Retail
Reservation option is selected.
Reservation: 3000 MHz
Expandable Reservation: Yes • Offers more flexibility, but less
protection
eCommerce Apps eCommerce Web
• Expanded reservations are not
Reservation: Reservation:
1200 MHz 1000 MHz released until the VM that caused
Expandable?
Yes
Expandable?
No
the expansion is shutdown or its
reservation is reduced

An expandable reservation could allow a rogue


administrator to claim all unreserved capacity in
the environment

For this slide, just define Expandable reservation allows a resource pool that cannot satisfy a
expandable reservation.
There is a complete
reservation request to search through its hierarchy to find unreserved
example on the next two capacity to satisfy the reservation request.
slides.
In this example, the child resource pool, “eCommerce Apps” has
expandable reservation set. The reservation of a child resource pool may not
exceed that of its parent. The search for unused resources goes through the
ancestry of the root resource pool or to the first resource pool that does not
have expandable reservation set.
Use expandable reservation carefully. A single child resource pool may use
ALL of its parent’s available resources, leaving nothing directly available
for other child resource pools.
One reason to disable Expandable Reservation is when you are giving a
fixed amount of resources to a group. For example, you are an IT
administrator and your customers are different organizations in your
company who have paid for a fixed amount of CPU and memory resources.

366 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Example of Expandable Reservation (1 of 2)

Root Resource Pool • eCommerce resource pools


Total CPU: 10200 MHz reserve 2200 MHz of 3000 MHz
Total Memory: 3000 MB
the Retail resource pool has
reserved
Retail • Power on virtual machines in the
Reservation: 3000 MHz
Expandable Reservation: No
eCommerce Web resource pool
• With Expandable Reservation
eCommerce Apps eCommerce Web disabled on the eCommerce Web
Reservation: Reservation: resource pool it is not possible to
1200 MHz
Expandable?
1000 MHz
Expandable?
start VM7 with a reservation of
Yes No 500 MHz
• Lower the VM reservation
VM1 VM2
R=400 R=300
• Enable Expandable Reservation
VM7
R=500
• Increase eCommerce Web pool’s
reservation
In this example, there are three resource pools: Retail, eCommerce Apps
and eCommerce Web. The resource pool, eCommerce Web, has a CPU
reservation of 1000 MHz. It also does not have expandable reservation set,
its reservation is Fixed. There are three virtual machines in the eCommerce
Web resource pool: VM1, VM2 and VM7. VM1 has a CPU reservation of
400 MHz and is powered on. Likewise, VM2 has a reservation of 300 MHz
and is also powered on. As a result, 700 MHz of the reservation of the
eCommerce Web resource pool is in use.
What happens if you try to power on VM7, which has a CPU reservation of
500 MHz? Since expandable reservation is disabled on the eCommerce Web
resource pool, it is not possible to start VM7 with a reservation of 500 MHz.
Therefore, either lower VM7’s reservation, enable expandable reservation

9
on the eCommerce Web resource pool, or increase the reservation of the
eCommerce Web pool.

Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Using Resource Pools 367


Example of Expandable Reservation (2 of 2)

Root Resource Pool


• Enable expandable reservation on
Total CPU: 10200 MHz
Total Memory: 3000 MB
the eCommerce Web resource
**200 MHz used by Retail** pool
• The system considers the
Retail
Reservation: 3000 MHz
resources available in the child
Expandable Reservation: Yes resource pool and its direct parent
**Full Reservation Used** resource pool
eCommerce App eCommerce Web • The VM’s reservation is charged
Reservation:
1200 MHz
Reservation:
1000 MHz
against the reservation for
Expandable? Expandable? eCommerce Web
Yes Yes
• eCommerce Web’s reservation
VM3
R=500
VM4
R=500
VM1
R=400
VM2
R=300
is charged against the
reservation for Retail
VM5 VM6 VM7
R=500 R=500 R=500

Let’s explain what’s happening, starting from the top:


• The root resource pool has a total of 10200 MHz availabe for its child
resource pools to use.
• The Retail resource pool has a total of 3000 MHz available for its child
resource pools to use. It has expandable reservation set.
• eCommerce App and eCommerce Web are child resource pools of the
Retail pool. They both have expandable reservation set. Together, they
have reserved a total of 2200 MHz in the Retail pool. Therefore, the
Retail pool has 800 MHz left of its reservation for others to use.
• The total amount of VM CPU reservation in the eCommerce App
resource pool is 2000 MHz. Since eCommerce App only has 1200 MHz
reserved, the remaining 800 MHz needed to satisfy the VMs’
reservations is taken from the Retail resource pool, which has 800 MHz
to give. At this point, the Retail pool’s full reservation is used.
• The total amount of VM CPU reservation in the eCommerce Web
resource pool is 1200 MHz. Since eCommerce Web only has 1000
MHz reserved, the remaining 200 MHz needed to satisfy the VMs’
reservations is taken from the parent resource pool, Retail. But since the
Retail pool has no more reservation to give, the 200 Mhz is taken
instead from Retail’s parent, the root resource pool.

368 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Admission Control for CPU and Memory
Reservations

Create a new sub-pool Increase a pool’s


Power on a VM
with its own reservation reservation

Yes Can this pool


Succeed
satisfy reservation?

No

No
Fail
Expandable
reservation?

Yes – Go to Parent Pool

Any action that changes a VM's or resource pool's reservation must satisfy
admission control. If the object (VM or pool) resides in a pool with an
expandable reservation, the current pool's parent will be consulted if need
be to satisfy the reservation.

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Using Resource Pools 369


Lab for Lesson 1

• Create and Use Resource Pools on a Standalone


Host
• In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
•Create two resource pools and assign resource policies to
them
•See the resource pools’ impact on resource allocation

In the lab for this lesson, we use CPU affinity in the VMs' properties to restrict available
resources to a single PCPU. This is something we do not recommend customers do in a
production environment, but it's OK to do here in our training environment.

370 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• Resource pools are a way to aggregate resource


policies
• Resource pools are used on either standalone ESX
Server hosts or DRS clusters
• VMs will only power on if their resource reservations
can be satisfied

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Using Resource Pools 371


Lesson 2

Migrate VMs with VMotion :

Lesson Topics
• VMotion migration
• VMotion compatibility requirements
• Topology maps

372 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Move VM Between ESX Servers: VMotion
Migration

• A VMotion migration moves a VM that is powered on


• Why migrate using VMotion?
• Improve overall hardware utilization
• Allow continued VM operation while accommodating
scheduled hardware downtime

VMotion allows working processes in a virtual machine to continue


throughout a migration. The entire state of the virtual machine is moved to
the new ESX Server even while the data storage remains in the same
datastore.
The state information includes the current memory content and all the
information that defines and identifies the virtual machine. The memory
content includes transaction data and whatever bits of the operating system
and applications are in memory. The definition and identification
information stored in the state includes all the data that maps to the virtual
machine hardware elements, such as BIOS, devices, CPU, MAC addresses

9
for the Ethernet cards, and so forth.

Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Migrate VMs with VMotion 373


How VMotion Works (1 of 6)

• Users currently accessing VM A on esx01


• Initiate migration of VM A from esx01 to esx02
while VM A is up and running

VMotion
Network
Production
Network

Initiate the VMotion migration using the VI Client. In the example above,
the source host is esx01 and the target host is esx02. Both source and target
host have access to the shared datastore holding the VM's files. The
VMotion network is the network labeled "Red".

374 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


How VMotion Works (2 of 6)

• Pre-copy memory from esx01 to esx02


• Log ongoing memory changes into a memory bitmap
on esx01

Memory
Bitmap

VMotion Memory
Network
Production
Network

The virtual machine's memory state is copied over the VMotion network
(i.e. the "Red" network) from the source to the target host. While the virtual
machine's memory is being copied, users continue to access the virtual
machine and potentially update pages in memory. A list of modified pages
in memory is kept in a memory bitmap on the source host.

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Migrate VMs with VMotion 375


How VMotion Works (3 of 6)

• Quiesce virtual machine on esx01


• Copy memory bitmap to esx02

VMotion Memory Bitmap


Network
Production
Network

After most of the VM's memory is copied from the source to the target host,
the VM is quiesced, meaning the VM is taken to a state where no additional
activity will occur on the VM. The quiesce time is the only time in the
VMotion procedure in which the VM is unavailable to users and is a very
minimal amount of time. During this quiesce period, VMotion starts to
transfer the VM to the target host. Only the VM device state and the
memory bitmap containing the list of pages that have changed are
transferred over during this time.
Note that if a failure occurs during the VMotion migration, the VM being
migrated is failed back to the source host. For that reason, the source VM is
kept around until the VM on the target host starts running.

376 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


How VMotion Works (4 of 6)

• Copy VM’s remaining memory (as listed in memory


bitmap) from esx01

Memory
Bitmap

VMotion Copy Pages


Network
Production
Network

The remaining memory (as identified in the memory bitmap) is copied from
the source to the target host.
Note that a virtual machine's entire network identity, including MAC and IP
address, is preserved across a VMotion. Remember that you labelled your
NICs on your ESX Servers. Different NICs on different ESX Servers can be
associated with the same network label. For example, vmnic0 on esx01 can
be associated with the "Red" network while vmnic1 on esx02 can be
associated with the "Red" network as well. When performing a VMotion on
a virtual machine that uses the Red network from esx01 to esx02, the
VMkernel will intelligently remap the virtual machine to use vmnic1 on the
target host.

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Migrate VMs with VMotion 377


How VMotion Works (5 of 6)

• Start VM A on esx02

VMotion
Network
Production
Network

Immediately after the VM is quiesced on the source host, the VM is


initialized and starts running on the target host.
Additionally, a RARP (reverse ARP) request notifies the subnet that VM
A's MAC address is now on a new switch port.

Additional Information on the RARP request:


A RARP is sent after a VMotion. The reason for this is that until the new physical switch
port that we are now behind sees a frame from the VM's MAC, the switch fabric will continue
to direct frames destined for that VM to the old physical switch port it was behind before the
VMotion. In most cases, the VM itself would send some type of frame anyway and the
fabric would learn its new location. In other cases (the most important of which is probably
the one where an eval customer pings a VM while it gets VMotion'ed to measure the
perceived downtime), the VM might not send anything until it receives something, which it
won't until the old entries in the physical switch's MAC tables time out (usually 30 seconds
or more). Therefore, we send the RARP to update the physical switch tables proactively.
The RARP is what we chose to send because it a) will cause the physical switches to
update their tables and b) doesn't require any IP information (since we don't have easy
access to that, i.e. the RARP just asks "who has this MAC?" so there is no IP info
associated with the request).

378 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


How VMotion Works (6 of 6)

• Users now access VM A on esx02


• Delete VM A from esx01

VMotion
Network
Production
Network

Users are now accessing the VM on the target host instead of the source
host.
The VM is finally deleted from the source host.

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Migrate VMs with VMotion 379


Virtual Machine Requirements for VMotion

• Migrating a VM with the following conditions produces


an error:
• VM has an active connection to an internal virtual switch
• VM has an active connection to a CD-ROM or floppy device with a local
image mounted
• VM has its CPU affinity set to run on one or more specific, physical CPUs
• VM is in a cluster relationship (e.g. using MSCS) with another VM
• Migrating a VM with the following conditions produces
a warning:
• VM is configured with an internal virtual switch but is not connected to it
• VM is configured to access a local CD-ROM or floppy image but is not
connected to it
• VM has one or more snapshots
• No guest OS heartbeats are being received (due to guest OS not
responding or VMware tools not configured properly)
The VMotion migration will produce an error upon certain conditions,
which are stated above. When an error is encountered, you must fix the
error before proceeding. Likewise, VMotion will produce a warning upon
certain conditions, which are also stated above. When a warning is
encountered, you are allowed to proceed with the migration.
The VI Client interface does a very good job of identifying warnings and
errors. In the Migrate Virtual Machine Wizard, when you select the host to
VMotion to, a validation check is performed, which is basically a check of
all VMotion requirements. If validation succeeds, then you can continue. If
validation fails, error messages will be displayed, at which point you must
exit the wizard and resolve the problem.

380 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Host Requirements for VMotion

• Source and destination ESX Servers must have


• Visibility to all SAN LUNs (either FC or iSCSI) and NAS
devices used by VM
• A Gigabit Ethernet backplane
• Access to the same physical networks
• Consistently labeled virtual switch port groups
• Compatible CPUs
•New CPU features exposed, which introduce new VMotion
compatibility constraints and trade-offs

There are several important host requirements for a successful VMotion


migration:
• SAN visibility of virtual disks
• Gigabit Ethernet interconnection
• Consistent network configuration, both physical and virtual
• Source and destination server have CPUs from the same compatibility
group
The names of the virtual switches (vSwitches) on the source and
destinations hosts do not have to match, and the names of the vmnic’s do
not have to match. However, the vSwitch port group names have to match
exactly (the match is case-sensitive).

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Module 9 Resource Management: Migrate VMs with VMotion 381


CPU Constraints on VMotion

CPU Exact Match


Why or why not?
Characteristics Required?
Clock speeds, No Virtualized away by VMkernel
cache sizes, hyper-
threading, and
number of cores
Manufacturer Yes Instruction sets contain many small
(Intel or AMD) differences
Family
(P3, P4, Opteron)
Presence or Yes Multimedia instructions usable
absence of SSE3 or directly by applications
SSSE3 instructions
Virtualization For 32-bit VMs: No Virtualized away by VMkernel
Hardware Assist
For 64-bit VMs on Intel: VMware’s Intel 64-bit
Yes implementation leverages VT
Execution-Disable Yes (but customizable) Guest OS relies on NX/XD bit if
detected

CPU compatibility between the source and target host is a VMotion


requirement that must be met. This table lists various CPU characteristics
and identifies whether or not an exact match is required. This table also
provides a brief explanation why. For example, if hyperthreading is enabled
on the source host and disabled on the destination host, the VMotion
migration will continue because the VMkernel handles this difference in
characteristic.

