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Q1: Define Spectroscopy.

Ans: Spectroscopy is the use of the absorption, emission, or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by matter to qualitatively or quantitatively study the matter or to study physical processes. The matter can be atoms, molecules, atomic or molecular ions, or solids.

Q2: What are spectra?

Ans: Spectra are the shapes of graphs obtained during analysis.

Q3: Write down the types of spectroscopy.

1. Visible and Ultra Violet Spectroscopy: UV and Visible spectroscopy classify the substance only as organic or inorganic substances.

2. Infra Red Spectroscopy: IR spectroscopy determines the functional group and their position. Instruments used in UV/Visible spectroscopy can not be used in IR spectroscopy.

3. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy: Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES or OES) uses quantitative measurement of the optical emission from excited atoms to determine analyte concentration.

4. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS): Atomic-absorption (AA) spectroscopy uses the absorption of light to measure the concentration of gas-phase atoms. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) determines the presence of metals in liquid samples. Metals include Fe, Cu, Al, Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd and many more. It also measures the concentrations of metals in the samples. Typical concentrations range in the low mg/L range.

5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

Q4: Differentiate UV and Visible spectroscopy.

Ans:

Radiation Type

Range (nm)

Radiation Source

UV

10 to 400

Hydrogen or Deuterium lamp is used as radiation source. Deuterium is preferred because of its efficiency.

Visible

400720

Pure Tungsten bulb is used in visible spectroscopy.

Q5: Which type of spectroscopy is used in lab?

Ans: UV and Visible

Q6: Write down the components of EMR. Which component is more active and used in spectroscopy?

Ans: There are two components of EMR.

is more active and used in spectroscopy? Ans: There are two components of EMR. Remember Me
is more active and used in spectroscopy? Ans: There are two components of EMR. Remember Me

1.

Electric Component

2. Magnetic Component

Electric component is used in spectroscopy. Electric component is more active than magnetic component. The two components oscillate in plane perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the radiation. Only the electric component is active and alternatively energy is transferred with the interaction of matter.

Q7: What are the different types of molecular energy? Which types is used in UV and Visible range?

Ans: A molecular energy state is a sum of electronic, vibrational, rotational, and translational component, such that:

rotational, and translational component, such that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. is the kinetic energy of

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

and translational component, such that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. is the kinetic energy of the

is the kinetic energy of the molecule.

is the energy due to the arrangement of the electron in the molecule.

is the energy posses by the vibration of the molecule.

is the energy of the molecule due to the rotational motion. depends on the molecular structure.

the rotational motion. depends on the molecular structure. Translational Energy is used in UV and Visible

Translational Energy is used in UV and Visible region.

Q8: Define luminescence, fluorescence, and phosphorescence.

Ans: The word Luminescence describe the emission of radiation which results when a material adjust itself from an excited state to the ground state.

Luminescence indicates both fluorescence and phosphorescence.

Fluorescence occurs when the molecule returns to the electronic ground state, from the excited singlet state, by emission of a photon.

Phosphorescence is luminescence that is caused by the absorption of radiations (as light or electrons) and continues for a noticeable time after these radiations have stopped.

Q9: Name different types of photometer.

Ans: There are three types of photometer:

1. Spectrophotometer

2. Filter photometer

3. Visual Colorimeter

types of photometer: 1. Spectrophotometer 2. Filter photometer 3. Visual Colorimeter Remember Me in Your Prayers
types of photometer: 1. Spectrophotometer 2. Filter photometer 3. Visual Colorimeter Remember Me in Your Prayers

Spectrophotometer is more effective.

Q10: State Beer’s and Lambert’s law.

Ans: Beer’s law states that the absorbance of a solution is directly proportional to the concentration of solution. Lambert’s law states that the absorbance is directly proportional to the path length or cell thickness. Mathematically these laws can be written as:

cell thickness. Mathematically these laws can be written as: Q11: Define Absorbance, absorptivity, and transmittance.
cell thickness. Mathematically these laws can be written as: Q11: Define Absorbance, absorptivity, and transmittance.

Q11: Define Absorbance, absorptivity, and transmittance. Also write down their units.

Ans:

Absorbance: A logarithmic measure of the amount of light absorbed (at particular wavelength) as the light passes through a sample or substance.

