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# Basic Properties of Circles (1)

4 Conte
nts

## 4.1 Chords And Arcs

4.2 Angles of a Circle

## 4.3 Basic Properties of a Cyclic Quadrilateral

4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)And Arcs
4.1 Chords
A. Basic Terms of a Circle

Definition 4.1:

## • A circle is a closed curve in a plane where

every point on the curve is equidistant
from a fixed point.

## • The length of the curve is called the Fig 4.15

circumference of the circle.

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)And Arcs
4.1 Chords
A. Basic Terms of a Circle

Definition 4.2:

## • A chord of a circle is a line segment with two

end points on the circumference.

## • A radius of a circle is a line segment joining

the centre to any point on the circumference.

## • A diameter of a circle is a chord passing

Fig 4.16
through the centre.

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)And Arcs
4.1 Chords
A. Basic Terms of a Circle

Definition 4.3:
An arc of a circle is a portion

of the circumference.
The minor arc (denoted by AB) is shorter than half of ︵
the circumference and the major arc (denoted by AXB)
is longer than half of the circumference.

## An angle at the centre is an angle subtended by an

arc or a chord at the centre.
Content
︵ ∠AOB is an angle at the
For example, in Fig. 4.18,
centre subtended by APB (or chord AB).

Fig 4.18

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)And Arcs
4.1 Chords
B. Basic Terms of a Circle

Theorem 4.1:

## In a circle, if the angles at the centre are equal,

then they stand on equal chords, that is,
if x = y,
then AB = CD.
(Reference: equal ∠s, equal chords)

## Conversely, equal chords in a circle subtend Fig 4.21

equal angles at the centre, that is,
if AB = CD,
Content
then x = y.

## (Reference: equal chords, equal ∠s)

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)And Arcs
4.1 Chords
Theorem 4.2:

## In a circle, if the angles at the centre are equal,

then they stand on equal arcs, that is,
if p = q,
︵ ︵
then AB = CD.

## Conversely, equal arcs in a circle subtend equal Fig 4.23

angles at the centre, that is,
︵ ︵
if AB = CD,
Content then p = q.
(Reference: equal arcs, equal ∠s)

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)And Arcs
4.1 Chords
Theorem 4.3:

## In a circle, equal chords cut arcs with equal

length, that is

if AB = CD,
︵ ︵
then AB = CD.
(Reference: equal chords, equal arcs)
Fig 4.24
Conversely, equal arcs in a circle subtend equal
chords, that is,
︵ ︵
if AB = CD
Content then AB = CD.
(Reference: equal arcs, equal chords)

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)And Arcs
4.1 Chords
Theorem 4.4:

## In a circle, arcs are proportional to the angels at

the centre, that is,
︵ ︵
AB: PQ = θ: ψ.
(Reference: arcs prop. to ∠s at centre)

Notes:

## 1. In a circle, chords are not proportional to the angles

they subtend at the centre, that is, AB : PQ ≠ θ: ψ.
Fig 4.31
1. In a circle, chords are not proportional to the arcs,
Content that is,
︵ ︵
AB : PQ ≠ AB : PQ.

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)And Arcs
4.1 Chords

C. Chords of a Circle

Theorem 4.5:

## If a perpendicular line is drawn from a centre of a

circle to a chord, then it bisects the chord.

then AP = BP.

## (Reference: line from centre perp. to chord bisects chord)

Fig 4.41

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)And Arcs
4.1 Chords

C. Chords of a Circle

Theorem 4.6:

## If a line is joined from the centre of a circle to the

mid-point of a chord, then it is perpendicular to the
chord.

## In other words, if AP = BP,

then OP ⊥ AB.
Fig 4.43
(Reference: line from centre to mid-pt. of chord perp. to chord)

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)And Arcs
4.1 Chords
Theorem 4.7:

## If the lengths of two chords are equal, then they are

equidistant from the centre.
In other words, if AB = CD,
then OP = OQ.
(Reference: equal chords, equidistant from centre)
Fig 4.51

Theorem 4.8:

## If two chords are equidistant from the centre of a circle,

then their lengths are equal.
Content In other words, if OP = OQ,
then AB = CD.
(Reference: chords equidistant from centre are equal) Fig 4.53

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)
4.2 Angles of a Circle
A. The Angle at the Circumference

Definition 4.5:
The angle at the circumference is the angle subtended by an arc (or a
chord) at the circumference.

