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Assessment on Space and Furniture‟s Ergonomics for Children in Kindergarten

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ASSESSMENT ON SPACE AND FURNITURE’S ERGONOMICS FOR CHILDREN IN KINDERGARTEN

Nurrabiatul Adawiyah bte Jalaludin

Abstract

Ergonomics are the most vital consideration in designing a space. Its determine the comfort level of people as a user and encourage productivity. Furthermore, in responds to the children comfort, it is essential for the them to be place in a space that provide the best ergonomic arrangement which will encouraged their productivity and creativity in learning and growing. This research focuses on the furniture and space ergonomics for children in kindergarten. The ergonomics study encompasses the spaces such as classroom, toilet and playground and also the furniture design. This research was conducted through library research, internets articles, case study, observation, field measurement and questionnaire. This research will explain about the problems that were faced by the children in suburban context as well as people perception about ergonomics. Finally, the findings would give some ideas on how the ergonomics affect the wellbeing of our future generation as well as the suitable measurement for children furniture design

Keywords

Ergonomics; furniture; space; children; classroom; playground; toilet

Introduction

Children are active participants in learning about the world around them. They begin to understand size by whether they can hold something in their hands or wrap their hands around it. They learn that things can be soft or hard, smooth or bumpy by touching them. To accommodate this active learning process, it is beneficial for the environment to reflect the size of the children and facilitate the children‟s ability to see and reach objects and feel comfortable within their surroundings. A space that is reflective of the children‟s physical size and abilities heightens their sense of confidence in their ability to perform simple tasks more independently. Appropriates sizes and elements such as windows, tables, chair and playground will prolong the children‟s interest and participation in constructive activities.

In relation with that, there has been a growing interest in children ergonomics, particularly when it comes to children learning and playing in kindergarten. Media suggest that children experience the same dangers as adults if they are treated the same way as adults in their physical environment. There are several issues related to the research topic which are the condition of the kindergarten in Malaysia and the issues of health, safety and security among children in the kindergarten.

In Malaysia, most of the kindergarten does not fulfill the requirement of ergonomics design for children which cause the children to have musculoskeletal disorders and pain for a long

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term. Absent of preventative approach to children‟s health, our future generation would face chronic physical, mental and social health.

Moreover, the condition of the kindergarten itself

is very poor with inadequate facilities. Deeper

study about this topic will elaborate more on

how the environment affects children health through case study and observation.

“When children feel comfortable in their physical surroundings, they will venture to explore materials or events around them.” (Anita Ruil, 1987)

Issue

The main issue is related with health problems among children and adults - musculoskeletal

discomfort and repetitive strain injuries. One of the research on ergonomics find out that there is

a strong correlation between adults diagnosed

with repetitive stress injuries with early onset of repetitive injuries among kindergarten children. Young children spent many hours in kindergarten for playing and studying; average of 5-8 hours per day depending on the programme. If the space and furniture are not child-friendly, children experiencing significant musculoskeletal discomfort, incorrect ergonomics and improper posture when using the facilities provided. These repetitive injuries are developed over a number of years therefore; their postural habits during school years will affect their health as young adults. If these conditions are not dealt with early

on, they can easily lead to permanent problems

in life later on.

Another issue which concerns the designer is the correct body posture when using facilities. Lack of attention when using furniture and other facilities in kindergarten has become a serious health hazard to young children. From the research done, it has been found out that children and most of the teachers are unaware of correct body posture and positioning while doing activities.

In kindergarten, furniture are frequently arranged where desks, chairs, computer monitors remain at the same stationary height while students come in wide variety of sizes. Children have different rate of growth depending on the genetic and the environment that shape them. Some are comfortable with the standard measurement provided for them. Others may have difficulties as they have different height compared to the average standard. The differences in many dimensional aspects contribute to ergonomics problem. In addition, some of the existing kindergarten facilities do not suitable for children in terms of design, safety and health.

Research Problems

Lack of awareness among people towards the needs and safety of young children

Manufacturer does not follow the guidelines of facilities design for children.

Parents and teacher doesn‟t conscious about the impact of improper ergonomics towards the children.

Aims and Objectives

The aim of this research is to evaluate the ergonomics study encompasses the spaces such as classroom, toilet and playground and also the furniture. Moreover, the research intended to identify workplace that fit the physical and mental ability of each child while giving ergonomics education information for public and parents.