Additional Information:
For a description of migration options, consult the VI3 online library: http://
pubs.vmware.com/vi3/bsa/wwhelp/wwhimpl/common/html/
wwhelp.htm?context=bsa&file=BSA_Migration.17.3.html
At present, we are not using AMD Pacifica (aka AMD-V). We are using Intel VT in order to
run 64-bit guests on Intel hardware. Generally speaking, we do not use these HW assist
technologies because the performance using our binary translation and direct execution is
generally superior to this first generation of hardware assist. For more details on why that
is, please see http://www.vmware.com/pdf/asplos235_adams.pdf.

382 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Enable or Disable Nx/xD

Choose between
Nx/xD security
features or broadest
VMotion compatibility

For future CPU


features, edit mask
at the bit level

A CPU feature's effects on compatibility are dependent on whether or not


ESX Server exposes or hides them from virtual machines: Features that are
exposed to virtual machines are not compatible when they are mismatched;
features that are not exposed to virtual machines are compatible regardless
of mismatches.
VirtualCenter compares the CPU features of two hosts to determine whether
to allow or disallow migrations with VMotion. CPU compatibility masks
allows per-virtual machine, advanced customization of the CPU features
that a virtual machine should require for CPU compatibility during a
VMotion migration.
Default values for the CPU compatibility masks are set by VMware to

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guarantee the stability of virtual machines after a VMotion migration.
Changes to these default masks are made very conservatively by VMware,

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and only when new CPU features are introduced and versions of ESX
Server are updated to expose or hide them from virtual machines. In some
cases, where a choice between CPU compatibility or guest operating system
features (such as NX/XD) exists, the VI Client provides check-box options
to configure individual virtual machines.

Module 9 Resource Management: Migrate VMs with VMotion 383


Identifying CPU Characteristics

• In most cases, use server & CPU family/model specifications


• Use VMware’s CPU bootable utility

Other ways to determine VMware provides you with a CPU Compatibility tool that allows you to
CPU compatibility are the
following: A freeware tool
check CPU compatibility of hosts participating in a VMotion migration (as
named cpu-z, available at well as 64-bit support.) If CPU features cannot be determined directly from
www.cpuid.com, the the server/CPU specifications, a bootable CD can be created using the CPU
VMotion compatibility tool,
available at www.run- Compatibility tool to help you identify the characteristics of CPUs installed
virtual.com, or using the in a host. It can also verify whether your hardware supports 64-bit guests in
service console command ESX 3, and whether ESX Servers upgraded to ESX 3 will remain
line, cat /proc/
cpuinfo. compatible for VMotion.
Download this tool from the VMware Web site:http://www.vmware.com/
download/vi/drivers_tools.html.

384 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Verify VMotion Layout: Use Maps Panel (1 of
2)

To verify that the source and target ESX Servers satisfy the VMotion
requirements that pertain to shared datastores and networks, display a map
that shows the relationships between the hosts, datastores and networks.
In the example above, we are verifying that the ESX Servers participating in
the VMotion migration are attached to the same shared storage.

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Module 9 Resource Management: Migrate VMs with VMotion 385


Verify VMotion Layout: Use Maps Panel (2 of
2)

You can also use maps to display the relationship between the virtual
machine being migrated and the ESX Servers.
In the example above, we are verifying that the virtual machine to be
migrated is using a datastore that is visible to both the source and target host
participating in the VMotion migration.

386 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Verify VMotion Layout: Use Maps Tab

Every virtual machine has a VMotion Resource Map that you can use to
check if a virtual machine can be VMotion'ed between ESX Servers. From
this map, you can determine the relationships between the virtual machine's
networks, datastores and ESX Servers.
To view the VMotion Resource Map, select the virtual machine in the
inventory, then select the Maps tab
In the example above, the virtual machine named Prod06-1 is located on
sc-gallium03. Both sc-gallium03 and sc-gallium06 have access to the
Production network as well as the datastore named Shared, where the files
of Prod06-1 reside. Notice that sc-gallium06 has a red X. This means that a
VMotion requirement has not been met. View the Events section of the

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Tasks & Events tab for sc-gallium06 to find out more information. If the
Events screen does not help, then the validation performed with the

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Migration wizard probably will.

Module 9 Resource Management: Migrate VMs with VMotion 387


Checking VMotion Errors

To initiate a VMotion migration, right-click a virtual machine that is


powered on and select Migrate from the drop-down menu. In the Migrate
Virtual Machine wizard, select the host to migrate to. A validation of that
host is performed. If the validation does not succeed, a list of VMotion
errors and/or warnings will display in the wizard’s screen.
Warnings display with yellow icons and errors display with red icons.
Remember that warnings will still allow you to perform a VMotion
migration. VMotion errors will not allow you to continue. You must fix the
error and retry the migration.

388 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Problem: VMotion Fails

• Is a problem with the virtual machine configuration


preventing VMotion from working properly?
• Is a problem with the source or target host configuration
preventing VMotion from working properly?
• Do both ESX Servers have a VMKernel port that is
enabled for VMotion?

If you are having problems with the VMotion migration failing, make sure
that all host requirements and virtual machine requirements are met.
Is a problem with a virtual machine's configuration preventing VMware
VMotion from working?
• VMware VMotion is designed to migrate RUNNING virtual machines.
It involves moving a copy of the RAM image from one ESX Server to
another. This means that you might have a virtual machine that you can
"power-on" in the VI Client but, if the virtual machine is constantly
crashing and rebooting, the RAM image is never stable enough for
VMware VMotion to work.
• An example of this would be a virtual machine that you installed as

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default with a guest OS of Windows 2003. By default, this virtual
machine will get an LSI adapter. If you were to change this to a

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BusLogic adapter manually, the virtual machine would not be able to
boot. It would power on, but it would continuously blue screen and
reboot.
• How can you tell if a virtual machine configuration problem is
preventing VMware VMotion from working? Use the Remote Console
to make sure that the virtual machine is actually powering-on and that
you are able to login to it.
Is there a VMKernel port on both ESX Servers and is it enabled for
VMware VMotion?

Module 9 Resource Management: Migrate VMs with VMotion 389


• Look for a VMKernel port that might be configured for VMware
VMotion (remember, the name of the VMkernel port may not
necessarily be named “VMotion”.
Are the NICs that are being used for VMware VMotion on the same
physical LAN?
• Remember that the vmnic label is a logical label. What is labeled
vmnic4 on one ESX Server might provide the same network
connectivity as vmnic2 on a different ESX Server, even if both ESX
Servers share the same hardware configuration. It all depends on which
vmnic is selected for the service console during installation. As a rule, if
two ESX Servers have exactly the same physical configuration and if
you select the same NIC on both of them for the first service console
connection, then both of them will use identical logical vmnic labels for
physical NICs in both hosts.
• What really matters is that the physical network that these vmnics are
tied to is the same LAN on both ESX Servers.
Are you seeing "Error" or "Warning" messages during validation when you
attempt to use VMware VMotion to move a virtual machine?
• Errors are caused when VMware VMotion is attempted, but VMware
VMotion does not work due to some configuration problem. Warnings
are caused when VMware VMotion is attempted and is successful, but
there is still something that could have been a problem. In neither case
does the virtual machine crash. These messages appear on your VI
console during the validation process
Is there a physical network problem between the two ESX Servers
preventing VMware VMotion from working?
• Your configuration may be perfect, but broken network cables,
disconnected network cables, failed physical switches, or failed physical
NICs in the ESX Server can all cause a network connectivity problem
between the two ESX Servers. Any of these problems can prevent
VMware VMotion from working. If you are positive that your
configuration is correct, double-check all physical components.
• Note: For fault-tolerance, you may want to team two NICs on the ESX
Servers when using VMware VMotion. Connect the virtual switch that
has the VMKernel port for use with VMware VMotion to two or more
vmnics.

390 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lab for Lesson 2

• Migrate Virtual Machines


Using VMotion
New lab requirement:
Join another team’s
• In this lab, you will perform VirtualCenter!
the following tasks:
VirtualCenter VirtualCenter
Server Server
•Create a VMkernel port for #3 #4
VMotion
•Migrate a virtual machine
using VMotion ESX Server ESX Server
#3 #4
ESX Server of higher-
numbered team must be
added to VirtualCenter Server Student 03a Student 03b Student 04a Student 04b
of lower-numbered team

EMPHASIZE the following before students start this lab:


• The instructor, will pair up ESX Server lab teams.
• The team with the higher-numbered ESX Server must remove their ESX Server from their
VirtualCenter Server (steps are found in the lab) and add it to their partner ESX Server
lab team. For example, if the Kentfield01 ESX Server team is paired up with the
Kentfield02 ESX Server team, the Kentfield02 ESX Server team must remove their ESX
Server from their VirtualCenter Server and add it to the VirutalCenter Server that
Kentfield01 is using.
• There are parts of the lab where students will be performing on their own ESX Server and
other parts of the lab that they must perform with their "partner ESX Server team".

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Module 9 Resource Management: Migrate VMs with VMotion 391


Lesson 3

VMware DRS (Distributed


Resource Scheduler) :

Lesson Topics
• What is a VMware DRS cluster?
• Creating a VMware DRS cluster
• VMware DRS cluster settings
• Automation level
• Migration threshold
• Placement constraints
• VM swapfile location
• VMware DRS best practices

392 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What is a DRS Cluster?

• Cluster
• A collection of ESX Server
hosts and associated VMs
• DRS-enabled cluster
• Managed by VirtualCenter
• Balances virtual machine
load across hosts in the
cluster
• Enforces resource policies
accurately (reservations,
limits, shares)
Cluster
• Respects placement
constraints
• Affinity and anti-affinity rules
• VMotion compatibility

When you enable a cluster for DRS, VirtualCenter continuously monitors


the distribution of CPU and memory resources for all hosts and virtual
machines in the cluster. DRS compares these metrics to what resource
utilization ideally should be given the attributes of the resource pools and
virtual machines in the cluster and the current demand and makes migration
recommendations accordingly
A maximum of 32 hosts per cluster is supported.
One goal of VMware DRS is to balance the load of virtual machines across
all hosts in the cluster. VMware DRS considers resource policies of the
virtual machines as well as any placement constraints that exist, such as
anti-affinity or affinity rules as well as VMotion compatibility constraints.

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Resource Management
What is not covered in this course: VMware Distributed Power Management. VMware DPM
reduces power consumption by intelligently balancing a datacenter's workload. VMware
DPM, which is part of VMware DRS, automatically powers off servers whose resources are
not immediately required and returns power to these servers when the demand for compute
resources increases again. There is only experimental support for VMware DPM.

Module 9 Resource Management: VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler) 393


Create a DRS Cluster

• Right-click your datacenter


• Select New Cluster

Name your cluster, then


enable VMware DRS by
selecting the check box

To create a DRS cluster, right-click your datacenter, then select New


Cluster from the drop-down menu. The New Cluster Wizard appears. Give
your cluster a descriptive name, then select the check box next to VMware
DRS to create a VMware DRS-enabled cluster.

394 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


DRS Cluster Settings - Automation Level

Configure the automation level for initial placement of


VMs and dynamic balancing while VMs are running

Automation Initial VM Dynamic


level placement balancing
Manual Manual Manual
Partially-
Automatic Manual
automated
Fully-
Automatic Automatic
automated

After creating the VMware DRS cluster, define the automation level. The
automation level determines how much of the decision-making process you
would like to grant VMware DRS when it needs to initially place virtual
machines that are powered on and when it needs to dynamically balance the
load of virtual machines across hosts in the cluster.
Choose from the following levels of automation:
• Manual: When you power on a virtual machine, VMware DRS displays
a list of recommended hosts. When the cluster becomes unbalanced,
DRS displays recommendations for virtual machine migration
• Partially automated: When you power on a virtual machine, VMware
DRS places it on the best-suited host. When the cluster becomes

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unbalanced, VMware DRS displays recommendations for virtual
machine migration

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• Fully automated: When you power on a virtual machine, VMware DRS
places it on the best-suited host. When the cluster becomes unbalanced,
VMware DRS migrates virtual machines from overutilized hosts to
underutilized hosts to ensure a balanced use of cluster resources.

Initial placement is a simplified form of dynamic balancing. Initial


placement does not use VMotion because you are powering on or resuming
a VM for the first time. When you power on a VM, you power it on in a
resource pool. By default, DRS will automatically decide how many
resources that VM is entitled to and will pick the appropriate host for it. If
your automation level is manual, you must manually perform the initial

Module 9 Resource Management: VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler) 395


placement. A prioritized list of recommendations is presented to you to help
you make good decisions.
VMware DRS performs both dynamic balancing and initial placement. For
dynamic balancing, VMware DRS monitors key metrics associated with
virtual machines, resource pools and hosts. This information, along with
the associated resource policies, are used to determine the resource
allocations entitled to the virtual machines.