Theorem 4.9:

## Fig 4.85(a) Fig 4.85(b) Fig 4.85(c)

Content
The angle at the centre subtended by an arc is twice the angle at the
circumference subtended by the same arc. This means that θ= 2ψ.
ce
(Reference: ∠at centre twice ∠at ⊙ )

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)
4.2 Angles of a Circle
Theorem 4.10:

## In a circle, if the angles at the circumference are equal,

then they stand on equal chords (or arcs), that is,
︵ ︵
if a = b, then AB = BC (or AB = BC).

## Conversely, equal chords (or arcs) in circle Fig 4.88

subtend equal angles at the circumference, that is,
︵ ︵
if AB = BC (AB = BC),
then a = b.
Content
(Reference: equal chords / arcs, equal ∠s)

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)
4.2 Angles of a Circle

Theorem 4.11:

## Arcs are proportional to the angles they subtended at

the circumference, that is,
︵ ︵
AB : PQ = a : b.

## (Reference: arcs prop. to ∠s at ⊙ce)

Fig 4.89

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)
4.2 Angles of a Circle
B. The Angle in a Semicircle

Definition 4.6:

## As shown in Fig. 4.96, if AB︵is a diameter of the

circle with centre O, then APB is a semicircle and
∠APB is called the angle in a semicircle.

Fig 4.96

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)
4.2 Angles of a Circle

Theorem 4.12:

## The angle in a semicircle is 90°.

That is, if AB is a diameter,
then ∠APB = 90°.
(Reference: ∠ in semicircle)

## Conversely, if ∠APB = 90°,

then AB is a diameter. Fig 4. 97

## (Reference: converse of ∠ in semicircle)

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)
4.2 Angles of a Circle
C. Angles in the same Segment

Definition 4.7:

## In Fig. 4.102, the region enclosed by the chord AB

and the APB is called segment APB.

The region enclosed by the chord AB and the AQB
is called segment AQB.

## Suppose the area of the circle is A. Fig 4.102

A
(a) Since the area of segment AQB < , segment AQB is called a
2
minor segment .
Content
A
(b) Since the area of segment APB > , segment APB is called a
2
major segment .

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
(1)
4.2 Angles of a Circle
Definition 4.8:

## In Fig. 4.103, ∠APB and ∠AQB are called the

angles in the same segment.

Fig 4.103
Theorem 4.13:

## The angles in the same segment of a circle are

equal,
that is,
if AB is a chord,
Content then ∠APB = ∠AQB.

## (Reference: ∠s in the same segment)

Fig 4.105

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
4.3 Basic(1)
A. Opposite Angles of a Cyclic Quadrilateral

Definition 4.9:

##  If all the vertices of a quadrilateral lie on a circle,

then this quadrilateral is called a cyclic

## 2. In Fig. 4.141, ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral.

∠A and ∠C are a pair of opposite angles of
the cyclic quadrilateral; ∠B and ∠D are Fig 4.141
another pair of opposite angles.

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
4.3 Basic(1)

Theorem 4.14

supplementary.

∠B + ∠D = 180°

## (Reference: opp. ∠s, cyclic quad.) Fig 4.143

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
4.3 Basic(1)
B. Exterior Angles of a Cyclic Quadrilateral

Theorem 4.15:

## The exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is

equal to its interior opposite angle, that is, ψ=θ.

## (Reference: ext. ∠ , cyclic quad.)

Fig 4.149

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
4.3 Basic(1)
C. Tests for Concyclic Points

Definition 4.10:
Points are said to be concyclic if they lie on the same
circle.
For example, in Fig 4.155, A, B, C, D and E are
concyclic.
Fig 4.155
Theorem 4.16: (Converse of Theorem 4.13)

concyclic.
Content

## (Reference: converse of ∠s in same segment)

Fig 4.156

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4 Basic Properties of Circles
4.3 Basic(1)

## In Fig. 4.157, if a + c = 180° (or b + d = 180°),

then A, B, C and D are concyclic.

Fig 4.157

## In Fig. 4.158, if p = q, then A, B, C and D are

Content concyclic.

Fig 4.158

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