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A Research Proposal Presented to the Science Department Zamboanga Del Norte National high school

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Research I ( English for Science and Technology with Basic Statistics )

by Maritoni Charity J. Gayapa and Alexa C. Tiu II- Amethyst September, 2011

Chapter 1


Introduction Water is the key to a person's survival because without water survival is simply not an option. However, water has to be purified in otherwise bacteria in the water can be harmful to your drink. This is highlighted especially in the Third World countries such as Ethiopia and Gambia where many people die due to contaminated water that contains lots of bacteria that cause infection and illness. In all countries water is considered valuable to mentain its purity and it must go through a severe process such as reverse osmosis which is quite quite expensive. However there are cheaper ways to purify water and it wouldnt even cost you money. One example is solar heat. Solar radiation can kill bacteria in a period of time. It has been tested and proven to purify water in many parts of the world. On the other hand, Malunggay, which is the miracle plant, is very common in many parts of the tropics especially the Philippines, using the seeds of this plant has been tested and also proven to purify and kill bacteria living in water. Both of these ways are proven and tested by researchers but not using these two as a combination. The researchers will conduct this study to

determine if Malunggay seed extracts and heat combined is effective in purifying water. This study aims to determine whether Moringa seed extracts and Solar Heat can be used in water purification.

Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine if Malunggay (Moringa oleifera Lin.) Seed Extract and Solar Heat can be effective in water purification. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following sub-problems:
1. What are the characteristics of the water exposed to malunggay seed

extract and Solar heat in terms of: 1.1. turbidity 1.2. pH

1.3. Number of Coliform bacteria? 2. Which concentration of Malunggay seed extract (5%, 10% and 15%)

is most effective in water Purification?

3. Is there a significant difference in the water before and after it is

exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria?

Hypotheses Ho: There is no significant difference in the water before and after it is exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria. H1:There is a significant difference in the water before and after it is

exposed to malunggay extract and solar heat in terms of turbidity, pH and number of the Coliform bacteria.

Significance of the Study This study aims to evaluate______________ Peoples Health. in the rural areas, or those who are living in the

hinterlands where there is no purified water available just drink water taken from open wells. They are highly vulnerable to getting sick with diarrhea from their dirty or contaminated drinking water. Using this type of water purification can lessen the cause of diarrhea and many other diseases caused by harmful bacteria in water. The purification process is very easy to do because even small children can do it right and it doesnt use sophisticated and costly gadgets. Second, it can also be a big help in the economy of our poor families and the nation, in general, because it doesnt use any expensive chemicals and processes. It uses only a very common natural ingredient taken from

malunggay seeds. Malunggay is most commonly found in many parts of the country and it could be easily grown in everyones backyard and last for a number of years. It can benefit the environment because this process is purely organic. This process would encourage Maluggay tree planting in order to have a readily available source of kernels for water purification. Likewise, it would eventually

guarantee a year-round supply of a very nutritious malunggay leaves for home consumption and for sale. Furthermore, The waste from pounding malunggay seeds is biodegradable, therefore, it wont cause poisoning and environmental pollution. It is very safe.

Conceptual Framework

Theoretical Framework

Scope and Limitation of the Study The study is going to be conducted at the Loods Residence, Turno, Dipolog City covering the period from the last week of September to the second week of October 2011. The water that the researchers will use is open-well water which will be examined by the Agape Laboratory, Dipolog City. The researchers will collect Malunggay seeds in the neighboring barangays and municipalities of Dipolog City. The production of Malunggay seed extract will be done using the crushing method. This study is limited only to the use of the Malunggay seed extract and solar heat for water purification of an open-well water samples.

Definition of Key Terms

Moringa oleifera - Malunggy in Filipino, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. It is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses. Kernel. A grain or seed, as of a cereal grass, enclosed in a husk Etract- to obtain something from a source, usually by separating it out from other material Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacology, chemical and industrial applications.

Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water.[1] It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.

Solar Heat.


Turbidity. Open well. E. Coli.

Malunggay seed extract 10% 15% Solar heat 5% Quality of Water Color of water

Ph No. of coliform bacteria

Figure 1.1 The Schema of the Study.

