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The Research Proposal Submitted for The Fulfillment of Master in Sports Psychology Faculty of

Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy,

Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar.

Submitted By
Miss. Rajwinder Kaur

Supervised By
Dr. Sonia Kapoor

INTRODUCTION The word Adolescence comes from the Latin Language adolescere which means to grow to maturity.

Psychologically, adolescents are perceived in terms of their attitude, behaviour, mental health and developmental

status. Adolescence is a unique and fascinating period in human development. This period of great transition marks the end of childhood and the introduction into young adulthood. As children make the transformation into adults many development changes will occur. Because adolescence is a time of metamorphosis from children to adulthood, it serves as a ripe opportunity for young people to establish patterns and habbits that could continue into the future (Krouscas / 1999). At this stage, the attitudes for sports begin to develop. It is a hypothetical construct that represents an individuals degree of like or dislike for something. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing or event same way for sports. (^ Van Den Berg et al; 2006 and Chaiken, 1998).

Some adolescents play for relaxation and some play to make it as carrier. Developing a habbit of regular participating in sport and recreational activities at school age is essential for proper health and development. However, participation is organized or spontaneous leisure time competitions is various sport disciplines depends on a variety of movement skills and a positive attitude towards sport (Biddle et al, 1998; Kerr 1996; Kirk, 1995). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1. To study the attitude of adolescence towards

physical education and leisure time exercises. 2. To study the impact of gender on attitude towards physical education and leisure time exercises. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Importance of physical education for peoples lives. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS]

(1996) and Sallis and Owen (1999) reported that physically active people live longer and have lower premature death rates then people who are physically inactive and inactivity is one of the primary reason for losing body functions. Regular physical activity can improve health related fitness components in children, especially for children with obesity, diabetes or heart disease (Sallis and Owen, 1999). For teenagers, regular physical activity has been linked to improved strength, decreases in body fat and building bone density (Bailey and Martin, 1994, Sallis et al, 1993, U.S. DHHS, 1996). Carlson (1994) reported that impacts on student attitude development were cultural, social and school related. The strength of the involvement in an activity has been found to relate to a positive attitude toward that activity (Rice 1998, Smoll et al, 1976). There appear to be gender difference in attitudes towards physical education. (Smoll and Schutz, 1980) found boys displayed more positive attitudes toward activities that were challenging and had an

element of risk and girls were found to exhibit positive attitudes toward physical activities for social reasons. (Oldridge and Streiner, 1990) found that positive

experiences in physical education classes can enhance lifelong participation in physical education and link to the quality of life. HYPOTHESIS Gender difference will be found in this research. Boys might be more positive attitude toward physical education and leisure time exercises then girls. METHODOLOGY Sample: A purposely selected 150 subjects aged 14-16 years would be considered as samples and will be collected from five government schools of Amritsar. An adequate number of controls will also be taken as controls form the some place. The age of the subjects will be recorded from the data of birth registered in the school. The subjects will be divide in such a way that consists of 75 males and 75

females. A written consent will be obtained from the subjects. Procedure: The subjects will seated comfortably and instructed will imparted to them. They will be asked to perform on the questionnaire and try their best to complete it. After the questionnaire will be collected and further get evaluated according to scoring manual by the researcher. The Physical Education Activity Attitude Scale (PEAAS) (Mowatt et al.. 1988; Park, 1995, Valdez, 1997) consisted of 20 statements and The Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin & Shephard, 1985; Sallis et al., 1993) will be used. IMPLEMENTATION The study will have future implication.
1. It









adolescent towards sports. It will also give worth to other researches to explore the factors that lead to encourage adolescent towards sports especially girls.

2. It will also guide coaches to prepare the attitude of

adolescence for sports.

REFERENCES 1. Bailey, D. A. & Martin, A. D. (1994). Physical activity and skeletal health in adolescents. Pediatric and Exercise Science, 6, 330-347. 2. Carlson, T. B. (1994). Why students hate, tolerate, or love gym: A study of attitude formation and associated behaviors in physical education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. 3. James Athan Krouscas, Jr. 1999 Middle school students program. 4. Oldridge, N. B., & Streiner, D. (1990). Health beliefs models as a predictor of compliance with cardiac rehabilitation. Medical Science and Sport Exercise, 22, 678-683. 5. Rice, P. L. (1988). Attitude of high school students toward physical education activities, teachers, and personal health. The Physical Educator, 45, 94-99. 6. Sallis, J. F., Buono, M. J., Roby, J. J., Mickle, F. G., & Nelson, J. A.(1993). Seven-day recall and other physical attitudes towards a physical education







Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercises, 25, 99108. 7. Sallis, J. F. & Owens, N. (1999). Physical activity and behavioral medicine. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage. 8. Smoll, F. L., & Schutz, R. W. (1980). Children's attitudes toward physical activity: A longitudinal

analysis. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 137-147. 9. Smoll. F. L., Schutz, R. W., & Keeney, J. K. (1976). Relationships among children's attitudes, involvement, and proficiency in physical activities. Research

Quarterly. 47, 797-803. 10. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1996). Physical activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.