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SHANNA CALUPITAN MUSCULAR SYSTEM Functional Groups: - Coordinated action of several groups of muscles identify muscles into Prime

movers (agonists) provide the major force for producing a specific movement Antagonists oppose or reverse a particular movement Synergists aid prime movers to process a more effective movement by adding force to a movement or by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movement Fixators specialized synergists that immobilize a bone or muscles origin so that all the tension can be used to move the insertion bone Body Movements: Flexion a movement that decreases a joint angle e.g. bending of elbow or knee bending forward at the hip Extension a movement that increases a joint angle e.g. straightening the elbow or knee Hyperextension extension is greater than 180 Abduction moving a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body - also applies to fanning movement of fingers and toes when they spread apart Adduction opposite of abduction - movement of a limb toward the midline of the body Rotation movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis - common movement of ball and socket joints Circumduction combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction commonly in ball and socket joints such as the shoulder - the proximal end of the limb is stationary and the distal end moves in circles Excursion moves a structure to one side or the other e.g. moving the mandible from side to side Pronation rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces posteriorly Supination rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces anteriorly Inversion turning the sole of the foot inwardly Eversion turning the sole of the foot outwardly Dosiflexion movement at the ankle that moves the instep of the foot up - standing on your heels Plantar Flexion straightens the ankle joint causing the toes to point downward - standing on your toes

Elevation raises a body structure e.g. closing the mouth elevates the mandible Depression lowers a body structure e.g. opening the mouth depresses the mandible Naming Skeletal Muscles: Location pectoralis (chest), intercostal (between ribs), brachii (upper arm) Shape deltoid (triangle), trapezius (trapezoid), serratus (saw-toothed), orbicularis (circular), rhomboideus (diamond), platys (flat), quadratus (square), gracilis (slender), pectinate (comblike), piriforms (pear) Size maximus (largest), minimus (smallest), longus (long), brevis (shortest), latissimus (widest), longissimus (longest), magnus (large), major (large), minor (smaller), vastus (great) Number of Origins biceps (two origins), triceps (three origins) quadriceps Origin and insertion - sternocleidomastoid Action flexor/extensor, supinator/pronator Direction of fibers relative to the bodys midline - rectus (fibers run straight), transverse (fibers run perpendicular to the bodys midline), oblique (fibers run diagonally or at angles to the bodys midline) MAJOR SKELETAL MUSCLES (Anterior View) The main bulk of muscles in the body are composed of skeletal muscles attached to bones and principally for locomotion. There are about 400 muscles. The 40 superficial muscles here are divided into 10 regional areas of the body. Facial: Temporalis Masseter Frontalis Orbicularis Oculi Zygomaticus Orbicularis oris Platysma Arm: Pectoralis major Serratus anterior Intercostals Triceps brachii Biceps brachii Brachialis

Neck: Sternohyoid Sternocleidomastoid Shoulder: Trapezius Deltoid Thorax: Pectoralis minor

Forearm: Brachioradialis Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Abdomen: Rectus abdominis External oblique Internal oblique Transversus abdominis

Pelvis/thigh: Iliopsoas Pectineus Thigh: Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Sartorius

Leg:

Adductor Magnus Gracilis Gastrocnemius Soleus Fibularis longus Extensor digitorum longus Tibialis anterior

HEAD MUSCLES - They are grouped into facial muscles and chewing muscles A. Chewing Muscles - begin the breakdown of food for the body There are four pairs of muscles involved in mastication: - temporalis and masseter - pterygoids and buccinators All are innervated by cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve) B. Facial Muscles Muscles involved in lifting the eyebrows, flaring the nostrils, opening and closing the eye, mouth and smiling Unique because inserted into other muscles or skin (rather than bone), and adjacent muscles often fuse All are innervated by cranial nerve VII (facial nerve) HEAD MUSCLES DESCRIPTION Bipartite muscle consisting of the FRONTALIS and OCCIPITALIS; connecting the 2 muscles is the cranial aponeurosis called GALEA APONEUROTICA Covers the frontal bone Circular shaped muscle around the eye Extends from the zygomatic process to the corners of the mouth; smiling muscle Circular muscle of lips; Kissing muscle Forms the muscular portion of the cheek; runs horizontally

MUSCLE EPICRANIUS (OCCIPITOFRONTALIS) FRONATLIS

ACTION Pulls the scalp forward and backward Raises eyebrow Wrinkles the forehead

ORBICULARIS OCULI ZYGOMATICUS

Closes eyelids Squints, blinks, winks Raises the corner of the mouth

ORBICULARIS ORIS BUCCINATOR

Closes the mouth and protrudes Lips Flattens the cheek in whistling; Sucking, blowing air out

TEMPORALIS MASSETER

across the cheek: Trumpeters muscle Fan-shaped muscle overlying the temporal bone Covers the angle of the lower jaw

Synergist of masseter Closes the jaw by elevating the mandible

EYE MUSCLES Intrinsic Eye Muscles - include muscles of ciliary body (which alters lens curvature) and the radial and circular muscles of the iris (which control pupil size) Extrinsic Eye Muscles MUSCLE SUPERIOR RECTUS CS CN III (oculomotor) CN III (oculomotor) CN IV (abduscens) CN III (oculomotor) CN IV (trochlear) CN III (oculomotor) ORIGIN Orbit around optic foramen Orbit around optic foramen Orbit around optic foramen Orbit around optic foramen Sphenoid bone INSERTION Eyeball ACTION Flexes the eye, adducts it, rotates medially Depresses the eye, abducts it, rotates laterally Moves the eye laterally Moves eye medially Depresses the eye and turns it medially Elevates the eye and turns it laterally

INFERIOR RECTUS

Eyeball

LATERAL RECTUS MEDIAL RECTUS SUPERIOR OBLIQUE

Eyeball Eyeball Eyeball

INFERIOR OBLIQUE

Maxilla in front of orbit

Eyeball

TRUNK AND NECK MUSCLES The neck muscles move the head and shoulder girdle. The trunk muscles include: 1. those that move the vertebral column (most of which are posterior antigravity muscles) 2. anterior thorax muscles, which move the ribs, head and arms 3. muscles of the abdominal wall, which help to move the vertebral column and, most importantly, form the muscular natural girdle of the abdominal body wall TRUNK AND NECK MUSCLES DESCRIPTION Two-headed (sternum and clavicle) muscles, found on each side of the neck; the prayer muscles

MUSCLE STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID Torticollis a twisted or wry neck, may result from injury to one of the sternocleidomastoid muscles TRAPEZIUS

ACTION Flexes the neck

Diamond or kite-shaped muscle

Extends the head

PECTORALIS MAJOR PECTORALIS MINOR SERRATUS ANTERIOR SERRATUS POSTERIOR INFERIOR LATISSIMUS DORSI

mass of the posterior neck and upper trunk Large fan-shaped muscle covering upper part of chest Forms the anterior wall of axilla Overlies the lateral portion of the thorax & intercostal muscles Large, flat muscle that covers the lower back Swimmers muscle Thick, flattened muscle Inferior to t. minor Cylindrical, elongated, inseparable from infraspinatus Triangular muscle Muscle that attaches scapula to the thorax Paired and deep muscles of the back

Are antagonists of sternocleidomastoid Adducts, flexes and medial rotates the arm Depresses scapula, elevates the ribs Rotates and abducts scapula, elevates the ribs Pulls scapula forward Medially rotates, adducts, powerfully extends arm Adducts, extends and medially rotates arm Adducts, extends and laterally rotates the arm Abducts the arm Extends and laterally rotates arms Retracts, rotates and fixes scapula Prime mover of back extension

TERES MAJOR TERES MINOR SUPRASPINATUS INFRASPINATUS RHOMBOIDS (major & minor)

ERECTOR SPINAE or SACROSPINALIS Consists of longissimus, iliocostalis & spinalis EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS

INTERNAL INTERCOSTALS

DIAPHRAGM

RECTUS ABDOMINIS

EXTERNAL OBLIQUE

INTERNAL OBLIQUE

Muscles found between ribs; fibers run obliquely inferiorly and anteriorly; Muscles of inspiration Fibers run obliquely inferiorly & posteriorly; Muscles of expiration Composed of peripheral muscular portion & a central tendon Straplike muscle of the abdomen; interrupted by 3 transverse fibrous bands of tissue called tendinous inscriptions Most superficial muscle of the lateral wall of the abdomen; Fibers run downward medially Muscles deep to the external oblique fibers directed at to those of external oblique Deepest muscle of the abdominal wall; fibers run horizontally across the abdomen

Expands the thoracic cavity

Decreases size of thoracic cavity Most important for breathing

Flexes the vertebral column; compresses the abdominal contents during childbirth and defecation Compresses abdomen; laterally rotates trunk Same as external

TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS

Compresses the abdominal contents

UPPER LIMB MUSCLES Upper limb muscles includes those that attach the limb and girdle to the body and those that are in the arm, forearm, and hand The muscles that attach scapula to thorax include trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboideus, serratus anterior, and pectoralis. They act as fixators that hold scapula in position. The arm is attached to the thorax by pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi. Another group, the rotator cuff muscles, includes subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus & teres minor. They form a cuff or cap over the proximal humerus. They serve to attach humerus to scapula. Arm can be divided into anterior and posterior compartments The anterior compartment includes biceps brachii, and brachialis while Posterior compartment includes triceps brachii, and brachioradialis Anterior forearm muscles are used for flexion of wrists and fingers while Posterior forearm muscles are used for extension MUSCLE DELTIOD DESCRIPTION Fleshy triangular muscle that forms rounded shape of shoulder, best site for intramuscular injection (if 5 mL or less is administered) Large muscle on the anterior surface of the arm; muscle that bulges when the elbow is flexed; originates by 2 heads from shoulder girdle long and short heads Lies deep to biceps brachii ACTION Prime mover of arm abduction

BICEPS BRACHII

Prime mover for the flexion of the arm; supinates the forearm as in twisting a corkscrew and pulling the cork

BRACHIALIS

CORACOBRACHIALIS TRICEPS BRACHII

BRACHIACHORDIALIS/ SUPINATOR LONGUS

Elongated narrow muscle in the arm Only muscle fleshing out of the posterior humerus; called the boxers muscle because it can deliver a straight arm knockout punch; originates by 3 heads from shoulder and proximal humerus long head, lateral head, and medial head Muscle lying at the preaxial border of the forearm

Most powerful flexor of the elbow; called the workhorse of the elbow flexors Flexes and adducts arm Primary extensor of the forearm; antagonists of biceps brachii

Extensor of the forearm

LOWER LIMB MUSCLES larger and more powerful than those of upper limbs because they function in stability, locomotion and maintenance of posture cause movement at the hip, knee and foot different from the shoulder girdle which require several fixator muscles origin and insertion are often interchangeable in referring to these muscles muscles include those located in the hip, thigh, leg, and foot

Anterior Hip Muscles include iliopsoas; flexes the thigh Posterior and Lateral Hip Muscles consist of gluteal muscles and tensor fascia latae so named because it tenses lateral fascia (thick band of CT on the lateral side of the thigh); abducts the thigh GLUTEUS MAXIMUS Superficial muscle of the hip that forms most of the flesh of the buttocks Powerful hip extensor that acts to bring the thigh in a straight line with the pelvis Important muscle for extending the hip when power is needed when climbing and jumping A hip abductor and is important in steadying the pelvis for walking

GLUTEUS MEDIUS

Important muscle for intramuscular injection especially when more than 5 mL is administered Problem: the medial part of each buttock, overlies the large sciatic nerve; upper outer quadrant is safe for IM injection Smallest of gluteal muscles

GLUTEUS MINIMUS Thigh Muscles

Anterior compartment: e.g. quadriceps femoris (primary extensor of the leg) Sartorius (longest muscle in the body; flexes the thigh and leg and rotates the thigh laterally for sitting cross-legged Medial compartment: adductors Posterior compartment: e.g. hamstring muscle of the leg ILIOPSOAS PSOAS MAJOR ILIACUS 2 muscles that are fused Prime mover of hip flexion Keep the upper body from falling backward when we are standing erect Helps flex the hip

QUADRICEPS FEMORIS MUSCLE 1. RECTUS FEMORIS 2. VASTUS LATERALIS 3. VASTUS MEDIALIS

IM injection site in infants with poorly developed gluteal muscles

4. VASTUS INTERMEDIUS SARTORIUS

Thin strap-like muscle; Tailors muscle (effects crosslegged sitting position) Muscles at the medial side of each thigh Muscles of the posterior thigh

Flexes and laterally rotates the thigh

ADDUCTOR LONGUS; ADDUCTOR MAGNUS HAMSTRING MUSCLE OF THE LEG (tendon is long and string-like and is used by butchers to hang hams SEMIMEMBRANOSUS SEMITENDINOSUS BICEPS FEMORIS Leg Muscles

Adducts or presses the thighs together Flexor of the leg

Anterior compartment: extensors involved in dorsiflexion e.g. extensors of foot and toes Lateral compartment: everters of foot and aid in plantar flexion e.g. tibularis muscles Posterior compartment: flexors and involved in plantar flexion e.g. gastrocnemius which form the bulge of the calf of the posterior leg TIBIALIS ANTERIOR PERONEUS CALF MUSCLES 1. GASTROCNEMIUS Forms the curved calf of the posterior leg Arises by 2 heads, one from each side of the distal femur and inserts thru the Achilles tendon Toe dancers muscle 2. PLANTARIS 3. SOLEUS Small, sometimes absent or 2 in each leg Cigar-shaped muscle Flexes the knee and extends the ankle Chief flexor of the leg Superficial muscle on the anterior leg 3 peroneus muscles found on the lateral part of the leg Dorsiflexes and inverts the foot Plantar flexes and everts the foot