A measure of the extent to which a substance transmits light or other electromagnetic radiation

substance transmits light or other electromagnetic radiation Where P o is the incident radiate power and

Where P o is the incident radiate power and P is the transmitted radiate power

Absorptivity: Absorptivity varies with wavelength and is defined as the absorbance of a solution per unit path length and concentration:

of a solution per unit path length and concentration: Transmittance: The transmittance of a sample is

Transmittance: The transmittance of a sample is the ratio of the intensity of the light that has passed through the sample to the intensity of the light when it entered the sample (T = I out /I in ).

OR

The ratio of the radiant energy transmitted by a body to the total radiant energy received by the body:

If

T = 100 % then A = 0

If

A = 100 % then T = 0

If T = 100 % then A = 0 If A = 100 % then T

Q12: Name the types of deviation from Beer-Lambert law and the sources of these deviations.

the types of deviation from Beer-Lambert law and the sources of these deviations. Remember Me in
the types of deviation from Beer-Lambert law and the sources of these deviations. Remember Me in

Ans: There are two types of deviations:

1. Positive Deviation

2. Negative Deviation

Q13: Name different types of spectrophotometer.

Ans: There are two types of spectrophotometer:

1. Single beam spectrophotometer

2. Double beam spectrophotometer

Q14: Name the components of spectrophotometer and their functions.

Ans: Basic parts of spectrophotometer are:

1. Radiation Source

2. Monochromator

3. Sample Container or Cell

4. Radiation Detector

Radiation Source:

Region

Wavelength (nm)

Radiation Source

UV

180-375

Hydrogen or Deuterium Lamp. Deuterium lamp is more efficient.

Visible

400-750

Pure Tungsten Filament is used as radiation source.

Monochromator:

Function of Monochromator is to isolate the light of single wavelength.

OR

Isolate a narrow band of λs (wavelength selector) from a:

1. Diffraction grating

2. Prism for Transmission and Reflection

Parts of Monochromator:

1. Entrance and exit slits

2. Diffraction Gratings: There are two types of diffraction grating:

a. Flat Diffraction Grating

b. Blazed Diffraction Grating

Blazed Diffraction Grating is more efficient than Flat Diffraction Grating.

3. Lenses (Collimating and focusing)

4. Prism: Two types of prism are used:

Grating. 3. Lenses (Collimating and focusing) 4. Prism: Two types of prism are used: Remember Me
Grating. 3. Lenses (Collimating and focusing) 4. Prism: Two types of prism are used: Remember Me

a. 60° Prism (Cornu Quartz Prism)

b. 30° Prism (Littrow Quartz Prism) 30° prism is more efficient.

Sample Container OR Cell: There are two types of cell

1. Flat Bottom Cell

2. Round Bottom Cell Flat Bottom Cell is more efficient.

Radiation Detector: A device which is used to convert radiant energy into electrical energy is known as Radiation Detector. There are two types of Detector:

1. Photo Tube Detector

2. Photo Multiplier Tube Detector (PMT): There are two types of PMT

a. Linear PMT

b. Circular PMT Circular PMT is more effective than Linear PMT

Q15: Write down the applications of spectrophotometer.

Ans: Applications of spectrophotometer are given below:

1. Formation of spectra

2. Determination of concentration

3. Multi component mixture analysis

4. Spectrophotometric titration

Q16: Define total solids, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, hardness, chloride and sulphate content of water. Also write down the parameters used for these analyses.

Ans:

Total Solids (TS): This is the matter that remains as residue upon evaporation and drying at 103°C - 105°C in an oven. This is called Total Solids. The amount of total solids is measured in milligrams of residue per liter of water.

Conductivity: Conductivity is the degree to which a water sample can carry an electric current. The magnitude of the conductivity of a sample is a function of the amount of ions present in the sample. The conductivity of water provides an indication of the quantity of dissolved material present. Conductivity is measured in micro-mhos per centimeter (mhos/cm) or micro-Siemens per centimeter (S/cm)

Alkalinity: Alkalinity is the capacity of the water to react with acid to a specific pH end point. The value obtained will depend on the indicator used.

to a specific pH end point. The value obtained will depend on the indicator used. Remember
to a specific pH end point. The value obtained will depend on the indicator used. Remember

A water sample will have either an acidity value or an alkalinity value, never both; but both are commonly reported as mg CaCO 3 /L.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): Total Dissolved Solids refer to the amount of physical matter dissolved in water. The amount of total dissolved solids is measured in ppm.