396 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


DRS Cluster Settings - Migration Threshold

The migration threshold levels determine how quickly


virtual machines are migrated

Level Apply all recommendations…


1 – Most conservative with five stars only
2 – Moderately conservative with four or more stars
3 – Midpoint (default) with three or more stars
4 – Moderately aggressive with two or more stars
5 – Aggressive with one or more stars
There are five migration threshold levels:
• Level 1, most conservative: Applies only five-star recommendations.
This level applies recommendations that must be followed to satisfy
constraints such as affinity rules and host maintenance.
• Level 2, moderately conservative: Applies recommendations with four
or more stars. This level includes Level 1 plus recommendations that
promise a significant improvement in the cluster's load balance.
• Level 3, midpoint (the default): Applies recommendations with three or
more stars. This level includes Level 1 and 2 plus recommendations that
promise a good improvement in the cluster's load balance.
• Level 4, moderately aggressive: Applies recommendations with two or

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more stars. This level includes Level 1-3 plus recommendations that
promise a moderate improvement in the cluster's load balance.

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• Level 5, aggressive: Applies all recommendations. This level includes
Level 1-4 plus recommendations that promise a slight improvement in
the cluster's load balance.
A strong 5-star recommendation should always be applied but a list of
several 1-star recommendations could also collectively affect the cluster
negatively if not applied.

Module 9 Resource Management: VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler) 397


DRS Cluster Settings - Placement Constraints

• Affinity rules
• Run virtual machines
on same host
• Use for multi-VM
systems where
performance benefits
• Anti-affinity rules
• Run virtual machines
on different hosts
• Use for multi-VM
systems that load
balance or require high
availability

After you have created a DRS cluster, you can edit its properties to create
rules that specify affinity. You can use these rules to determine that:
• DRS should try to keep certain virtual machines together on the same
host (for example, for performance reasons)
• DRS should try to make sure that certain virtual machines are not
together (for example, you might want to guarantee certain virtual
machines are always on different physical hosts, so if there is a problem
with one host, you do not want to lose both virtual machines)
The example above shows an anti-affinity rule that requires two database
servers to be placed on different hosts, most likely for availability and
perhaps performance reasons.
Conversely, there are affinity rules, where you might want to keep certain
virtual machines on the same host because of increased locality or
performance benefits, for example, VM-to-VM networking that uses
internal-only (instead of physical) networking.

398 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Examples of affinity and anti-affinity rules:
• Example for an anti-affinity rule: A VM that uses lots of resources. Customers are now
virtualizing large systems for the purpose of easier DR. Consolidation is not the driving
factor in this case. Large virtualized hosts would best be kept on separate ESX Servers
to preserve at least some ability to consolidate other small VMs with it on the same ESX
Server.
• Another use of an anti-affinity rule is availability. Configure DRS to never run two critical
applications on the same host.
• An affinity rule might be useful to keep two memory intensive applications with similar
working sets located on the same host in order to derive maximum benefit from
transparent page sharing.

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Module 9 Resource Management: VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler) 399


DRS Cluster Settings - Automation Level per
VM

• Optionally set automation level per VM

You can customize the automation level for individual virtual machines in a
DRS cluster to override the automation level set on the entire cluster. This
allows you to fine tune automation to suit your needs. For example, there
may be a virtual machine that is especially critical to your business and you
would like more control over its placement, therefore set its automation
level to Manual. If a virtual machine is set to Disabled, VirtualCenter does
not migrate that virtual machine or provide migration recommendations for
it.

400 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


DRS Cluster Settings - VM Swapfile Location

• Store VM’s swapfile with VM or in a specified datastore

By default, swapfiles for a virtual machine are located on a VMFS datastore


in the folder containing the other virtual machine files. However, you can
instead configure the hosts in your cluster to place virtual machine
swapfiles on an alternative datastore of your choice. You might use this
option to place virtual machine swapfiles on either lower cost or higher
performance storage, depending on your needs.
If the swapfile location specified on the destination host differs from the
swapfile location specified on the source host, the swapfile is copied to the
new location. This can result in slower migrations with VMotion. For best
VMotion performance, store virtual machine swapfiles in the same directory
as the virtual machine.

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Module 9 Resource Management: VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler) 401


Add Hosts to Cluster

• Drag-and-drop ESX
Server onto cluster
Drag-and-drop

• Use the Add


Host Wizard
to complete
the process

To add a host to a VMware DRS cluster, drag-and-drop an ESX Server onto


the cluster object in the inventory. The Add Host Wizard appears. Work
through the wizard to complete the process of adding a host to the cluster.

402 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Best Practices for DRS

• When DRS makes strong


recommendations (typically 4- or 5-
star), follow them
• Otherwise, balance and fairness may
deteriorate
• Some VMotion is necessary
• Enable automation
• Choose default based on environment,
comfort level
• Let DRS autonomously manage most
VMs
• Use per-VM automation level overrides
to accommodate sensitive VMs
It is important to follow any strong recommendations that DRS
recommends. Otherwise if you leave DRS in manual mode and you do not
follow any of its recommendations, balance and fairness in the cluster may
deteriorate.
Another best practice is to enable some level of automation. The default that
you choose will be based on your experience with DRS, as well as the
knowledge you have about your environment.
Note that there are cluster-wide controls and per-VM controls. It is
recommended that DRS autonomously manage most of your VMs.
However, for any critical VMs, keep a human in a loop to approve all
VMotion operations for that VM. For example, use a default of manual for

9
your critical VMs. For your non-critical VMs, such as test/development
VMs, specify automatic movement by DRS.

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Module 9 Resource Management: VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler) 403


Lab for Lesson 3

• Create a DRS Cluster Two ESX Server


• In this lab, you will teams belong to one
perform the following Cluster team
tasks:
VirtualCenter VirtualCenter
•Create a DRS cluster Server Server
#3 #4
•Add ESX Servers to the
DRS cluster
ESX Server ESX Server
#3 #4

Student 03a Student 03b Student 04a Student 04b

Cluster Team

404 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• DRS applies intelligence to the location of VMs


• Upon initial power-on
• Dynamically (using VMotion)
• Accepting DRS’s recommendations leads to
balanced resource utilization

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Module 9 Resource Management: VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler) 405


Lesson 4

Resource Pools in a VMware


DRS Cluster :

Lesson Topics
• The role of resource pools in DRS clusters
• Using pools for delegated administration
• Monitoring the state of resource use in a pool
• Adding hosts with resource pools to a cluster

406 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Resource Pools in a DRS Cluster

Resource pools are used to subdivide


the computing resources in a cluster
Root Resource Pool:
CPU = 20 GHz (10 x 2 GHz)
Memory = 20 GB
Cluster

Resource Pool 1 Resource Pool 2


(CPU = 12 GHz, Memory = 12 GB) (CPU = 8 GHz, Memory = 4 GB)
CPU Shares: 2000 CPU Shares: 4000
Reservation: 4 GHz Reservation: 0
Limit: 12 GHz Limit: 8 GHz

VM VM
VM VM VM
CPU Shares: 4000 CPU Shares: 1000
Reservation: 0 Reservation: 0 GHz
Limit: 4 GHz Limit: 2 GHz

Resource pools can be used to divide the CPU and memory resources of a
standalone host. Resource pools can also be used with a VMware DRS
cluster, which allows you to manage the resources of all hosts in the cluster
as a single pool of resources. With resource pools, you can hierarchically
organize virtual machines and isolate resource pools so that you can control
the amount of resources for a whole collection of virtual machines.
Resource pools can be created only on ESX standalone hosts or VMware
DRS-enabled clusters. Clusters that have only VMware HA-enabled (and
not VMware DRS) cannot use resource pools.

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Module 9 Resource Management: Resource Pools in a VMware DRS Cluster 407


Delegated Administration

• Joe administers cluster


Cluster
• Has “Datacenter (Root Resource Pool)
Administrator” VC role
• Carves up cluster
resources into pools, Joe
provides bulk allocations to
pool admins
• Jane administers Resource Pool 1 Resource Pool 2
Resource Pool 1 (CPU = 12 GHz (CPU = 8 GHz
Mem = 12 GB) Mem = 4 GB)
• Has “Resource Pool Jane
Administrator” VC role
Resource Resource VM VM VM
• Carves up pool resources Pool 3 Pool 4
(CPU = 8 GHz (CPU = 4 GHz
into smaller pools for users Mem = 4 GB) Mem = 4 GB)
• Ted administers VMs
in Resource Pool 3 VM VM VM VM
• Has “Virtual Machine Ted
Power User” VC role
• Allocates resources to VMs

A pool can reflect any organizational structure that makes sense to you,
such as a pool for each department, or a project or a client, etc. You can
associate access control and permissions to different levels in the resource
pool hierarchy.
For example, you can have a cluster-wide administrator defined at the
cluster level (which is the root resource pool.) The cluster administrator can
then carve up the aggregate resources of the entire cluster into pools and
provide bulk allocations to sub-administrators or administrators for
individual resource pools. A cluster administrator is given at least the
Datacenter Administrator role. Each pool administrator can take the
resources that he or she has been allocated and carve them up into smaller
resource pools for end users. A pool administrator is given the role of
Resource Pool Administrator. Finally, each end user can allocate resources
from his or her pool to the virtual machines that they care about. An end
user is given at least the Virtual Machine Power User role.
The key to understanding and using delegation is to understand roles and
their privileges. It will be very beneficial to use the VI Client to explore and
gain familiarity with the privileges assigned to each role.

408 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Monitor Cluster Usage

• View the inventory hierarchy for the cluster state


• View the cluster’s Tasks & Events tab for further
information

The VirtualCenter inventory hierarchy indicates whether a cluster is valid,


overcommitted (yellow), or invalid (red):
• Valid: A cluster is valid unless something happens that makes it
overcommitted or invalid. In a valid cluster, there are enough resources
to meet all reservations and to support all running virtual machines.
• Overcommitted (Yellow): A cluster becomes yellow if it does not have
enough capacity to satisfy the constraints it was originally configured
with. A cluster typically turns yellow when cluster capacity is suddenly
reduced, for example, when a host in the cluster goes down. It is
recommended that you leave adequate additional resources in the cluster
to avoid having your cluster turn yellow.

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• Invalid (Red): A cluster enabled for DRS becomes red when the tree is
no longer internally consistent and does not have enough resources

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available. The total resources in the cluster have nothing to do with
whether the cluster is yellow or red. It is possible for the cluster to be
DRS red even if there are enough resources at the root level, if there is
an inconsistency at a child level. For example, a DRS cluster turns red if
the virtual machines in a fixed resource pool use more resources than
the Reservation of that resource pool allows.
For more information on cluster states, see the VI3 Resource Management
Guide (http://www.vmware.com/pdf/vi3_301_201_resource_mgmt.pdf).

Module 9 Resource Management: Resource Pools in a VMware DRS Cluster 409


When using DRS clusters, we discourage bypassing VirtualCenter and making changes to
the resource pool directly on the host. So why would someone want/need to do that in the
first place?
• If the VirtualCenter Server goes down, then you can access your hosts by pointing the VI
Client directly to your ESX Server. Again, this is discouraged, specifically if this ESX
Server is part of DRS Cluster. If it is, always try to make resource pool changes from
VirtualCenter.
More information on the Red DRS Cluster State:
• You can resolve a red DRS cluster problem either by powering off one or more virtual
machines, moving virtual machines to parts of the tree that have sufficient resources, or
editing the resource pool settings in the red part. Adding resources typically helps only
when you're in the yellow state, not in the red state. A cluster can also turn red if you
reconfigure a resource pool while a virtual machine is in the process of failing over. A
virtual machine that is in the process of failing over is disconnected and does not count
toward the reservation used by the parent resource pool. So it is possible that you reduce
the reservation of the parent resource pool before the failover completes. Once the
failover is complete, the virtual machine resources are again charged to the parent
resource pool. If the pool's usage becomes lager than the new reservation, the cluster
turns red

410 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Adding Host to DRS Cluster

• When adding a new host or moving an existing host into the


DRS cluster, you have the option of keeping the resource
pool hierarchy of the existing host, if one exists
• For example, add kentfield04 to Lab Cluster

When adding
the host,
choose to
create a new
resource pool
for this host’s
virtual
machines and
resource
pools.

When you add a host with resource pools to a DRS cluster, you must decide
on resource pool placement. By default, the resource pool hierarchy is
discarded and the host is added at the same level as the virtual machines.
You can choose to graft the host's resource pools onto the cluster's resource
pool hierarchy and choose a name for the resource pool created to represent
the host’s resources. By default, the resource pool created to represent the
host’s resources is named “Grafted from host_name", but you can choose a
different name. The term grafted was chosen because the branches of the
host's tree are added to the branches of the cluster's tree, just as fruit tree
branches are grafted onto rootstock.

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Resource Pools in a VMware DRS Cluster 411


Planned Downtime: Maintenance Mode

• Maintenance mode restricts VM operations on the host so that


VMs can be shut down or VMotion’ed in preparation for host shut
down or removal from a cluster
• Applies to both standalone hosts and hosts within a cluster
• As a host goes from normal to maintenance mode, VM operations
become restricted:
Normal mode
You can power on VMs as needed, and
VMs can be migrated to this host

All running VMs must either be shut down or


migrated to other hosts; no new VMs can be
powered on; no VMs will be migrated to this host
Maintenance mode
All VMs have been manually powered off or
migrated to other hosts, and no new VMs can be
powered on; no VMs will be migrated to this host
Maintenance mode restricts the virtual machine operations on the ESX
Server to allow you to conveniently shut down running virtual machines, or
VMotion virtual machines to other ESX Servers.
Place an ESX Server into maintenance mode if you are going to:
• Shut down the ESX Server
• Add the ESX Server to a cluster
• Remove the ESX Server from a cluster
Before entering maintenance mode, all virtual machines on that host must
either be shut down or VMotion'ed to other hosts in the cluster. When a
host is in maintenance mode, no new virtual machines can be powered on
and no virtual machines will be migrated to this host.
If a DRS cluster is set to the fully automated level, the VMs on the server
that is placed in maintenance mode will automatically be moved off that
server onto the remaining host(s) in the cluster. If the DRS cluster is set to
the partially automated level, the administrator has to manually move the
VMs to a new host or power them down.
To place a host in maintenance mode, select the host in the inventory, then
click Enter Maintenance Mode in its Summary tab. After the host is
placed in maintenance mode, its icon changes to reflect this state.
Once the host is in maintenance mode, you can safely shut down the host.
Both standalone hosts and hosts within a cluster support maintenance mode.