Therefore, the aim of this topic has generated the following objectives:

To promote professional and public awareness of ergonomics related to children of all abilities in all aspects of their lives and the application of ergonomics in educational environment. To reduce the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorder

To study the appropriate measurement for space and furniture for children.

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Research Questions

How ergonomic are the spaces and furniture in kindergarten?

Does improper ergonomic for space and furniture design in kindergarten cause injuries to children?

What are the appropriate measurements for children facilities?

Does public aware of ergonomics problems among children?

Scope of Research

Scope of study will be covered on the application of ergonomics in terms of furniture design and proper body posture that will reduce the injuries among children in kindergarten. The research will involve analyzing the existing facilities in few spaces. The outcome will be in the basis of;

Literature reviews on ergonomics

Children, parents and staff perception and experiences in using the facilities

Feedback in the case studies

Data from field measurement

Researcher observation

Sample will be taken from two suburban context

which

Gombak,

Temiang preschool in

Seremban,Negeri Sembilan.

are

IUM

Educare Permata located in

and

Selangor

Limitation of research

The research would be limited to the spaces and furniture design in kindergarten. The research is restricted for spaces that is frequently use only such as classroom, toilets and playground.

This limitation also applies to the range of age for children which are between 5 to 6 years old as they share the same dimensions in all aspects.

Moreover, this research will study the application of ergonomics for kindergarten in suburban context only as to know the level of exposure as well as the awareness of teachers and parents regarding the importance of ergonomics for children.

Research Structure

Issues
Issues
of ergonomics for children. Research Structure Issues Identify Problems Aims Objectives Research Methods

Identify Problems

Aims Objectives
Aims
Objectives

Research Methods

Issues Identify Problems Aims Objectives Research Methods Recommendations Conclusion Research methodology In order to

Recommendations

Problems Aims Objectives Research Methods Recommendations Conclusion Research methodology In order to carry out the

Conclusion

Research methodology

In order to carry out the research, a few strategies to collect data have been formulated. Three types of data will be collected through:

Literature Review. Main method will be done through the literature studies to collect data of the understanding detail information on ergonomics and injuries because of ergonomics issues. The data collected from books and internet act as reference in finding the suitable measurement for children.

Case Study and Observation. Case study will be the sub-method to get the general views and photos on the ergonomics and a visit to the study building. Case study will be done to observe the application of ergonomics based on the information gathered through the literature studies and to

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measure

the

facilities.

Photos

of

the

kindergarten will be captured during the visit.

Field measurement Filed measurement is carried out during the case study visit in order to evaluate and study the dimension of furniture and spaces for children to fit in and use. During the field measurement, observation on the same elements of field measurement has been made to support the data.

Questionnaire The questionnaire will get the general information and response due to lack of self- awareness among public in applying ergonomics especially proper body posture in kindergarten. Statistic of the level of public awareness will be produced base on the questionnaire. This questionnaire is conducted to support the field measurement.

Literature Review

This research will emphasize on the importance of ergonomics for children as it will affect the children behavior. Literature study is done on the aspect of children, kindergarten and ergonomics as it is crucial to give generic ideas and overall picture on the proposed research topic. This background study consist of four main core begins with definition of children, followed by definition, history and types of kindergarten in Malaysia. Second part gives an overview for better understanding about the concept and the philosophy of ergonomics for children in terms of facilities and spaces. While the third part briefly elaborate on the issues and problems for ergonomics in kindergarten.

Children

World Health Organization (WHO) has officially defined a child as one who is below the age of 18 years old. The definition has applied globally and this range of age is also adapted in Malaysia. Based on the statistic released by Department of statistic and economic planning

unit,

population, aged between 1 to 14 years old, which decreased from 32.6% in 2005.

total

in

2010,

a

total

of

31.7%

of

the

A child goes through a dynamic stage of development which has different profile and requirement. In this study, the scope focuses on the highlighted age group.

