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LamarLamar UniversityUniversity

Lamar Lamar University University Fall Fall 2011 2011 ME ME 3311 3311 Fluid Fluid Mechanics Mechanics
Lamar Lamar University University Fall Fall 2011 2011 ME ME 3311 3311 Fluid Fluid Mechanics Mechanics

FallFall 20112011

MEME 33113311 FluidFluid MechanicsMechanics

IntroductionIntroduction toto FluidFluid MechanicsMechanics

XianchangXianchang LiLi

DepartmentDepartment ofof MechanicalMechanical EngineeringEngineering LamarLamar UniversityUniversity

xli2@lamar.eduxli2@lamar.edu

880880--87748774

Introduction (2) xli2@lamar.edu xli2@lamar.edu 880 880 - - 8774 8774 What is fluid? Water, air, oil, natural gas,

What is fluid?

Water, air, oil, natural gas, Freon, …

A substance that deforms continuously when there is a shearing force/stress acting on one of its surface

What is fluid mechanics?

To explain the behavior of fluids at rest & in motion

Classified into fluid statics and fluid dynamics

fluid statics – dealing with fluids @ rest

fluid dynamics – dealing with fluids in motion

Aerodynamics Questions: How and why is the body shape/profile designed in this way? What force
Aerodynamics
Questions:
How and why is the
body shape/profile
designed in this way?
What force makes
the airplane fly?
How to determine
the power needed?

Introduction

Why do we need to study Fluid Mechanics?

Introduction Why do we need to study Fluid Mechanics? Because ? No idea or for fun

Because

? No idea or for fun only?

we need to pass it so that we can graduate

it has a wide range of applications

it will benefit our future job

Introduction (3)

Introduction (3)

 

Potential applications

Aerodynamics

Hydrodynamics

Power generation

Chemical process

Bio-engineering

HVAC

Meteorology

Sports

Aerodynamics (2)

HVAC Meteorology Sports … Aerodynamics (2) Questions: Why the warplane has a sharp nose? Why people

Questions:

Meteorology Sports … Aerodynamics (2) Questions: Why the warplane has a sharp nose? Why people cannot
Meteorology Sports … Aerodynamics (2) Questions: Why the warplane has a sharp nose? Why people cannot

Why the warplane has a sharp nose?

Why people cannot fly as birds?

Hydrodynamics

Hydrodynamics Questions: Power needed? Shape? Pressure to overcome? Power Generation Questions: What is this? How does
Hydrodynamics Questions: Power needed? Shape? Pressure to overcome? Power Generation Questions: What is this? How does

Questions:

Power needed? Shape? Pressure to overcome?

Power Generation

Power needed? Shape? Pressure to overcome? Power Generation Questions: What is this? How does it work?
Power needed? Shape? Pressure to overcome? Power Generation Questions: What is this? How does it work?

Questions:

What is this? How does it work? How to improve the efficiency?

Power Generation (3) Questions: How strong should the dam be? How to calculate the force
Power Generation (3)
Questions:
How strong should the dam be?
How to calculate the force on the dam?
Meteorology Questions: How the air moves? Why there is a hurricane?
Meteorology
Questions:
How the air moves? Why there is a hurricane?
Power Generation (2) Questions: How does it work? Why do we need water flow?
Power Generation (2)
Questions:
How does it work?
Why do we need water flow?
Power Generation (4)
Power Generation (4)
Chemical Engineering Questions: How & why do the fluids flow in the pipes? How big
Chemical Engineering
Questions:
How & why do the fluids flow in the
pipes?
How big does the pumps need to be?
HVAC Questions: What size should the air duct be? How to uniformly distribute the air
HVAC
Questions:
What size should the air duct be?
How to uniformly distribute the
air among different rooms?

Some Extra Ones

distribute the air among different rooms? Some Extra Ones Supersonic flows result in shock waves –
distribute the air among different rooms? Some Extra Ones Supersonic flows result in shock waves –

Supersonic flows result in shock waves – A big concern to design high-speed warplanes

waves – A big concern to design high-speed warplanes The plume of volcano eruption (Mt. St.

The plume of volcano eruption (Mt. St. Helens in 1980) involves gas, liquid, and solid particles. Strong turbulence can be seen.

Bio Engineering
Bio Engineering
 

Sports

Questions:
Questions:

Questions:

Questions:

What is the purpose of dimples on the golf ball surface? Spoil on a race car? How does it work and why?

What is the purpose of dimples on the golf ball surface? Spoil on a race car?
 

More Details of Fluid Mechanics for Automobiles

why?   More Details of Fluid Mechanics for Automobiles Exterior shape design – Streamlined body to

Exterior shape design – Streamlined body to reduce drag Fuel system – Right flow rate, pressure, spraying Cooling water/coolant loop – To maintain the engine temperature. Is there any pump in use? Exhaust/intake air flow design Flow around the radiator – How powerful should the fan be? Is there any difference when the car has a different speed? Lubrication/bearing Engine oil – What kind of properties are desired?

 

Fluid Mechanics Is Everywhere

Fluid Mechanics Is Everywhere Fluid Mechanics is Beautiful (2) Some Important Issues about the Course  
Fluid Mechanics Is Everywhere Fluid Mechanics is Beautiful (2) Some Important Issues about the Course  

Fluid Mechanics is Beautiful (2) Fluid Mechanics Is Everywhere Some Important Issues about the Course   Homework 10% Pop Quizzes 10%

Mechanics Is Everywhere Fluid Mechanics is Beautiful (2) Some Important Issues about the Course   Homework
Some Important Issues about the Course

Some Important Issues about the Course

Some Important Issues about the Course
 

Homework

10%

Pop Quizzes

10%

Exams (2)

35% (15%, 20%)

Project

15%

Final (Comprehensive)

30%

90~100%

-- “A” -- “B” or better -- “C” or better -- “D” or better -- “F”

80~89%

70~79%

60~69%

0~59%

Fluid Mechanics is Beautiful

70~79% 60~69% 0~59% Fluid Mechanics is Beautiful Beautiful but Tough     ∂ ∂ x i
70~79% 60~69% 0~59% Fluid Mechanics is Beautiful Beautiful but Tough     ∂ ∂ x i
70~79% 60~69% 0~59% Fluid Mechanics is Beautiful Beautiful but Tough     ∂ ∂ x i
Beautiful but Tough  

Beautiful but Tough

 
 

x

i

(

)

ρu = S

i

m

 

• Partial differential equations governing the flow

• Turbulence needs to be modeled

(

ρu u

i

j

)

=

v

P

j

)

 

x

i

ρg

j

x

j

 ∂ u

j

+

+

x

i

u

i

(

τ

ij

2

- ρu'

i

δ

u

u'

k

+ F

j

 

τ

ij

= µ

x

i

x

j

3

ij

x

k

 

x

x

i

i

(

)

ρu k =

i

(

)

ρu ε =

i

x

 ∂ ∂ u  u 2  j i  u' = µ +
u
u
2
j
i
u'
=
µ
+
i
j
t
x
x
3
j
i

- ρu'

ρkδ

i

µ +

k

σ x

i

µ

t

k

+

G

k

ρε

ij

x

i

µ +

σ x

µ

ε

i

t

ε

 +

C

1ε

G

k

ε

k

C

2ε

ρ

µ

t

ε

2

k

=

2

ρC k / ε

µ

Important Issues about the Course (2)

Important Issues about the Course (2)

 

Attendance is required. Students are responsible for all the work missed due to their absence. Students with perfect attendance will receive 5 bonus points toward their final score. The bonus points will be deducted for each unexcused absence.

Late papers (Homework & Projects) will receive 50% credit before the grading starts and 0% after that.

Makeup exams (with an approved reason) can receive a maximum of 75% points before the solutions are given and 0% after that.

 

Let the Dream Come True

  Let the Dream Come True
  Let the Dream Come True
The End
The End

Questions and comments ?

  Let the Dream Come True The End Questions and comments ?