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the Legal Aspects, Related Literature and Studies which has bearing to the present studies Legal Basis A. Foreign The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the main federal law that ensures the quality of Americans' drinking water. Under SDWA, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) sets standards for drinking water quality and oversees the states, localities, and water suppliers who implement those standards. SDWA was originally passed by Congress in 1974 to protect public health by regulating the nation's public drinking water supply. The law was amended in 1986 and 1996 and requires many actions to protect drinking water and its sources: rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. This law contains requirements for ensuring the

safety of the nation's public drinking water supplies. This is the principal federal law concerning drinking water. The SDWA authorized the to promulgate regulations regarding water supply. The major regulations are in title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40CFR141, 40CFR142, and 40CFR143). Parts 141, 142, and 143 regulate primary contaminants, implementation by states, and secondary contaminants. Primary contaminants are those with health impacts. State implementation allows states to be the primary regulators of the water supplies (rather than USEPA) provided they meet certain requirements. Secondary contaminants generally cause aesthetic problems and are not directly harmful. ( B. Local Philippine Standards for Drinking Water 1993 (PNSDW 1993) under the provision of Chapter II Section 9 of PD 856, otherwise known as the Code on Sanitation of the Philippines is designed to guide the Waterworks Officials, Developers and Operators of Water Supply Systems both Government and Private entities, health and sanitation authorities and the general public and all other concerned by standards cover requirements for the acceptable values of the determined parameters in measuring water quality. These parameters include microbiological, physical, chemical and radiological compositions of the

water. The standard also delineates values established in conforming with the medical and health implication of the parameters as opposed to values established purely to satisfy aesthetic requirements.( DENR Administrative Order No. 26-A,Series 1994) Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 states that the State shall pursue a policy of economic growth in a manner consistent with the protection, preservation and revival of the quality of our fresh, brackish and marine waters. To achieve this end, the framework for sustainable development shall be pursued. This includes the use of water for domestic purposes like drinking and potable water and also water treatment.

Related Studies

C. Foreign Studies ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

According to Meitzner and Price (Amaranth to Zai Holes: Ideas for Growing Food Under Difficult Conditions, ECHO, 1996), Moringa

oleifera has been compared to alum in its effectiveness at removing suspended solids from turbid water, but with a major advantage. Because it can be produced locally, "using moringa rather than alum would save foreign exchange and generate farm and employment income." The potential for moringa to create a new market for a community is there, and studies and projects are taking place examining this potential. At the Thyolo Water Treatment Works in Malawi, Africa, two researchers, Drs. Geoff Folkard and John Sutherland from the University of Leicester, England, have worked on substituting moringa seeds for alum to remove solids in water for drinking. Not only were the tests successful in removing as much solid material as alum, but the seeds used were "purchased from enthusiastic villagers in Nsanje Region in Malawi" (Folkard and Sutherland, 1996). D. Local Studies Sia (2008) reported that moringa seeds could treat water on two levels, acting both as a coagulant and an antimicrobial agent. Moringa is generally accepted as a coagulant due to positively charged, watersoluble proteins which bind with negatively charged particles (silt, clay, bacteria, toxins, etc.) allowing the resulting flocs to settle to the bottom or be removed by filtration. The antimicrobial aspects of

moringa continue to be researched. The process of treating the water with moringa seeds would take at least one to two hours. As reported by Helen Flores from The Philippine Star, Reports said moringa seeds, seed kernels or dried presscake can be stored for long periods but moringa solutions for treating water should be

prepared fresh each time. In general, one seed kernel will treat one liter of water. Solutions of moringa seeds for water treatment may be prepared from seed kernels or from the solid residue left over after oil extraction.

Related Literature Moringa Oleifera. According to the study that was made by researchers on, they say that crushed Moringa seeds purify water to be used widely around a certain are and it can lower the bacterial concentration in water so that it will be safe to drink. And it can also be used as a quick and very simple method for cleaning dirty water in rivers. This simple method does not only remove water pollution, but also removes harmful bacteria. They also indicated on how it works, Moringa joins with the solids in the water and then they both sink to the bottom. This kind of treatment removes 90-99% of bacteria in water. They say that by using Moringa seeds, people will no longer be depending on expensive means of purification. Using this method of purification will replace the use of chemicals such as

aluminum sulphate, which they say are dangerous to people and especially the environment, and mostly these chemicals are very expensive. Very different water sources will need different amounts of Moringa seeds, because impurities on such waters will not be the same. Using a jar for experimenting will be a bid help in working out the correct amount needed. Heat. According to SODIS (Solar Disinfection), clean drinking water is lacking in many parts of the world and many persons die because of this. It is estimated that two million people die every year because of water related diseases. By using solar radiation to kill bacteria and microorganisms, it would reduce the amount of people dead and prevent diseases in a very useful and cheap way. This can be done with clear plastic bottles made of clear plastic, then fill the plastic with water and fill with clear water and place above roofs. The radiation will kill the microorganisms after 5-6 hours in the sun. The method will be faster if the temperature is higher, it would be recommended to paint half of the bottle black and the black part will face the ground or the surface of the roof. This method only works in clear water not pond or river water Microbes are destroyed through temperature and UVA radiation, provided by the Sun. Water is placed in a transparent plastic bottle, which is oxygenated by shaking, followed by topping-up. It is placed on tile or metal for six hours in full sun, which raises the temperature and gives an extended dose of solar radiation,

killing any microbes that may be present. The combination of the two provides a simple method of disinfection for tropical developing countries. Water purification, or drinking water treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from surface water or groundwater to make it safe and palatable for human consumption. A wide variety of technologies may be used, depending on the raw water source, contaminants present, standards to be met, and available finances. Sources of Drinking Water Water to be used in public or private water supplies can be drawn from a variety of sources. Different sources of raw water demand different treatment methods to render it ft for human consumption. ( It is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water. Its goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacology, chemical and industrial applications. In general the methods used include physical processes such as filtration and sedimentation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge, chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light. (

Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY A. Collection and Preparation of Malunggay Seed Extract The researchers will collect/purchase malunggay seeds in pods. A total of twelve (12) malunggay kernels will be used in this study. The shelling of the malunggay pods will be done manually by the researchers. The extract will be obtained by pounding the seeds on a Mortar and Pestle. Using a cheesecloth, the pounded Malunggay seeds will be pressed to extract its juice. The extracted juice will be mixed right away with the water for purification study.

B. Collection and Preparation of Water

The researchers will collect water samples from an open well found in Dipolog City. The Researchers will get eight (8) Liters sample from the well.

? The researchers will prepare and use a total of eight (8) oneliter-capacity plastic bottles. These eight bottles will be filled with water

from the well and will be used for the two (2) set-ups or replications. There will be a set of four (4) bottles for each replication where each bottle contains 1 Liter water. Preparations of Treatments The different concentrations of malunggay seed extracts added to the water samples will be expressed based on its quanity or number of seeds (kernels) per liter of water.The treatments , in two (2) replications A and B, will use the following proportions or number of malunggay seed (kernel) extracts added to a liter of water, viz: Replication A No. of Malunggay Kernels (pcs.) 0 1 2 3

Treatments (Tx) Control (0Kernel:1Li.) T1 T2 T3 (1 kernel:1Li.) (2 Kernels:1Li.) (3 Kernels:1Li.)

Volume of water (Liter) 1 1 1 1

Replication B No. of Malunggay Kernels (pcs.) 0 1 2 3

Treatments (Tx) Control (0Kernel:1Li.) T1 T2 T3 (1 kernel:1Li.) (2 Kernels:1Li.) (3 Kernels:1Li.)

Volume of water (Liter) 1 1 1 1

There will be two (2) replications ( Replication A and Replication B) of the treatments in this study. The set-ups with malunggay extracts will be equally exposed under the heat of the sun for six (6) hours. The Control, in two (2) bottles, will be left unexposed to the heat of the sun. After six (6) hours of sun exposure of the six (6) bottles containing malunggay seed extracts , all the eight (8) bottles containing the water samples will be brought to Agape Laboratory for analysis to find out their pH, turbidity, and E.Coli presence. The Laboratory results will be the source of data for interpretation and analysis.

C. Statistical Treatment

Table 4.1 Laboratory Result of the Water Analysis

Tx Control TRIAL 0 Kernel: 1 Liter pH Replication 1 Replication 2 TOTAL AVERAGE Turbidity E. Coli T1 1Kernel: 1Liter pH Turbidity E. Coli T2 2 Kernel: 1Liter pH Turbidity E. Coli T3 3 Kernel:1 Liter pH Turbidity E. Coli

Table 4.1 above will contain the primary data taken by the researchers from the result of the laboratory analysis.

Collect/Purchase two (2) kilograms of fresh malunggay seeds in pods

Manual shelling of the malunggay

One (1) Liter water samples from three (3) different wells found Dipolog City, Dapitan City and the municipality of Katipunan.

Pounding the seeds using a Mortar and Pestle Pounded Malunggay seeds will be pressed to extract its juice using a cheesecloth

Preperation of twelve (12) sterilized plastic bottles. Each water sample will have four (4) set-ups each containing 100mL of its respective water. The Control group is going to be brought to Agape Lab for analysis.

three (3) of the set ups will have treatments T1, T2, and T3 and a Control with different malunggay extract concentration: T1= 5%, T2= 10% and T3= 15% Control= 0% four (4) hours of sun exposure All 12 bottles containing the water samples will be brought to Agape Laboratory for analysis to find out their pH, Color, and E.Coli presence


APPENDIX- A Sschedule of Activities

APPENDIX-B Proposed Budget