Infant (baby)

0

to 1.5 years

Toddler

1.6 to 4 years

Kindergarten children

5 to 6 years

Middle

childhood

7

to 9 years

(primary school)

 

Pre-pubescence, a subset of the above

10 to 12 years

Youth

and

 

13

o 18 years

adolescence

 

In context to the children in suburban areas in Malaysia, the daily routine of these children are similar, attending kindergarten from 5 to 6 years, starting primary at 7 till 12 years and going to religious classes, skill classes and tuition after school. According to Anita Ruil (1987), “Children use the environment to improve themselves; adults use themselves to improve the environment. Children work for the sake of process, adult work to achieve and end result”. This shows that children learn from their environment and activities through movement, promote imagination, social interaction and learning through play.

Kindergarten

Merriam-Webster dictionary (2010) defined kindergarten as a program or class for 4 to 6 years old children that serve as an introduction to school. Referring to Wikipedia, kindergarten is a form of education for young children which serves as a transition from home to the commencement of more formal schooling. It is education for pre- and emergent-literate children before the age of 6 or 7. UNESCO, Institute of Statistic (2008) elaborates the statistic of kindergarten in Malaysia based on surveys in

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2008. According to them, there are 536 children enter the preschool with minimum aged of 5 years old consists of 276 Male and 260 Female.

Historically, many origins are claimed for the first kindergarten in the world. For examples, in Scotland in 1816, Robert Owen opened an infant school in New Lanark while the first kindergarten in Hungary was founded on 27 May 1828 by the countness Theresa Brunszvik (17751861) in her residence in the city of Buda under the name of Angyalkert (Angel garden). On the other hand, Enotes.com stated that the first kindergarten was opened in Blankenburg, Germany, in 1837. Friedrich Froebel (17821852) designed this system to offer a preschool education to young children in a less formal environment. His plan was to offer an organized setting in which children's creativity and play instincts were nurtured in a constructive and supervised manner. He believed that children could be taught to become better, more cooperative learners through the use of tools like songs, stories, games, and other group activities. The central idea of his theory was that a good education starts with learning creative expression and social cooperation.

Bandini (1994) explains that kindergarten has been in existence as a recognized institution for over a century. However, it has been identified only relatively recently as a distinct architectural type. Its gestation can be traced from the original idealistic educational theories of the 18 th and 19 th centuries to the present sophisticated architectural and educational synthesis seen in many of the best contemporary examples.

Nanyang articles emphasize that the history of kindergarten in Malaysia begins in July 1934 when the Nanyang Kindergarten in Singapore is believed to have been the first Chinese kindergarten in the whole of Malaysia when Singapore was still in the merger. Preschool Malaysia (2007), further emphasize that in Malaysia, kindergarten is a non-formal and flexible programme for young children aged 4 to 5 years old. The programme runs for duration of one to two years depending on parents'

requirement. These centres are mostly privately- run and cater for children from high and middle- income families. The fees charged by these kindergartens vary and are largely determined by overhead costs and market forces. Kindergarten classes conducted by the MOE (also known as Ministry of Education, Malaysia) and other government agencies enable under-privileged children from lower income families access to kindergarten education for free or at a minimal charge. Priority for admission to these classes is given to those who could not afford to attend privately-run kindergartens.

Kindergarten education aims at providing a firm foundation for formal education. All kindergartens have to abide by the curriculum guidelines set by the MOE. The curriculum which is in line with the NPE (also known as National Private Education, Malaysia) enables kindergarten children to acquire basic communication and positive skills in preparation for primary schooling. Specifically, the aim of kindergarten education is to develop children‟s intellectual skills which emphasize on physical environment, physical skills which focus on the physical activities, social skills which emphasized focus on children‟s interaction with the environment and the people and spiritual skills which stressed on inculcation of noble values and believe in God.For children who previously have spent most of their time at home, kindergarten may serve the purpose of helping them adjust to being apart from their parents without anxiety.

In terms of spaces and facilities, there are long established and broadly agreed programmatic requirements for the design of pre-school kindergartens and nursery schools. For example, Joseph Featherstone in a series of articles published in the 1960‟s in The New Republic, set out a clearly prescribed set of ideal conditions:

Storage space, including individual lockers, rooms divider, flat working surfaces, easels, play store, dress-up area, with racks for adult clothes, costumes etc; puppet theatre, library alcove, with

book shelves ,tools, zoo etc…

This will emphasizes

on the infrastructure or components that should be provided for children to support their study programme.

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Ergonomics

Ergonomics for Children i n Kindergarten 6 Ergonomics Ergonomics is knowledge about body sizes and muscular

Ergonomics is knowledge about body sizes and muscular capabilities which is fundamental for proper human factors design. David Caple stated that according to International Ergonomics Association (IEA), ergonomics or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. Ergonomists contribute to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people. There are few keys to take into consideration when we talked about ergonomics which are physical, cognitive and organizational.

In terms of children ergonomics, ergonomics researchers stressed that children ergonomics is different from adults. Thus, appropriate furniture design and facilities should be adapted to avoid hazard or injuries to children such as muscular disorder. The ergonomics will focused on the suitable height of furniture for children, the width, length, the materials and the design itself. Ruth (2000) set a design standard for children‟s environments which comprise of all the details of anthropometric and ergonomics design for children.

Children spend about five hours per day sitting down while doing their school work. Considering this as well as the potential inadequate use of school furniture, it is likely that some anatomical

functional changes and problems in the learning process may occur.

changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The aim of this study was to
changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The aim of this study was to

The aim of this study was to compare facilities and space layout within three different kindergartens with the anthropometric characteristics and ergonomic standard guidelines in order to evaluate the most appropriate design for children. Most (1993) and Mark (1996) emphasize that there is an inadequate match between the design process and the imaginative spatial needs of the young child. The principle is that; the needs and requirements children up to age of six or at most seven at particular, their right (as individuals) to high quality educational environments that care for them and rigorously support their social development.

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Result and analysis

Literature review

Literature review provides detail information on ergonomics and injuries because of ergonomics issues. This data act as reference in finding the suitable measurement for children.

Questionnaire

From the questionnaire, public satisfaction about kindergarten had been analyzed to know their level of understanding and awareness about ergonomics.

Observation

The observation done have been used to compare with public perception about ergonomics in the kindergarten. Observation also support the data on how children response with certain height and dimension when using the facilities in the kindergarten.

Case study

Both case studies have provided sufficient data to use in the research. The data included the measurements of facilities and the measurement of the children dimension in order to get the range of height, knee height, and arm length.

Case study and field measurement

This research supported by two case studies which are IIUM Educare Permata and Temiang Preschool and a short and simple questionnaires that has been imposed to 30 staff and parents Each of these case studies also involved field measurement and observation. The results are as stated which covers 3 major area regarding the space planning and also the finishes and design for the furniture involved.

Table 1: Data collected from both kindergartens.

involved. Table 1: Data collected from both kindergartens. The average height for children are The average

The average height for children are

The average knee height for children are: 30 cm

The average arm length for children are : 29 cm

The tallest children

The shortest children : 104cm /37/26

: 113 cm

: 122cm /33/32

Case study 1: Temiang pre-school, Negeri Sembilan.

Temiang preschool is located at the suburban area. The preschool consists of ten staff and several part time workers as they cater children between 5 to 6 years old only. From the questionnaire given to the staff and parents, 15 out of 20 people agree that the preschool facilities provided are ergonomics for children in terms of furniture design and measurement. However, the others disagree in terms of location of the preschool and space planning such as the location of toilet and playground area. Most of them teachers suggest that the playground area should be located near post guard or open area for safety reasons

The data for Temiang preschool have elaborated in details under three different study which are study on the classroom, study on toilet and study on playground.

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Study on the classroom

Types of

Height

Width

 

Materials

Analysis from observation

furniture

(cm)

(cm)

Chairs

320

360

x

Wood

The chairs are suitable for children with average

-seating

360

340

height. It can be considered as ergonomics except for

-back

330

x

the tallest and shortest children.

support

330

Tables

600

720

x

Wood

The tables are ergonomics for children with average

1300

 

height.

Table for

660

1380

x

Wood

The height of the table does not ergonomics for

audio visual

600

children as the children need to seat down on the floor to watch television. Will cause injuries to neck.

Multipurpose

430

1200

x

Wood +

The tables is ergonomics for children if the seat on the

table

600

steel

floor.

Adjustable

30 (floor)

610

x

 

The adjustable whiteboard is appropriate for children

whiteboard

900

900

to do activities. Adjust to their height.

Three-tiers

980

1500

x

Woods

Located on the floor. The height of each drawer is

drawer for

600

appropriate with children measurement.

toys

Reading

390

1900

x

Woods

The tables are ergonomics for children if the seat on

table

700

the floor while the width suitable for children to seat together and discuss.