Hardness: Hardness is due to the presence of multivalent metal ions which come from minerals dissolved in water. Hardness is based on the ability of these ions to react with soap to form a precipitate. Hardness is also a very important indicator of the ability of the water to deposit ‘scale’ or Ca/Mg salts over time in plumbing fixtures. Water hardness is measured in "grains" per gallon and in terms of mg/L CaCO 3 , as calculated by titration.

pH: Water (H 2 0) contains both H + (hydrogen) ions and OH - (hydroxyl) ions. The pH test measures the H + ion concentration of liquids and substances. Each measured liquid or substance is given a pH value on a scale that ranges from 0 to 14.

Chloride (Cl -1 ): Chloride (Cl -1 ) is one of the major anions found in water and are generally combined with calcium, magnesium, or sodium. Since almost all chloride salts are highly soluble in water, the chloride content ranges from 10 to 100 mg/L. Sea water contains over 30,000 mg/L as NaCl.

Chloride content of water is measured in

mg/L as NaCl. Chloride content of water is measured in This reaction provides the basis for
mg/L as NaCl. Chloride content of water is measured in This reaction provides the basis for

This reaction provides the basis for a method of analysis called a titration.

Sulfate Content: Sulfate is found in almost all natural water. Sulfate may also be dissolved from materials on the surface of the ground. Decaying organic matter such as leaves and trees is the primary source of this sulfate.

Sulphate of water is measured in

source of this sulfate. Sulphate of water is measured in Q17: Name different types of solids.
source of this sulfate. Sulphate of water is measured in Q17: Name different types of solids.

Q17: Name different types of solids.

Ans: There are five forms of Solids viz, Total Solids, Suspended Solids, Dissolved Solids, Volatile Solids and Fixed Solids.

1. Total Solids (TS): This is the matter, which remains as residue upon evaporation and drying at 103°C -105°C in an oven. This is called Total Solids.

2. Suspended Solids (SS): These are the solids in wastewater, which remain present on filter paper. While filtering the sample through a fine filter. (what-man Filter Paper No. 42), the suspended solids contain much of the organic matter.

3. Dissolved Solids: The filtrate remaining in beaker after filtering the sample through filter contains dissolved solids. It includes mainly inorganic salts, small amount of organic matter and dissolved gases.

includes mainly inorganic salts, small amount of organic matter and dissolved gases. Remember Me in Your
includes mainly inorganic salts, small amount of organic matter and dissolved gases. Remember Me in Your

4.

Fixed Solids: The residue remains after the ignition of sample in muffle furnace at 550 °C represents the fixed solids. These represent the inorganic matter present in water.

5. Volatile Solids: The difference between the suspended solids and fixed solids represent the volatile solids. This represents the amount of organic matter present in water.

Q18: Write down the difference b/w total solids and total dissolved solids of water.

Ans: Total solids is the matter, which remains as residue upon evaporation and drying at 103°C -105°C in an oven and Total dissolved solids refer to the amount of physical matter dissolved in water which remains after filtration.

Q19: Differentiate methyl orange, phenolphthalein and total alkalinity.

Ans:

Total Alkalinity

Methyl Orange Alkalinity (Alkaphot M)

Phenolphthalein Alkalinity (Alkaphot P)

Total Alkalinity is an important test in determining the aggressiveness or scale tendency of the water. If the total alkalinity is low the water may be aggressive and cause corrosion to pipe work and structures. If the total alkalinity is high, the water may more readily promote scale formation.

The alkalinity is measured by the amount of standard sulfuric acid required to lower the pH of the water to a pH level of 4.5, as indicated by the change in color of methyl orange from orange to pink. It converts the bicarbonate to aqueous carbon dioxide. Therefore the methyl orange end point titration indicates total alkalinity.

Phenolphthalein alkalinity is present only when free carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is absent and therefore exists only when the pH exceeds 8.3. Since phenolphthalein changes color at pH~8.3, this corresponds to a pH where all the CO 3 2- present would be protonated.

Q20: Define Desizing, Scouring, Bleaching, Dyeing and Mercerization.

Ans:

Desizing: Desizing is the process of removing the size material, generally starch, from the warp yarns in woven fabrics.

Scouring: It is responsible for the removal of fats and waxes”. For scouring, saponification and emulsification is done.

Bleaching: Bleaching, process of whitening or removing the natural color of textile fibers, yarns, and fabrics by treatment with chemicals or by exposure to the sun, heat, or water.

Dyeing: Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material in loose fiber, yarn, cloth or garment form by treatment with a dye.

Mercerization: Mercerization, in textiles, is a chemical treatment applied to cotton fibers or fabrics to permanently impart a greater affinity for dyes and various chemical finishes. Mercerizing also gives

a greater affinity for dyes and various chemical finishes. Mercerizing also gives Remember Me in Your
a greater affinity for dyes and various chemical finishes. Mercerizing also gives Remember Me in Your

cotton cloth increased tensile strength, greater absorptive properties, and, usually, a high degree of luster, depending on the method used.

Q21: Write down different types of desizing.

Ans: There are four desizing processes:

Enzymatic desizing of starches on cotton fabricstypes of desizing. Ans: There are four desizing processes: Oxidative desizing Acid desizing Removal of water

Oxidative desizingprocesses: Enzymatic desizing of starches on cotton fabrics Acid desizing Removal of water soluble sizes Q22:

Acid desizingdesizing of starches on cotton fabrics Oxidative desizing Removal of water soluble sizes Q22: Name the

Removal of water soluble sizesstarches on cotton fabrics Oxidative desizing Acid desizing Q22: Name the type of desizing and desizing

Q22: Name the type of desizing and desizing agent used in lab.

Ans: Enzymatic desizing process is used. For this purpose we used Glacial Acetic Acid (Enzymes work at different pH range mostly 5-7 and the temperature range of 40-70 °C)

Q23: Write down the mechanism of scouring.

Ans:

At first we partially saponify fats and waxes into soap by saponification process.40-70 °C) Q23: Write down the mechanism of scouring. Ans: Those Fats which are not removed

Those Fats which are not removed by saponification of the fabric are removed by emulsification.saponify fats and waxes into soap by saponification process. Q24: Name the bleaching agent and type

Q24: Name the bleaching agent and type used in lab.

Ans: Per Oxide Bleaching process is used in lab. Hydrogen per Oxide is used as bleaching agent.

Q25: Write down the advantages of using fiber reactive dye.

Ans: Reactive dyes are unique in that they contain specific chemical groups capable of forming covalent links with the textile substrate. The energy required to break this bond is similar to that required to degrade the substrate itself, thus accounting for the high wet fastness of these dyes.

Q26: Write down the purpose of using soda ash, salt and urea in dyeing of fabric.

Ans: Soda ash changes the pH of the fiber-reactive dye and cellulose fiber so that the dye reacts with the fiber, making a permanent connection that holds the dye to the fiber. It actually activates the fiber molecules so that they can chemically attack the dye. Urea has two purposes: it can make it possible to dissolve more dye in a given volume, for the strongest of colors, and it serves as a humectant, or water-attractor, to help keep fabric damp long enough for the reaction to occur. Salt (sodium chloride, specifically) is important in using many types of dyes. It aids in the dyeing process by helping to drive the dye onto the fiber, out of solution, so that it is in the right place for any bonding to the fiber to occur.

of solution, so that it is in the right place for any bonding to the fiber
of solution, so that it is in the right place for any bonding to the fiber

Q27: Write down the effects of temperature and pH on dyeing of cotton fabric.

Ans:

pH: Every chemical reaction works best at a certain pH, or degree of acidity. In the case of most popular fiber reactive dyes, a high pH actually activates the cellulose (cotton) fiber, forming a cellulosate anion, which can then attack the dye molecule, leading to a reaction that produces a strong, permanent covalent bond. Without a high pH, the dye will not fix permanently to the cellulose fiber.

Temperature: Solubility of different chemicals used in dyeing process depends upon the rate of temperature increase.

Q28: Name the mercerizing agent used.

Ans: NaOH

Q29: Define back titration.

Ans: Determining the concentration of an analyte by reacting it with a known number of moles of excess reagent. The excess reagent is then titrated with a second reagent. The concentration of the analyte in the original solution is then related to the amount of reagent consumed. Also known as indirect titration. It is called back titration because it is not carried out with the solution whose concentration is required to be known (analyte) as in the case of normal or forward titration

Q30: Write down the chemical formula of glycerin.

