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2001)

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K., Wessel (l.lmd ]\1", Restle (eds] .R.etlU,e:xikmJ Ku nst (5 vols, Stu uga,:rt'! 1966--9.5)

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Leslie B,[tiJ.~ baker was educated at tt~e Pennsyl vania S~'ate Uni V'ers]:t<y~ 'USA,.. from whereshe obta lned first.a BA.in 1971 artd then an :M~A.~n1976. In 1983,/,she had S!I m.....eess t'! !I'I~I'y com 'P,-'_:l ' u..,..al ' ]£Ji' her Ph '0' thesis Iohn S 'H' ';r;"~l ~l~l~' 'U"n·hratll!';.:o~ n~, whil onkin s .' l~', '," ~'V:", l..... ,~,~~.~":I l l~' ciil'~l.l... ]~
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Ar~.~, Whea ton C'oHege:, USA! 'be'u;,,;een 19f~3l90 and t900/93, respecUvel}~. 'W hUIi!'b(!~lfVle~n993/94 she served as Ch~ ir at the sa.n1,'(;~ (\(}n~g-e. In 1994·, she 1 moved l'u the U nited Klngd om, V!irh~rn sh~ conti l1Iiu~d her t:eadl:ing career ,a.t the' U nl~ versity of tU nni'l:1,g:h,attl ~o t:ne present day. She started as (I, Lectu rer hi, Byzanlhjle' studies (1994J96)~ beca me ,(I Senior Lectu fer in Byzant ine Studles O. 996(2001)i' continued a 5 a: Read er in B;r,zIl'l~lh:leA rt History (ZOO 1/2006)~, nd a i.n 2005 sj~le was appointed a. Professor of Byzant lne Art Hl stoty., Between "i!~O'''3'' (~}f the Centre tC'f B'vza'il"~n''''' Ottoman ~t\.-J.. .. -: !JII]'-ld,' '2"0°9 !dL~l~ '1.!'""'~VIO'!';:.:i as Director l._p.~.,..., s.... ;l~":~~~'·b_~jI'
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female patronage, Icoeoclasm and. H-rue ult of. 'icons, FinnUYI her in.terest into c
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d ·t' -• '-I I m ren deri ermg ~{h G' k names an." pace."natnH~Smentioned d i ".1.IS vonrme l~'i'e'ree',;, U1 thi th e standard anglicized forms, where they exist! have been u sed (~'orexam pte Constantine instead of Koustan tines), For the- rest, .fol1.'o\vi~g a trend that has be ,g.. ·iiI·.", . '..... '" .. ,w . ':11' b .. ,-, eeen itransc lbed. as. ~I,-'t',· .!I'I·,Y ,een airung acceptance -,. recenttl y~ ']~names 1iave 1:-.. a ranscnoea ~.I,. erai as possible ,il"ro~ding the va.[~OUS,la tinized versions (Komnenos instead. of !\'i..ll"~I",l-."., :~or.os instead - ,"" C·'" , ",,'" .nmnenusj. .E,";,Ill'\:e_Pl ~ ,]115.eau. .',"£: 'N""i" oho,ru.s,'Ii; .'}'",~, some,one ",as -'I, I.,..ij;":-Ln'" o..u. .' ~,('ep ' ' t'" ,~ ...
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Euphrasius, Claudius)" It' goes withou t saying. tJltd~in an publicatlons cited in t' ~on,tn''''''' ~h>':-1i tes nam es .IWYJ!t'....,. remained U'II'C- ~ anged and ap'r'~~== ~~ +1f. ]-r'-' ~'::n ""~ :~,~,-:;"'.~'F I~-W~I~ '" ,t-]' ," _.' n ,,,,,en .-:. ,au "lOIS ':·11'1.J, d,e·dl , ,..
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.Acknow'~edgements,
This book ~sa labour of love by .n~.ally people', who all worked hard and ,[Un of enth usiasm to 'mated a lize ~ a clear reflection of Leslie's popularity: Spedal thanks ~:oChris W'kkham, for 'his Invaluable hel .. with organizing this volume, p for his nULny and astute contributions and for hjs,iIIlpO!dan1t,tldvice ~~hrougholi.d; '~I',;-hJlSmedlev = ....= hJ-', mericulous and ;t-'''r''''--' cise comments and fiC'llr!"liH~"II\",rl·"'l'"g·. ~'~'r _~5 ~ _iI!,;;l"'~'!.r _~ ~11iJ~=_ ~ ~_ ... _U!! !r-=".;.Il~~ Cl_iY_~~_!I,;:""'L;;:;! ""'~_,' ""'_='V __ it an to hn:ppen; to Kalliroe Linardou for providi ng L~sH,e;'s. biography and P ,u, ,h,,.!I;;I,.l, n,iC"~ to R-'Dav h,jI, com '-p;il'l~'n"O"the '~;T'i..I.". .....,. and to ·C' Jt,.:I u"~""~'O'H~, . -'ii"'J,'-]~:~ ~" (b·;-I": .... atio > for '.r;J' ,11,(;!, 'S--eaup "j1'1 lIl,[u~""t ID:"I'·m;t' B·',,~,~,ii'·r'I··Ii".£II'~u . ,~',.Rem_. ,ibrand t IDuits , ",lasllius ,JI. G'-'iI!'O"""n'" J'·o·t'!iI';;tjlt-,1i.·~·n·' .. '~"r,""'~i'"-.' ) ,!ai,. ...~ '-1;;;;i, .",": ~"~,; ·u~ ·Ji.1"1 "laI,,~i~1r. [ Kotoula, Rose ~1'€pham,.i' D.~anaN'~\!valt Tassos Papakostas, Julie Pardue, Lyn R.odley~ Albert S~e\'Va_di Andrew Tinson, and Vasiliki Tsamakd a for' tllilejr constructive (ri.ticis·m" useful sugg,esticu:1s,support and help (practical and, otherwise). Last, but by no means ],@astF : would Uke'to thank all the contributors .~Olt~.hei['oommi trnent, p:redslon" J,uncluality an d understanding, Obv~,ou;sJy aU.the shod:falls and mlstakes in this volume ate' enti:~ely 'my n?:spons:~bi.Ht.Y"
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place, hts 'hand in Chrtsrs wO''LI.nd s t\OI be assured f:ba,~Chrtst had risen (J ohn 2,0: 24-9') Ha,gwo,graphy detal ~s- a ~'n.y.r~ad salnts \-'V1l0' performed miracles of thrru,;th__" '1"atr.'l'll S _ -, ef male g"eni~'a.rnlniuries, would. ~'ab\t' g touch Saint Artemios the r' , It ..
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t:tr'amplit\g o~'la~ncing theJr diseased testicles.UJ' SY'meon the StylHe {c.3S9--4S9) 'was touched by Anton ~05 to d iscover ·\Vhether h.e was d,ead;: Daniel the' Styli te ~ (400-=93) wa s physically defrosted by his fo]lo'we:rs; Theodore of Sy'ket)n (d .. (13)1 averted a p'~~g'.'ue '0:£ locusts 'by holding three ~nhishand and. P :rl(ving' . over .,' __ Ie .." :', .... ' , . d oue!! .•. - .~,:a. .u~ 0"f'wavs "'0' mortifvJ h In varietvc t"1'.,. ne:m. ..un ·t'O'] !l"t.> ... d",·· ··d· n .A:' see ··t··· Sal.f1!!.Suse-, ·t,·· L IIl.Ji,U::Y 'Ie'.~ I~J ,'--is L, ~
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ta uti ~eobjects and ~OUd:lbrug them formed part of 'their performatlve role'}2:In his six~.h..century account 0,( the ambo of Hagia Snphl'il" 'Pau~,the Sllmrn,ftry .sug··~"g·'eS~s during~Ib'\;'" Htul~~,~he p_'r~est'held tha .t~~:old.en t haJ't the 'book" aloft whilst . _ ._ 10
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the crowds strove ~otouch it: with their lips and hands, breaking around the ambo like the sea) ~ A. '~€tt£:r eou ld not- only be treasured for what' :U'said but for its actual p,h.ysh:ilJll~xIswnce ~ If By'zeantmnQ' readers 'Used a :ro~nte'C ~heir .11 or '1'0' . 1Il..l ='_-I,',O. ird~ ,o''-,n' th "p.~;r.r-p.r'- th £11'11' the ·~ct·'_ o·.··f: read ...~, ~. w·:·.·~,Fitself tactile. , . ....."" .• '·';ng _. fin" W . IUD"".,. u ", .
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.... . A··~ 8e' 0.11'-l'ac. tilI,!L d '.''F.:" ,comes ,aer,(Y'" ~,:~, s·'_.: :~":lIe ,\V.Fl t···: ····S a b•QU":j.,.-."., abo~... .selll "..... " .. 1, hj' ..oe .. - . . . (. J 55 ltn yza.1, ,ti·':········ 'i :[]lg~" ~. ar ove
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a]~ in menrion of d'~:fferent:g.uafities ,~,):f materials, esp eciallv smoothness and . roughness, weights and measures. the mention of Boors of ony:x: ~sn smoothly polished' that they were llke water congealed bn lCle;' ofunpolished st,o:nes used for rough steps; of gi1ding \,vith ·pu.t€ gold two .fi.ngers thick, of c~rmg'ated alta r-covers: and ,of ,g'oldl crosses, 80 pounds "in '\,J,\/elght and encrusted with tr eta rv ". ,,\ ~ ;S'. _ It:::." ,iI"" lJ .~ . .". .... J•.,~:~" f''I; ]"~.~!"i One thin. "'0'" th a ~ this tactruHtv' reveals ls. the m on .e """ '",."1 value. of art"' '[t a 'I'" ". noer"1 .1,.nes ""h' a l' to ... 1.", . , sometr Ing serves tov ...f" " .~.m se1 . way;. . .50 U . -~I '" .. 'l'h'; .,.. - .0 vert:y "t,·; ' ~ me .. roue :lll1g ." t..~ d m _'. -, ~1 ... "-,." -.~!S cask ~t ·S' "h" do ~- ,- .r"}t"· t- ~'~I]. ,-, as Wh,~~ th .~ ". . n:~expenenc,e c~, I,-ruan_~lngprO)eCII,a, ",_'!I;.; as, J~ , ,',I.g., ,_~ es, n!!._,'e~" us
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ape, pearances and functions of such. obieets are (t):n~l~de-f'ed~. touch is usuallv
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described (hlInks 'beIng taken ou t oJ relics of the 'True C'r05S via the teeth of the f:tl~-UlfUJl; removing the fingers and toes 0:[ :sain~s ;in this '\v~,y was also ,(I, popular pilgrl rn a~tiv:i,~y;,~' ne' ve'ry well-known story tel ls of a woman O 'healed 'by Salnt~ Cosmas and. Damien after d,ri:~kh:"lgpart o'f a '~~J'aU~paj~~i.-ng t]l,f.' the saints, and day eulogia were regularly (UllSlUl1:00, by believers seeking healing or :p&ot-ecUon.,Z-i One o~ th e most ~5.l_gniflc.a.:._rrl~ '!Jf all' holy' images, ~j1Le Mandylion of Edessa, W,Oc5 formed not fhrnljgh palnting 'but through ~ul1cb.As
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,H'O'\iV'eve:r"" soci:eties ,have their- o\;vn rules, of touch and so in dus Icontex:~,~irne !(onb~x:I'Sof touching :in,B-yzmntiu lin can t@u. us. so:m~th:i.llg'Q:f the' sQcla~ customs of tha.t society: the sod.a.llzaHo:n o:t ,touCh; the tactile co des, of com'munlcatJon and, ,the, roles o:fc-ontact ,_,l'V hat wigbt be expr,essed as the dj:ft~:rencebe-t:\,\reen
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a, handshake and aktss what U meant to kiss the lee ~ of ~~_ ,(.J!I,--':-,r~:,- ,t"'I-':l.e = _ an 'I,;[n,pe=or;!' -' ". hands of a sahl~:,the lips of an ],CO~,how the' bile of a dog' and the bi~,eof the believer Or.rIJ, the True C:f10SS w,~'n,~ nderstood, Issaes such as, these' :00101.: t,o u ideas of social decorum: 'who could tOtllro whom, 'when" whete and ,hO'w"~t'i' 'W-"h~,t" t"-'O'-U,,,,'L ,~'~r'?'"W';::h'U'"""nu, 'W·:.'~:;:'!i,t,d:_l'dl-'I pcopletoucl ... W~,l~!c-h'p +,......,:!i :-"",:, ~' b!n!-J' .. ,.u., 'W",~,;:!I;,i!:' _ LB.,I,"'" ,. , . .; u. 11 Uu, _ U_n,.I? ,ul_ I ..... un,~ ,f'~):Fexample, were touched? How did peopl,@ touch different things? What (1,-d'-to.I~ .. ac ;'f-j~,.,re::'C··..onventi ons ab i nrch '''~;I'i'"';j:,~luin tera c,I~., ..''n,- (even somethin -'.g:~I!C" i']~.OI' "r IlllU ':_:: "simple' as ,g@nde:r"differences] ,g~ve' ntormation about sodaJ diffe~entiatiolt, i about defining: personhood and status. S~iulda:rd8,of acceptabla forms of touch change as c-oncepihs,Or p:r,ope:r .fo:r,m,s,of corporeal behaviour and, social order change, There are diffe~en~' rules oJ decorum. The :~deaof bi ti'ng ttili:le' 'rme' Ct(JSS is shocklnz now but th':is W',~':","" tims when ti']~i~ ''!I,..~,--;'~7", t-.'£i,--i[-d', _"!;!IS e . ecn _e~~"';i'lIne.r-e r~a!l.e rouehlv: thev nJugl"wY:o ey :'-,1(: - md~ le t;l Ii!. r :f!,C'JI _ h,~"_ ,<:'!:I-.;i ... len "''iii atcl "i;iOi!d···-. 0._, "''Y,~ as U.~ __ 21' . -'IIaUj'~I.~I-r:l'U' ,t ,~",,,,, _, _,"';;,_, '_ Images IOf touch can add to ou f' know ledge, ,of hleza rehies and relationships 'between people bl 'Byza,nti:~trl. U is ()tt'€rl assumed, for example, that hands are velled when com lng ~nill'contac t w:it-h holy ob:jec~s ot .figures., This :~5~rlH~;!' ut b on:~Y'up to a poInt.. In tl~,eslxth<en:tu,ry ,a.pse mosa h: of the 'Eufr,aslan Basilica 'in. Poree (~lg. 1,.1), fot example, as the viewer moves ou t from the' een tre, the V:~'rgin~s :har~d s are bare touching CrrrdsfJ, the' angels, flanking t~her.n extend one bare 11~'nd,=1but the hands hold hl~O_,_~,~sceptres their ;:"JO"",~ in_~]Uill;; their r_..-..'i,.., .. " ::tH; '_!!;;) o~!!;_ B·'""""" ::'''i''d'-,I _ ~ ,~ "'~,_ _ '!,-I,I!- .• , ,~ " ,~-""._ ~=_,~b, nU~;nl" Sal n~ M'aulus eo t.he vlewer "5,left 3__ the sa lnt to n~e:rJgll,t hold ~he~r nd crowns of martyrdom in veiled hands, O~ the' left again, a,]s'hop Eufrasius brings his church 'wUh veiled hands, 'bu t ~'he. ,A:rchdeal."OD C~au:d:iu:S!t Ule.far at :left, hold s a book in 'his bare hands, ~hough 'his small SOH holds candles in veiled hands. "1[:0. the dg,l1:l, the two anonymous saints c:a:r,r:y ~heir tiOk~ns.~, a book and, a IC[O'W:n", in veiled bauds. This one mosaic alerts us to' the, knowledge that 'whose' hands were veiled when Is more rom plicated ~ban shnply contact with the holy; 'Why' in this Image' did Claudius' hands remain 'Unveiled'?' In similar v~run>!n the, sixeh-cantury ~pse mosaic '0,1' San Vit~tle in Ra.venna i {Fig;, m. 2)""on~ of tho ange,~s,touches th~' sr.ould~'C Q,f 'saint Vitale, \-v:ith ~, bare 'hand. though his other ,hand! ,is veiled, ill SanI' Apollinare ,e] Nuove lp·g' 13)_I .. _" ', .. ,. ... . . .• ,I, ,, ,. II v" ~: I., ~ _,' some of the ma'le' and female saInts hold their crown S with veiled hands OJ' one veHed hand, others touch their crowns with bare flesh., Should we see' the ve.iHng as random and a,cddentalart ~he artists' whim? Does ~tdepend on the
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Pig. '].1 A'IP~' 'mosaric showing the· ViIg~n.·~nd.Child enlhro:ned~ ang,e~s...saints. cI,e'.rllics:,. la.ymen ,eilncl. Bi:~d:u:;pl Eu:fras.l.us". :mi.d~six.tih c:en:lllJ[y~ E'U.frasrnan. bl!1lJsi1k,a,. fiCJ!i:cc' {phQtoc