Multipurpose

980

1500

x

Woods

Located on the floor. The height of each drawer is

drawer

300 (each

600

appropriate with children measurement. Children use this type of drawer for keeping books and bags.

compartment)

As located in suburban areas, Temiang preschool have only three classrooms for kindergarten and a shared facilities. Most of the furniture is made of woods but not too heavy for children to

In overall, the design of the classroom is appropriate with the children with average height and measurement. The children will not facing any repetitive injuries if they seat properly with good posture. Seating on the floor for reading and discussion is a good approach for children; however, children tend to seat with wrong posture as there is no back support.

tend to seat with wrong posture as there is no back support. T h e r

The reading table

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Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 9 Multipurpose drawer for toys Study on toilet Tables and

Multipurpose drawer for toys

Study on toilet

9 Multipurpose drawer for toys Study on toilet Tables and chairs types of Height Width Materials

Tables and chairs

types of

Height

Width

Materials

Analysis from observation

furniture

(cm)

(cm)

Toilet

3000

2400

x

Tiles +

The toilet dimension is suitable for children height

dimension

1650

concrete

and width as well as movement dimension. It can be considered as ergonomics for children.

Cubicles

3000

1060

x

Tiles +

2 cubicles. The dimension of cubicles also suitable

size

1120

concrete

for children.

Toilet bowl

300

500

x 500

Ceramic

The height of the toilet bowl ergonomics for

-overall

250

x 280

children as the average knee height for children is

size

 

300cm.

-bowl size

Pipe inside

630

from

 

Galvanized

Ergonomics for children to use.

toilet

floor

iron

Door

2100

800

 

Too height for children toilet.

Sink

600

790

x 500

 

The height and width of the sink are appropriate with children of average measurement.

Sink bowl

390x300

Shower

900

from

 

Galvanized

Height for children to use.

tap

floor

iron

Mirror

130

from

460

x 460

 

Located on top of the sink. The height of mirror is appropriate with children measurement.

sink

 

460

 

In overall, the design of the toilet is appropriate with the children average height and measurement. The tallest children will have difficulties in using the dimension that is provided for the average height of children

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Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 10 Sink area Toilet area Study on the playground First

Sink area

Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 10 Sink area Toilet area Study on the playground First playground
Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 10 Sink area Toilet area Study on the playground First playground

Toilet area

For Children In Kindergarten 10 Sink area Toilet area Study on the playground First playground Second

Study on the playground

10 Sink area Toilet area Study on the playground First playground Second playground Swing AAR 4171

First playground

area Toilet area Study on the playground First playground Second playground Swing AAR 4171 Research Methods

Second playground

area Study on the playground First playground Second playground Swing AAR 4171 Research Methods for the

Swing

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Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 11 Playhouse Slide Overhead ladder There are two playgrounds

Playhouse

Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 11 Playhouse Slide Overhead ladder There are two playgrounds for

Slide

For Children In Kindergarten 11 Playhouse Slide Overhead ladder There are two playgrounds for preschool. The

Overhead ladder

There are two playgrounds for preschool. The playground consists of several equipment such as slide, climbers,playhouse,overhead ladder ,swingset,see-saw Form the observation and measurement done at the playground, the playground follows the requirement for children ergonomics as well as the safety and security measures. The railing for the slide and playhouse are suitable with the height of children in order to prevent them from falling to the ground.

Types of

Height

Width

equipment

Overhead

180 frm

1650 x 1000

ladders

ground

-

-overall

300

300

between

-steps

-

ladder

-ladders

Slide

1600 frm

260

-overall

grnd

height

800

-railings

200

-steps

Swing

300 from

330

x 150 (seat)

ground

 

See-saw

450

 
x 150 (seat) ground   See-saw 450   Steps for slide Playhouse AAR 4171 Research Methods

Steps for slide

ground   See-saw 450   Steps for slide Playhouse AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built

Playhouse

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Case study 2: IIUM Educare Permata, Gombak, Kuala Lumpur.

IIUM Educare is located at suburban area. The building consists of kindergarten and childcare. However, the research is focused on kindergarten only, for the children range between 5 to 6 years old.

From the questionnaire given to the staff and parents, 20 out of 30 agree that the furniture design and space planning of the Educare doesn‟t gives injury to the children.

Study on the classroom

On the other hand, 10 out of 30 people disagree. They realize that the furniture design does injured the children in terms of sharp edges, heavy used of materials for chair ,slippery floor, toilet bowl which is too height for children to use and others.

From this statistic, it shows that only a few people aware of the ergonomics and safety issues of children.

Types of

Height

Width

 

Materials

Analysis from observation

furniture

(cm)

(cm)

Chairs

260

270x

 

Steel

The chairs are suitable for children with average

-seating

310

300

height. It can be considered as ergonomics except

-back

310

x

for the tallest children.

support

300

Chairs 2

300

310

x

Wood

The tables are ergonomics for children with average

290

330

and steel

height. But it is too heavy and not safe if children are

230

x

playing around. Easy to fall.

100

Tables

500

1200

x

Wood

The tables are ergonomics for children with average

590

height.

Book

800

1200

x

Wood +

The shelves are ergonomics for children to take the

shelves

(240)

800

steel

books.

Whiteboard

900

   

The whiteboard is meant for the teacher to use only.

Three-tiers

800

1120

x

Woods

Located on the floor. The height of each drawer is

drawer for

(250)

300

appropriate with children measurement.

toys

Reading

390

1900

x

Woods

The tables are ergonomics for children if the seat on

table

700

the floor while the width suitable for children to seat together and discuss.

Multipurpos

950

1500

x

Woods

Located on the floor. The height of each drawer is

e drawer

300- each

300

appropriate with children measurement. Children use this type of drawer for keeping books and bags.

compartmen

t

 

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Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 13 Discussion table Book shelves Drawer area Drawer area

Discussion table

For Children In Kindergarten 13 Discussion table Book shelves Drawer area Drawer area Discussion table AAR

Book shelves

Children In Kindergarten 13 Discussion table Book shelves Drawer area Drawer area Discussion table AAR 4171
Children In Kindergarten 13 Discussion table Book shelves Drawer area Drawer area Discussion table AAR 4171

Drawer area

Kindergarten 13 Discussion table Book shelves Drawer area Drawer area Discussion table AAR 4171 Research Methods

Drawer area

13 Discussion table Book shelves Drawer area Drawer area Discussion table AAR 4171 Research Methods for

Discussion table

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Chair Design

the

kindergarten. One is chairs made from steel while another one is chair made of mix of steel and woods.

Two

types

of

chairs

were

used

in

Children are in variety of sizes and height, thus, the same height of chair design or fixed chair sometimes does not ergonomic with all children. From the observation done, some children can sit properly while a few other cannot because of their height. When a child grows up above the average size of standard children, their needs are different.

The new chair design can cause repetitive injuries to the children as the chairs are made of heavy woods and steel. Each time the children need to carry the chair or put it on the table after class, they will suffer from disorder. The older version of chair is light to carry but does not comfortable in terms of design as well as maintenance.

not comfortable in terms of design as well as maintenance. The new chair that is used
not comfortable in terms of design as well as maintenance. The new chair that is used

The new chair that is used is heavy for children.

The former chair used is simple, light but easy to have defects.

Sink Design

The height of the sink is actually appropriate for the children. However, the sink becomes not ergonomics when it was confined with the shelves.

Children need to raise their foot to reach the tap and wash their hand. This can lead to repetitive strains injuries as children used the sink every time they have art activities in class.

used the sink every time they have art activities in class. View from the back of
used the sink every time they have art activities in class. View from the back of
used the sink every time they have art activities in class. View from the back of

View from the back of the sink showing the child use the sink.

The child needs to raise his feet to reach the tap; not ergonomic to use

From above, it shows that the sink size is actually meeting the ergonomics standard but the shelves length makes the sink not ergonomic to use.

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Other measurements

Measurement is also done on the other facilities and component of the buildings such as the window, doors, table for teacher and also whiteboard.

as the window, doors, table for teacher and also whiteboard. The whiteboard is only meant for
as the window, doors, table for teacher and also whiteboard. The whiteboard is only meant for
as the window, doors, table for teacher and also whiteboard. The whiteboard is only meant for

The whiteboard is only meant for teachers. Not at suitable height for children.

The railing is at suitable height for safety reason to prevent children from open the window and fall.

Width of the doors is appropriate for the users.