Ans:

Q30: Write down the chemical formula of glycerin. Ans: Q31: Write down the chemical reaction of

Q31: Write down the chemical reaction of glycerin during titration.

Ans:

the chemical reaction of glycerin during titration. Ans: Remaining NaOH is treated with an acid to

Remaining NaOH is treated with an acid to determine the amount of NaOH consumed in the above reaction (that is the amount of fat present in glycerin).

Q32: Write down some application of glycerin.

Ans: It is used in Drugs, Food and Beverages, Surface coating and paints, Softeners and Plasticizers.

in Drugs, Food and Beverages, Surface coating and paints, Softeners and Plasticizers. Remember Me in Your
in Drugs, Food and Beverages, Surface coating and paints, Softeners and Plasticizers. Remember Me in Your

Q33: What is ion-exchange? Define resin. Write down the types of ion exchange resin, uses and advantages and disadvantages of ion exchange resin.

Ans: The ion exchange process percolates water through bead-like spherical resin materials (ion- exchange resins). Ions in the water are exchanged for other ions fixed to the beads.

Resin is a natural or synthetic compound which begins in a highly viscous state and hardens with treatment. Typically, resin is soluble in alcohol, but not in water.

An ion exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (1-2 mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate. The material has highly developed structure of pores on the surface of which is sites with easily trapped and released ions. The trapping of ions takes place only with simultaneous releasing of other ions; thus the process is called ion exchange.

Ion exchange resins are classified as:

1. Cat-ion exchangers, which have positively charged mobile ions available for exchange.

2. Anion exchangers, whose exchangeable ions are negatively charged

Ion exchange resins are widely used in different separation, purification, and decontamination processes. The most common examples are water softening and water purification. A bed of resin can be used either to remove unwanted ions from a solution passed through it or to accumulate a valuable mineral from the water which can later be recovered from the resin.

The advantages of ion exchange processes are the very low running costs. Very little energy is required, the regenerant chemicals are cheap and if well maintained resin beds can last for many years before replacement is needed.

The advantages of ion exchange processes are the Calcium sulphate fouling, Iron fouling, Adsorption of organic matter, Organic contamination from the resin, Bacterial contamination and Chlorine contamination.

Q34: What is carbon bed filters? Write down the uses and advantages and disadvantages of carbon adsorption.

Ans: Carbon bed filters are widely used in the chemical processing industry to recover low-concentration chemicals from dilute gas streams. They are also used to control volatile organic emissions from production processes. They are used to remove residual sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, mercury, organic solvents, and semi volatile organics like dioxins and furans from exhaust-gas streams.

Benefits of an Activated Carbon Filter

1. Removes all chlorine

2. Filters all water coming into your home

3. Removes some minerals, chemicals and sediment

all water coming into your home 3. Removes some minerals, chemicals and sediment Remember Me in
all water coming into your home 3. Removes some minerals, chemicals and sediment Remember Me in

4.

Removes odors

5. Fabric colors do not fade

6. Improved tastes in foods and drinks - the true taste comes through

Disadvantages:

The main disadvantage of carbon bed filters is that they may become a breeding ground for bacteria thriving in an environment without chlorine (which is typically adsorbed in the upper part of the bed) and with plenty of nutrients. Therefore carbon filters are usually periodically sanitized with hot water to contain microbial growth.and drinks - the true taste comes through Disadvantages: The bed is also backwashed frequently to

The bed is also backwashed frequently to remove captured particles.sanitized with hot water to contain microbial growth. Activated carbon can not be economically regenerated in

Activated carbon can not be economically regenerated in the field (once it has reached its adsorption capacity, typically after 1-5 years, the bed is replaced with fresh carbon).is also backwashed frequently to remove captured particles. It is recommended to use acid-washed activated carbon

It is recommended to use acid-washed activated carbon for water purification because the mineral resident in the charcoal may lead to leaching of the metal oxide, increasing the water hardness.after 1-5 years, the bed is replaced with fresh carbon). Can generate carbon fines. Remember Me

Can generate carbon fines.the charcoal may lead to leaching of the metal oxide, increasing the water hardness. Remember Me

of the metal oxide, increasing the water hardness. Can generate carbon fines. Remember Me in Your
of the metal oxide, increasing the water hardness. Can generate carbon fines. Remember Me in Your