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sai nt? To answer these questions, a Dll0W,1e detai led Shldy of "feiLUn)g~·w·wthin a '1,... ," ·,.,d-· .~'~ : mtext ·,·f .. lue .-' d ',....,.,.. ""'~' .... _..'.' ,- ,,', " ~'i, '.,... ufO,aJ. er COfh!eX_o'~,t·,--·, ·'-11, an" ~~ 5]gn,II.~,:Uca.ru::-e, is necessary C ,As·these examples also Ulust:rabe';r touch can indicate social hierarchies; angels to Mich. 5cduts"" not vi'ce Ve'J'Stl., '\i\fho Christ toucheswhen 'toa)f idso be. 5ugg-es[j:ve~ Christ in. his d:ru,vini~y:nev€"t touches .Binyo:",~~ butin ,S'C@1\i@.S his o,~: ~I.·"f·· " ",_JI1-.,. ,'._ ~,--, ,"'-,'_, t.both . uy ICh· In,S,..anid ,'",f:"C'11iILrnS.. ill_~., . },·'t·· u, -e (Hl. eartn, ,~Ou.u.:I1i1l1!g IS rar ,m.o:r'€ p:romln,en ,,/ .10 , Q .', - '·~··:l·,:!9
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~tis· tw~'way, Wea:r.ing an amulet, .~or example, kept n~e f.aHhfu:~, constant in physical contact with the image it portrayed OJ the' person ~twas. once a part m zu in '~~·~[~i!'·n···. A·.·~····,t.,this ofI':~h, {or ~, ·O•.. ~ ~"""""i·r;·,~I~~'[,V. holv ,eg, re, ,f!,O,iU.·C.··'~.~~I ~'h, ,.~ .. ' ~fl. J" ~'1..~ U'. ,! .• ~~~ !Ii. ~ polnt of physical contacf~.mtracles co~ld OCCLll~:,a~nulogia of~ymeon Sty]~tes e the Youn~'~f' [('591-92.\was ceumbled..~ to :5!L=~_~ ~sea',' =~ the T-uesday p .... It( =_ in ~_~ . J!. _.co. ...~ ,:rocess"i)tl =,~ ~ .. =~e~ . . -I ."1/ _~ ... '" ~. ~~ .. still th .. of the Hodegetria leon, a,ccnrdin.g to Sb~phen of N ovgerod, writin.g i.n ~he fnu eteenth ce_ntu~y~ h:-on.directed its blindfolded bearers UmJu.gh touch." the Touc'h. was ill means o,fpossessing the relic and thus the holy. Questions about who :m:~g'ht'''v,a:n~' touch a relic, who could touch ill" \,d:lY 'would ~'he.y ~ouch to i:t when would they touch it, 'who controls the touch" what could, i.ts ~ouch do for the toucher '_ the difference between access to the impe rl a], collection o.f relies and the relies of al saint in his own public church '_ all these issues combine to build up a. ~'socia~. history' of' touching \vhichj' for ·Byza.ntiu:m ..
,.J.'~ U'!i,,'!i-!I.I. nlli,l!i; I~~l~ ," .~, U_I'~J ',"",!'~:t:lli",~i'i' "~'!I;,U.II,,!;;iIi,,~,I ,1,,!;;I!l,',.,n,.,,, .
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remains ul1:wriu''Cn. 'F .h -] t....·, iIio'1l.. f· rconsr b ·'h·' -urtnermore, re li JCs. are corpo:rea,! SiIl1liU.lJng me para dox or ., botn displayed and. v,~rif.iedGod's [c,o:r.poreaU~y;, using: :m,tl,f,e'riab;. '~[Oreveal the :r.eality

'Of the di vine, W:ith relics Georgia Frenk has discussed the equally paradoxical • . ,;, f·' ne "1··' ho.i vistting ,~,o.y A . lled sltuatii,o~ 0:':' th "p~ ,gnm, wno, 11~, ".' ... ~. '·1 men ano h '~:women, tr,a:ve~[Ii.'"U Ilo,~y to experience D, (0 rpnrea I", 't'alngiblc:.. di vine human 'bod:y}~9 ,Pilgrim'S were great touchers, 'IEverytlTii'[[Ijg 'we read '~~U~, them totu:hing: reUcs". gathering of
dirt, rub bing' inscrl ptions, Touch, like sight, co~ld, cross the boundaries between the ho~,yand 'the human. and seems b) have been a fundamental part of religious experience, But b)tH~h also had potential for destruction: in t'he hands .of' pilgrims, holy men could, .lUer,ally~ fall ~pnrt as the' fourth-century mI. ·i"""k·· u.l liI!.i1i,..,.. .tios, d.,' ·10· Paphnou ..,...I;;;!!.... lscovered .• when he grasped the arm [,);f·' '~, hol '1 man ,... nd ,.,~ ~u,. i~'disintegrated mto dust, W In (. _' _ ~ .~ considurine .g_OtlC~~~g t'hI_e '_ J:L).r ~'.w'a_~, ,fl.:;, re=~e, ~~=ey!flv on "~:. udes ~. _ ~_.e_ touchina __ .. holv I _ nt ..0 ...... fl· ct. ·V·ri· ..' attttunes ~_ towards that corporeal, divine human bo d y 'Of which relies were H,ving proof" 'The convennonal view o,i' Eadv' Christian [and, Byza_;_ntme[ a,tUtudes to the body J ~ IJ tends ito be ~hat the Christian monastic _ rradrnliA;n1 saw =_~ .. as tbe ~=l!:e,,," _ a~.sh m :-.~'a.··'pho;,t _.~ . _ . e .... _ .L,~_ .. "._ ...._". .... _.~~ ... . ._.. __
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for fallen man and. the irrational 'rejection of. God;' and that the passlcnate
.J[()~I,m~d liw i-hn(t!l"/~~ ,AclXdt!'my oj Rd[igjtrl~~68, 1(2iCiOO,);:: pp, 367.....so (esp. p, 3177)., ~f 38 SY,(t'i,eon. SryUte the ¥omlg:e~:;,La ~'i€' a;tu.:ieiJii~ ds' S,' S.lfm'e~rJ ,SlyUfl;; it: .J~i"l~,rr~1 trans, and ed, P:,van d,M 'Yen (Bn'lsse~s~, 196.:2and '~.970)"p.":23{i Stephen, o~ ·Novg.o,rod" [te~t [~U'u,!t tra'fi~. hl :M~je5b-,;;' RI.t5'SI~tj:n: trtuldlerfj~p.. 37; qu;(}~edand dlscussed in 'B., Pi?J1,b:Jlev~.i lam:s mlti pmUlr-1:;, ''fi'le' M'~'tJ'w"" of G[:rtt' bJ BY~'~nth,(:1IJ (r~n:n St"at,.e 2f!)!)6}.. p.p. 133-4",. G. Vilw:n~,tBy,z~.IDline pn,grim!.+.· art' in L ,Sa,frall (ed._:),. H~~I1' Itm ear'i'h~'ar!' ,a~i'd.tlw clmrch .in ,B:!fZjud.j::~ml fPeIliI'l syh'an~,iiI:,State" 199B~),. 'Pp. 229-ti6l includes [nan,>,' axt,l~mp~C1'S' dJC mir~"cu LQUS; t~ct~lity of pUsl1imll,g~ il~rt, of 39 Fr~jJ~ Meiml1']l 0'/ ~l~ee.¥C'S..esp, p, l1.8. Althoii.:lgh F:raJ:'!J~k~:s p.r.iU:18!Jry [C,Oti,OOrn :is wUh
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body needed disdprnini:ng thfQUJ;Vl diet~,meditafion and constraint," Itwas the, Christian's duty, to master ~he threat of the' body: But, U touch is used as a way of understaadlng attitudes to tt.rue physical in iByzarnt tium, then, as Kalllstos Wa.re has shown, this vi.e'\\~' needs nu ancmg o:r~ perhaps ... ven reversing, ill He e suggests tha t, in Greek Chri.sH:a~,~ity;,what is ,apparent 'is,not a. rejection o:r ~'he body 'but a. tension or an ambivalence; :in theory' the body Is fu:nda:me.n~3.11.Jl good, though in p:r.~;d:~ lt :m,ay be 'more problema He. Ascetl c practices are ce, almost always deftned as :m'o:r.~ifl:(;at:io:n;S. the flesh, punishing the' body to of make ~t h(dYi depriving it, of sensation ()T' cUe'ring, it sensa tions of the 'more unpleasant kind, ,t!'s:lj(!ci,allv where touch is concerned. However, texts, about . a sc ..."h ...ism a "W':':':'a' p L ~,~,S C,. actuallv presse,. """,'~~C,' balenced "'j'~:~W than eti ..1., ]'1"0 nlnts out ent a more ~ ~Q!""'I;;;.Ui~ ~,..;,~,~ e
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that asceti,[dsm mlght 'be' seen 8"S a struggle for the' bodly r,a.the'r Mn'ny ascetic ~exts give the' body an lmp ortant 5t!nSoF'y' role, writing i:n the' seventh cenru t}';; ,said, of his body': '~he'~S' my

[en.eml~~ ,J assistan l' and rnv IO'l~nonent" a ,r lit I)rotectur and. a, J. m" ,~,r~" traitor'. How can I hate 11:ml 'when ,my nature disposes me to love hlm.'? ;,;, j '. How can I" esca.,pe from ~~~n.~ when he is g'lliJng to dse 'with me,?'~1![This is a more ambivalent att~tl'lde to pllysi'calHty than 'One n~a,~ ']i(u::a'f:es the 'body' ,,1$ enemy, '\'\~ar-e' has. shown how hu'man phys],caUty W'(lS understood 'by' early Christians in various 'Wd,]l5, which he explains as bids to resolve ~he tension 'between the Hebraic-biblical t radj tion of the holisti C und erstand ing of hUOUUl 'person and the P~auollic-H~'eUeni5tk trad itjon of' :soulfb{]dv d ualism :'~Into this mix eame '(he F all of Man, and. the question of the dlstinctlon between tbe preand post-Fall body; the idea of the W'o[rd becoming flesh and the role p]ay,ed : ~..."j c t ~ - ~1'!I!:r";ll an ~J,.,_;; by -.~ nhvsical b,~:O: d ,J of IC··.• ~tI!iU.l,I~;:!.~em body .. ng~iiJln~.v ~'1~O,m ~ u, d ~,1'1~'belie f," In th e ... 1~.nE ir~ ,y;:,~,'LU. , .v
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resurrection of ~he body at fh.e Second Coming - something inherently sinful could not' rise agalu. In. this eontext, the! body~,physicality and 'l3cUHty became posirives: the created body': wa 5 a, temple because it was noten tiaUv ho~y and r was created 'by G'~Jd.,As Vi:a:re says, it is worth n.oting how' often. ascetics are '.'-'~' r""il'~d'ed- bv "th~ ' 't' iij"io. a~ .;n.•,~. ,~,OO': suffered ~:)~ .Ii.!h;,!1!,"".~ re", 'J ~.,~~ !g;:;.li_" "f the rrli'jF"h'~' ,4,. Th . IL U'!;,;:;;I\, , " "~ ~ scetic Onou phri .... ,-,.'if .. =s ,~ ;,il!:U
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'Byzantines themsel ves Jrnted touch and the senses. As Is well-known, the "Byz(trrlinesbelieved that:
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sight was a tactile medhtm and, th at seeing "vas a taedle experience." Rays f 'J .A b ., , [om, tle' eye.s carne'out ann embrace d tne o:ject:e~ng; -regar ddo, b· -_,1 bi tbei .. nnngmg e It back t-() ~hemind! lmprindng its form on the :m,e~m(n:y. In th is context, the nlruh-cennsrv Patrtarch Photios .... ~n·. homily on .. t'1l,fli im.,1;-'01""" .v,1. W:~'~I'r'''~'£L (j._, t11"'J, _,~h,L,_, ....'Y!,~u~ :'lI:f I~I~!!!,./ _' (!I!,I~ "iI!!I!('~,,'Y~ I~ . '~'I~il!'. ,b"" '", ,Jil~,,;;t., ", ,' ....' , "'!!i (. ""'\l!:!il. ,to' the V:irgln in the ~Ipseof ,H3gla Sophia In Constantinople, are frequently ci.ted;, 'I]~ra'vlngsomehow through the ou,~:pouril1,g and effluence of 'the op,'tkal rays touched and encompassed iltheobjeci: [sight] 'f:OO sends the, essence ()f the thing - - e,'n' .. l' ,,-,,", ' .... d' H'",a"s ',' la, m~ .. ''1. '1'1 ri ",",'." H". ~ S "t~ IjJ"'Il',i s·o ed-'c""H' '- S' it ~ ..t&i -.-d""c~ - t]_.. -ee 'n"-"," - ]" "O;!!""'-,I~'" _.,~" ~ - --~ _'p -"",~ 'ii:!ii:li'~.. ,1"N;'l- 'to th-"e' 'm' l'll!t'1l(" : 'li1-1iiU ali Then i,t': has c,;! _ ~ _ ~ ,~~ .._ ~~. ~ transmined " the _ rirms to tlhe memory ..~g ~ff()rtl"~s(t~v, ~ :::1i ~_ ~ ~ _ .. __ .... _ _ J =~.. _ .. _.... ~ _ , .. PI,1.'OUQS:"sta tement suggests that for the. 'ByzanH nes ,s':l,ght and touch worked v'€ry similarly, that ~h~ywere in fact cenvergent or even conjoined senses, a t''!I,'I,~i'I,;il';_;:;'J~~'I'Ii,'11Y'),~""i.' the workines cf ~'IO~II~!J. derived from the 'C·~'I'i!I'iC'C'~"--:'~]philosopher ~;'I'Q:~I l~, ,~ .u, r.' A:risto~']e,,49In Western thought, Aristotle is seen, as p],aci.ng, s~ght and touch as the top and bo l~u.rll lends of the scale of senses. However, 'his view o:f lr)'!":u:'h is more cClmp:m,caled than this ,hnp~~:i,leSc,for- Aristotle, ~,ouCih. may not llilav,e' been 1~'~1" '0-1' est nob "'~Ij~l I·~ ~.i~h,Jl~~ ~~,_.!.~ oj:.j}h~v"~ been t-hj~, p~~r]m-'-'~'nJ ~ltU:;l~ ~j;!l~''''' ~w, ,..... U"= J !.Ej""n.S'~. t'ht:l
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(~~hersenses, it does riOt' belong to a, s:i.ngllE! orgtl~: ~ndeed,;does. it have an or.,gan:: are skin and. flesh the orga.ns of touch or the media ,of touch? Is the heart t:he

organ ?,S'~, Ra~~be.r., touch is a sense of commu nication, bringing d:istan~'objects into proxim ity., 1[1 the Die ,A ~cd~w1.I' t is clear tha t Ul,e['e is a d-~s~inctiQn i made between valid sensory pleasures and bestia ~or carnal a ppe ti tes, ,As Aristotle notes, humans are the- only sentient beings able to make this distinction for their sense of touch is far more developed than that of anything in Ule . 11"k b ~'k . 'I· anima ] ki ,,,.I kingdom, ;52 T-QUe"h,; ,~i s~g!IJ::~:I:,; b earn a]"; .. ut J ,~.;.S1J§;It, It can a"Jso b ..I: se ~ L. caa ue I·· e ·C profound. It can veir.i~~ It can communicate pre~s.ence and empathy, it brings together bod:~,world and flesh. Susan Ste:wa-rthas suggested, that for Arish:>Uc touch was the sense needed for beine: ~he other- four- senses 'were necessarv ICl."" ~
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,~,7 iR.s", Ne'~~(;tii'j),j say and to ~ee: ek,_p'hr,i;i:Js and vH~'i(u,in" 'Hy,2dJnt~.ii1m·']A :R.s.Nel~n ~l(' (~dL); Vi~UflJ:'it!lbefi1:N! m;u-~'beymul the' lten\i1iss,fu1:ce (C~l:m bwidgli!;; 2flltllJ)", pp. ]_'~"J~", 4B lfhotins1 Htwdly 17..5. 'J~xlt in: .Phot~ij~", H'r.mdU:fs~ d, ]1, L~OUI-d.tI. (TIu~SStdo[d.kij1959).-. e This lit"~U1~]~t]Oncomes fro~:1!J . M'~!lgo'lll~e H;r,m,~me;slif Pl'wH~~'. P{dri~ti!'d1: C~~l~: t~~ng)p,{(~,~ C If)! itm Trall;5lll1Ht''''' (mil!' IC(mmleJI itltJ (Harv,Ll r'id" 19.5S], P: 294.", ,49 iR. Sor:abii~~A:risl\otl(~n. de:mlii [eating the H:V'C' senses' :i~l J" B~_tn($,~t:. Sc_km:f:i.e':~da:nd 'it a St):r~bl~(ed$)t .Artid,'e; i.1,1Arh;tolle.. f\~yd~Qk~gyand E~h~I~~ (~~lfRtd{~ii1I' ,'991)c!' ~ vel, 4 iPp. 1..34 6,5; TJ1I(. Iohansen, Arist~Ue' o,.l It,h~ ,~ef~s(~ argfm~ <Ca.mb.ridte~, 199,8); 1\1. r:iate-,rson, The $ltlfl~es. of :tmlf'h" H~!pU6'i.. ,ilffi!t,~~~ h!l:hf~dl{;gie$ ~IO;dQrda~,1LdNew YO'r:k. ,2007)!" :pp~ ~!lj':d 2=3,. 17~2_l'Jdi~usses,Ar.~st:oI:le, Ah!iO ~ the ,d.i~:$Sio:n, in Froll1l,k ,Me:n-;rorv at t~r,t!,~M(~~ 'p." ']_ . 1;8;" .... ~ ,:J' 50 Ari8h)tL~~; e A~)Ji'J.u~'!, 'W.. . }-)'~U {C~~,ubridg~j' D ~dL, S M~5:sadu.!seUs and London" 1936, :r;€pm", 'I '975J~,n]~, ~i~i" 435~ lii!~es,'ll J.-·~14. x SW, Ibid... ruJ~ x~~ 4,22 b-=4: iii.; tH. .l. 42.4b,= U~f ~~ 43:.5:a .. jd 439 ,a;: Jolu'lnset'l~ A,ri$'t)',~j'£f .. i~]j. u
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for well-being, $] In Aristotelian terms therefore, touch. '~night be, understood A .. ';:",to' :ji;,,] , a ",', sto s " '" as ~ue. most nn found "':fil"L." senses, .l"\lIl:lS,,;~ ,@ "J"" so,,' app~'ars, ',',' z th ill,10, sensi ibhe mos p.rO,w,QUll 0'" me say '1': ; t percsp t", d @penOJ son, to ch~'th tit" ' I) sa.~ contact t 'betw rom t 'he ~.rc.@p~' @ tonc . ouc Hili[. IS Ilbl ,0''bj"'" ,,'t M1jJ,... ~rcep tion .h~en,;,i,'L, p(mOO:lvmg organ nee ids a means "0·f:', 'b" ", .,,' , id ':, ," , .'.i-r-' "~I.,' ULC' ",' "" \ . "., ",' ',", ..ec "emg m .e'L ,·'i,t"h' 't'l!-.· '.b '" 'c , 'pc", .._:', , . ,d, sme,1.,mg .lS _m,e·,~um, ,,';, o.r "ouell W~ . ·.L le o_'1e.t"'I., "or Sl,ght hee'ann:g an.. I":. ellir " this r ed .'i' ,',"',,IS air ,,", , , W' .... ,tfi:r~S,ig··.h~' ~~~~,o~___.~ ~e,'!'I'rinO'and '~mm'~;]!)U'w~r.k "'hr~':"'lg"h Y"'" ch (··'~I~.__ ~...;.;: _ I d.nn.~, tas 4-.0). " indeed, ~~~w!l;;t!:t ' =vU :. wV.U~ ~~I ~ 'I~ For Aristotle, it' seems the case' that we relate (,0 ~'h,e workl through a.silngl@ can' ~,;p, '0, '1I!'(J",a· the 'n bod ',J ~ in , which ,'!!II1~t' _..h e sen .. se C' ,'!JI''I\"iO U'I"i'I]' t' d.' Fo,'l]:o- lu'ri'lIi"'Ilg' 'I'!'~~'t.o·r~]ee \1' ~-, A ._l!. -, ~\ ~W, 'J, laht ..e argue. that ilJ:~e ,-~] h mJ~" , be ,',i red .tnar 'tl'h-",i slngw,e sense organ"i,.,: ,t"'b, '····r·:· re r 'f' to ' ,'fru .• IS ne O=g~L_or rouci , 'J"~'.'B''-:-, 'n' nes, ,', '; ," ':', appeal:' ~o,havs ..~i.~ ,...,..."....:1' these Co"" " .ne _ ~ .:yzoo ,a ve '~,- ~'~ ILa t.'iSeVIews,. T' h' £~,enll'~~~Cenl~,U '.A, ,~~e '.' '; ry,5····,', O~lw:tl ~ lexicon, a com pUa'Uon 1(J:f entries ranging from ety,m,olllg,ies and, gramnlaHcaI "forms, to aerol .nts of people and places, rI: discusses toueh on 's,everai,occas]ons.:5-t' ~=~.. ~ "".~ r -_ ~ The entry' under ,a'i~~,h!esfsj' S''Cust!s, : borrows considerably from, the sixth- c-entury phUosophe':rJ' john Philoponos and. from Aristotle. ~$ It describes sight as clearer than :ht?,a,ring. hearing as clearer than smelling, and smelltng as clearer than t h 'II:-. u lt " ll .. elith"EI[ ';OUC,.I or t '" ~B' iIO..dJIUCw~"",sugge.s; ts. ~s nor rea '1~]'a sense ar au, b UII.: '15, . .aste. .U'~; s, ] ,iliY' ':,,' ',"--, ;I"i" .', '",] I ,t;h~·" ""',, and "-'\r~ -',":t''I..''''I;'::'''' the pre.sen~, InII' re, ,adOn. ,jj;,'~1 .. ,. ,un lng, the p, '..'".' 'ties 0 an.y..,.lng, an _e _ery. J"!lng;,.'.'.e ,,0 ,d':'e~;'"'' . , ,~ ,-'to' per. les, of ~
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inherent to an architectural copy or representation Jn painting or sculpture to 1·"fC.c ounterpart in medieval ]';'t'ar'~I'ry'."':B~f'!I'l'~P~'l'~l""',[!> 3: 'In t.'~IU"t:!u; rep':rpii:'!~ta:tions :d' the, actual buildIng: seems broken int,o pieces, some 0:£ Us e;~em,€ntSI ca refully ChOSE'Il 'be,fote'beritr~gregrouped in th~ ,final deplctlon. The .j·QOPJl"' resulting f:rom, ' this process is quite di.ffer'€nt (rom the' o:rlg~natas :i~does not reprod uce all fhe '·:]·1,', .. · .. a-: -, .' :11;(..,'" ·'·":'t ' .', ']:-,":'~.,,-+ -~,,, ,- .. ,"~:.,_. d eiemenes I),f· "'h-:'" ~.a,IH,er~"I I~e,~.r J.~~], srructurai····1 re"]'ca ti onshit '-"or rera e .. J mensrons, .nons ..,]ps .',' '.',,' ," ~ H·'·, .',~ e Inaccuracy ', 0"f.me ..'- . '. , Hicoumerna artee , '~'.--,~ ene ,'6" '"'lid:, ,- ' t~' Fi _ow"e"verl' II'-'h'" '~,.' . '. '. ,," ... . t'L copy '. , ..... " ·,t,·, '11k,] -. zed IUY ~;'h' .' r~,rr(~,~ 10'H nf .e '.... eru :,4:;' " ',,'ifi"~::II~~ • . .le ~'" I '-iiilLng, '" :;' 1,(.11 . iic'~ - , . -- <·]1", :-,-'--}'Fi-:-~:m-"", Q,.. the con ,,·t· '~' a nn S\lgnL cance 0 ,f' t.'l·',-', nu ,"i],-i ,:'",: ., W,h- "~'~"~ are - !I;..iI. ILe,maJ(_![ coneer ".S 1.11 "h'; .,- non ,.11 a 'lb'~:·I·t]d'''''~'I·s c-:op,y :.-.,,-~-t!pIC ~'](,fJ! ~S"~: 2·'0 \'\.a'-;' ~'..'__ Paul Lam p.1 ··'1" t "e crea !', J:" o~"~ _.IU , . leng "'''',';',,'," {l(" d ;_.:~ _ den.., .OlUe _ ..) e .... later 1'5 -"'.h··· ... '..~'-:' conc.usUl.l1} b :..'- seh ".. zluslor t- ·'.·.:'i' -,.-:,'- ",]'.-.- 0 -"'; Q -~n,-l',-:;l-:', :If ,[12aC, 'd,l , th e same ;-",,". e ,$C,le,Wa12J;ng,!L" the mostst CtIDJ:ILn- pn= .. P~es ot - " - r.a-n '.-" - .. -._''1:: -..- - tI~~'-" . ~]. ,~'-..-, 1--:_,'"-.."... .... ~ . ~( lL 1_~ ,"-.' .. :-. two I,t- .,L,lJ.Jil, 'f ~.. ... 10 ,. .11' we-'d'I,~,ev] .represe:[l 'toanon Q"f' b- -. Ut,d ,f..ngs ,rc ITl '~'~h ~i.'rth ~.. I'l'th~e'-. ..e'l'~h ,!tieentu ,.-r y.[.-'7 'IN" - ';"1' '·D··r-~-']' d .. ,~$'-d.....,,-,,- 0,. .. -_'~l.. ~. ,I. oe -.u va -: !VOtL.'e '.' m,ue" '~h'··~ f' h :IS "v(n.. t,[) "_. '~iI!-.' etural J' '-l"nta~ion~.' s:, J ~ . a,r( .. ~Jl'!J,IOC ura= ,'ep4'ese~J ~'_ ~', . :
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amount of evidence and dennhrng interp1retati\!'e schemes largely ooncentranng on the depiction nf basilicas," Duval affinns

E." Dygg~re., R(im'7~n(d/~m P/d~#u~~ S~,(H~:U1,,,!~:.tl b-asilica i~JefrfJJe fe.ri;~nQn~~ per I(K0be:nha:vn", m9~U) d.a['m.s ,that' laee antiq,l'I(I' ,a:rclli~ectur!l.~ie:pooserntallon!J did mpl:1C'5~n~:ea~~'bu.nd~ng:s! r r however trans;la~jng lhem il:l.'~liDill n~t~ tWQ·dlim~ttsio:n.am v,ie~\r;.:t\\fulch of the dllKOUl'.se' On and late ,~rntiqu,e' '~Ir,c~hit¢ctrljra~ 'fe'prf!!;~i'i!ltalidln~ h~,s develo,ped :a;r'!i}U!wtdthe' im age' oif Theod;e'r,ict~, :pa:~a~ ~n ,th~ m.Gsai~ Q~ Santi' Apo~linilj[reNu o~o in Ri1Il\~ennaand lJyggve1s, In~conslmdio:nl' of this i:ma,g,eas a bas,j'Uc,u dis'tiOTj£rt~t 5 R. KTaiU'th~i,m£"r", ~·[w.trod,o.cH(]n, b)- am "Jl(.on.ogt~phy of :M.ed:iecMil.I, Architecture'", 1 ,5 fl9'42):' 'PI?, 1.-20.

,4

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6 Krautbeim,e:r:. 'lntroljnct.ion' ..pp" 19-21.. '1 R L~'pJ" '!Sch~m~sof Arehjrodur~~ R~p~:~$~n[~tilion, iIiJ '~3rhr'. ,M.e,d:i,QV3.1,Ad~ MtIl~iIi'ns .. ~ . .... '9 [196[).. 61)~ p.p. 6-13. .
,

',l11eauthor d e\ileJoped, h~s understand ing oJ mate ant]qu.l~ ar'Ch~,tC"C-tU'r,a'l '[lcpresen:tatiolJ1s, 1~['ouSh a study o£:'fh,~'~ma,g~ 0,(: th.e 'Uh'lcch,t· P:s~l~'c:r nd! ~~he a alreadY'·m'c'n~]~ed, :mooillJi,c of ~1nr.rAp(d~,Lnaro 'Nuovo,~'N. DiUv~J,'l..a :rep~~ntaUon dill" pa~l!lis,d,;a:ns I,·~rt du raa~:EmJP~ r.e> e~ dti H'i:lut Mo,yt.':o As,e' dJapr,es le :PsaU(]~i"dl'Uh'.(~chr~C-ah.A;r~~ 1.5 O~965):~pp. 207-5h ,I'L.. mos.tll:qu:U~'d.'u 11~iflU'uni de S, ,ApolHn[!ir~ l~' 'I:1I~U~' ,reiPresenl~~t·el1e UJ.lC .f~~~d,e Utu edw"(]o~' DU. ~,:ph~JfiiJ?"1 C{i\r~t C'~'dt!.j~:r~ ,~~drAt,ttl, JttllJt'tU~'.itg e lJi.ln,iU"ui:l, 25 {'l9?'B}: :pp..'9J=~.22r~v~~illt.ill '!QUl1' , :Si;'V<m.s~,nOlUlSd:u :p~ruais delll'M~od.ork' Ravenn.e'?' ..M;eJj;mg~ ,d~ A.n~htfulQgr;e' et' ,d"Hi:dai\re. de' r~'roJ;c Frim,,!'d5~ (i:e'R~m~~~ (ru,960) : pp. 33~L71.. Jusli Ukeein t'he 'Utrecht, PsaU~rfhe illustrator de,p~,ded, 72 th~ lem [p Ire'of J eru.sahl":ID,. 'kjjn~,~s,pa~,l!,c£;. and llu,~'e(;(le~ill as, ,an apsid al basiHGa ([h;lva~1 : ~La represerntaH~rrIl d:u pa~a:ls,"" p. 254)1~, ,a,t' :Ra'lle.n.na. :t'ne :im.a,ge o.f Th.@odcrk'~ pala,ee 'r,epms.ull.'b1 ,an a~~:dill han (Duvall' ILa tlfl.'osalq;I!.I.~'dill. J.nj'l:al~J,um"; :1''1'., 112-'W:4l. ,A;c-corrlJJ]rn,g li~'Du:v,a't. the 8

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basin.:!] 'i~,!l ("~;M·f"ill'ntiJOit~]~Jn~,e thJlt :m~y' f:iep~rlit ~ (1:1 urc'h ,as '~"\!Ien ,an i:li'ft~rial pa:lare as ,and the' bitS\i]~ca, ilyPl~ 'wi.t'hin o:r wHhou.t il WlallGd mceif1tl'~}' is; ~.l50,~ :sy mbo] k: :r~p~ntatlo:n ,0([t.he'dty:~ :N. D~va~ Il..a :re,p~fi'UUiIOt1t de~ rDQltu'me.('i'tS d~ns :~':alnt'iqu.ite, raro:iv-e. A propos
J ,

dl~ deux H:v.:res roc"11n:ls",; EIJ;j'1;'llel:iu M:O'llU";lt~J1.fjfl~, 138, (~9,80];:pp. 77=9S oan,d I·te ri!'i!!'p'p!r-i..,~nta~~oni ~.r(:=hjt~~tonjjcbe"~ M. P~(ddUo ~nd R, Am~~lJ (ed5')'I' U'UUH al,~,Rn$a~ .,."-J~ in ,Malf,~'·all., ~~C{J1li ,del' ,cm\ri'IJI,e,~fii)ill S~l,d'O'Sf.rfoml' Uerusa~.e'm. '1994.)~ PP-" 1,165-:23.0.

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dud laJe antiqu.e depictions of buildings are ~ syntheUC' :r-epre.sentations'i'::~some


are more schematic an d others more eJaborah~', representing the orlginal by onmbirting internal and external e~,ements :~na. sort of ~fhl~nl,1iid peespective' (pe:rspective apJ:anie) .,'~o his leads Du.va'~,to de'v.e:~op Q, series of' schemes that T allowr him to do the 0"pposite 'pro' and re.... onstru c~ "ha ,;io'rig,'I'lriI~,iIi buildine' v. ... ._~~,I'CJ
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(o:!t' buildings) ,f'rom,the depict~!on.'Uin the, :m,ajority of cases, FiLemther a $tand~ng; ~"origina] building' nor sufficient arch aeological evidence exists to ,~'va~u.ate Du val's rendering' of ~he building and, in tum" 'his reconstruenon. His theory' i~ based ";]1 tho' convtction tha·· h..te antlq u~ ';'ir~-hit~fi;o;rl'~'Jr,a,[. ,rri"i;c'lnt~:[~:0'~I~~ t =' .. - ~~"',~ 'FOP- ~~e~~_~__ are ='" .. ~S€_~ v~~ ~ ~v p_iI; purely' con \-I"e:nHonaL~1 :H:o~v,e,re:r;. the case 'Of ehurch mo dels in ~h@ :hands of in 'their pab'ons;.r he' admits both a, t-eaHs~i!C' a ,sym.born.ic valueJ, Insofar as the and
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model ,g,~n@raUy recalls the building withou t being: an accurate and c-omp:rn~~ie depiction, 'i~lIn 'my opinion, fhese inaccurate models do contain ve':ryreaJj,stk
elements and, their symbollc character g'oo-sfar beyond the simple :iS5U~' of
,~~"'4i~I

reeal ]1'1';"ioct ~'L "'" ~"':r)g:l· n ':i'11,_ · As has already been pointed out, it 'would 'be d ]'fflcult to iden tl fy the' nri"g~nalehureh from the models discussed h~;r.~, d;t~Plb,~ repreduc tion of the some distmctt VI~ features of fhe or~gInaJ]s.In :Po:r~~ ~:he sort of c.renem.a.~ion suppnrtlng t'h~'upper rOI'.)f n th~ '~uf['a sian model can be ~~In'in th~'nort'h~m, I
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rather than. th,e three represented in the model ..The curtain drawn to one side, which partially (overs the' entrance also lie-presents the Oil€' that was hung 'On,
the hangers :sdU visible on the original doors," In Ecclesius' model, ~he brick

9 Duv~~ 'IL~ repr,eseW!lt'at~irxo du :r~ilaio~,., 254""'[)luva] '~te"Ve~,opedfnrthe~r ~~, '~dea i1;I :pi';, 'N'41dy' ~. d [[[it ,=1~ii. rtnermer ann '[' ... ~ ,', K -h ,', ..JI ~OU!I:1!,-_ ~:m[~L,

'10 'Fur II :r\.i"tJ~ltJ1t' r~aSS(l'.s~~li1I!~nt of' litis vl~w:s;:: N. DU~'aJt 'tNol~ add lrion nelle !h~.l~Ii"~ 'famivt! 'i (i~cl' LIt"It"'" 3,944001 onn' 11 Duval, 'La reJ?resent'@"ti'On.du pa_brls',~~ ;d'~I.P,~~ ~a,:pip:resJJ'§tt~~zij'oni 'Le i~u,(."hitC'~;OnId"u1't . :300 p :fig" l2,; ifiej.r~'~, 'N~)~~' ~,ddilio:neillel,,pp. ~. 12, This effiarti,v~l.y 'sllSges~,th~,t the role ot,ar,ch:i~cmre i~lfis e56{ln.t:i~ruly'fun cli()l1a II' illi, w nO'~:igfijJicaJ:lJt:;sym,ooilli,cvalue. ~Fn:r u'\!'a]'l5 '\'Ie'W' of chu_;tch.lnoti.ldl!:!!: Duval, ~'Noh.~ D add,~,ti:mtdJ!c:~'~ :1:1" ,l94. Accord ing to D1n'~!a~l. Uite, c;i~crs m a ~mohu,rch ffis 'som,etilir.'kla-s used! 'to represent [he ci:ty !l~ ;::1, who,l~ :in ~'h@ ~~sl~nl m,os:aic:~l:ig"nult~ [Du 'V~J "L~ r~rn~vg~Dlaziooi a:rch~t~Uonkhi(l). .. W·["" Hnwev,ef/ images (If palaees, such as 'n~e(i!dor~,crs those in the' Utre~Ji'l:P~ruterl' ,are j'~'iSt' (I]'" g:~niii!I~h::' repre~nt~tio-ns '~[.'h:rvat~'L!1! rnosaique du pal«thulrl ,Agr~l.n.g: with D~.!IPva~", G" De' also Praneovieh, 1,1.P1I'l"2Humdi Tb~do.r.icQ,(~In ,CtJSJdit~ftll ~l~rcljif,eHu.f,tldi pole~,[~~,r(!R{l,m~1i' 1970) cleims .... · • ·1-'I'·o:lI'*u'r-~l- f-""'IflI' ... ~Ltii.. "' ·t',.: 'n • ik . 'llI'I" ..... ..t'ii(l,,,,,"'I- f>"~'1!¥1-"." '<' 'l'P' im....'!' -.. '" , { dJ~.'~ll . if'~ ,r.- ~ alv ··""~I~,"·~" '].3 N - Ouvat ~'R!ep~scntati~'I'!lsd;'cg]hie5 SUlf mosalques' i R:(;~m~d'~~' ,Lo!w,n~~2,,16 (197.2): 2
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16 The a mbularor.y origiHil!11.y h~d ~ wooden (Ciling, p:ro'~il'bly ro\~trrl€1dJ. in. ibrkk l~le8,; w~kh was replac,ed by t1i.'e'~v 'V~nw]ts,d tIJlr,ins[ the 'Midd]e- Ag~s: '~:Vv., Deie'hma~n]i!, ,Rm~'eml~l. HlfU'TJSbu(:I des ~"ii.ttmHkeu ~betr/,Q'11d~~" Kjjm'~~1:~ij'ilmT ("ne~b:ilden\. ] 976), p. St, :For lhe le,S'tQt~;l:ii:ot;'!js: N,. Lotn b~rd~fd~,Le '~rk~n.d~ del m,QrlJU m.'i!!nto di111.860 ad og,gii: l'elim[flI.ll:zk~];u~ "
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t:~le!li~, 'Drkhmamlll' R_mn:nw~:, :p,p", 65-9". Arodl ~'\{a] ocU'ments ,rne;ntiUfi Uiia:t:the bronze d of th~ ,cc(.JtlUa I ]'()uf w\¥r~ rapla1ood. ,G\n SE:!-lI,i!'er~1 oc,eas:uons; Fos'C'n:if.' "A:ppn[it~i.' I' p. 67 It, 37; l.tnn baJ--din~I' "Le' '\dc-ende" p..96. ru Th~' n:ri,g~,iT.i 'i ([l(1~~~,wl"iJ~,c_hwa~ $l~'bst1~tijjJlied (:I; c~py~,~'S'now tp:res-erved hil, th~ M ~~'Q is a for Nl~z.i(l!n~l~ of [Wv¢J1t'l1~~:R ,Ma['C~ltol' '·Sch.eda 699 in,A" l\la:rtineUi .. tn ,i~tlsiJ(ca\. vol.. 1",p. 2'l1:7", ].9 i()n lhe cha.ra,~;I~:fSof e;fJ~lntl"1i;~ ]lDwevcr w IIh ref€l',OOr;H:"'£' '!:Q !hc lFini:ddle Byz~nUnc peri.od~' 1Ft Magl!.l:ir'~'1',Arl' mId' ,~'l()qwmcti!.in ,BN~~~[,~f~:mi~' (Pri:nwtl]itii-J 1961); pp, ,22:-,8;L" B;rob~ker;, ~·r¢!r'((!'PtkH'1!.and Con!Oe':p tiO[ll':: Art~,tlhoo[y' and Culture i:1l Nhlth- il:l@ii:lrury By~~ln,li:u.:__m'· ~-V;i;lr.d i' m~'.;i,Inlasf.~5.1 (1989):;' pp. ~19=32.;t. J',am~ iUlI,d, R. \V~ibb~ 'Ih ~I.~uh~r~t:~i,~.~' n'.-iii,~,~ ui:th,,;ut,t:' ,{Iir.~ile'.;j1t.tt ili7 Ii. ,~' - - - ~'I~ 1- ,,77 '~"~;" ' ,~'f."cn;,[I]~~·u::-e~.;;; £"'p -h ,.'" tilIiil1u,n,,", lin u-r.-,.. ,~IlllU~:i~:',....n ~i.. 'lii •••. {']lfii!'li'1i~. 'p'P'" 'J.- ,-!Ii, • :['i'!:S:I~. - -.J A,rt "'- .uyz'.. ... ii-"', --i"Ii'I; ,. A -:1.1' li.":t. ' 20 [Concerning l¥.ri,tte:n s:ou:rces Md Ul5Cci:pU..Q!,i!,,'J:;,U!, M QJaj ]] I' in lur-siUc(j' 'C'~lfhj~imm ,li 0 Pt!'n~'l~a (r~.dova~ ']94.:3,), :pp,. i:fj...7; Toe:li'ry ar"dl 'Mag.~'ii~:re;. .D,vmm,r:i:c S.r}~t.mdc~,r, U" pp. ,4--5. '\.-1"101.
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wi~ a high evocative: ,cha;'!,a,(h~'.r,:a, bronze plaque of unknown odgin (F,~.g;. 2,.3).:12: "', . .. ,.'Ii.. ", f '.",- noar ,.'."', -"I as ,- li'l as, Jl..t,.," '~ ]._,ar,gf' St~V13,rPJJa,,~s cumlllg rrom hoard s, UILe K"aiseraugst \!\reJL.... mree '. .5'0= caUed iMe~l's[a.d'~pla.He/ (F]g;" ,2..4)",·~tl1IJ@' Cesena plate (FIg. 2.5),;034. and the Sevso .-, ,-, ,~,,,,,, ,'~'L \, trems ILUe, ;.' ... br:i,....",· -~I·'.. 'I d,ri d , ] Itm,u.u,8,.' ·d· rsn, J5 11'._ ~:n ,1-1aese 'i'~·' '.'.,Ii-'b" arl'CI.IIlJIi.!L!I;;;CI~i!o!u'a,.. eptc '-t' ··n'~ 0 rtoeruncaon as'.,IIlll!f.tllil.!L lO:~.;5." ..'.,.. fu !riI: ~l simple frames ,6IJt:r the' main decor"titi.v:esubjects but seemto play M, important 'roo' le m -1""'''"rr-''"t'I1' 'O"'t,.. .. -[ n'-[.~6nlt;e of th'........... p' ositilon I. m 'a1'1!:J"!L, u
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'M'Uc:ttt sdlo'~ar5'hl,p has been devoted to these metal wo rk ObJects", es p~ciaJ~y the plates, ~ The. structural simil ari ties between them have raised several hy,p(llh,eses, about it possible cummon odgl.rlJ,;., ujltiIDJl,a.~el~,ythese have been but
32, 'fh~' br'On~~' :p]~)~[UlC.h~iI~r'g~' : and ~o[ru;,:n.l\Jm:~bl:'larin~: holc13, J1dan.g its edge,t. :i:nd:lC"iJJtUng '~'h~l~ was or~ig]o~lI)1' i't r.;,~iv]~1 to lht;' back t'i:F-' ,a 1;~~de:n. chilli,r" flQ~~loeJ ,Muse-o Ar!-chiL,'!o:~ogko", :artl\~e:nt:or;yUlO. 1589~ lel1igt1h 63 Clr.L1.; hei,g~::!lt W 6.8=;8",9 em ,t~~d!i!:!l~5~ em. 'b:ron;l;e w:ltll ,sU~'e!r (1i ~ nd eo~p~pel",j:nha.y:,G" Dc' 11~[']1I,IIl'tas(l~ ~Spamielr-a di trono', ]n F, :Bisc(j[lt~ and G, Genti~i, (e~ls)1L~' riooI~l.zt~~i(i,eU ·;;l~m~h,~t ... (M~,h~])ol' ,200'7),pp, 141-3. ''"iI'''ioll, -~ tE"_ 1-" d\}J ,NuimC,f;ffiIlil£!!!!Um ...'Nn~lh:o.ry na, 'iii iI'ii,UII" ne'~hi- "ilI._'1 Oli! .. !!;,~,_dVh:.,~e1 'n R b. -=.·';~~ft ~I - ...;!'iOll r ,.:!',j; j·~U,[5S:i. .;jilj,¥~~.le[;an \ ~'7U';!:;.;~
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6000. g." [rtiel~!(]-ht]~j,cl s;ih~er :p:l.:!Jte"vith ,g~]druW!l,S~:P;E. ,Ad~~h ,phHH~ al~,geIU~o i Cesena' .. "i~ d A rm ilrt~rlD del,rf!' :5c~t,p.l~' .Ard~eoJ(lgi'Ol1 d~.IUe~'!ell1-,Th 0 (Th94 6=48,); plp\" 3]~, 8 ,15 Se"V80 T[-eaj9u['e~, ,1,llej:g.11J:~ :) cm." d~.i!ul11;e~:e:r.' at:iI\I' d.hlm~t'e~' or IChe' 10,,5 ~1lI:~ral imil:1dalliun ,2S.5, 0I:liiii;. weig'tll~ ,66:73g. ni~no--iJlJ:a id si:l:v'e!:1"p~,tlte '~'\l':~~h gj'ld:iil:1g. The d i h, !:;ho'~\!'s :~UlJJf1I:ts O:l:1J!S lren'!'fa~ t '1 •. m_ .....li"",11:l'...."'" ....,.. ..ill OllJl:~" i.;.o:,[ . .,j,n"" "'n- III ~"'","'1 "·41.",,, "t'''''nfP:'IiD''' ",~.."-.",, ,.. ,"lbe~..,.,...nJll-o"<::",""n- ·d.',,",sm """~ I "'-h'IIi;...:<"-1l-- .'[.".1Ii _.· ~U~" u~.
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detailed and definitive studu~~7 'WhUe '~he~:r "T ~ . '." "'=h-"il'" ". b,.I a :'0" Ul! 1 ," ~ "..,.,~,.-,"', -,,,,,......... -ed ~, ara _~_,ec..'...."1]- ,repr;ese" ,j."il'l'··o'n'-· I,IU:.L ",. ~],':.',I,:r"-"." '~in'~'ff~'m'lp'l,u' reconstru ct ancient , " V I" C ,e , , bU[ ." ~~,~,:;1i,2$., '.~ h ,;:'ld],'I,j'n'O''''''' ragraph sue'~' att 'we n ~the ifl "e ··lu us p'....'u:~, ..lUI, .,: erevkn ,'~, r<!i,· .~I 'u, .."Ci;ID' pts rer haza d ,'1 ,. ; at~ 'b" F'" I' ,,'~I.. " ...,., ,!iL~,'~. , 'I' sue . ,,.' ~_tl.7:£1['_OUS ":eSI~,,, ,'t':] .; , . ", .... ,. .. ,,' arc ']'.ueOl:.tru.ra.~,repreSeUilJllL.lOIDliS,i< such1 as r-ur nermore some ',', ,. it
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those depicted '~n.~herseobjects; ,may have 'been purely Imag~na:ry; 'Based on these 'ill- '., _.'' .. no ,~ma,gt~S,;r ,:'., ',f':acr .d'umcu , ],i- to de " oh er !l.W u~: rrurrurai ,'~I 're.'1,I), f' nSt.li d"P'be,~ n is 111, ; ct ,.~.,." ,',.0.. ,eelp". -' s !ii, ween th..,, ,L .,~
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o.f tlli.e Kaiseraugst '.' . f"l~·C·-·,"·-··n'·' ,p_ae as C~i!.~e,., V1 o.n ,,~'h""II' lIm Oc. u_,e ... ese~~a plat "I"i~'i540f'\.1'1.:i...' ~ Ute e ..
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'walled. enceinte. The 'pedim'mlt on the door seems to extend mto a,roof on. the side,f;'! above I!J.Ji ,I~ wall, 'H' '=")W"fjv:~r, __~_~~ ier 0,£ o~h.@'tr. structures 'w~.th P ediments Sol ~, . V~ ,_ ~~, e~1a'"numb ~_ _
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d ome are 'Ili~p': esented between the wall andthe roof.On r the M'eelst~,dtp]a tte, ~he w~l1 circuit has three op€"trl]ngp find several buildings appear behjnd them, These depict~on5 are ~'ss~nt~aU.y different, despite the di S:Play' of some similarities such as surrounding walls wi th en trances 'topp€',dj, wi th domes or 'pedim,ents - elements that' ICOU.~.d the main fea tures of a Idty. be' llo:we't:et~la te antique depietions 'o,t'cines tha t adopt fhe' pOil1 t 'of '''lie'vv of an observer standing' outside the 'walls,,. rnndu.de' gT;telillt 'lr'ilalls'l tuwe't,S .. monumental " 'b' ~ 'd· . . h' '.' "'~ld-'1j;' ,~]', " ' td . t"I3l:r,II!.y L....... errrranees iSln, ,t m most b cases, 'b' n•... .nn dir :~n.S:S' t- nat 'COU!Ii' east IV anc c 'l·...··" .:" ~
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context toe huntine ~11.-41'b~,nq-;'~I~'d'l' c.n0n.Q""'~I'rP.' ~;h.oreflection I!)l' ~ ~. __owners' _ =_ -0 _U ~~ "1..[ rich _ _ __ ~ real practices; representations of vWUas 'in these mosaics ,r probablv~"represent the .r
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owner's estates.5!n

The- c - ~~ ~ "~,- lr" _ ,- - - -, of '~lun.~in.Q'a!r~'lill:i~e"ural and banquet scenes .. ~~- cembmed appearance -, ~, ~ ~- -, "~ - ',r;,' - ~ c-~,, "[,t .._" " "- ,~--,~ 0),1 mosaic decoratlon offers a, rell able basi s for runte:rrry:reting'! niLe 'Hems 'under ~
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exeminatien, whkh were all, found out o.r' (;:on~ext..[H The- juxtaposition of hunHng, and architectural (as well (1$ COJ1,v,h·:i,aJ) ~'m,~ge5. sugge~t:5 both (11 i-", , ;" 'b'i'I' 'i tv ,t. ~iIJ '.... "'ii!,.,, " .0 .fa "J:' .' t·: ',: "'i,t',] ,1, ~;I e ac .uvmes an d' I ~;I,- s.tUt'"a.,.l. ,l,.) 001 ,ji;I,.:' .Icuno,gr,a.p~ ;I.y ,t"" arm ..ran ..y \\ ,l.. l~iIJ,lIjec,j cti ,:"' ,,' ",' l~~~e IL1S "" decorate rich silve rwa re and, ,]11. the case of the chair 'back furniture, The choice of the raw lr.ilICllted,al (bronze, silver and go'~d)as. well as that of
I' :~' "

~;~ l:eC!I!iI;inl,q ue t, ~"",0 ';,',',:d.-,,~' .. ,.J sllve , ' ; rne:,~"..~rnsuu ,-,I,UIe.]'1'':, an , g,l.~~,d' en suver or copper'ii
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l:he peculiarity-~ of the objects, Precious :1,netuJh;,were valued not onlv for their ~ 'V'-' 'Jl 'a er ec t" s: W~,l, t'] ", .'il'i1t' ] the ]' .. "h ,Jg, ,1, 1ng... mone t ary_a ue '0'u ~ a.'I00 .f' or meir slunlno 'il' r .le .rIg}, t l ] I"" ~;~':'11 could 'I",,];~, ... lavs "' '~~l"'-<:'I I," . ~e ,=su.a.~. ,~,,-; aran e ~ine.) eou .... create ug u prays enu~U1CU]gthe visual appearance 1 I,f' ~'i4"~'p,la 0., 1~,Ue .• ace
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where' U~eywere kept-51 Although studies on late antique metalwork have'


shown

broad ,50ci~1~pectrum, 5J, th~ rich. decoration, large size find high quality of s the items discussed h~]i'" suggest wealthv owners, T) borrow Leader-NewbvsJ J~JJ~".. ,.."~" "~ ,} t, ~
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show's, ~h~ :]d:e'a.liz:ed imao\e' of' the owner and his llfestvle', ~ 0 wooden chat]" to which the bronze plaque was ().lrigina'lly· nailed would ha P'e be "."'. " " .'.-','. ", :.,.,'\1"(' pH~ce 0.. ,JJIJ,m']ure, P ,ay~.ng,t··'iIl..· '. [~'. iblee ',.,.]'[.." '.···:f· a sear ':. 'f' ,[';1, I' .' t ',]," :·,1 :l 'c' .11Lt~ Il.lOU. roie 0. , .a\ .. een an expensl. e ': r·. and of an ind~cat()r of 'the' owner's means, gO(}C~Jtaste and. perhaps status. Large dishes ~ h "as *ffile' t""'fi.e~,,,.Lscu· issed jIl--.,ere-.: were "pooua",! 'I.:'" ed.•c:lor b ;,- ,,.. cu· ~.s di .." ~ ',-, ...... '."[.: :.", ": :L.r( blv '!Use .. ,i~Hliql.le,'s . ".. ,,~. su " .,_ 1 simnlv "pil it on \.t; sp 11 j: ]"11"1 "'),1ises where .-:I]. v ~Ir;;ng" wi ~b t't.';a dlA ...0 nd f-~I,t ture ro, :d rr.-¥ .l :~:I~ lu,rfl,~i 'l6j. they would serve as ways fo:r the' house owner to d bp!,ay his 'we~Uhi' elegance and culture to h~;s,_ g[l@sts.l'l~An inscription on ~he SeVS() 'r-late ~dso reveals , r tha t they cou Id also b "e' t"r, nsrn '1 t I .... _, throu 'o'?'h inh ,<;JI:r"1 ted• l, .~ . Y'O ,,' ~cti("lI;'m' aen ra..f.'~.Oiloiil ~r~ W~, • 0'1::" '1l11;.i!' generation, ~ S~:rK'Ie' plates served 'both as objects ~o d.lsplay to ~he gues~s the as he ','1, .. 's. ,t"1 th -""1' an d.,'as ,LII,I;;;IL(]Om,"~"" 'I,]i.··'.' - " , ~, wou :],;1" nave 'va, ueu tneir ,1,COnt~rapl;iI!y,.:i:.:-,. .t,,,, power . leu n wners l,. L'."·I.'r'· ·."'."'1 s .... to cn:nvey,an, image of their Iife as they wished it to be. Given the simultaneous appeerance of ~lIlunt:ing and banquet themes on "l'h' ,e: d ,~'i,' ,<:~'~j 'II :"'~~'~'~ ::.' d metarware " >-'h ho '. c',~, t'·, :, . •. iomesec mosaics an" "', ~ ~I' ."':1' ':eT~(~,Il.ncr ,.1,[ usenoi1ds, representanon :.1-' 0.·.'f ,SjI ' .~.,y"., gre,at country V'~Uas ould leca,U tea] a rchitecture and serve as a memory of the c ., an' 'n 'W'~l ~ P . :.:pe.'= ,.~:(;?S d .' m'.,~ \o\""[) . ¥,,,r'" ,'~ O,[,€~ -rs r rcy C'lrt.~.., L~ J,j ,LJ ""fl:1 i.wea ]."I "fiJ ann' nl' "]' ,11..1,'~h .. appeanng ~ on h OUS€' 5 tic ~r" d' ,,~,,]g " , lA neo .. ~~~ .,. . 'I'~" ~~ .. ob~e(;t:$nd room decora t~on"such Images W'i~r~' a mean t to reorod 1'1 ce tbe same , . .r''C~,,,, ea., ~:It..._ :.~, _'. 'Iu} t"I-"1 a 'p'!pe.a ranee '1.e)f ~,L'. '.. 'I,as". " ;Ii,i'-.-' coun ',lr}' 51,. ,e,. l'~ w'[··' ] II g,~J¥en!-o.. ,~Ie -[', .' .-:, . '" ' ·: in me Id'.', u:npreSISHln ot me vu Re~~'f""cli::~'ri fa_,l!J._ ~inn:5 t':},{' ",Y"'U'r[I r tv.', ma nsion Il:. ]'",'TI·.",-1',,,,,,'Ii"'-1\i'~r' S'~il]i}~1.~I not '~r: \.;.~_ ~I]' ,:.::1 ,,!!! ~ ......[.! l~J~ nl'i's~I';d·ered as s~:r~il(My accu ra te pll.o~:Qs~f the estates ..beea use' they a lso be."r a st reng ld eal o nd the CO'U!ll[[V "' -. a:roUI.l!'1 ano sym .'b·.'I:··val .UI,;;.,V''j'~]as reeresens ~"I~ :n..Ie. a "~ ru~IH a,oca itio ;lOn." ',:le coi t· ." In(U'H;~on~ ., - d' elates r TIl@
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"And the :mother ,di.dnot ;s'p'.a·re'the baby at her breast' or S"~'"~l~,c:'h"~ng'" ,'~,,', ,., '.'.''in 'Iecnoctonia , and 'Iecnephagy e,a"c 1, '.~ ,for Meaning "",' " " ... .. . _: . "'O'J
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More than a century Iatel" we encoun.b!!'l" another case of tecnophagy, It allegedly occurred during a sruege-':~n.du{:--ed, f amine in Liguria" in the win ter of 537/38 in th,€' CDtU~Se Justini,an,rs, Gothic '\.Vars. OU'f SOiUn:~is Datius {died of A· . (,Ii"~. :" op 01. M·· J_ ,an , ' ·d·. ~.' ~ [' ',. sh J;:JL .~ ,·ttt·.:. ,1./.: 55'2)' '." ~"'"rchb IS ..", ' ": ,,,(;' ,_ . 'I'YI-"'I an , nlS " aCCOllln[1l. IS ,ilJOun ··d' ,1.0. "+1ft .... .we,r rOU,dpCtldS"n'['I,' .. Il.nC, aJvague manner he states that 'in some pa rts D,f' tne region 'women. ate their' c.no',V[[l... childeen bee I ' nuch "il,l.e.r ::. ..I!-'L ::, _ 'p_l..", "J tb,e 'P:~'::'I" :."-' 'I"~,". aU!L.llUo.r." ".u, '. iIi...J'!t:.oJco:n . ., i .... " , ,,'" ","';:~" __~c,aU5e "< ,,- f '!l,.e ~ .r!alnLne '." A·'-'·· ,muc {L ~h-' t::; .. (c.12n=SOO)1 soices j t '~'p- v sp ecify' ina' that' mothers consumed parts of their .,.b 0 r I,'" fo te. 0, ,,spF,~n,g, . :1.:2: 'Jlhl' e same 't·· 0 sources!!, !.-I rue~Aver pr.,,, ~~lcalr.'"i: an·.. P< [1. ··ff' ... [-;i' . t "·''''1'' =~" ~l...,~ :,f,~. - on J.;',(;,-- ~'" . td .'a.u . un Ord]na. ,. _ \\ _r,et~.u,more 'Or less, the same story ~hi;S, ime cnncerning the dire famine thal t br .;k:-:ii out . uurulg the stege 0"f'..IR""".om.e bi 'T" H't,; U1,;;J't;): ~o" 'm 1-+ ,:;i-·, In ~~re.sJng o that .. ;t _ _O~_ec ~ ...iiI '·,"1: ,..€ '.,: ':,. ,.. . y 10tm.a ';1 ~il,r;;,!,~1"': Il.,,]S _I~.a,~. P:r o~_op~os :5',"3'·:':'0> ~r\"\\_-,.· a. cOHIle.mporarry .' au ;~.'I!""I· . - \'\ (}. h £Ii _ ,a,c-ccss"to fi.rs_ __aD .. k"'-j :>c Uf_ .' ..~ liSh -'~';'[' .. ",' '." ll.uOf, who sd ":';',''',.'.-.'.' ~ rst-h and v~-" 0. information of the- e'vent~: as secretarv o·t the ..... 0. mm andina ~~\ , ~ -.~,. - ~ - - -_. - ---~_JJ .-~ -n aeneral Belisarius _iou.:Il.J,'l-lo (althou eh ·);'t re ~ .. vhethor h.. '1,"1' ... ,,,", in 'I'''_'-'~I~:~in t"'.Jj,:I~, p- oI"Jin\i"1,d·")·'~~ and who h ·,~c ''I:''IeO' '. i\.,.··-,,"-t .:1' ~ __ ,,:_, diffi('U]'ty- In recerding the practice of cannibalism as such ',r '1.5 does not 'mention ~,.-, .l_ ., this ,_. ~'!i-~' ,a', d e.~ .....fb e 1n, the da ke ··t-""co 'J.0 urs .. tlu@ fffi,;,,' ',.'.... ,. itation th, rt '," ", _1 __~ fa· .. Ithough he d ~~ ,~!L'I!."'. ,H ~"'=[[ ,. e ,a.rJ~S lJI!@vas a ..o _' £L the famine brought on: 10
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ea tast reph es are Included In Johnrs w.eg,ister, ,~unong'them, .fi.,gu. res prominently

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2UI G. D~,,~-e[~~iJ,:(l{j''rh~ Ca:nnij b~ll,isti(: ,I,nlp' 'i!lJ~~s. of E)!lfQ;nts.;i in B;r1.'~~( ' ~~i}le~,!s; of ,., Ef~~t1oj1sycJ'~i(,j,r!l (O:iC'~"goancli lt~~I~,don.!' '~9.s(1)~, ~122-3i'(esp ..P~)' ']2~30)., p:p~

Material cu drept de 3.utnr

the' form of pro,iecUo:n.

H,€ does not speei fy which form s this proiectlon cou ~d

take, but a dlstant echo may perhaps be' found in, that overused phrase so often addressed to, small chUd:ren (and not o:n~.y ~he~:rmothers): '~'y,ou,'re'so by lovely ..'~(-o'u:~dat you', e Th e ".bov,e' theories were, as a rule, ~QirInu'~ated thout ,any basis :1 n v~ri.fi.a ","'i ble ron te,:mpota r,Y' accoua ts, In r;;u::t', browsi l1g through more recent hlstorleal records of mr " th ,ers ktll 'I'~g"-:::' and e:""'t'.- iYi g- , their ch [~.(-·I"',",'yI1··'I ha 1Il"'' j; onlv 'rna nased to find. two ··~"I~' .. ~,. " , ~, ... " it"." ;i;;~. ,I ~ ___ _ ,~~ _ _ ~ cases: one, during the sieg~ of ~1e.~st)1(Jnghi in the, Gree'l<. war g"f Independence in,.lILOLl. ";1 O''l'6,~,:~~' d a no,-:-t']l' e"r~' the. ~r~''''o t: the De.... an in ~]~ II ,"F1''''''f 'ID~lr~~~',-. - _of' ~!' .l _ ~,~_ who a nioneers .IJ.. ~~1~1~-group ~ g,o~ lost: and f:r,2),pped 'by' 'bad weather- 'i n 'the mountains of' 'Utah in the. winter 0,£ lB46/4{,.~' I~~both instances, hewever, the, m{lthers, had aJleg~dl,y' consumed tlteir .ailrea,dy dead illfanrs\, As 1~seems C(H~[1oJbt'uation of ~he cases of tecnoctenia and tecnopha gy in 'Late' Antiquity \--;tin '[lot come from merely juxtaposing it 'W'-, Ith mt' -1ern ev ~;d·~.u;\IfiI' .1, _" 5uiLII!,'1 '",il!" for :-'II~~"'i\'iI; 1'1'., nractiee. IU ..~'_" th,,!I..~ I!'il~ o:c;;~r"]I !!._, ~~ t_ corrobora tion ~;;12 ;;11~ . _ "I "'1t;1,~ , .... ,L...:;. i(\o:'!ut}ii.! yo..,~ _ ~ cannot be found, because suc~hevents never (KCU rr,ed"? ,A d.i.ff~rent:approach to these cases would be bJ 'vie'~ them not as fact, but as
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t:hjisnarrati ve complex :i s 10 be found ~nother; older, in.fluent~aJ texts,


In the vast moti f:-~ndexcompiled by-Stith Thompson t'her~ Is indeed, a large uum ber of'exem ples referring ~,o mothers eating their children. ~ ',Ule material ttom l"hie'l;. tlt~5 ((JU,~ction is ,cfHnpU:Cld is fairly recent, 'but ~t is possible that C rked into_ -I;!Jju;,} ,-p:~:,,~tlv "C:'i"o~p_,:~,r~'1~'~~H,iI!-ancien "t preoccupations with f'LiQi' subject II":~~:W'O,' ,,' ... ,$ ,1;''':;:'" ' . c:u~e-l lilll u.~ I~ l~ "" W ILIIL..:; d, "''''' the form of myths, parab]~s and Iolk-teles. Perhaps, however, there are more "1iJ ormativee texts et play her '''''., ones ~hat:have a proven and close' relationshin.F to LO~,._""'IIJ.~ _ _eo __ ~he Chr,isti.an IG:m:leek cultere tha t is the backbone of Bvzantine literature. Two Biblical perlcopes .fit this rule quite well. The' first instances are' found in Deuteronomy: lhf\Y' are curses against those '\-\'110 disobey the Lord's commands.
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Material cu drept de autor

The' second 'passage refers to theslege of Samaria in ,2, Kings 6;:28-:30in the' ,~ate
ninth ,centI!J:ry Be E.,Here's 'whfJJ[ a women tells ,king [oram:
unto m 11!U'." G'~I·ti'.oUIII]' ;;;Il., I~ U,,~UII~,WP, mav eat him ~' d. ~W. and '!'VD '\jr~~]"I....a ..• ~lrv ",,')M; *:b,~~, _. •. ,,!~J.J'" '" : ~~,iL" eat :my son ~'O :mnr.ru\v;" So ""Telboiled my' scm .. and. did eat hien: and. I said unto her ' on the next davioGive th:v S()IiIJ UilaJt: may eat h~,m; and she halth hid her 5{J1l • we' ~ .J
"f"iI!l'I'S; 'Ilj;c!'-~:m' "'!:iI_ Ui ''''!iIi'''" said ,I!.!I! • ~_ "{~" .1,!O'I!u.
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The P assa .:r~e combine "~1'1 ·th·- a elements that are present in the narra tives 'we 'have discussed; 'w8:r,6l'Fie';!, a, state of sie._g@j' a, 8e've~e f'irndn@ and ultimately the people's resort to ('anniba.~is:m,and es.pedtllU.y to the' ea:til1g of their own children by their mothers, These. incidents of inJanUdde and cannibalism carrv P owsrful metaphorical connotations, Givrun~ Ufe' to r1J child and then r'lO takin g it ,a;w,ay signifies a reversal of ~he binary eou ple In and out: a child comes out' o~ the 'womb and is returned ttl it throu.,g;h consumption ..:-~ Civen l 111 th tn ", .":' ~ au' th -l"~:h~ o.~ ,.1~b' ". ~I·t· ~sl'. t"- th ,e ,.:.... t a_=..y "rid th ,I-.:e% ,hua 'J' d'· n " ..,,;e . [e'men}oU~ IY' , "'(: t'h] - ~ b ..',lIJlca.w ,.eXI~,._... ,- .. - me'~.~... '~i '" a,~,_, I~J!.d;;~ .. n .. tradition of the Byzantine world, \'V'e should not overlook the fa,let ina t these passages (nold ha,veJ, a'~d -probably did fU11.tCtion as a, model for cannibalism narratives, It prov lded later authors wi:t~, a set of authoritaUve, images that 'W:·:.. er..ain to brln "g~" _. connotatt )'t'lii!:'"', :JI 'I;,.!Ii. the b}ib-' lical atch.,e _',.' r"'" ~I;;i"lioheir text C.l" !I'ip'" ~,.: -. )~ _. I~~l'y::·l~ t ,,,,,,.~"!Ii,_,""" ,~, il' II,!,' '
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and Christla I~ authors as attested. by its wide use' in be th Greek and Latin tex ts ,=,,£rou "g'~~~ "h"- ..... ..'ih(-}!I~'" '-t'hl~ Mid.d]',j~,Ag-:D.;;!. In ,~ passage lI)f 1I_~'101 f""'!r'!J.f.,.-r". Wfif 'FI~(,.~. ~ 'ltiii'.;;! ~'j'7,~';i:'~'il ~ avlu,.... t~_, ~'osephu5 (('.37:-100) narrates I~'be. fo]!owing: story. [ quott?:t, omHti:ng certain
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mouth H·!!, swallowed 'I'~- , _,- Z·· ,!l.i!' took s ~' , lIlI.-"" u. ~'!I''''. "l,.. _., }"~r--:~I~:",:",_'i; v __ .,.. trlp.'and ... swallowed U as Cam.. had done, 'bu ~ :it stuck hn,h~' th:r<),[! t, He SC.O()~l!i;~d ~s~~ his it handlnl of snow Into hls mouth and manegcd 10 'wash it d.ol'irn.:l3
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These are new and harrowing i:mages of cannibali sm; their techn:l:ca.1 detai Is ,_,that is..in our particula r context ,~ their breaking free of the 'Wl.tlog,ens~e,h:dan impasse is what makes them so d tstresstng. But:does the fact that late an:H~]ue
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Does the proved existence of a strong model :OOintif c~ign:i,t}!'" t'har ~'h~~ Iate anljque cases of ~nfm'ticide and canntbalism are me rel Y' f.ktio:n? Ultima ~e]y this ~s ~f~:most a qu~stlon 01.1' ou r lndl v i:dual u ndersta WiLd of' human na hn"ie' [ng and \i!V'hat w.t is .orr.- is n[)~ c-apable of IdJo:ing. We CiU'rul.1.0t be certain that these ]ate' anU,ql'u~ mothers killed, and, ate thelr own children in times o~' dire fam,ine" But maybe this particular question ~$, not the !Illl{}st central One" Perhaps i.t is ffi:mpor~antto dwell ()11,the' supposed antithesis between topes and f~H:t and consider whether these two ~:li,fiy'not 'be' mu tually @xdu sj ve, In m,l" opinion .~~- ,e unc mu -:ie" l resorreo ~\;_. ~ m.... peup ]._. ,,- -- do, ibt ~dlv resc rted I~""') ..... nnib .. r.. -mder exrre .n.... cond._~_~' I,_' (,_!1~151 unuei extreme II. C( ,~~ itj'("I;Il-S pf' ~ amine ,(I nd sta rvatlon, The infortna tlon tri ckled ,dow'~ to QU F' a,uthors who made- the choi:ce to dramatize It 'by using a 'w'eU-'k:ntnvn and, powerful motif:' even n'rue mothers, wbose tnstlncts, ~¥~' would like ttl believe" would be' to }''"ii,~''r:''P·:,,: '~'~,~-~i'-r' Iives for the survival of' t:he~r ehildren. did the opp usite Sm .. !Il_I~Ju.::e l~.~\e~, r wn ~~_~._ ~ ~ ~ lL _.. () __ ,' ~ _~_ ~ _ __ ~ _ ~ ,I, and killed and ale ~'h~i envn off~S,:prill,g. But a,ga.~n would mean to overlook r ~his the psychologtcal and, moral breakdown inflicted bv stervatlen. In a state of 0 torpor motbers 'w'ho took, awav~ U~H~' bread rations of their cl1ild'r-cn :~n.di iferent £ to the de,pdv,aljon of tlheit' oHspdng, have been observed. 3~ Perhaps the distance between such behaviour and H-ruatof the sources discussed a'ibove ~'5 less great
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Th e rem "'Io",-'~n·::'Ii'e:'. betwe '):U' r world and th of rLC_.,ll"",.A-IIf'I;'~-l·q·' uitv when 'l·!ii11"Vll;.~~"t:Q5 _e,iI;.ce.~li 'U, ,.WI.!!., .. l~, ,l~ ... n ","""", comes '~O:... hunser an d starva tion ,~:,," vast, A.···· Piero ;C··· nO-'F£~F.;;:i put i~: ~ m ",,..the ~VJ~I,L"" l.'. lIll ... ~llO"""" ~.u. horror ~~ornth ropophagy and p<atf,iOip.hagy becomes ever 'more consistera the a more western curropc'an society is spared the pa:n,g's;, of hung,e.r~',.J5 Our search fur meanjng has ex pectedly shown how elusi ve and. ,nee't~llg 'L.--"i;";I~ the q~I"Ii~"i~iI1-~,~..1j t· ts o :bie·"orf"t. , ~.." b e Alreadv 'J<' llil.,I~t:,.u,..... "-!I,ll,iF ¥t-'l"'ng: to 'g. t-,L<T.Ii'r •. L f.;~,r~, nu '"JI;f' .~ ases ,ull,un, _"'~ _, whose supp osed similarities make them, susceptible to a joint analysis is ~'~':!1ing'; as Foucaul t has shown this :quest fo:r a t-ypolog-kal Investigation probab~y'
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33 PoP:,Read, lU'h~',;Tlre ,SI'(ffY f;j' the' fb~j ~'f;,"ti ,S,f:j r~riiJon:;(Ne,\! ')rod:" 1974,:~,PiP',,'fS-!9. J4 S:k~ulrra!~ e'l: !1J ~~; ~~X:OJwebAoy,{~:p." 343., 35 Ca:mpo:r~$i, ,Bt~:nd of.f)nt:m,t~" 'P'"531., 36 ,(Tih~ 'Bidh oJ ,a '\V~l\dd'" in1~!rv~I~'w :M, 'F.Uf[1,JC!lU]t. (first :p'ublished hli U M~m'e' lJt~ ~~,idl [i~)'rl:;';;,1 ,3 M,!l,Y '1'%9.J~,iii; S. ll1'tr.in.,g~~r (ed],,,ll F~j' ij',t{tf;~lt ,Li'~~C;, C(JUtlC'ted iJ:fllt:,rf),ie',w.5" ]~9:6~; 984 {Ne''iI,~' -:1: Y'Or/k",ru 9,89) ...pp" 65-7', 'Thel' ,1.ll.aJ~l1lboob by :F,ouca,u h alh.uied '~O are -n~(:' Onler ,a/lJli!'lgs (Londun'I'
']970)
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rnillennlal g.ap t'~at separates us from them could make us ask: i[ you are w,hat~ , " "" , ,-, t} ~. .... . , "1 L,' ld' . . : ..... dh .. . ... . _you,ea,t w h:.at am ron h, ,you ea t, your cnuc renr? ·W:'.. are" ,~egiln :m,gpeap. .]e as, : '·,eo they are coping with dIstressing events and -trying: to report' U~.em accuratel Ys one hooes, bu 11., ':I'''' the same time Ieellng !l.W:~. burd en of 'g~:ri.i'jIiIl'FIi!.~.,'H'''um:'',~I1''~ cannot ~i~ell. ,1:"". Jl ,. esc~pe their own, context, mostly because there are Iimits as,to how much of lit: thei r can con '5~'C1'- ~~ __ ,a'''p' re _" ,.iIi~',ni~i'"iip'.iI; in -w,l~l ~- ... ,' _.... lously . '.:"'P hend . Th ~ ;""'~O"'!lTO ,C",~I'Jl'1:..""1 read "k," . " "1' ~:' ',··t·,' ions ,,' ~tb'I' m,a.'Jng" SUC1. umt a't", ' ., VI,d".Ie.
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whom ~l·l~'~Ili'I'i~i~'~l'l;!' vzanttu m,' 'iI;~'''!i'l\-'' been , l'.d:1 t:"::.iF-' 'J lnd ebted since th 1-piOn;!!, 'oA: eenlv ""~,!I,JI.~ .n·ljJ, !Ii, B Ill,},' u, , 'u....ore. - "",t::,l :t:. G."" ~ce,11.~,'~t':. Her doctoral ['hesis, written under the supervision 0 f 'Herbert Ke;-551'e:~, and published as, m, Important book in 1'999,.'1, had boon, completed Jn 198;3, nd a from, 'the later 198Gs onwards her work demonstrated the debt to co:nfe:xtM,a_l approaches which sh~ has herself identified as influencing Byzantlne art h~sttOnI~,2 onl ~ context, but also perception, 'ways of seeing', the relation ,Not v ...,.J~ '~~"~ 0between word and Imagl€'~ and reception are central to her wor k and nowhere more 80 than in. her subtle and complex expositions of Byz6Jutin@ cultural nroduct ."~]. 'in t~Cl~IO' ;in't-_I~ "'-....,.~I~'lyd rv 3 'C>:'u,'1 [,'!7II'1 hisrorv, or c u,.~,.~ra 'I ,~h·lld-ies, ", t~ ~, :0'" '4, f"£II~,i-. • .!1'! '~I'''' ltu ~, i!?' h r'[_' U ,_ v., .,a .",...... realm ,~v:~thin hich many ,~~t:eantique and some :Byzantine historians who '\V make ~xpUd.t U5@ of (:r,~ttC'altheory now place themselves, and Brubaker' has, herself seemed ~o be moving in ,his direction, especially in her CHI~ct' t .... "tll!'n,',~ta ~~l·.a-'n' the pro blem ,c' su rrou ndlne 0 th n '''O''p~,i:''''i!' '0"£: materl,,'~Jlt'-.., .[],,,.'~ and 'r'iin· ~~I cu ... .... -.v "L~,U,,~ .,,",,'-: '"', of gender.'; Yel' the uncompromlsmg emphasis which she places on material culture - objects as objJects '_ :1:]1 her 'book. eo-authored "vUh John Halden an the' St)U1CeS, fot Byzantinm in the iconoclast era (noi,1 'we are to understand,
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art. Thls contrlbutlon, written by a,hlstorian who has, had goo d reason '~Olearn from Bru baker's work, asks whether such, a ~ensIon is inevitable, and how the
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the '~astqua:rter of the se\'en~'h cenhny; and especially in the' last ~WC) decades of The ,a.r;-'Im~e", _re~~ - si tTn~:fi,can,['~~; the ,as.'i~jrmp-~iorrt references to- .an'p. a rent ~~"'- gL ,-:nt -,~li,es -~o---- ----~---y on ~-- ---~ -~--~ - -- -- ~'ha~ _ -~---~-- - '" - - - --!r;,; --- ---cul t ~lna,g~s :i n pre-l ate seventh-centu r,J(' texts ,a![€in f'a.tt lnterpolated; ,1'tlloMgh in some cases the i :rus s~;i out. many of the ba sie at1:0U n ts 'Ij"P(UI '\'V hlch the' ury I,~ Kirzinaer model rests are now '.: generally accented, as Iater [ntermo]ati,ons into o ,IF r. F-;,(','· lud ear. .wer 't-,· .eX,l":;,, l11' ,. or her 5l1.CiIiI ,I:'e,i.er.en,ces U1Ciliue ~'h>" ":" ",. ";h,--.e S--'-j'~"- ',"::',,~:i .M','-:;o,:A'~~: ,'le,f"" ~. .~., - +,o.se Ul ,_ -: - Ii- ,I'I',l:ifJ.II~7.:I,,eCh~i~JUJ ,_, cf Iohn,II,. M···c'·~.~ I.';;;I'Q' end the ,.M··. _, ,;..rnc-:P.~t"i:("'::I C-- ('Wl p,~u,,,, r,,~:~A •."'" 'J.,~,ja'-.-:'~~'a-- So '~w. :\6"] as j,t']llu ·M·· ...•. (; r. j'~~ c .'D_ 1_·.~ osehos ,,!,... "1"'[:..;,, '. ~ i" ,ti, o/.A,rMUli,u,s from ~heseventh ce~fltu:ry:,'~We have lcerl'ail,'ru'~y come in recent yea rs i
'I

~h'\'c__ eenn "''I:'''V''


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~'V"i.s'i -",t v~s'i~'I' - __nd ____ ~1'11.-~, - __ tations ~_ .-r-"'" ][;:,,~t.,~~ ~ ~ ";; - -~-~"~
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to recognize the extraordinary extent of textual manipulation th a t 'went: on


during the :~,conodast period in order to manufacture approprlate €lv1.de:nce for the, 'konophJI,e case", but a word of caution 15 perhaps in order when WiC' see ~hat· Bru baker herself recQgnJ.ze:s, O'iJeextreme paucity of the evidence 'ro', . ... ermore, '.W-] .11e " :5] ie is 'un d ourbt ~.... ng :' "] ,....'~ .... ". ,", .' . edlv '-"h"I~' '.0 eftn. 'Hl tc queSdo.rru.- the Jl";.l'z,mg'er t-,·· i' .0 ..'" .!IO; ..... r ur t·]- a,,',. - - . :' ,w) J, i,e1I(:',t- '-"", ' '--"',d'- e. ., ---' ou., ,mo-"'1"~-- , OJl.a searfl:IJeSs. nse nl llUe it.u:...: .. ,'c'_'- ','.", ... 'I,,,,,,,,,,":l-'i' ,"'.""us Inlag~s ,.r.o.m. a. -b··-·",]'-t, u.eJ,lblon lp.ven dJ re,~.g,l,o ,AD 550." whh:h (]Jlm'hlated in -the excesses to whi ch ~'he konocltls:ts object.ed, lhe shee:r com,ple'xiUes of the' ~extiUale'videnc€; and the e'xlent of la~er,re'vis:i,otl,
1 ~~ ~

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-'-c' f '.,
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:is equally Hn.ear in ~'r.at :reHcs (\-vhkh for her In:clude ,adleiropoietaJ imJag:es of'
1, "-'-",!.,;,~~, ~

tit~r lntrod

~o R. O~'$-t:e~houtand :t, Hn.~ibdl~kelliedsJi' ~n~e ( Sf1,C'n!{~' Jm'.~8r, Ens' andJ' l""t~st· ~Chk'a.go~,W,99,5)1 pp, 1-24. An. .iclHl of Chri~l, 'w,ils ,i:rnd("€..fl :pr:;oC!essedJ (J·nIJh~,w,~.lh,)>i' ~'!jf(!n if .nol:
tu,)t iol1l
c

o [iI"f:' of the Vii'gini" a"~oflem s'~'alt~d;. ,Il "H.n~'C:iLn~t,n:1lal}rs.,iS ~ C., Ma~(llgP\i' ~C~t)(Lflshm:li:nople ars fOf Th,eo,tiOkou:pol,is,' ~n 1vl. Va~s;i lal<;i (,&-1"~J' ,M'oMu?t '(~lGo-A'.Rt;lJ.rl?,lu·nilj(1ii{)~,rl~' f,the 'Vi',':gItJ, i:r,~ .By~~jtj o U.;r,~
t<

Art (Ath~ns
lA,;
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8 L. :OnJbaker" ·']«'lrtS, bef:(Hfe. Icotl~d(;ijs;i1t.. ruti!J lVJOtf(J~'I(j~~it!, S(}.cj(l~'i:e' (iuU~W(.1.1.i i~! f~:~:ro,1J!ir /rfl • ';I.' ,-,I men!l'O,:'i1O, -A ~.¥ J;f' I )j'" 'v I' 'i), '-~ "I"" I .-r. iU ~ ~iL.. t." d' icC 'il~a:r:t.!amr 1,'\,f~',~,Qi,~l~~!D' ,? ,~'~'mmu: m:i;'?i!"11H~~1~~ULf.'S;!-'U'~I,~.sl;~~.la;f,H:Ji ,tv.(e,W(!lXJ '~c~po',~e--!;O,; ~,~,'
j' ,

pp.

illii;r:~25 ('at :Pf'" :2l~2).


;I.

,,!l,7

~'l;]ii~ -- 1 "11'1Iii: 1.". .... 1 l~~~:~ p. '1 '1111(h j;, :p'p, ~L,~,...P='J'~ ~,"'-l!!v 9 lbla" p" 'ru 5 ~, 2 1 0 Ibid.~,pp. t2J,9~121.-\4·" 11 lOla" p, W.2-39 flu~~rili.~,y imt:erIPo]~lh~d:'), l2: The 'Bn;iba'~e:r vje\,"!' ~~ (~e,("!"ibed tI~, "-rather f.adl~,al' ~y G" 'WQlfl ~]'«Ynsand s~:tl1t'~~'1 ' I'n M_iIlr~~ 'V~5:~~,il~ki~M').llImages. f'j'tllt> M:olhlt"t oj' G'O([ Pt?-rc'-llpl:icms oj' 'h(: lrlt:'ol()k-o~' h! .B'~!f:tJ~ntiw~1 I , ~i\lde[sh.Qt.20t1l5-),. ,pp, 2:3=49 I~~J 2;6). _p.,
,){}i.i!\

Material cu drept de aubr

themes of th h~ velum c are the ide ntificatiou 'visions', 'm cSSag.t;$·, an d 'meanings i' in vuriou s fi~cct~of B:r!;;J.1lI ri ne CUhlJJ."e an d the possible diffct'~PK~$ "Ii the perception of these visions, mC's5Hgc~ and meanings ~'S seen br their onWr.l!JJ .iUJidl.C·r!.ccand b}r modern scholurs, 'The vol iJ me :;Qdd resses rh e methodological {]:l'l estiou of' hn\v f"i.lr in terprerut ions sh em ld .go - whether tt h ere is p! ten de iii cy to read too mu ch inro [no ii~ o r tle whe r her no:r enough a rrenrio n is p[t..d to apparent m inuriae rh at mar have i

'1'b cnnain

o,r'

been Jmportnnt in fhl;;·.r~li:-;lo:r·i("~lt context. As rhe


chronological era, they
011:]0

C·S;Si\Y:;:

'span ;~ wide

present

degrees
m

of co Cl ri mi.; IQ" and (11;QJl!,t,TC

of assessing the' relative U Byz~ D1(I ne vis; ous ~ m r.:~s~~,g.cs. n and

,~ means

mea n [~g.sover u me ..
T·lil~~Sr s highJughted a in the cn nclu di.ng; s ecri 0 r.I!

the book discu sscs [he

culture. iLL~J.d:tt60:i:il,:;tl '~"';!.~ ucs and {.'Onvent ions to new circumstances. ~lnd h shows thnt in some .i'CSPC1Ltf.i, BY'"!.al1~.gnc cultural h:~St'C3'I~l' JI.}fhave been less fr.ill_gtllt:nM:.d than is usnally assumed. m Similarly, hy reflecri ug not j~1.St on III C',V' in te rprt: rations, . bur also 0 u~ the r recess of interpreting utsd:~ the ("ontnlbutor]5. demonstrate how research ~:vi[hi!!l B ,~':'"l.:!iJ:~6·n'J::ftU.~ has evolved oyer the pCl:s!rth.; ny ycarr; firom a set of S DCS. narrowly defined individual disciplines 1'1110 u broader exploration elf .• nrcrconnected cultural phc n 0-1]1(: na.
B)"'lr:~ll]I'nriC

validity of c~'\iS;tJllgnotions rc.garcling the fluidity when continui 't)." WOlS a mutter of :~t.rigid adhere nee to wl H~·!i ~.i, man m.fC!sm t 80 n of the ubiHty eo adapr okl

or

or chc Bri ci!ih l'!,·Ii.l·511:~]rn,

C~'t,:'T ;'lm:tml;IJ'PI~~\il:;'llf}'I\~.,,~{b[N'JIt' :l1:1~~.1 . .::iIn~l, ·cle~il of thr: Nfl/i

HIt" T.aJIJ.:,'i'F".L"

icon, lk~Tru~tltt:'~

9 7'8-," -tUl9'4,-0I1'16.~B
I I

'I .