412 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Problem: Cannot Power on VM (1 of 2)

• Error: Insufficent memory resources


• What does the failing feature depend on?
• Memory resources: Of the cluster, ESX Server, resource pool, VM?

The example above shows the virtual machine named Prod03 is failing to
power on.
If a user tries to power on a virtual machine, but the task fails with the error,
"Insufficient memory resources”, the virtual machine is failing because
there is not enough memory to power it on. What memory is the error
referring to? The physical memory of the ESX Server? The maximum
memory size of the virtual machine? The memory reservation of the virtual
machine? The memory reservation or limits of the resource pool in which
the virtual machine is located? Once you determine this, you can then
decide how to resolve the problem.
Here are ways to check various memory values:

9
• To view physical memory size and memory usage of an ESX Server:
select the Memory link in its Configuration tab

Resource Management
• To view memory size and memory overhead of a virtual machine: view
the virtual machine's Summary tab
• To view memory reservation and limit of a virtual machine, view the
virtual machine's memory resources in its Properties settings
• To view memory reservation and limit of a resource pool: view its
Summary tab and Resource Allocation tab
• To view memory reservation and limits of all virtual machines in a
resource pool, view the resource pool's Resource Allocation tab
• To view memory total, reservation and limit of a cluster: view its
Summary tab and Resource Allocation tab

Module 9 Resource Management: Resource Pools in a VMware DRS Cluster 413


Problem: Cannot Power on VM (2 of 2)

• View VMs’ memory reservations


• Check amount of unreserved memory in resource pool

• Modify memory reservation of one or more VMs, or of


the resource pool
To continue with this example, let’s look at the Resource Allocation tab of
the Production resource pool. The virtual machine, Prod03, has a memory
reservation of 128 MB. The Production resource pool has a memory
reservation of 1024 MB. Of that reservation, 142 MB is unreserved
memory. It would seem that Prod03 should be able to power on, since there
appears to be enough unreserved memory available. However, every virtual
machine that is powered on incurs some amount of memory overhead. A
virtual machine’s memory overhead is listed in its Summary tab. In this
example, the amount of memory overhead for Prod03 is 64.36 MB (see
graphic on previous page). Therefore, Prod03 needs approximately 193 MB
to power on.
To resolve the problem, you can lower the memory reservation of one or
more of the virtual machines in the Production resource pool, or increase
the memory reservaton of the Production resource pool itself.

414 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lab for Lesson 4

• Resource Pools in a DRS


Cluster
Two ESX Server
teams belong to one
• In this lab, you will perform Cluster team
the following tasks:
•Create two resource pools VirtualCenter VirtualCenter
Server Server
in a DRS cluster #3 #4

•Cause DRS to make


resource balancing
recommendations ESX Server ESX Server
#3 #4

Student 03a Student 03b Student 04a Student 04b

Cluster Team

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Resource Pools in a VMware DRS Cluster 415


Lesson Summary

• Use DRS clusters to delegate the right to allocate


resources
• When DRS clusters are in use, do not manually
make changes to individual hosts’ resource pools

416 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Module Summary

• A resource pool has three attributes – reservation


(expandable), limit and shares
• Resource pools can be created on standalone hosts
or in DRS clusters
• VMotion is the underlying technology of VMware
DRS
• A DRS cluster provides initial placement of VMs at
power on and dynamic load balancing of running
VMs

9
Resource Management

Module 9 Resource Management: Resource Pools in a VMware DRS Cluster 417


Questions?

Questions?

418 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


MODULE 10

Resource Monitoring 10

Importance
• Although the VMkernel works proactively to avoid resource contention,
maximizing performance requires both analysis and ongoing monitoring

Objectives for the Learner


• To monitor a VM’s performance
• To determine whether a VM is constrained by a resource, and solve the
problem if one exists

Module Lessons
• Tools for Resource Optimization 10
Resource Monitoring

• Monitor VM Performance
• Monitoring Using Performance-based Alarms

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 419


Lesson 1

Tools for Resource


Optimization :

Lesson Topics
• Virtual CPU concepts
• Virtual memory concepts
• Transparent page sharing
• Balloon-driver mechanism
• VMkernel swap file

420 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Systems for Optimizing VM Resource Use

These are the different parameters and features that we can use to control a The term "VMkernel swap"
refers to the VMkernel
virtual machine's access to CPU, memory, disk bandwidth and network swap file that the VMkernel
bandwidth. We will discuss allocating each of these resources in this creates for each VM that is
module. powered on. Try to avoid
referring to this file as the
The mechanisms in the left column are those automatically managed by the "virtual machine swap file"
because students might
VMkernel. Those in the middle column are used at the discretion of each get that confused with the
virtual machine's owner. Those in the right column are those used by the swap file used by the
guest OS (e.g.
administrator to set virtual machine-wide policies.
pagefile.sys) within the VM
itself. These swap files
are entirely different from
each other.

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Tools for Resource Optimization 421


Virtual CPUs

• A virtual machine can have 1,


2 or 4 virtual CPUs (VCPUs)
• When a VCPU needs to be
scheduled, the VMkernel H.E.C. H.E.C. H.E.C.
maps a VCPU to a “hardware
execution context”
• A “hardware execution
context” is a processor’s
capability to schedule one
thread of execution
H.E.C. H.E.C. H.E.C. H.E.C.

A virtual machine can be configured with 1, 2 or 4 virtual CPUs (VCPUs).


When a VCPU needs to be scheduled, the VMkernel maps a VCPU to a
hardware execution context (H.E.C.). A hardware execution context is a
processor's capability to schedule one thread of execution. A single-CPU
VM gets scheduled on one hardware execution context at a time. A 2-
VCPU VM gets scheduled on two hardware execution contexts at a time, or
none. A 4-VCPU VM gets scheduled on four hardware execution contexts
at a time, or none.
You may run 2-VCPU VMs only on physical machines with 2 or more
H.E.C.'s. Likewise, you may run 4-VCPU VMs only on physical machines
with 4 or more H.E.C.'s.

422 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Hardware Execution Contexts

Different systems provide different numbers


of hardware execution contexts

Single-Core, Dual-Core, Quad-Core,


Dual-Socket Single-Socket Single-Socket
System System System

(Hyper-Threading Not Enabled)

The number of hardware execution contexts available for scheduling


depends on the type of system being used. For example, a single-core, dual-
socket system has two cores and therefore, without Hyper-Threading
enabled, has two hardware execution contexts.
In general, a socket is another term for the entire physical processor
package. A socket contains one or more CPUs in the same package. Each
of these CPU equivalents is a core. For example, a single-core, dual-socket
system has two sockets with one core in each socket, and a dual-core,
single-socket system has one socket containing two cores.
In relation to hardware execution contexts, a dual-core, single-socket
system has two cores and therefore, two hardware execution contexts
(without Hyper-Threading enabled.) A quad-core, single-socket system has
four cores and therefore, four hardware execution contexts (without Hyper-
Threading enabled.)

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Tools for Resource Optimization 423


Hyper-Threading
• Enables a core to execute two threads, or sets of
instructions, at the same time
• Provides more hardware execution contexts for VCPUs
to be scheduled
• However, it does not double the power of the core

Single-Core, Dual-Core,
Dual-Socket Single-Socket
System System
Hyper-Threading is a technology developed by Intel that enables a core to
execute two threads, or sets or instructions, at the same time. The benefit of
Hyper-Threading is more scheduler throughput, i.e. Hyper-Threading
provides more hardware execution contexts on which VCPUs can be
scheduled. The downside of Hyper-Threading is that it does not double the
power of a core. Therefore, if both threads of execution need the same on-
chip resources (for example, the floating-point unit) at the same time, one
thread will have to wait.
For best performance, run 2-VCPU VMs only on physical machines with
more than 2 H.E.C.'s, and run 4-VCPU VMs only on physical machines
with more than 4 H.E.C.'s. If these virtual machines are CPU-intensive,
ignore the fact that hyper-threading is enabled, if it is. For example, let's
say that you have a dual-core, single-socket system with Hyper-Threading
enabled. This system provides 4 H.E.C.'s. If a virtual machine is CPU
intensive, the VMkernel will dynamically try to refrain from using the other
thread in the core. Therefore, a 2-VCPU VM that is CPU-intensive will
fare better on this system than a 4-VCPU, CPU-intensive VM.
Hyper-Threading must be enabled in your server's BIOS. On some server
models, the option is named "Enable Logical Processors."
There is a Hyper-Threading whitepaper, available at
http://www.vmware.com/support/resources/esx_resources.html

424 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMkernel CPU Load Balancing

• VMkernel dynamically schedules virtual machines and the


service console
• Service console always runs on the first hardware execution
context
• For multi-VCPU, CPU-intensive VMs, the VMkernel tries to
avoid scheduling their VCPUs on hardware execution contexts
in the same core

Hyper-Threaded, Dual-Core, Dual-Socket


System
The VMkernel dynamically schedules virtual machines and the service
console onto the hardware execution contexts. By default, the VMkernel
looks every 20 milliseconds for virtual machines to migrate from one
hardware execution context to another. The service console always runs on
the first hardware execution context and is never migrated to another one.
The VMkernel decides on what hardware execution context a VCPU runs.
In general, when mapping VCPUs to hardware execution contexts, the
VMkernel's main goal is to balance the load.
With multiple-VCPU VMs, a VMkernel may decide to map the VM's
VCPUs to hardware execution contexts on different sockets, on different
cores in the same socket, or on different threads in the same core. The
VMkernel tries its best to avoid scheduling the VCPUs of a CPU-intensive,
multi-VCPU VM on threads (i.e. hardware execution contexts) in the same
core. However, if necessary, the VMkernel could map two VCPUs from the
same VM to threads on the same core.
10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Tools for Resource Optimization 425


Transparent Memory Page Sharing

• VMkernel detects identical


pages in VMs’ memory and
maps them to the same
underlying physical page
• No changes to guest OS
required
• VMkernel treats the shared
pages as copy-on-write
• Read-only when shared
• Private copies after write
• Page sharing is always active
unless administratively disabled

In this example, a page of The VMkernel detects when different VMs have memory pages with
physical memory is in
common, but marked read-
identical content, and arranges for those pages to be shared. That is, a
only at the hardware level, single physical page is mapped into each VM's address space. If any VM
across all VMs shown in tries to modify a page that is (unbeknownst to it) shared, the VMkernel will
the slide. If any individual
VM tries to write to the create a new, private copy for that VM, and then map that page into the
page, the VMkernel address space of that VM only. The other VMs continue to share the
detects that as a fault, it original copy.
takes a private copy of the
page and breaks the share
Transparent page sharing is enabled by default. The system dynamically
(pointer). For example,
let's say the VM in the scans memory looking for duplicate pages. This mechanism is a way in
middle tried to write to this which ESX Server tries proactively to conserve physical memory, so that it
page; the arrow would go
away, the VMkernel
will not have to resort to any of the other techniques.
allocates another page
created in real physical When a virtual machine has been suspended and gets resumed, it does not
memory, copies the participate right away in the memory-sharing system. Its pages become
content, swings the pointer shared over time. So if you plan to suspend and resume large batches of
over, then continues
computing. VMs, don't scrimp on memory.

426 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


vmmemctl: The Balloon-Driver Mechanism

• Deallocate memory from selected virtual machines


when RAM is scarce
ample memory;
balloon remains
uninflated

guest is forced to page out


inflate balloon to its own paging area;
(driver demands VMkernel reclaims memory
memory from guest
OS)

guest may page


deflate balloon in; ESX Server
(driver relinquishes grants memory
memory)

When a VM needs to yield memory, it's in everyone's best interest to let the
guest OS in that VM pick which pages of memory to give up. It knows
which pages have been least recently used and which pages can easily be
refreshed from some backing store on disk. This is what vmmemctl
achieves; a balloon driver is installed in the guest OS when you install
VMware Tools.
The balloon driver installs as a device driver, but its only function is to
demand memory from the guest OS and later to relinquish it, under the
control of the VMkernel.
VMs are ignorant of this entire mechanism. This mechanism is out of their
view.
When a system is not under memory pressure, no VM's balloon is inflated.
But when memory becomes scarce, the VMkernel chooses a VM and
inflates its balloon: that is, it tells the balloon driver in that VM to demand

10
memory from the guest OS. The guest OS complies by yielding memory,
according to its own algorithms; the relinquished pages can be assigned by Resource Monitoring
the VMkernel to other VMs.
Whether a VM loses memory because of the balloon driver is determined by
its relative share allocation.
The term "balloon" driver is an informal term often used to refer to the
vmmemctl device driver, which is used to perform memory deallocation/
reallocation.