Study on the toilet

the doors is appropriate for the users. Study on the toilet Sinks are design in various

Sinks are design in various heights and next to shower area

Sinks are design in various heights and next to shower area The sink is not suitable
Sinks are design in various heights and next to shower area The sink is not suitable

The sink is not suitable for children as it is manufactured for adult‟s dimension.

The toilet is a bit height from the children dimension.

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Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten

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Types of

Height

Width

Materials

Analysis from observation

furniture

(cm)

(cm)

Cubicles size

1500

1600 x

Tiles +

The dimension of cubicles is suitable for children.

1200

concrete

Toilet bowl

370

300

x 400

Ceramic

The height of the toilet bowl not ergonomics for children as the average knee height for children is 300cm.

Pipe inside

700

from

 

Galvanized

Ergonomics for children to use.

toilet

floor

iron

Door for

1500

800

 

Suitable height for children toilet.

cubicles

Sink

700

1270

 

The width of the sink is not ergonomics for

Sink bowl

540

x 50

children as the distance to the pipe is 460.

Shower tap.

800

from

 

Galvanized

Shower tap and the shower are ergonomics for children to use. They are design based on children height.

floor

iron

Clothes hook

1220

   

Quite suitable from the children height as they can reach the hook.

from the children height as they can reach the hook. The shower area Hanger for cloth

The shower area

children height as they can reach the hook. The shower area Hanger for cloth The cabinet

Hanger for cloth

as they can reach the hook. The shower area Hanger for cloth The cabinet located above

The cabinet located above the ground

area Hanger for cloth The cabinet located above the ground Entrance to toilet AAR 4171 Research

Entrance to toilet

AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment

Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten

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Study on the playground

The playground consist of several equipment such as slide, climbers, playhouse, overhead

and

ladder,

jungle gym.

swing

set,

see-saw,

spring

rider

Form the observation and measurement done at the playground; most of the play equipment follows the requirement for children ergonomics as well as the safety and security measures. The railing for the slide and playhouse are suitable with the height of children in order to prevent them from falling to the ground.

However, for the swing, the seat is too height from the ground while for the spider web, the strings easily cut off with a sharp edges that can injured the children.

cut off with a sharp edges that can injured the children. Bird eye view toward the

Bird eye view toward the play ground

injured the children. Bird eye view toward the play ground Three seesaws design with a safety

Three seesaws design with a safety precautions

play ground Three seesaws design with a safety precautions Rocking animal chair are design with appropriate

Rocking animal chair are design with appropriate for children under age 5

chair are design with appropriate for children under age 5 Various design of slide offered for

Various design of slide offered for the children

under age 5 Various design of slide offered for the children 4 numbers swings provided Simple

4 numbers swings provided

of slide offered for the children 4 numbers swings provided Simple round-climb ladder completes the set

Simple round-climb ladder completes the set

AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment

Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten

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Types of

Height

Width

equipment

See-saw

530

350x350

(seat)

Slide

940

 

--railings

300

-steps

Swing

500 from

330

x 150

ground

(seat)

Spring rider

450

350

x 350

Stepping

230

 

area

300

Questionnaire analysis

The Questionnaires question is on what

features that building must have to classify as a green building concept.

The entrance

Entrance

15 10 5 0 Wide Swing safely enough Assessed criteria Number of staff/parents
15
10
5
0
Wide
Swing safely
enough
Assessed criteria
Number of staff/parents

Totally Agree

Agree

Average

Disagree

staff/parents Totally Agree Agree Average Disagree The playground area In responds to the entry, most of

The playground area

In responds to the entry, most of the interviewee agrees to have a wide entrance with a safety swing door. However, there are some people who did not agree with the swing door as they prefer the sliding more than the swing.

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Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten

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Classroom

20 15 10 5 0 Number of staff/parents Accessible Design ergonomicall y Spacious and comfortable
20
15
10
5
0
Number of staff/parents
Accessible
Design
ergonomicall
y
Spacious and
comfortable
Adequate
access to
work station
Enough space
to maneuver
chair
Work can be
done in
correct…
Free from
obstruction

Assessed criteria

Totally agreeto maneuver chair Work can be done in correct… Free from obstruction Assessed criteria Agree Average

Agreemaneuver chair Work can be done in correct… Free from obstruction Assessed criteria Totally agree Average

Averagemaneuver chair Work can be done in correct… Free from obstruction Assessed criteria Totally agree Agree

Disagreeto maneuver chair Work can be done in correct… Free from obstruction Assessed criteria Totally agree

For the class room, the questionnaire shows that an adequate access to the work station and accessibility to the class room is the most imperative aspect to be considering the most. Ergonomically aspect however is the second together with the comfort and sufficient space required for the class room. For the least case, the respondents found it not very significant to for the space to be free from obstruction as they understand that most of the classrooms in kindergarten are free from the hazardous furniture or equipment that may dangerously barricade the children.

Drawer and bookshelves

5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Number of staff/parents
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Number of staff/parents

Ergonomic in design

Suitable height for use

Assessed criteria

Totally agree2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Number of staff/parents Ergonomic in design Suitable height for use Assessed

Agree1 0.5 0 Number of staff/parents Ergonomic in design Suitable height for use Assessed criteria Totally

Average1.5 1 0.5 0 Number of staff/parents Ergonomic in design Suitable height for use Assessed criteria

Specifically for drawer and bookshelves, the most respondents agree to have an ergonomically design bookshelves and drawer with a suitable high in responds to children with various ages.

AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment

Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten

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Justification of research

Ergonomics can be integrated as a lifestyle/philosophy in order to live life to its fullest. Ergonomics can be incorporated as a subject in the educational curriculum of teachers

Ergonomics learning activities can be developed by subject matter, e.g., science, math, reading, social studies, physical education. Children can learn to apply concepts of ergonomics in their daily activities and environments; and encouraged to teach others

Significance

The significance of this study is to find the solution of reducing health problems among children and adults - musculoskeletal discomfort and repetitive strain injuries due to incorrect ergonomics and improper posture at workstations. This study attempts to provide information to formulate new design recommendation for kindergarten by emphasizing on ergonomics issues while taking notes on advantages and disadvantages.

People rarely talk about ergonomics for children. Overall view will be on how to encourage more people to support the promotion and practice of proper workstation health within the structured school environment will influence young people to practice proper sitting posture during both school and non-school hours.

In order to prevent widespread health problems in students as they grow older, we need to make the importance of correct posture and proper ergonomic workstation set-up and proper posture habits while activities.

Promotion and practice of proper workstation health within the structured school environment will influence young people to practice proper sitting posture during both school and non-school hours.

Solution

Some of the solution for ergonomics problems is to educate people about ergonomics for public awareness.

Other is to implement the new technology in manufacturing the furniture for children which can be adjustable.

Conclusion

Both of the case study and findings shows that not all people aware of ergonomics issues among children. Some of the facilities provided does not take into account the suitability and comfortability of children.

Thus, the result of this study is to emphasizes on the importance of ergonomics and to provides the ergonomics information about children in kindergarten to variety of people and professional.

This study also will lead to a new intervention of furniture design which will be integrated for children well-being as to avoid unhealthy future generations.

References

Anita Rui Olds (1987) Child Care Design Guide, New York,Ny; Mc Graw-Hill

Bandini (1994), „Typological Theories in architectural design‟, Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought,Routledge,London.

Hadith Bukhari and Muslim

Most.P (1993), „Environment”, Quality in Services for Young children- A discussion Paper, European commission Child Care Network, Thomas Coram Research Unit,27- 28 Woburn Square, London, p.11

Mark Dudek (1996), Kindergarten

AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment

Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten

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Architecture, United Kingdom,UK; E&FN Spoon, an imprint of Chapman & Hall.

Linda Cain Ruth (2000),Design standards for children environment, New York,Ny;Mc Graw-Hill

Merriam-Webster dictionary (2010),

retrieved from http://www.merriam-

webster.com/cgi-bin/book.pl?five-

lang.htm&1

UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Data Centre, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/ReportF olders/ReportFolders.aspx,

Prof david C. Caple (2008), NES Conference,Ergonomics is a lifestyle ( PDF document)

Joseph Featherstone articles published in the 1960‟s in The New Republic

Statistic by Department of statistic and economic planning unit, retrieved from www.malaxi.com

www.wikipedia.org

World Health Organization (WHO), retrieved from www. who. Int

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Nurrabiatul Adawiyah bt Jalaludin Bachelor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, International Islamic University Malaysia nuradajz@gmail.com

AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment