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the digestive

system
feeding and nutrition:-
feeding is the process of
introducing foodstffs into the
body.nutrition is the
transformation of food so it can
be utilized by the body.the
energy obtained from food is
necessary for
development,growth,and
activity.the digestive and
respiratory systems are
responsible for providing us with
nutrients.
the digestive system supplies
water and fundamental chemical
element obtained from food
(such as potassium,sodium,
chlorine,iron,calcium,vitamins,pro
teins,fats and carbhydrates).the
respiratory system provides us
with oxygen.the circulatory
system carries nutrients and
oxygen to all the body cells.
metabolism:-metabolism is
the chemical process that
occurs when nutrients are
broken down to release useful
energy.
why we need organic
food:-carbohydrates,fats,and
protins are the three main
groups of organic
foodstuffs.carbohydrates are
sweet and starchy foodstuffs
such as sugar,fruits,rice,
potatoes,bread,and pasta.these
foods supply the body with the
basic energy it needs.they are
also known as sugars because the
most simple carbohydrate is
glucose.during the digestion
process,all the carbohydrates
we ingest are broken down into
the simplest mulecles and stored
in the liver and
muscles.fats,such as oil,pork,and
dried fruts are also energy-
producing foods.
they have the same chemical
composition as
carbohydrates(carbon,oxygen,an
d hydrogen) but whereas a gram
of sugar provides 4 calries
(energy in the from of heat),a
gram of fat provides 9
calories.fats are therefore a
concentrated source of energy.
proteins are the most important
elements of nutrition.they are
found in meat,fish,eggs, and
cheese. wheras cabohydrates
and fats have a similar chemical
construction,proteins are large
molecules composed of
combinations of amino
acids.amino acids are also
responsible for muscular
contraction, and they act as
ctalysts.
how digestion begins:-as
food passes throgh the digestive
system,it is broken down into
simple substances that our
bodies are able to use.the
digestive process starts in the
mouth and is set in motion by
the teeth,the tongue,and
saliva.the sharp-edged teeth
chop and tear the food,while
have flatter surfaces,grind it
up.this is the process of
mastication,or chewing.the
tongue is the most muscular
organ in the body.it can carry
out any kind of movement and it
pushes the food and places it
between our teeth.the 1 to 2
quarts (about 1to2 liters) of
saliva secreted daily by the
salivary glands helps to dissolve
the food and make it easier to
swallow.while the saliva
lubricates the food,the enzymes
it contains start to act on the
starch.
swallowing:- swallowing is a
totally mechanical process that
consists of a series of
movements which propel the
bolus toward the
stomach.first,the tongue rises
up toward the palate,causing the
food to slide backward.at the
same time,the palate rises and
closes the nasal
cavity,preventing the food from
entering the nose.once in the
pharynx,the food could take
either of two routes,the larynx
or the esophagus.the
epiglottis,which is located in the
pharynx, operates like a valve at
the movement of swallowing in
response to a command from the
brain.this has the effect of
blocking the larynx and
preventing solids or liquids from
passing through the trachea into
the lungs.with the epiglottis
closed,the bolus enters the
esophagus and moves down to
the stomach,propelled by the
force of gravity and peristaltic
movements.
the stomach:-the stomch is
made of three layers.an external
layer envelopes it. a middle
layer consists of muscles that
mix the foodstuffs by meams of
perisaltic movements.an internal
layer arranged in numerous folds
contains the glands that secrete
gastric juices.the gastric juices
are responsible for the chemical
phase.the prime function of the
gastric juices,which are
composed of water,hydrochloric
acid and enzymes,is the
transformation of the proteins
into amino acids,through the
action of an enzyme called
pepsin.
the small intestine:-this
section of the digestive
tract,which we call the small
intestins,is more than 20 feet
long.it is divided into three
parts: the duodenum,the
jejunum,and the ileum.the main
features of the small intestine
are the villi contains an atterial
capillary and a lymoh
vessel.there are some 5 million
intestinal villi.the chyme is
neutralized as it moves through
the small intestine because of
secretions taking place all the
way along,plus the metabolizing
action of the pancreatic
secretions and the bile.
absorption:- the waste
products that have been nither
digested nor absorbed make up
the feces,which pass through
the ileocecal valve into the large
intestine.the large intestine is
made up of the cecum,the
colon,and the rectum.
the liver:-the liver is the
largest gland in the human
body,weighing more than 3 pound
(1 kg).because of its many
functions,the liver is as vital as
the heart.it is as vital as the
heart.it is located in the right
abdominal cavity,just below the
diaphragm,and has four
lobes.the cell of the liver are
called hepatocytes,and they are
grouped to from the hepatic
lobules.every lobule is,in itself,a
small liver functions.the liver
contains some 80,000 hepatic
lobules. the liver carries out the
function of cleanssing the blood
of its waste products (dead
blood cells) and controls and
stores foodstuffs in the from of
gulcose and vitamins.
the pancreas:- the pancreas
is an elongated and fairly narrow
gland located just behind the
duodenum,in the upper center of
the abdomen,below the stomach.
the liver works party as a gland
to produce bile,but also has
other functions.the pancreas is a
true gland.it has two
structures:the langerhans
islets,which are responsible for
proucing insulin;an other
glandular cells,similar to the
salivary glans,which produce
pancreatic secretions.
digestive glands:- there are
two type of glands salivary
glands and parotid glands.there
are millions of tubular glands in
the mucous membrane of the
stomach that are connected to
the gastric cavity through
orifices visible on its
suface.among the intestinal
villi,there are tubular glands
that secrete gastric juices
which are very rich in mucous
and certain enzymes,and will
take part in the final phase of
the digestion of food.
waste matter:-metabolism
is the sum total of the chemical
processes that occur druing the
digestive process.it consists of a
constructive process called
anabolism and a process of
destuction and excretion called
catabolism.
1 the lungs contribute to the
emlimination of
excess carbon dioxide and
water.
2 the skin has a multitude of
tiny opening, called
pores,through which it
breathes.each pore has a very
fine conduit that is the duct of a
sweat gland,through which sweat
leaves the body.
3 the formation of feces
facilitates the excretion of the
waste matter from food
digestion as well as from the
breakdown of the hemoglobin of
the old red blood cells. but it is
the kidneys that really carry out
the work of excretion.

presented by:-mrs
shashi kiran
science mistress
from govt. model.
senior. sec. school.
pheel khana
patiala