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Tools for Resource Optimization 427


VMkernel Swap

• Each powered-on VM needs its own


VMkernel swap file
• Automatically allocated on first power-
on
• Default location: same VMFS volume
as virtual machine’s boot disk
• Size equal to the difference between
the memory guaranteed to it, if any,
and the maximum it can use
• This file lets the VMkernel swap the
VM out entirely if memory is scarce
• Use of VMkernel swap is a last resort
• Performance will be noticeably slow

When a virtual machine is powered on for the first time, the system
allocates a VMkernel swap file for it. This file will serve as backing store
for the virtual machine's RAM contents. In the event that the VMkernel
needs to reclaim some or all of this virtual machine's memory, and if the
balloon driver cannot free enough memory, the VMkernel will copy pages'
contents to the VMkernel swap file before giving them to other virtual
machines.
The size of the VMkernel swap file is determined by the difference between
how much memory the virtual machine can use (its limit, if no limit is
defined, or the amount configured into the virtual hardware) and how much
RAM is reserved for it (its reservation).
Whenever VMkernel swap is being actively used, performance is not
optimal. Configure your server systems so that all virtual machines' normal
running memory needs (as determined by monitoring under load) can be
accommodated using physical memory.
When you power off the VM, the VMkernel swap file of the VM is deleted.
When the VM is powered back on, the VMkernel swap file for the VM is
recreated.

428 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Ballooning vs. VMkernel Swapping

Limit MB 100%

Balloon Limit* 35%

Reservation MB 30%

0 MB 0%

*Up to 65% or Reservation, whichever comes first


By default, up to 65% of a VM's memory can be taken away during the
ballooning process, subject of course to the memory reservation setting. An
advanced VMkernel setting named Mem.CtlMaxPercent controls this value.
By default, it is 65% but can be set between 0-75%. In the example above,
the VM's memory reservation is set equal to 30% of the VM's memory.
Under heavy contention, the VMkernel could request up to 70% of this
VM's memory to be reclaimed and given to other VMs. But only 65%
could be ballooned away, which means the last 5% would have to be
VMkernel-swapped. Swapping is less desirable than ballooning.
The drawing illustrates that by default a maximum of 65% of the VM can
be paged out via the ballooning mechanism. If 65% of the VM's memory
was ballooned out that would leave 35% of VM memory in physical
memory. If then, the reservation is set to anything under that 35%, then
VMkernel swapping would have to remove the rest to the swap file. One of
the main points is that the administrator should not set the reservation too

10
low as that might force VMkernel swapping during periods of contention.
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Tools for Resource Optimization 429


Lesson Summary

• A hardware execution context is a processor’s capability


to schedule one thread of execution
• Transparent page sharing is a way for the ESX Server to
proactively conserve physical memory
• Because performance will be noticeably slow, use of
VMkernel swap is a last resort

430 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson 2

Monitor VM Performance :

Lesson Topics
• Virtual machine performance graphs
• Monitoring a VM’s
• CPU
• Memory
• Disk
• Network

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitor VM Performance 431


Performance Tuning Methodology

‰Assess performance
• Record a numerical benchmark before changes
‰Identify the limiting resource
‰Make more resource available
• Allocate more
• Reduce competition
• Log your changes! Don’t make casual
‰Benchmark again changes to production
systems!

The best practice for performance tuning is to take a logical step-by-step


approach, especially when working on production systems.
An ESX Server is well-tuned when high-priority VMs are running with
maximum performance, possibly at the expense of lower-priority VMs.

432 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Monitoring VM Resource Use with
Performance Graphs

The target
(host or VM) Export to
Excel

Tear off
this chart
Units
Modify what
is graphed

Items being
graphed

Statistics for
displayed
range

For each host and virtual machine, the Virtual Infrastructure client offers a
Performance tab. This tab offers both a real-time view and a historical
view of many performance counters.
For more formatting and analysis options, you may export the data being
graphed to Microsoft Excel.
For side-by-side comparisons of several virtual machines or hosts, tear off
each's performance graph. It will be dynamically refreshed.

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitor VM Performance 433


Tools for Improving VMs' CPU and Memory
Performance
Broad
Add capacity to
DRS cluster

Modify resource pool’s CPU and memory


limits and reservations

Modify VM’s
CPU and memory
Fine

limits and
reservations

You may control a virtual machine's access to CPU and memory at three
levels. You may define limits, reservations, and shares on individual virtual
machines; however, you are likely to find this difficult to manage as you
have more and more virtual machines. A more scalable approach is to
organize your virtual machines into resource pools, placing virtual machines
with similar needs and levels of criticality into the same resource pool. You
may then define limits, reservations, and shares on the resource pool itself.
If you have an active VMware DRS cluster in fully automated mode, you
have one still-higher point of control. You can add ESX Server instances to
your cluster; the system will automatically VMotion virtual machines so as
to reduce contention. The more CPU and memory resources in your cluster,
the higher CPU and memory reservations you can define, and the more your
virtual machines are insulated from competition.

434 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Are VMs Being CPU-Constrained?

Task Manager inside VM


VM’s CPU ready graph in VI Client

• If VM is constrained by CPU
• Add shares or increase CPU reservation
• VMotion this virtual machine
• Shut down, VMotion, or remove shares from other VMs
The key indicator of a virtual machine losing competition for CPU time is
"CPU ready" time in its CPU resource graph. Ready time refers to the
interval when a virtual machine is ready to execute instructions, but cannot
because it cannot get scheduled onto a CPU. Note that CPU Ready values
only show up in the "Real Time" graph and not in any of the historical
graphs (in other words, the day, week, month, or year graphs.)
Several factors affect the amount of ready time seen:
• Overall CPU utilization: You're more likely to see ready time when
utilization is high, because the CPU is more likely to be busy when
another VM becomes ready to run.
• Number of resource consumers (in this case, guest OSes): When a host
is running a larger number of VMs, the scheduler is more likely to need
to queue a VM behind one or more that are already running or queued.
• Load correlation: If loads are correlated, for example, if one load wakes

10
another one when the first load has completed its task, ready times are
unlikely. If a single event wakes multiple loads, high ready times are Resource Monitoring
likely.
• Number of virtual CPUs in a virtual machine: When co-scheduling for
n-way Virtual SMP is required, the virtual CPUs can be scheduled only
when n physical CPUs are available to be preempted.
A good ready time value varies from workload to workload. To find a good
ready time value for your workload, collect ready time data over time for
each virtual machine. Once you have this ready time data for each virtual
machine, estimate how much of the observed response time is ready time.

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitor VM Performance 435


If the shortfalls in meeting response time targets for the applications appear
largely due to the ready time, then take steps to address the excessive ready
time, as mentioned in the slide above.
CPU time is tabulated on a per-virtual-CPU basis. To display it, choose one
or more of the virtual CPUs in the virtual machine. In our example above,
we chose our uniprocessor virtual machine's only VCPU, number 0.
For more information, consult the technical paper, "VMware ESX Server 3 -
Ready Time Observations", available on the VMware website at
http://www.vmware.com/pdf/esx3_ready_time.pdf.

436 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Are VMs Being Memory-Constrained?

Task Manager inside VM

• If VM is constrained by memory Check for high


ballooning activity
• Add shares or raise memory reservation
• VMotion this virtual machine
• Shut down, VMotion, or remove shares from other virtual
machines
When a virtual machine is losing the competition for memory, the balloon
driver will force it to yield memory. Trace this amount using a memory
resource graph.
Note that the ballooning values only show up in the "Real Time" graph and
not in any of the historical graphs (in other words, the day, week, month, or
year graphs.)

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitor VM Performance 437


Are VMs Being Disk-Constrained?

• Disk-intensive applications can


saturate the storage or the path
• If you suspect that a VM is
constrained by disk access
• Measure the effective bandwidth
between VM and the storage
• Measure the resource consumption
using performance graphs
• To improve disk performance
• Ensure VMware Tools is installed
• Reduce competition
• Move other VMs to other storage
• Use other paths to storage
• Reconfigure the storage
• Ensure that the storage’s RAID level
and cache configuration suit the
application

Disk performance problems are commonly caused by saturating the


underlying physical storage hardware. Use a tool like IOMETER (shown)
to measure the maximum throughput via the current path to the storage.
Note that disk access values only show up in the "Real Time" graph and not
in any of the historical graphs (in other words, the day, week, month, or year
graphs.)

438 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Are VMs Being Network-Constrained?

• Network-intensive applications
will often bottleneck on path
segments outside ESX Server
• Example: WAN links between
server and client
• If you suspect that a VM is
constrained by the network
• Confirm VMware Tools is installed
• Measure the effective bandwidth
between VM and its peer system
• Examine performance graphs
• To improve network
performance
• Move VMs to another physical NIC
• Traffic-shape other VMs
• Reduce overall CPU utilization

Like disk performance problems, network performance are commonly


caused by saturating some network link between client and server. Use a
tool like IOMETER, or a large file transfer, to measure the effective
bandwidth.

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitor VM Performance 439


Lab for Lesson 2

• Monitor Virtual Machine This lab will be


Performance
performed by each
• In this lab, you will ESX Server team
perform the following separately
tasks:
VirtualCenter
•Add a second disk to a Server
#3
virtual machine
•Monitor the second disk
activity using ESX Server ESX Server
VirtualCenter #3 #4
•Monitor CPU Ready time
using VirtualCenter
Student 03a Student 03b Student 04a Student 04b

ESX Server Team #3 ESX Server Team #4

440 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• The VI Client offers both real-time and historical views of


many performance counters
• The key indicator of a virtual machine losing competition
for CPU time is "CPU ready" time
• High ballooning activity can indicate that a virtual
machine is memory-constrained

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitor VM Performance 441


Lesson 3

Monitoring Using Performance-


based Alarms :

Lesson Topics
• VM-based alarms
• Host-based alarms

442 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What is an Alarm?

• VirtualCenter alarms report changes in host or VM state

Alarms are Status determined by View of VMs’ CPU


indicated in the threshold levels in and memory
inventory alarm definition utilization on
selected host

Alarms are asynchronous notifications of changes in host or virtual-machine


state. When a host or virtual-machine's load passes certain configurable
thresholds, the VI Client will display messages to this effect. You can also
configure VirtualCenter to transmit these messages to external monitoring
systems.

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitoring Using Performance-based Alarms 443


Creating a VM-Based Alarm

• Right-click on a VM and choose “Add Alarm…”

Click any
Name and field
describe to modify
the new
alarm Percentages
Powered on,
powered off,
suspended

When you right-click on a virtual machine and choose Add Alarm..., the
resulting window has four panels. Visit the General panel to name this
alarm. Visit the Triggers panel to control which load factors are monitored,
and what the threshold for the yellow and red states are. We will discuss the
Reporting and Actions panels in upcoming slides.

444 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Creating a Host-Based Alarm

• Right-click on a host and choose “Add Alarm…”

Name and
describe Click any
the new field
alarm to modify
Percentages
Connected,
disconnected,
not responding

The dialogue box displayed when you right-click on a host and choose Add
Alarm... is very similar to that for a virtual machine. The key difference is
the list of available triggers.

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitoring Using Performance-based Alarms 445


Alarm Reporting Options

• Use the Reporting pane to avoid needless re-alarms

Avoid
small
fluctuations

Avoid
repeats

If you plan to transmit alarms to some external monitoring system, such as


an SNMP monitoring tool, someone's email, or someone's pager, you
probably want to avoid generating a flood of duplicate alarms. Use the
controls on the Reporting pane to avoid such a flood.

446 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Actions to Take When an Alarm is Triggered

• Use the Actions pane to send external messages or


to respond to problems proactively

Only
available for
VM-based
alarms

You may specify one or more actions to occur when an alarm is triggered
(other than simply displaying it in the VI Client).

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitoring Using Performance-based Alarms 447


Using Alarms to Monitor CPU and Memory
Usage

• Default alarms, defined at the top of the inventory

• Add custom alarms anywhere in the inventory

The highest point in the VirtualCenter inventory, Hosts and Clusters, is the
location of the default alarms. You may modify these alarms in place. You
may also define finer-grained alarms. For example, you might organize
several hosts or clusters into a folder and apply an alarm to that folder.

448 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Configure VirtualCenter Notifications

• Choose Administration Î VirtualCenter Management


Server Configuration

• Click Mail to set


SMTP
parameters

• Click SNMP to
specify trap
destinations

If you wish to transmit SNMP or email alarms, you must supply the IP
address of the destination server.
If your SNMP community string is not public, specify it here.
Specify the email address to be used for the From: address of email alerts.

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitoring Using Performance-based Alarms 449


Lab for Lesson 3

• Host-Based and VM- This lab will be


Based Performance performed by each
Alarms ESX Server team
• In this lab, you will separately
perform the following VirtualCenter
tasks: Server
#3
•Create Host-based and
VM-based alarms in
VirtualCenter ESX Server ESX Server
#3 #4
•Monitor CPU Usage
alarms in VirtualCenter
Student 03a Student 03b Student 04a Student 04b

ESX Server Team #3 ESX Server Team #4

450 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

• The VI Client reports changes in host or VM state in its


inventory panel
• To be proactively notified of performance problems:
• Configure alarms to watch for high resource consumption
• Configure notifications so that personnel are notified
appropriately
• Alarm reporting options can be set to avoid needless re-
alarms

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitoring Using Performance-based Alarms 451


Module Summary

• Understanding how CPU and memory resources are


allocated to virtual machines is key to maximizing
virtual machine performance
• Be proactive and monitor your virtual machines’
performance graphs periodically
• The VI Client inventory provides a convenient view
of the state of your ESX Servers and virtual
machines

452 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Questions?

Questions?

10
Resource Monitoring

Module 10 Resource Monitoring: Monitoring Using Performance-based Alarms 453


454 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure
M O D U L E 11

Data and Availability

11
Protection 11

Data and Availability Protection


Importance
• Administrators have the very important tasks of protecting their systems
against data loss and to make data continuously available to their end
users

Objectives for the Learner


• Discuss general backup strategies for the Virtual Infrastructure
• Implement a VMware HA Cluster

Module Lessons
• Backup Strategies
• Virtual Machine High Availability

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 455


Lesson 1

Backup Strategies :

Lesson Topics
• Backup strategies for virtual machines
• Backup strategies for the ESX Server service console

This lesson discusses general strategies for backing up your virtual


machines and service console. For details, consult the Virtual Machine
Backup Guide, available on the VMware Web site.

456 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


What to Back Up

11
Data and Availability Protection
• Within the ESX Server environment:
• Virtual machine contents
• Service console

Within the ESX Server environment, you need to back up the following
major items:
• Virtual machine contents: The virtual machine data you back up can
include virtual disks or Raw Device Mappings (RDMs), configuration
files, and so on.
As with physical machines, virtual machine data needs to be backed up
periodically to prevent its corruption and loss due to human or technical
errors.
Generally, use the following backup schedule for your virtual machines:
• At the image level, perform backups periodically for Windows and
Linux. For example, back up a boot disk image of a Windows
virtual machine once a week.
• At the file level, perform backups once a day. For example, back up
files on drives D, E, and so on every night.
• Service Console: The service console, a customized version of Linux, is ESX Server 3i does not
have a service console.
the ESX Server 3 command-line management interface. It provides
tools and a command prompt for more direct management of ESX
Server 3. With the VI Client being the main interface to the ESX Server
3 host, you should use the service console to perform only advanced
administration operations
During its lifetime, the service console doesn't experience any major
changes other than periodic upgrades. In case of a failure, you can
easily recover the state of your service console by reinstalling ESX
Server 3. Therefore, although you might consider backing up the

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Backup Strategies 457


service console, it doesn't need to be backed up as frequently as the
virtual machines and their date.

458 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


General Guideline for VM Backups

11
Data and Availability Protection
• Store application data in
separate virtual disks
from system images
• Use backup agents
inside guest OSes for
application data
• If Windows, perform VCB
file-level backups
• Use full virtual machine
backups for system
images
• Or plan to redeploy from
template

Storing data in separate physical disks not only makes backups more
flexible, but it also allows for more flexible deployment from templates.
You can configure the applications in your templates to keep their data on
separate disk drives, and then provide a new blank disk for data whenever
the VM is deployed.
Backups from within the virtual machine, using a backup agent, are best for
application data because no system shutdown is required. In contrast,
virtual disk backups are best for system images, because they always result
in a bootable virtual disk, suitable for rapid redeployment.
Note that in addition to the 3rd party backup agents that VMware supports
with ESX Server, there could be other 3rd party backup agents out there that
are supported directly by the vendor.

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Backup Strategies 459


Strategies for VM Backups

• Perform a VM file-level backup using a backup client


in the VM
• Perform a full virtual machine backup from the
service console
• Perform a Windows VM file-level backup using
VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB)
• Perform a full virtual machine backup using VCB

There are several backup strategies for backing up virtual machines. These
strategies use traditional backup methods or VMware Consolidated Backup
(VCB):
• VM file-level backup using backup client: Because a virtual machine is
just like a physical machine, you can back it up in the same manner as a
physical machine, using backup software running inside a virtual
machine. There are two methods to do this:
• Method 1: Deploy your backup client in one virtual machine while
the backup server is in another virtual machine. VMware
recommends that you run both virtual machines on the same ESX
Server system. In this case, data between the two virtual machines
moves through the virtual Ethernet that connects these virtual
machines, but does not have to be transferred over a physical
Ethernet connection.
• Method 2: Deploy the backup client in a virtual machine while the
backup server runs on a physical machine.
NOTE

Instead of Method 2, consider using VCB.


• Run a Backup Client in the service console: Because an entire virtual
machine is encapsulated in only a few files, you can treat virtual
machines as files on an ESX Server and back up these files from the
service console. With this approach, you deploy your backup client in
the service console and back up the files to backup servers, deployed in
other virtual machines or inside physical machines.

460 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


When you run backup clients in the service console, do one of the

11
following to perform a backup of your virtual machines:
• Power off your virtual machines.

Data and Availability Protection


• Use snapshots to backup running virtual machines.
• VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB): VCB addresses most of the
problems you encounter when performing traditional backups.
Consolidated Backup helps you to:
• Reduce the load on your ESX Servers by moving the backup tasks to
one or more dedicated backup proxy servers.
• Eliminate the need for a backup window by moving to a snapshot-
based backup approach.
• Simplify backup administration by making optional the deployment
of backup agents in each virtual machine you back up.
• Back up virtual machines that are powered on.
VCB allows supports file-level backups for virtual machines running
Microsoft Windows operating systems and full virtual machine (image-
level) backups for virtual machines running any guest operating system.
For more details on the traditional backup methods and VMware
Consolidated Backup, consult the Virtual Machine Backup Guide, available
on the VMware web site.
For a complete list of backup clients and backup servers supported in a
virtual machine, consult the ESX Server 3.x Backup Software Compatibility
Guide, available on the VMware web site.

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Backup Strategies 461


Strategies for Service Console Backups

• Perform a VM file-level backup using a backup


agent in the VM
• Perform a Windows VM file-level backup using
VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB)
• Perform a full virtual machine backup using VCB

Because the ESX Server 3 service console doesn't experience any major
changes during its lifetime and its state is easily recoverable in case of a
failure, you might decide against backing it up. If you choose to back up
the service console, you don't need to do it frequently.
Use the following methods when backing up the service console:
• File-Based: Treat the service console as a physical machine with a
deployed backup agent. To restore the service console, reinstall it,
reinstall the agent, and then restore the files that you backed up. This
approach makes sense if management agents that are hard to set up have
been deployed in the service console. Otherwise, this approach provides
no advantage over not backing up the service console.
• Image-Based: Use third-party software to create a backup image that
you can restore quickly. Use your boot CD or whatever the backup
software created to restore the service console.
For a complete list of backup clients supported in the service console,
consult the ESX Server 3.x Backup Software Compatibility Guide,
available on the VMware web site.

462 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lesson Summary

11
Data and Availability Protection
• Performing backups using VCB takes the burden off
the ESX Server and places it onto the backup proxy
server
• Service console backups do not need to be taken as
frequently as virtual machine backups
• VMware supports a number of different backup
agents for the virtual machine and the service
console

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Backup Strategies 463


Lesson 2

Virtual Machine High


Availability :

Lesson Topics
• Strategies for clustering VMs using third-party software products
• Clustering VMs using VMware HA (High Availability)

This lesson focuses on high availability, not fault tolerance (continuous


availability). From the perspective of the user experience, a user will
experience no disconnection (no disruption of service) in a fault tolerant
system. In a highly available system, the user will be disconnected and will
have to reconnect. A highly available system will not be 100% available but
will be available in percentages approximating 100%, depending on the
architecture.

464 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Clustering Inside VMs for High Availability

11
• Cluster-in-a-box

Data and Availability Protection


• Protects against operator
error, application and OS
crashes
• Cluster-across-boxes
• Protects against operator
error, application and OS
crashes, hardware failures
• Shared storage required
• Cluster between physical and
virtual machines
• Low-cost N+1 redundancy
• Shared storage required
There are three main implementation schemes for clustering in ESX Server: To help students with no
cluster background, you
• Cluster-in-a-box: this provides simple clustering to deal with software might want to describe the
hardware requirements for
crashes or administrative errors. The cluster consists of multiple virtual cluster briefly, making
machines on a single ESX Server. clear that there is no
special hardware required,
• Cluster-across-boxes: this allows you to deal with the crash of an ESX usually only additional
Server, since the virtual machines in the cluster are located across NICs. Off-the-shelf hosts
are used for clusters and
multiple ESX Servers.
are connected in every
• Physical-to-virtual cluster (N+1 clustering): this provides a standby way possible: through the
public net, through shared
host for multiple physical machines on one standby box with multiple storage and through a
virtual machines. In other words, a physical machine is clustered with a "heartbeat" network or
virtual machine on an ESX Server (the standby host). private network so the
cluster software can
For details on how to implement these schemes, consult the document, manage shared resources
Setup for Microsoft Cluster Service, available on the VMware Web site at and cluster nodes can
communicate and
http://www.vmware.com/pdf/vi3_30_20_mscs.pdf. coordinate with one
another.

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Virtual Machine High Availability 465
What is VMware HA?

• Automatic restart of virtual machines in case of


physical server failures
• Provides high availability while reducing the need for
passive stand-by hardware and dedicated
administrators
• A VirtualCenter feature
• Configuration, management and monitoring done
through the VI Client
• Provides experimental support for VM failures

VMware High Availability (HA) provides easy-to-use, cost effective high


availability for applications running in virtual machines. In the event of
server failure, affected virtual machines are automatically restarted on other
production servers with spare capacity. VMware HA allows IT
organizations to minimize downtime and IT service disruption while
eliminating the need for dedicated stand-by hardware and installation of
additional software.
VMware HA continuously monitors all servers in a cluster and detects
server failures. An agent placed on each server maintains a “heartbeat” with
the other servers in the cluster. ESX Server heartbeats are sent every 5
seconds. If a heartbeat is lost, the agent initiates the restart process of all
affected virtual machines on other servers. The heartbeat timeout is 15000
milliseconds or 15 seconds. VMware HA ensures that sufficient resources
are available in the cluster at all times to be able to restart virtual machines
on different physical servers in the event of server failure. Restart of virtual
machines is made possible by the distributed locking mechanism in VMFS
which gracefully coordinates read-write access to the same virtual machine
files by multiple ESX Servers. VMware HA is easily configured for a
cluster through VirtualCenter.

Virtual Machine Failure Monitoring


An additional VMware HA function named Virtual Machine Failure
Monitoring allows VMware HA to monitor whether a virtual machine is
available or not. VMware HA uses the heartbeat information that VMware
Tools captures to determine virtual machine availability.

466 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


On each virtual machine, VMware Tools sends a heartbeat every second.

11
Virtual Machine Failure Monitoring checks for a heartbeat every 20
seconds. If heartbeats have not been received within a specified (user-

Data and Availability Protection


configurable) time interval, Virtual Machine Failure Monitoring declares
that virtual machine as failed and resets the virtual machine.
Virtual Machine Failure Monitoring can distinguish between a virtual
machine that was powered on but has stopped sending heartbeats and a
virtual machine that is powered-off, suspended, or migrated.
Virtual Machine Failure Monitoring is experimental and not supported for
production use. By default, Virtual Machine Failure Monitoring is disabled.
For more details on how to configure Virtual Machine Failure Monitoring,
consult the Technical Note named Virtual Machine Failure Monitoring,
available on the VMware web site.

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Virtual Machine High Availability 467
VMware HA in Action

If an ESX Server is a member of a VMware HA cluster, each of the VMs


formerly running on it will get booted up again on some other surviving
ESX Server in the cluster. Downtime depends in every cluster on how long
it takes whatever is running to restart when the VM is failed over. The
answer to how long it will take to restart the VM is "it depends".

This slide builds:


• We start with an HA cluster of 3 ESX Servers, VM A and VM B are on the first ESX
Server, VM C and D are on the second ESX Server and VM E and F are on the third ESX
Server.
• Press Enter.
• The first ESX Server fails.
• Press Enter.
• VMware HA will place VM A and VM B on the remaining servers in the cluster.

468 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VMware HA Prerequisites

11
Data and Availability Protection
• You should be able to power-on a VM from all hosts
within the cluster
• Access to common resources (shared storage, VM
network)
• Host should be configured for DNS
• DNS resolution of all hosts within cluster is needed for
initial configuration

In order for the HA cluster to work properly, there are two prerequisites: Proper DNS & Network
settings are needed for
Each host in the cluster should have access to the virtual machines' files and initial configuration. After
should be able to power on the VM with no problem. For that matter, all configuration, DNS
the VMotion requirements should be met in the cluster as well. Also, an resolutions are cached to /
etc/FT_HOSTS
important requirement is to make sure that each ESX Server in the cluster is (minimizing the
configured to use DNS and DNS resolution of the host's fully qualifed dependency on DNS
domain name is successful because VMware HA relies on that name. server availability during
an actual failover). DNS on
each host is preferred
(manual editing of /etc/
hosts is error prone).

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Virtual Machine High Availability 469
VMware HA Host Network Configuration

Networking should be set up to remove single points of failure and


therefore, it is recommended to have two network paths for cluster server
heartbeating. This can be accomplished using one of the following
methods:
• Define two service console ports, each one on a different virtual switch
• Define a single service console port, and configure NIC teaming for the
virtual switch on which this port is located.
Service console network(s) are used for heartbeats and state
synchronization. There is minimal network activity in a steady state (5
second heartbeat intervals). Additional light traffic occurs on this network
during node configuration and VM power operations
Incoming ports used: TCP/UDP 8042-8045
Outgoing ports used: TCP/UDP 2050-2250

NOTE

The only way to eliminate single point of failure is to have an entirely


redundant infrastructure including redundant switches. NIC teaming alone
will not eliminate single point of failure if the NICs are connected to the
same switch.

470 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Create Cluster

11
Configure cluster for VMware HA and/or DRS

Data and Availability Protection


Creating a VMware HA cluster is very similar to creating a DRS cluster.
The first step is to select the cluster type. It is best to create a cluster that
has both VMware HA and DRS implemented, VMware HA for the reactive
solution and DRS for the proactive solution. The job of DRS is to VMotion
VMs to balance servers' CPU and memory loads. The job of VMware HA
is to reboot VMs on a different ESX Server when an ESX Server crashes.
No VMotion is involved in VMware HA.
Why enable both VMware HA and DRS? The decision of initial placement
of the VMs is done only for DRS clusters. The users can use DRS not just
for initial placement, but for overall cluster balance. VMware HA is a
reactive system, reacting to host failures. DRS is a proactive solution, and
gives you better utilization for running VMs by balancing the cluster. Thus
VMware HA+DRS is a reactive+proactive system, an ideal situation.

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Virtual Machine High Availability 471
Configure Cluster

Configure host failures and admission control settings

How much redundant


capacity will we have?

Cluster-wide
settings

Which is more important:


uptime or resource fairness?

VMware HA cluster configuration is composed of two steps: Cluster-wide


policies and individual VM customizations.
There are two cluster-wide policy settings: number of host failures allowed
and admission control. The number of host failures to tolerate can be from
1 to 4. For example, If 1 host fails in the cluster, there should be enough
resources on the remaining hosts in the cluster on which to run the virtual
machines that were on the failed host.
Admission control policies for VMware HA define when or when not to
power on a VM. By default, if a virtual machine violates availability
constraints, then the virtual machine will not be powered on. Availability
constraints refer to the cluster's resource reservations as well as the
constraint specifying the number of host failures to tolerate. VMware HA
tries to maintain enough spare capacity across the cluster based on these
values. The actual spare capacity available can be monitored in the "current
failover capacity" field in a VMware HA cluster's Summary tab (in the VI
Client).

472 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Failover Capacity Examples

11
Data and Availability Protection
Failover capacity: 1 host failure Failover capacity: 2 host failure

VMware HA cluster VMware HA cluster

In the first example, the VMware HA cluster has been set up to allow 1 host
to fail. Therefore, if any single ESX Server fails in the cluster, the
remaining ESX Servers should have enough capacity to run the virtual
machines that are on the failed server. This example assumes that all virtual
machines require an equal amount of resources.
In the second example, the VMware HA cluster has been set up to allow up
to 2 hosts to fail. Therefore if two ESX Servers fail, the remaining ESX
Server in the cluster should have enough capacity to run all virtual
machines. Again, this example assumes that all virtual machines require the
same amount of resources.

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Virtual Machine High Availability 473
Add Host to Cluster

To add a host to the cluster, there are two ways: First, you could right-click
over the HA cluster and select Add Host from the menu. Or, you can drag
and drop an existing standalone host into the HA cluster.

474 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Which VMs Should Be Restarted First?

11
Data and Availability Protection
If there is insufficient spare capacity
during failover, VMs with higher
priority get failed over first

Restart priority is based on criticality of virtual machines and factor in


dependencies.
For example, in a Windows environment, DNS and Domain Controllers
would normally be specified as the highest restoration priority, due to other
servers depending on those infrastructure services.
This priority decision may be influenced if you have redundant DNS and
domain controller elements that are forced to be resident on different servers
at all times, such as if an anti-affinity rule is applied at a DRS level. Note
that this will not prevent someone from manually invoking migrations that
cause these virtual machines to be on the same ESX Server.
There are also some virtual machines that are not essential in the event of a
failure, and may be disabled from being restored. This means that, if the
HA cluster will have drastically reduced available resources, shedding these
less essential resource consumers will reduce contention for these limited
resources.
Use Low/Medium/High restart priorities to customize failover ordering. The
default is medium. High priority VMs are restarted first. Non-essential VMs
should be set to “Disabled” (automated restart will skip them).

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Virtual Machine High Availability 475
Architecture of a VMware HA Cluster

VC Server

In general, cluster software A key component to the VMware HA architecture is the cluster of hosts. In
is composed of layers of
code, “agents” that can
this example, the cluster consists of three hosts. When each host was added
start, stop and/or monitor to the cluster, the VMware HA agent was uploaded to the host. The VMs'
cluster components. A files are located on shared storage and therefore, each host in the cluster
host agent monitors hosts
within the cluster, if a host needs access to the same resources. You must be able to power on the VM
fails the host agent can on every host in the cluster. Distributed locking prevents simultaneous
restart services (or in our access to VMs, thus protecting data integrity. HA agents maintain a
case, VMs) on surviving
nodes in the cluster. heartbeat network and therefore, their ability to perform failovers is
independent from VirtualCenter availability.

476 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


During a failover, quick restart is the primary goal of VMware HA. DRS

11
algorithms balance workloads after HA has recovered virtual machines.
DRS uses VMotion to automatically rebalance the overall cluster load.

Data and Availability Protection


Cluster nodes are designated as Primary or Secondary nodes. Primary nodes
maintain a synchronized view of the entire cluster. There can be up to five
primary nodes per cluster. Secondary nodes are managed by the primary
nodes.

Additional Information:
VMware HA is based on EMC Autostart Manager (formerly known as Legato's AAM,
Automated Availability Management) product for high availability. EMC Autostart Manager
has the concept of primary and secondary nodes. All hosts in an EMC Autostart Manager
cluster are either primary or secondary, and their roles are assigned dynamically. A primary
node acts as a rule interpreter and maintains a distributed database. There are usually 2-5
primary nodes per cluster. Adding a new node requires that at least one primary node be
up. A secondary node is a somewhat lighter-weight (less overhead) version of the primary
node.
Configuring the "Number of host failures allowed" in essence defines the number of primary
nodes in the cluster. There is no parameter other than this one that allows you to configure
the number of primary nodes in the cluster.
More on primary nodes:
Number of primary nodes = number of host failures to tolerate + 1.
In a cluster, if a primary fails, another (secondary) node would be promoted to primary, to
maintain the number of primaries in the system. In the worst case, if all the primaries were to
fail, then you don't have enough information to recover from that situation. We have up to 5
primaries in our clusters. Having more than 5 would increase network traffic, and EMC
Autostart Manager thinks that 3-5 is the sweet spot. So we allow up to 4 host failures - you
can specify the number of host failures to tolerate between 1 and 4. If you want to have
more host failures to tolerate, then you need to maintain more spare capacity across your
cluster. It would be better at that point to just split the cluster up into smaller clusters.

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Virtual Machine High Availability 477
What if a Host is Running but Isolated?

• A network failure
might cause a “split-
brain” condition

• VMware HA waits
15 seconds before
deciding that a host is
isolated

Network failures can cause "split-brain" conditions. In such cases, hosts are
unable to determine if the rest of the cluster has failed or has become
unreachable.
A different isolation Isolation response is used to prevent split-brain conditions and is started
address can be specified
using the the advanced HA
when:
option
das.isolationaddre • A host has stopped receiving heartbeats from other cluster nodes AND
ss. A different isolation the isolation address cannot be pinged
response time can also be
specificed using the • The default isolation address is the service console gateway, and the
advanced HA option default isolation response time is 15 seconds.
das.failuredetecti
ontime. These are Powering virtual machines off releases VMFS locks and enables other hosts
cluster-wide settings, to recover. When the "Leave power on" option is set, virtual machines may
which can be set in the
Advanced Options menu
require manual power-off / migration in case of an actual network isolation.
of the VMware HA
properties.
More information on split-brain taken from the Internet:
A split-brain condition occurs when a single cluster has a failure that results in
reconfiguration of the cluster into multiple partitions; each partition forms its own sub-cluster
without knowledge of the existence of the other. This leads to data collision and the
corruption of shared data, because each sub-cluster assumes ownership of shared data.
As an example, when two systems have access to the shared storage, the integrity of the
data depends on the communication of heartbeats through the private interconnects. When
the private links fail, or if one of the systems is hung or too busy to transmit heartbeats, each
system thinks the other system has exited the cluster. Each system then tries to become
master (or form a sub-cluster), and claim exclusive access to the shared storage. This
condition leads to split-brain.

478 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Choose Isolation Response per VM

11
Data and Availability Protection
Power VM off to release
lock on its disks

Allow VM to continue to
run while host isolated

The user can also determine whether to power down the VMs or not, on
node isolation. This is set using the Isolation Response. The isolation
response of "Power off" does just that; VMware HA does not do a clean
shutdown of the VM.
Isolation Response is initiated when a host experiences network isolation
from the rest of the cluster. “Power off” is the default response. “Leave
power on” is intended for cases where:
• Lack of redundancy and environmental factors make outages likely
• VM networks are separate from service console (and more reliable)
Isolation events can be prevented if proper network redundancy is employed
from the start.

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Virtual Machine High Availability 479
Troubleshooting VMware HA

• Ensure IP connectivity, DNS resolution


• Ensure that storage and networks are visible
throughout the cluster
• Service consoles have valid and reachable gateways
• Re-initialize HA cluster configuration
• Per host: Select ESX host -> Summary Tab -> Reconfigure for HA
• Per cluster: Select Cluster -> Edit Settings -> Uncheck HA
enabled, wait for reconfiguration task to complete, and then check
to re-enable
• Ensure that no one has managed hosts directly, bypassing VC
• Check logs:
/opt/LGTOaam512/log/*
/opt/LGTOaam512/vmsupport/*

If students are interested: In general, for any type of cluster (DRS, VMware HA, or combination of
Consider extending
timeout values & adding
both), it is possible to damage the cluster by managing the ESX Server
multiple isolation directly (bypassing VirtualCenter) and tweaking resource reservations.
addresses. Timeouts of DRS and VMware HA are both VirtualCenter-level concepts, and they both
30-60 seconds will slightly
extend recovery times, but believe that all changes to resource reservations are done at the
will also allow for VirtualCenter level. Changing resource reservations at the host level will
intermittent network cause the cluster to go into a red state and cease to do its job until any
outages. Modifying these
options will be covered in resource problems associated with that cluster have been fixed.
the VI3: Deploy, Secure
and Analyze course. For more information on VMware HA Best Practices, refer to the
Knowledge Base article 1002080, Setting Failure and Isolation Detection
Timeout and Multiple Isolation Response Addresses. (http://
kb.vmware.com/kb/1002080).

480 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Lab for Lesson 2

11
Data and Availability Protection
• Using VMware HA Two ESX Server
• In this lab, you will teams belong to one
perform the following Cluster team
tasks:
•Add VMware HA VirtualCenter VirtualCenter
Server Server
functionality to an existing #3 #4
cluster
•Cause VMware HA to
restart virtual machines ESX Server ESX Server
following the “crash” of a #3 #4
physical server
Student 03a Student 03b Student 04a Student 04b

DRS/HA Cluster Team

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Virtual Machine High Availability 481
Module Summary

• Use VCB to perform file-level backups of Windows


virtual machines
• Use VCB to perform virtual disk backups of all virtual
machines
• Check prerequisites for hosts and VMs in a VMware
HA cluster
• Plan your HA cluster
• Failover level and admission control
• Hosts and VMs’ resource availability and requirements

482 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Questions?

11
Data and Availability Protection
Questions?

Module 11 Data and Availability Protection: Virtual Machine High Availability 483
484 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure
MODULE 12

Planning VI Deployment 12

12
Planning VI Deployment
Importance
• Planning your VMware Infrastructure deployments properly from the
very start can prevent problems that could occur when your VMware
Infrastructure is put into production

Objectives for the Learner


• Size ESX Server and VirtualCenter deployments appropriately
• Understand the process for booting the ESX Server from a SAN
• Understand design principles for virtual disk storage

Module Lessons
• Plan VMware Infrastructure Deployment
• Storage Considerations

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure 485


Lesson 1

Plan VMware Infrastructure


Deployment :

Lesson Topics
• Using qualified hardware
• Sizing VMkernel and service console resources
• Booting ESX Server from a SAN
• VirtualCenter resource sizing
• VirtualCenter inventory guidelines

486 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


ESX Server 3 Hardware Support

Check the compatibility guides before

12
deploying hardware!

Planning VI Deployment
• ESX Server 3.x Systems Compatibility Guide
• ESX Server 3.x I/O Compatibility Guide
• ESX Server 3.x Storage/SAN Compatibility Guide

http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/vi_pubs.html

Located on VMware's web site are many documents designed to provide


you as much information as possible to ensure a successful deployment.
Prior to installing the product, it is important to make sure that all of the
equipment planned for supporting the Virtual Infrastructure is on the
supported, tested compatibility documents. In addition to the ones listed
above are many other sources of information including knowledge base
articles, whitepapers, etc. It is important to consistently check the online
documentation for supported hardware since VMware is constantly
evaluating new hardware.

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Plan VMware Infrastructure Deployment 487


ESX Server Sizing: Core Resources

• Consider the peak load that virtual machines place on


the “core” resources

RAM Disk

CPU Network

When determining the hardware requirements of the ESX Server it is


important in to consider the four core resources. Consider the peak load
that is placed on these resources so they are not undersized. Don’t use a
tool and look at just the maximum observed value. If you have ever
watched a performance monitor while you start up a program you have seen
the processor utilization jump to almost 100% during startup. Every
machine will hit 100% utilization or come close to it at some point or
another. The key is to understand sustained loads.

488 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


ESX Server Sizing: VM Load Profiles

12
Planning VI Deployment
For example say that the mail servers that are monitored run about 7%
Processor Utilization represented by the blue line above. These are average
numbers across all the mail servers monitored. However, in the morning,
they typically run 3 to 4 times higher than the average. The same is true
after lunch and at closing time. If we were to reduce the capacity allocated
to Exchange to be able to meet the needs of the average utilization, we
would have a lot of very unhappy users in the morning, at lunch and at
closing time.
If peak load is not considered, we might have thought that combining the
load of 5 of these mail servers into one ESX Server was reasonable. If Peak
load is considered, we would never attempt that type of consolidation.

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Plan VMware Infrastructure Deployment 489


ESX Server Sizing: VMkernel Resources

Sum desired disk sizes for all VMs;


Sum desired RAM maxima for all include space for all other VMs’ files,
VMs, or minima if overcommitment which includes the VM swap file and
is desired VM snapshot files, if used

Sum needed CPU cycles for all


VMs; allocate more if GigE is to be Sum needed bandwidth for all VMs
used

When planning for ESX Server resources, calculate the resources that each
virtual machine will need in order to run.
Each powered-on virtual machine has some memory overhead. The VI
Client reports this overhead in the Summary tab of a virtual machine (the
Resource Management Guide provides a table of memory overhead values
based on the number of CPUs and memory size of the VM). There is also
memory allocated to the VMkernel. It is at least 50MB, plus additional
memory for device drivers. To determine how much memory the VMkernel
is using on a running ESX Server, use the VI Client, select your ESX
Server, click its Configuration tab, and click the Memory link. The System
value represents how much memory the VMkernel uses.
For disk space, figure out how much disk space is needed if this system
were a physical machine. This value sizes the virtual disk. In addition,
there are other files that make up a virtual machine. Most of these files are
relatively small, such as the virtual machine's configuration files. However,
you must also account for the size of the VMkernel swap file allocated to
each virtual machine when it is powered on. The size of the VMkernel swap
file is determined by the difference between the VM’s available memory
and its memory reservation. If you take snapshots of your VMs, then
account for the disk space used to hold the snapshot files. Snapshots are
used for testing software, such as patches, for developing software, and for
VM backups, if you are using VCB. A snapshot consists of a delta disk file
which contains the changes made to the VM. This file could potentially
grow to the size of the VM’s virtual disk. A snapshot also consists of a

490 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


memory state file, if you choose to snapshot the VM’s memory. The size of
this file is the size of the VM’s available memory.
To calculate the amount of network bandwidth for each VM, find out the
average amount of bandwidth needed for each VM and sum the totals.

12
Likewise for CPU, find out the average amount of CPU cycles needed for
each VM and sum the totals. Also note that the service console, VMkernel

Planning VI Deployment
and Gigabit Ethernet adapters require some amount of CPU cycles, so
conservatively speaking, add an extra CPU for system overhead and also
future growth.
Here are a few other sizing considerations:
• If a VM's application is extremely sensitive to a resource, dedicate a
resource to that VM:
• Consider dedicating a disk LUN to a database application
• Consider dedicating a CPU and a NIC to applications with low-latency
requirements

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Plan VMware Infrastructure Deployment 491


ESX Server Sizing: Service Console
Resources

Up to 800 MB Service console


(272 MB by default) filesystems

One CPU One NIC

The service console requires some amount of resources too. It needs 272
MB of memory, which is the default and also the recommended size. It
needs disk space for its partitions, which we covered earlier. One NIC is
sufficient for the service console, which connects it to the management
network. Finally, the service console is a single-CPU operating system and
always runs on the first hardware execution context.

492 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Booting ESX from a Fibre Channel or iSCSI
SAN LUN

12
Planning VI Deployment
SAN

• The ESX Server’s BIOS must designate


the HBA as the boot controller
• The HBA’s BIOS must be enabled to
locate the target boot LUN

ESX Server supports booting from a Fibre Channel SAN LUN or an iSCSI
SAN LUN (using a hardware initiator only). Before you consider how to set
up your system for boot from SAN, decide whether it makes sense for your
environment.
Use boot from SAN:
• If you do not want to handle maintenance of local storage.
• If you need easy cloning of service consoles (ESX Server 3 only).
• In diskless hardware configurations, such as on some blade systems.
Do not use boot from SAN if I/O contention might occur between the
service console and VMkernel (ESX Server 3 only). For example, there
could be I/O contention between the service console and virtual machines if
they are all using the same disk array.
If the decision to boot from SAN has been determined, there are a few extra
necessary steps.
After shutting down the ESX Server and before it completely boots up, the
configuration on the HBA's BIOS must be enabled to boot and the ESX
Server's BIOS must be configured to identify the Fibre Channel card as the
first boot device.
For details on configuring the ESX Server to boot from an iSCSI SAN
LUN, consult the iSCSI SAN Configuration Guide, available on the
VMware Web site.

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Plan VMware Infrastructure Deployment 493


For details on configuring the ESX Server to boot from a Fibre Channel
SAN LUN, consult the Fibre Channel SAN Configuration Guide, available
on the VMware Web site.

494 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Example: Booting ESX Server from a Fibre
Channel SAN LUN

12
• Configure BIOS so that Fibre Channel adapter is the
boot device, and desired LUN is the boot volume

Planning VI Deployment
• Disable built-in
IDE controller
if present

The example above shows a sample BIOS configuration and Fibre Channel
configuration typical for supporting boot from SAN. The BIOS
configuration is from an HP Proliant server. Notice that the server's BIOS
first boot device is the Fibre Channel controller. In the second screen, the
QLogic adapter's BIOS is enabled and the first LUN is targeted as the boot
LUN. This configuration identifies the boot LUN by the worldwide number
(WWN) and the LUN number in hexadecimal format.
The ESX Server can boot from SAN using any LUN that the server can
access. For example, if the ESX Server were assigned LUNs 7, 8 and 9, the
ESX Server could boot from LUN 7, 8 or 9.
In some cases, the IDE controller on the ESX Server must be disabled. For
example, if you are running an IBM eServer BladeCenter and use boot from
SAN, you must disable IDE drives on the blades.

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Plan VMware Infrastructure Deployment 495


Your VirtualCenter Deployment

Support for up to 200 hosts


ActiveDirectory and 2000 virtual machines
Domain

Managed Hosts

VMware
Infrastructure
Clients

Use SQL Server VirtualCenter


or Oracle in production Database

As of this writing, for A single VirtualCenter Server with minimum hardware requirements is
VirtualCenter 2.5, there
are no new numbers for
recommended for supporting up to 20 concurrent client connections, 50
the recommended number managed hosts and 1000 virtual machines. VirtualCenter Server can support
of CPUs and amount of a maximum of 200 managed hosts and 2000 virtual machines.
RAM. With VirtualCenter
2.0.x, increasing the VMware recommends against using SQL Server 2005 Express as the
hardware requirement to
dual CPUs and 3 GB RAM VirtualCenter database except for demos and proof-of-concepts. VMware
can scale the VirtualCenter recommends either a SQL Server or an Oracle database for your production
Server to support up to 50
environments.
concurrent client
connections, 100 managed
hosts and 1500 virtual
In planning for the VirtualCenter database size consider the number of ESX
machines. Servers and virtual machines the ESX Server will manage. Also consider
the statistics collection level setting in VirtualCenter. The higher the
Please monitor the VMTN
forums for new information setting the more data that will need to be stored in the database. For
on this topic. example a VirtualCenter installation managing 100 hosts and 1500 virtual
machines could range between 5 gigabytes for Statistics Collection Level 1
to 162 gigabytes of disk space needed for Statistics Collection Level 4.
Consider using VirtualCenter’s built-in database sizing calculator for
planning the database size needed for VirtualCenter.

496 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


VirtualCenter Inventory Guidelines

12
Planning VI Deployment
The datacenter is your primary organizational structure. Managed objects
such as hosts, virtual machines, networks and datastores, belong to a single
datacenter. Tasks such as cloning virtual machines, deploying virtual
machines from templates or migrating virtual machines can only be
performed with objects in the same datacenter.
Use the following guidelines for planning your VirtualCenter inventory
hierarchies:
• Group hosts in a datacenter that are under a single administrative control
• Group hosts in a datacenter that meet VMotion requirements
• Group hosts in a cluster to form a single pool of resources
• Group VMs into folders, e.g. by business unit or function

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Plan VMware Infrastructure Deployment 497


Lesson Summary

• Always check the ESX 3 compatibility guides before


selecting your ESX Server hardware
• The datacenter is VirtualCenter’s primary
organizational structure
• The ESX Server can be installed to boot from a local
LUN or a remote, iSCSI or Fibre Channel LUN

498 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


12
Planning VI Deployment
Lesson 2

Storage Considerations :

Lesson Topics
• Storage comparisons
• Storage considerations

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Storage Considerations 499


Storage Comparison-Fibre Channel, NAS,
iSCSI

Technology Protocols Transfers Interface


Block access of
Fibre Channel FC/SCSI FC HBA
data/LUN

Block access of iSCSI HBA


iSCSI IP/SCSI
data/LUN or NIC

File (no direct


NAS IP/NFS NIC
LUN access)

The table above compares the features of the storage technologies available
to the ESX Server.

500 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


ESX Server Feature Comparison by Storage
Type

12
Boot VMware
Boot VM

Planning VI Deployment
Type ESX VMotion VMFS RDM HA/ VCB
VM Cluster
Server DRS
Fibre
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Channel

iSCSI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes

NAS Yes No Yes No No No Yes No

Local
Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No
Storage

The table above compares the ESX Server features supported by the
different storage types.

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Storage Considerations 501


Storage Considerations (1 of 2)

Component Considerations
One VMFS volume per LUN;
VMFS Use more than one VMFS to maintain separate test and
production environments
Use RDMs with VMs for 1) physical-to-virtual clusters or
RDM cluster-across-boxes and 2) use of hardware
snapshotting functions of the disk array
Each boot LUN should be seen only by the ESX Server
Boot-from-SAN
booting from that LUN

LUNs holding the VM’s virtual disks must be visible from


VMotion
both source and destination ESX Servers
Each server has access to same shared storage;
VMware HA All LUNs use by clustered VMs must be seen by all ESX
Servers

In general, it is best to use a LUN for one purpose at a time, whether it be


used for a VMFS datastore, a mapped SAN LUN, or a boot LUN for an
ESX Server. When a LUN is used for shared storage, for example, when it
is used for VMotion migrations or for VMware HA, ensure that both source
and destination ESX Servers have visibility to the same LUN.

502 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Storage Considerations (2 of 2)

12
Component Considerations

For best performance and security, put iSCSI on a

Planning VI Deployment
iSCSI
separate and isolated IP network

For best performance and security, put NAS on a


separate and isolated IP network;
ESX Server needs full access to NFS datastores to create
NAS/NFS directories, set permissions (Use no_root_squash)
8 NFS mounts per ESX Server allowed, by default;
Avoid VM swapping to NFS volumes

If accessing both iSCSI and NAS storage from an ESX Server, put each
storage device type on a separate, isolated network for best performance and
security.
NFS considerations:
• Use no_root_squash: By default, the root user (whose UID is 0) is
given the least amount of access to an NFS volume. This option turns
off this behavior because the VMkernel needs to access the NFS volume
using UID 0.
• 8 NFS mounts per ESX Server allowed, by default. This number can be
increased to 32. To increase this number, select host from inventory,
click its Configuration tab, then select the Advanced Settings link.
Click NFS in the left pane, then adjust "NFS.MaxVolumes" to the
appropriate value. A reboot of the ESX Server is required in order for
this change to take effect.
• Avoid VM swapping to NFS volumes: This is for performance reasons.
Therefore, have the VM swap to a VMFS volume instead. To do this,
edit the VM's configuration file and add the following line:
sched.swap.dir = "/vmfs/volumes/volume_name/
directory_name"

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Storage Considerations 503


General SAN Considerations

• Each LUN should have the


right RAID level and
storage characteristics for
applications
in VMs that will use it
• Spread I/O loads over
available paths to storage

On Active/Active arrays use preferred paths to set up your ESX Server so


that various LUNs are accessed over various paths: for example, one path
should use one Fibre Channel adapter, and the other path should use the
other.
It is a common practice to create RAID volumes with seven disks or less. In
RAID volumes consisting of more than seven disks, the overhead of parity
calculation can overwhelm any performance benefit.
Remember that physical resources are finite: both bandwidth to the disk
array and I/O capacity to each LUN.

504 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Two Schemes for Locating Virtual Disks

12
Planning VI Deployment
One approach to storage management involves building LUNs with a
variety of storage characteristics and then placing VMFS volumes in each,
labeled to reflect those characteristics: "RAID5", "RAID0", etc. Now place
virtual disks for each application into VMFS volumes appropriate for that
application.
If keeping the number of LUNs low (and thus easy to manage) is more
important than optimizing each VM's I/O performance, simply create large
LUNs and use them broadly; but carefully watch for virtual machines
whose performance is unacceptable.
Don't forget that system images (C: drives, for example) often have
different I/O characteristics from application data. This is another reason
why it is wise to build separate virtual disks for system and data.

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Storage Considerations 505


Lesson Summary

• In general, it is best to use a LUN for one purpose at a


time, whether it be used for a VMFS datastore, a
mapped SAN LUN, or a boot LUN for an ESX Server
• If accessing both iSCSI and NAS storage from an ESX
Server, put each storage device type on a separate,
isolated network for best performance and security
• Use preferred paths to set up your ESX Server so that
various LUNs are accessed over various paths

506 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure


Module Summary

• When planning for ESX Server resources, calculate the

12
resources that each virtual machine will need in order
to run

Planning VI Deployment
• In planning for the Virtual Center database size
consider the number of ESX hosts and virtual machines
the ESX host will manage
• ESX Server supports Fibre Channel, iSCSI, NAS and
local storage

Module 12 Planning VI Deployment: Storage Considerations 507


Questions?

Questions?

508 VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure