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IRRN

Guidelines

The International Rice Research Newsletter objective is:

“To expedite communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved technology

for rice and for rice-based cropping systems. This publication will report what scientists are doing to increase the production of rice, inasmuch as this crop feeds the most densely populated and land-scarce nations in

the world

IRRN is a mechanism

to help rice scientists keep each other informed of current research findings.” The concise reports contained in IRRN are meant to encourage rice scientists and workers to communicate with one another. In this way, readers can obtain more detailed information on the research reported. Please examine the criteria, guidelines, and research categories that follow. It you have comments or suggestions, please write the editor, IRRN, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. We look forward to your continuing interest in IRRN.

Criteria for IRRN research reports

has international, or pan-national, relevance

has rice environment relevance

advances rice knowledge

uses appropriate research design and data collection methodology

reports appropriate, adequate data

applies appropriate analysis, using appropriate statistical techniques

Contributions to IRRN should be reports of recent work and work-in- progress that have broad interest and application. Please observe these guidelines in preparing submissions:

The report should not exceed two pages of double-spaced typewritten text. No more than two figures (graphs, tables, or photos) may accompany the text. Do not cite references or include a bibliography. Items that exceed the specified length will he returned.

Include a brief statement of research objectives and project design. The discussion should be brief, and should relate the results of the work to its objectives.

Report appropriate statistical

analysis.

Provide genetic background for new varieties or breeding lines.

Specify the environment (irrigated, rainfed lowland, upland, deep water, tidal wetlands). If you must use local terms to specify landforms or cropping systems, explain or define them in parentheses.

Specify the type of rice culture (e.g., transplanted, wet seeded, dry seeded).

Specify seasons by characteristic weather (wet, dry, monsoon) and by months. Do not use national or local terms for seasons or, if used, define them.

When describing the rice plant and its cultivation, use standard, internationally recognized designators for plant parts and

growth stages, environments, management practices, etc. Do not

use local terms.

When reporting soil nutrient

studies, be sure to include standard soil profile description,

classification, and relevant soil

properties.

Provide scientific names for

actual quantification of damage due to stress used to assess level or incidence. Specify the measurement used.

Use international measurements.

Do not use local units of measure. Express yield data in metric tons per hectare (t/ha) for field studies and in grams per pot (g/pot) or per row (g/row) for small-scale studies.

Express all economic data in terms of the US$. Do not use national monetary units. Economic

information should be presented at the exchange rate $:local currency at the time data were collected.

Use generic names, not trade names,for all chemicals.

When using acronyms or

abbreviations, write the name in full

on first mention, following it with the acronym or abbreviation in

parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation.

• Define in a footnote or legend any nonstandard abbreviations or symbols used in a table or figure.

Categories of research reported

GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT

genetic resources genetics breeding method yield potential grain quality and nutritional value

disease resistance insect resistance drought tolerance excess water tolerance adverse temperature tolerance adverse soils tolerance lntegrated germplasm improvement

research techniques data management and computer modeling IRTP seed technology

INSFFER disease management insect management weed management

managing other pests integrated pest management water management farm machinery environmental analysis postharvest technology

farming systems ARFSN research methodology data management and computer modeling

SOCIOECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

environment

production

livelihood

EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION

training and technology transfer research communication research information storage and retrieval

reaches supportable conclusions

diseases, insects, weeds, and crop

CROP AND RESOURCE

Guidelines for

plants; do not use common names or local names alone.

MANAGEMENT soils and soil characterization

contributors

The International Rice Research Newsletter is a compilation of research

Survey data should be quantified (infection percentage, degree of severity, sampling base, etc.).

soil microbiology and biological N fertilizer physiology and plant nutrition

briefs on topics of interest to rice scientists all over the world.

When evaluating susceptibility, resistance, tolerance, etc., report the

crop management soil fertility and fertilizer management

CONTENTS

GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT

Genetic resources

5 Some restorers and maintainers of WA cytosterile lines

Breeding methods

5

Rice dwarf mutant of Seratus Malam variety

5

Effects of antimitotics on growth and differentiation of rice tissues grown in vitro

Yield potential

6 Performance of japonica/indica cross derivatives under rainfed upland conditions

7 Japonica and indica differences in large vascular bundles in culm

Grain quality and nutritional value

7 Correlation between rice grain and straw protein content and yield

Disease resistance

8

Tungro (RTV) transmission and mode of green leafhopper (GLH) feeding

10

Tungro (RTV) development in rice

10

Stability of bacterial blight (BB) resistance in IR varieties

11

Reaction of rice varieties with xa-5 to four Philippine races of bacterial blight (BB)

12

Reaction of IR varieties to tungro (RTV) in the Philippines

12

Ketoacids in healthy and bacterial blight (BB)-affected leaves of susceptible and tolerant rice varieties

13

Resistance to bacterial blight (BB) in rice germplasm material

14

Disease selection in rice in Colombia and Central America

15

Rice cultures with early plant resistance to bacterial blight (BB)

Insect resistance

15 Gall midge (GM) resistance in traditional rice varieties in Bihar

Adverse soils tolerance

16 Growth recovery from salt stress during initial seedling stage

17 Effect of salinity on net assimilation and rice grain yield

Integrated germplasm improvement

17

Improved rice varieties released in Nigeria

18

High-yielding, medium-duration variety for Tamil Nadu

18

Promising, long-duration rice variety for Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu

19

BG380-2, a high-yielding, short- to medium-duration rice

19

Performance of selected photoperiod-sensitive breeding lines in Bangladesh

CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Soil microbiology and biological N fertilizer

20 Effect of blue-green algae (BGA) inoculation and urea super- granule (USG) on rice yields in sodic soils

Physiology and plant nutrition

20 Influence of iron on nutrient uptake by rice

Soil fertility and fertilizer management

21 Effect of integrated nitrogen management in rice on soil organic carbon and on succeeding wheat crop yield

Disease management

22

Overwintering of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae

23

Response of rice bacterial blight (BB) pathogen in vitro to antibiotics and fungitoxicants

23

Soil incorporation of fungicides to control sheath blight (ShB)

24

Diseases of dry summer rice in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

24

Virulent strain of rice grassy stunt virus (GSV) identified in Indonesia

Insect management

25

Influence of carbofuran dose and time of application on control of rice water weevil (RWW)

25

Effect of neem seed

bitters

(NSB)

on green

leafhopper (GLH)

survival and rice tungro virus (RTV) transmission

 

26

Compatible insecticides and fungicides to control leaffolder (LF) and sheath rot (ShR) in rice

26

Brown

planthopper

(BPH)

outbreak

in

Thanjavur

District,

Tamil

Nadu

27

Effect of neem seed bitters (NSB) on green leafhopper (GLH) feeding

27

Effect of neem seed treatment on rice seedling vigor and survival of brown planthopper (BPH) and green leafhopper (GLH)

28

Effect of plant derivatives on green leafhopper (GLH) and rice tungro (RTV) transmission

Weed management

29 Chemical weed control in transplanted rice

Managing other pests

30 Nitrogen fertilization

and

Meloidogyne

incognita

incidence

in

rice

Water management

30 Economizing

irrigation

Farming systems

through

rice

fallow

cropping

strategies

30 Effect of tillage on stem borer (SB) larvae carry-over in a rice -

wheat

rotation

31 Intercropping upland rice and Lamtoro in acid Red Yellow Podzolic soils

32 Performance

cropping

of

transplanted

aman

rice

varieties

in

pattern

trials

SOCIOECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Production

32 Economics of rice gall midge (GM) management in resistant and susceptible cultures

ANNOUNCEMENTS

33

Deepwater rice workshop examines innovative cropping

33

1987 International Rice Research Conference

33

Gene banks and the world’s food

34

Environmental impact of pesticides

34

Crop loss assessment to improve pest management

34

New IRRI publications

ERRATA

GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT

Genetic resources

Some restorers and maintainers of WA cytosterile lines

S. Saran and R.K. Mandal, Botany Department, Patna University, Patna 800005, India

Using Chinese CMS line V20A as a common female parent, eight crosses with standard rice cultivars were made during 1984 wet season. To identify restorers and maintainers, 20 plants from each hybrid and the male parents

grown in the test cross nursery in 1985 were examined for pollen fertility and spikelet seed-setting percentage. Male parents of the F 1 that showed 70-80% pollen fertility and above 80% spikelet fertility were designated restorers. Male parents of the F 1 showing 5-7% pollen fertility were designated maintainers. Male parents showing intermediate pollen and spikelet fertility were designated partial restorers. IR54, BIET8549, BIET1009, and Radha were identified as restorers, Br. 9 and Cuttack Basmati as partial

Spikelet and pollen fertility percentages in F 1 hybrids and their male parents.

 

Spikelet

Pollen

Cross and male parent

fertility

fertility

(%)

(%)

V20A/IR54

85.8

76

IR54

86.9

80

V20A/Br. 34

12.2

7

Br. 34

89.1

79

V20A/Br. 9

29.0

16

Br. 9

83.0

76

V20A/Cuttack Basmati

39.0

23

Cuttack

Basmati

91.2

88

V20A/BIET8549

82.5

71

BIET8549

89.1

74

V20A/BIET1009

86.8

81

BIET1009

89.2

81

V20A/Radha

84.9

76

Radha

91.0

89

V20A/BIET8550

10.5

6

BIET8550

85.5

76

restorers, and Br. 34 and BIET8550 as

maintainers (see table).

and Br. 34 and BIET8550 as maintainers (see table). Breeding methods Rice dwarf mutant of Seratus

Breeding methods

Rice dwarf mutant of Seratus Malam variety

P.S. Mugiono and A.M.R. Soemanggono, National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta, Indonesia

Seeds of Seratus Malam, a local upland rice variety (tall with long panicles and high yielding potential) were irradiated

Agronomic characters of dwarf mutant M-362 and the mother variety Seratus Malam.

 

Mutant

Seratus

Characteristic

M-362

Malam

Plant height (cm) Productive tillers (no.) Panicle length (cm)

58.50

119.00

4.50

10.00

17.17

27.00

Culm length (cm) 41.33

92.00

1,000-grain weight (g) Yield per plant (g)

12.75

22.24

10.55

18.41

Stature of M-362 dwarf mutant and the mother variety Seratus Malam. Jiakarta, Indonesia.

and the mother variety Seratus Malam. Jiakarta, Indonesia. Seratus Malam Dwarf mutant with gamma rays at

Seratus Malam

Dwarf

mutant

with gamma rays at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 kGy in 1983. Plants were selected in the M 2 generation for dwarf and semidwarf stature. From 50,000 M 2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants and 1 dwarf mutant were selected. Dwarf mutant M-362 was isolated from the 0.1 kGy gamma ray treatment. It has significantly shorter plants, shorter culms, lower number of productive tillers, shorter panicles, and lower 1,000-grain weight than Seratus Malam (see table). In the allelic test, dwarf mutant M- 362 was crossed with Acc. 123 (carrying DGWG gene). Dwarf mutant M-362 was not allelic with Acc. 123. Performance of dwarf mutant M-362

is shown in the figure.

Performance of dwarf mutant M-362 is shown in the figure. Effects of antimitotics on growth and

Effects of antimitotics on growth and differentiation of rice tissues grown in vitro

A.N. Sharma and U. Sinha, Botany Department, Patna University, Patna 800005, India

We studied the effects of three antimitotic agents — chloral hydrate,

p-fluorophenylalanine (FPA), and ethionine — on growth and differentiation of cultured explants (root, shoot, endosperm, and embryo) of indica rice varieties Sita and Rajendra Dhan 201. All the chemicals decreased the rate of elongation of roots and shoots differentiated from treated embryos and fresh and dry weights of root, shoot, and endosperm calli. The extent of growth inhibition depended on the chemical and its concentration. Of the three, ethionine was most effective. The morphological changes induced by the chemicals were manifested at the macromolecular levels as well. They lowered the levels of DNA, protein, and carbohydrates of the plantlets differentiated from chemically treated embryos, thereby indicating an overall disturbance in general metabolism (see table). The decrease in the amount of total DNA gives indirect evidence for the changes induced in the levels of ploidy

Effects of antimitotics on DNA, protein, and carbohydrate contents of 10-day-old plantlets differ- entiated from excised embryos.

Concentration

Amount in µg/g fresh weight of plantlets

Chemical

(mg/liter)

DNA

Protein

Carbohydrate

Control

0.0

1060.0

417.6

544.3

 

±44.9

±28.4

±21.1

Chloral hydrate

82.7

534.2

198.0

259.6

 

±31.4

±28.3

±21.8

 

165.4

237.4

130.3

150.7

 

±31.1

±2.8

±10.8

 

827.0

204.6

113.2

141.5

 

±52.6

±14.2

±3.0

FPA

25.0

973.0

273.9

228.6

 

±25.9

±17.8

±13.1

 

50.0

789.7

176.2

187.2

 

±57.1

±28.1

±3.8

 

100.0

463.2

141.7

149.7

 

±55.8

±20.4

±6.7

Ethionine

5.0

735.6

311.9

345.6

 

±69.4

±16.5

±25.2

 

10.0

295.7

163.7

317.8

 

±32.3

±40.2

±15.8

 

15.0

253.0

129.4

296.6

 

±8.8

±16.2

±2.3

of the treated tissues. Cytological studies of the treated tissues are needed to reveal the nature of permanent heritable

changes brought about by these

antimitotics.

heritable changes brought about by these antimitotics. Yield potential mostly blast, sheath rot, and brown spot;

Yield potential

mostly blast, sheath rot, and brown spot; insects, termites, stem borers, mealybug, and leaffolders; and root- knot nematodes. Weeds also are an important problem. We screened 37 F 4 bulk population crosses including japonicas and indicas from IRRI and local cultivars at Malda in prekharif 1986. Seeds were sown in

Performance of japonica/indica cross derivatives under rainfed upland conditions

S. K. B. Roy, State Agricultural Experimental Farm, Malda, West Bengal; and M. Arraudeau, International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines

Pre-wet season rainfed rice is grown in

about 336.4 thousand ha in northern West Bengal. Rainfall varies from 4,000

mm at Cooch-behar to 1,430 mm at

Malda; 80% falls between May and Sep. Drought is not common in Cooch- behar, Jalpaiguri, and Darjeeling districts, but happens occasionally in West Dinajpur and Malda. Germination

and initial growth of the crop direct

seeded early Mar in the terai region of Jalpaiguri and Cooch-behar is affected by low temperature (17-20 °C). Growth of the crop seeded late Apr and

May in West Dinajpur and Malda is affected by high temperature (around 40 °C). The problems associated with prekharif yields include unevenly occurring drought spells; soil deficiencies, mostly N and P; diseases,

Table 1. Screening F 4 bulk crosses under rainfed upland conditions. Malda, India, 1986.

Designation

Cross

Varietal

group a

Panicle

length

Duration

(d)

Fertile

grains

Grain

fertility

Selections

made

 

(cm)

(no./panicle)

(%)

(no.)

IR47724-14

Moroberekan/IRAT177

VI/VI

16-25

90

50-140

12-47

5

IR47730-4

IRAT112/Apura

VI/I

15-23

81-92

42-92

0-60

23

IR47705-6

Moroberekan/Palawan

VI/VI

15-20

88-90

52-100

10-71

10

IR47697-2

ITA235/IR9669 sel.

VI/I

15-20

90-92

54-85

32-70

8

IR47688-35

IRAT112/Sein Talay

VI/I

15-22

90-91

79-102

45-50

3

IR47687-10

IRAT104/Salumpikit

VI/I

16-19

91-94

80-135

0-72

5

IR47699-28

IRAT104/Palawan

VI/VI

15-17

89

80-115

39-55

2

IR4768-33

IRAT104/Salumpikit

VI/I

13-18

91-93

46-68

37-38

2

IR47721-21

IRAT177/H.T. Boewani

VI/I

15-22

89

70-113

12-55

8

IR47701-20

ITA235/UPLRi 7

VI/I

17-21

80

78-94

63-65

2

IR47699-22

ITA235/Palawan

VI/VI

19-24

81-93

65-140

39-67

5

Dular

Local check

20

85

81

32

Panke

Local check

23

100

123

9

Soni

Local check

19

82

65

43

a I = indica, VI = japonica.

early May. Individual plant selection was based on maturity, panicle length, grains per panicle, grain fertility, and grain acceptability (Table 1). The bulk population materials were as early as local cultivars. Some of them showed better seed fertility and grain numbers per panicle than local cultivars. Duration was about 90 d. The most promising materials are japonica/japonica crosses — Moroberekan/IRAT177 and ITA235/ Palawan. Lack of rain (108 mm) during Aug 1986 affected the reproductive and maturing stages. Selected plants were sown 3 Oct 1986 to test cold tolerance at the vegetative stage. The transplanted crop was

Table 2. Cold tolerance of selected advanced lines of rainfed upland crosses. Malda, India, 1986-87.

 

Varietal

group

Lines

Survival

(%)

Average

Range of

Designation

Cross

tested

cold score

cold

 

(no.)

(0-9 scale)

tolerance

IR47687-10

IRAT104/Salumpikit

VI/I

3

12.5

7.0

7-7

IR47698-32

IRATl12/Sein Talay

VI/I

1

87.5

4.0

3-5

IR47688-78

IRATl12/Sein Talay

VI/I

6

45.8

7.0

5-9

IR47697-2

ITA235/IR9669 sel.

VI/I

6

62.5

5.8

3-9

IR47699-22

ITA235/Palawan

VI/VI

3

12.5

6.0

4-9

IR47699-28

ITA235/Palawan

VI/VI

2

56.3

5.5

5-6

IR47701-20

ITA235/UPLRi-7

VI/I

3

43.8

8.0

7-9

IR47705-6

Moroberekan/Palawan

VI/VI

8

64.5

6.7

5-9

IR47721-21

IRAT177/H.T. Boewani

VI/I

6

52.5

4.7

1-9

IR47724-14

Moroberekan/IRAT177

VI/VI

3

33.8

6.6

6-7

IR47730-4

IRATl12/Apura

VI/I

5

12.5

6.5

6-7

Soni

Local check

25.0

9.0

8-9

Dular

Local check

12.5

9.0

9-9

screened 3 Jan 1987. Average minimum temperatures were 18 °C in Nov and

13 °C in Dec. Table 2 shows crosses promising for survival percentage.

Table 2 shows crosses promising for survival percentage. Japonica and indica differences in large vascular bundles

Japonica and indica differences in large vascular bundles in culm

Huang Huang, Agronomy Department, Hunan Agricultural College, Changsha, Hunan, China

We studied the number of large vascular bundles in the first internode from the

top (NLVBFI) and the number of primary branches of panicle (NPBP) at heading, in 45 indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) type varieties during 1981-82. NLVBFI was 20.9 ± 6.3 for indica type and 10.1 ± 1.9 for japonica type (see table). NPBP showed almost no differences between the two types. The ratio for NLVBFI/NPBP for 10 indicas averaged 1.97 and ranged from

NLVBFI and NPB a in selected indica and japonica varieties. Hunan, China.

NLVBFI

NPBP

 

Average (A)

CV (%)

Average (B)

CV (%)

A/B

 

Indica

 

Guang-lu-ai 4

14.6

8.7

7.2

12.8

2.08

Yu-chi 231-8

15.5

8.7

8.0

8.8

1.94

Xiang-ai-zhao 9

18.1

6.1

8.2

15.0

2.21

Ke-zhen 145

27.5

9.1

16.0

5.6

1.69

Wei-you 6

24.1

16.0

12.0

5.6

2.01

Zhen-zhu-ai

22.7

13.6

11.4

9.4

1.99

Qui-chao 2

22.9

9.5

11.6

7.3

1.97

Qiang-yan 1811

18.7

8.7

9.6

11.1

1.95

Mi-yan 23

23.2

10.7

10.2

11.1

2.27

IR26

18.7

14.9

11.2

5.6

1.64

 

Japonica

 

Tian-jin-yong

12.0

9.6

10.8

8.5

1.11

Long-hu 6

11.7

7.0

10.2

12.0

1.14

58 fu-nuo

8.3

9.9

7.0

19.0

1.18

177 fu-lei

10.7

15.7

10.5

14.3

1.02

6107

11.0

14.8

10.3

17.8

1.07

78-14

9.5

12.9

8.0

13.4

1.19

4001

10.3

20.9

9.2

25.2

1.12

Hai203

9.5

8.8

8.0

11.8

1.19

Yi-chang 105

11.6

10.8

10.6

15.4

1.09

a Means of 10 plants, including 5 main culms and 5 tillers. NLVBFI = large vascular bundles in first internode, NPBP = primary branches of panicle.

1.64 to 2.27. The ratio for 10 japonicas averaged 1.13 and ranged from 1.02 to

1.19.

It seems that the ratio can be considered a new character to distinguish the two types. The difference in NLVBFI between the two types may relate to evolution and to nutrient

transport.

two types may relate to evolution and to nutrient transport. Grain quality and nutritional value Correlation

Grain quality

and nutritional

value

Correlation between rice grain and straw protein content and yield

M. M. Ullah and N. A. Khondaker, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Hathazari, Chittagong 4330, Bangladesh

BR3 rice was grown at the Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm, Mymensingh, May-Oct 1982 with 4 treatments of ZnO (0, 2, 5, and 8 kg Zn/ha) and gypsum (0, 20,30, and 40

kg S/ ha). Normal cultural operations were done. The experiment was in randomized block design with four replications. Seedlings (25 d old) were transplanted 22 May at 25- × 15-cm spacing and harvested at 134 d. Rough grain and straw yields were recorded. Samples of rough grain and straw were analyzed for protein content by the improved Kjeldahl method (N ×

6.25).

There was a significant positive correlation between grain protein content and yield (r = 0.84**) and straw protein content and yield (r = 0.79**)

(Fig. 1, 2).

straw protein content and yield ( r = 0.79**) (Fig. 1, 2). 1. Correlation between rice
1. Correlation between rice grain yield and protein content. Chittagong, Bangladesh.
1. Correlation between rice grain yield and protein
content. Chittagong, Bangladesh.

2. Correlation between rice straw yield and protein

content. Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Disease resistance

Tungro (RTV) transmission and mode of green leafhopper (GLH) feeding

G. Dahal and H. Hibino, Plant Pathology Department; and R. C. Saxena, Entomology Department, IRRI

We studied the relationship between feeding behavior of GLH Nephotettix virescens and transmission of RTV- associated viruses in seedlings of nine rice cultivars. Newly emerged adults from a GLH colony reared on rice

Newly emerged adults from a GLH colony reared on rice 1. Transmission of RTBV or RTSV

1. Transmission of RTBV or RTSV or both by GLH and insect mode during inoculation access feeding on 9 selected rice cultivars. IRRI, 1987.

2. Scatter diagram of acidic and basic honeydew spots excreted by individual virus transmitter and

2. Scatter diagram of acidic and basic honeydew spots excreted by individual virus transmitter and nontransmitter GLH on 9 selected rice cultivars during 22 h inoculation feeding. IRRI, 1987.

cultivar TN1 were given a 4-d acquisition feeding on plants infected with rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), then a 1-d inoculation feeding on individual seedlings. Feeding behavior during inoculation access was monitored by the color reaction of honeydew spots on bromocresol-treated filter paper disks. Blue spots (basic reaction) indicated phloem feeding and brown spots (acidic reaction) indicated xylem feeding. Inoculated seedlings were individually

indexed for the presence of viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Greater xylem feeding occurred in GLH-resistant cultivars ASD7, Gam Pai 30-12-15, Palasithari 601, and ARCl1554 (Fig. 1). Greater phloem + xylem feeding occurred in GLH- susceptible cultivars Utri Rajapan, Habiganj DW8, IR22, and TN1. Except for ARC11554, GLH-resistant cultivars were predominantly infected with RTBV alone. On Gam Pai 30-12-15 and Palasithari 601, GLH that transmitted

viruses fed more on phloem + xylem than on xylem; on GLH-susceptible Utri Rajapan and Habiganj DW8, all GLH fed on phloem + xylem, and most failed to transmit either virus. The areas of basic and acidic honeydew spots excreted by individual GLH on each cultivar varied (Fig. 2), indicating heterogeneity of GLH in the colony used, although the colony has been maintained on TN1 for many years. Virus transmission did not correlate with feeding sites in the scatter

diagram.

many years. Virus transmission did not correlate with feeding sites in the scatter diagram. IRRN 13:1

Tungro (RTV) development in rice

We studied the development of RTV 28 DT, coincidental with detection of

infection in rice varieties with different

levels of resistance to

RTBV + RTSV. RTSV infection rate was highest about a month after transplanting, and decreased thereafter, whereas infection with RTBV + RTSV

the vector green a wet season trial

E. R. Tiongco, R. C. Cabunagan, Z. M. leafhopper (GLH). In

Flores, and H.

Department, IRRI

Hibino, Plant Pathology

Aug-Oct 1985, high infection by rice

tungro spherical virus (RTSV) was increased remarkably 1 mo after

spherical virus (RTSV) was increased remarkably 1 mo after 1. Percentage of RTBV and RTSV infection

1. Percentage of RTBV and RTSV infection assessed by latex test in 6 rice varieties at different times after transplanting, IRRI. WS = wet season, DS = dry season.

after transplanting, IRRI. WS = wet season, DS = dry season. 2. Percentage of RTBV and

2. Percentage of RTBV and RTSV infection assessed by latex test, and RTV incidence based on symptoms in variety TN1 at different times after transplanting. IRRI, 1987 DS.

found 30 d after transplanting (DT) in all varieties except IR54 and IR58, which have GLH resistance. RTSV infection remained high to the end of the test period, except in susceptible TN1 and IR22. Infection with both RTSV and rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) was high in TN1 and IR22. In a similar trial Jan-Mar (dry season) 1986, RTSV infection at 30 DT was low even in TN1 and IR22. Infection increased slowly with both viruses in all varieties. RTV development was more rapid in susceptible TN1 and IR22 than in moderately resistant IR36 and IR42. IR54 and IR58 had low infection, regardless of cropping season (Fig. 1). In the Jan-Mar 1987 trial using TN1 plants, RTSV infection occurred as early as 14 DT. RTV symptoms appeared at

transplanting (Fig. 2). The rate of RTV development varied among varieties and cropping seasons. RTSV infection could occur soon after transplanting, about a month before appearance of RTV symptoms. RTSV incidence also varied with cropping

season.

symptoms. RTSV incidence also varied with cropping season. Stability of bacterial blight (BB) resistance in IR

Stability of bacterial blight (BB) resistance in IR varieties

Wei Zi Sheng and Li Yu Rong, Hunan Agricultural Science Academy, Rice Research Institute, Changsha, China

Eleven IR varieties were evaluated for BB resistance at AanRen, Hunan, 1975-

87. Seedlings were transplanted in 1 row at 18- × 18-cm spacing. Plants were artificially inoculated (clipping method) with a virulent local isolate at maximum tillering. Disease reaction was recorded 20 d after inoculation. IR22, IR26, IR32, IR36, IR38, and IR42 showed stable resistance, with a narrow reaction range. IR20, IR28, IR29, IR30, and IR34 had a wider

reaction range (see table).

Stability

of

BB

resistance

in

reaction range (see table). Stability of BB resistance in IR varieties. Hunan, China.   T e

IR

varieties.

Hunan, China.

 

Test

BB reaction a

Variety

duration

Range

Average

IR20

1975-47

1-5

3.15

IR22

1975-87

1-3

2.85

IR26

1975-87

1-3

2.38

IR28

1975-87

1-5

3.30

IR29

1975-47

1-5

3.00

IR30

1975-87

1-5

3.46

IR32

1976-87

1-3

2.67

IR34

1976-47

1-5

3.16

IR36

1976-87

1-3

2.67

IR38

1976-87

1-3

2.67

IR42

1976-87

1-3

2.67

a Standard evaluation system for rice.

Reaction of rice varieties with xa-5 to four Philippine races of bacterial blight (BB)

A.K. Saha, Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Joydebpur, Bangladesh; and G.S. Khush, IRRI

More than 100 varieties having recessive gene xa-5 for BB resistance have been identified (genetic analysis using BB race 1). The xa-5 gene conveys resistance to BB races 1,2, and 3. We have found that varieties with xa-5 give widely variable reaction to race 4. We reinoculated (clipping method) 6 plants each of 74 varieties with 4 races at maximum tillering. All varieties were resistant to races 1, 2, and 3 (see table). However, 52 were susceptible or moderately susceptible and 22 were resistant or moderately resistant to race 4. We are analyzing some varieties resistant to race 4 to determine if they

Reaction of rice varieties with xa-5 to 4 Philippine races of BB.

 

IRRI

Country of

Reaction a

to

races

Variety

acc. no.

origin

1 (PXO 61)

2 (PXO 86)

3 (PXO 79)

4 (PXO 71)

Hashikalmi Kele Aus 25 1 Aus 449 Bageri Dharial

3397

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

R

R

R

MR

25881

R

R

R

MR

29043

Bangladesh

R

R

R

MS

29206

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

R

R

R

MS

16193

R

R

R

MS

3396

R

R

R

MS

DV29

8816

R

R

R

MR

DV319

8880

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

R

R

R

R

DD100

8649

MR

MR

MR

MS

DNJ 142

8426

Bangladesh

R

R

R

MS

DV32

8818

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

R

R

R

MR

DV52

8828

R

R

R

MR

DV85

8839

Bangladesh

R

R

R

R

DV86

8840

Bangladesh

R

R

R

R

DZ78

8555

Bangladesh

R

R

R

MS

Pankhiraj Dharial UCP 28 Laksmijota Lahargura Loroi Chinsurah Boro II Koalarata

24139

Bangladesh

R

R

R

MS

34034

Bangladesh

R

R

R

MR

8728

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

R

R

R

MS

31595

R

R

R

MS

25886

R

R

R

MS

27567

Bangladesh

R

R

R

R

11484

India

R

R

R

R

28598

India

R

R

R

MR

ARC6231

12260

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC6565

20400

India

R

R

R

S

ARC7001

20436

India

MR

R

R

S

ARC7013

20437

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC7043

20458

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC7045

20460

India

R

R

R

S

ARC7046

20461

India

R

R

R

S

ARC7055

20468

India

R

R

R

S

ARC7060

20471

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC7090

20490

India

R

R

R

S

ARC7098

20498

India

R

R

R

MR

ARC7102

20501

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC7128

20524

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC7207

20545

India

R

R

R

S

ARC7260

12346

India

R

R

R

S

ARC7291

12356

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC7323

20602

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC7336

20606

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC7406

20617

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC7416

20625

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC7423

20627

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC10027

20655

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC10376

20887

India

R

R

R

MR

ARC10520

20967

India

R

R

R

MR

ARC10952

12682

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC11067

42623

India

R

R

R

MR

ARC11071

21184

India

R

R

R

MR

ARC11072

21186

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC11075

21188

India

R

R

R

S

ARC11083

21189

India

R

R

R

MR

ARC11092

21192

India

R

R

R

MS

ARC11109

21199

India

R

R

R

MR

ARC11121

21207

India

R

R

R

MR

ARC11204

21223

India

R

R

R

MR

ARC11219

21236

India

R

R

R

MR

BJ1

3711

Nepal

R

R

R

R

Banglaluwa

16268

Nepal

R

R

R

MS

Devarasi

16173

Nepal

R

R

R

MS

Dudhi

16256

Nepal

Nepal

R

R

R

MS

Lal Ahu

16121

R

R

R

MS

Lalaka Gadur

16255

Nepal

R

R

R

S

Lal Sar

16185

Nepal

R

R

R

MS

Matury

16190

Nepal

R

R

R

S

Nakhi

16254

Nepal

R

R

R

S

Ram Bilash

16273

Nepal

R

R

R

MS

Continued on next page

Table continued

Variety

IRRI

Country

of

Reaction a to races

 

acc. no.

origin

1

(PXO 61)

2 (PXO 86)

3 (PXO 79)

4 (Pxo 71)

Sajani

16177

Nepal

R

R

R

S

Sokan Dhan

16250

Nepal

R

R

R

MS

Tally

16146

Nepal

R

R

R

MR

Gokhue Sair

16195

Nepal

R

R

R

MS

Mujaer

18296

Indonesia

R

R

R

MS

DL 5

8593

Pakistan

R

R

R

MS

a R = resistant, MR = moderately resistant, MS = moderately susceptible, S = susceptible.

have an additional gene for resistance. A vast majority of the varieties came from gene center 1, comprising Bangladesh, Nepal, and northeast India. One variety is from Indonesia and one

from Pakistan.

India. One variety is from Indonesia and one from Pakistan. Individuals, organizations, and media are invited
India. One variety is from Indonesia and one from Pakistan. Individuals, organizations, and media are invited

Individuals, organizations, and media are invited to quote or reprint articles or excerpts from articles in the IRRN.

Reaction of IR varieties to tungro (RTV) in the Philippines

E.R. Tiongco, R.C. Cabunagan, Z.M. Flores, and H. Hibino, Plant Pathology Department; and O. Garcia, R. Necesario, and G. L. Denning, Training and Technology Transfer Department, IRRI

IR varieties were tested for reaction to RTV during the 1986 dry season in Koronadal, South Cotobato; Baybay, Leyte; and Guimba, Nueva Ecija. Disease incidence was based on symptoms; rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) in rice plants were indexed by the latex test 60 d after transplanting. Symptoms of RTV incidence in fields surrounding the test sites were assessed visually. RTV incidence varied among varieties and locations (see table). In Nueva Ecija, where virtually no RTV incidence

was observed in the surrounding fields, only RTSV infection occurred in all varieties. In Leyte, where RTV incidence was moderately low, high levels of RTSV infection and low levels of RTBV infection occurred in all varieties. In South Cotabato, where RTV incidence was high, many varieties were infected with both viruses. Even under high disease pressure in South Cotabato, IR56, IR60, and IR62 had relatively low infection rates. IR50, IR54, and IR64, which have Gam Pai 30-12-15 as a donor for vector resistance in their parentage, showed low infection rates with either virus in Nueva Ecija but high infection rates in Leyte and South Cotabato. IR26 and IR30 were mostly infected with RTBV alone in South Cotabato. These results indicate field resistance to RTV in IR50, IR54, and IR64 in Nueva Ecija but not in Leyte and South Cotabato.

RTV incidence based on symptoms, and RTBV and RTSV infection based on the latex test in IR varieties 60 d after transplanting in fields in Nueva Ecija, Leyte, and South Cotabato, Philippines.

Nueva Ecija a RTSV infection (%)

Leyte

 

South

Cotabato

RTV

Infection (%)

Variety

RTV

Infection (%)

 

incidence

incidence

(%)

RTBV+

RTBV

RTSV

(%)

RTBV+

RTBV

RTSV

 

RTSV

RTSV

IR22

11

61

20

13

11

99

50

8

29

IR26

12

0

0

2

0

89

0

34

0

IR30

10

0

0

1

0

49

2

37

1

IR36

29

5

4

3

22

92

19

12

19

IR42

26

25

17

4

64

98

25

14

20

IR50

9

1

2

2

28

100

39

10

19

IR54

4

3

4

2

48

100

65

5

21

IR56

5

0

0

1

2

5

1

2

10

IR60

26

0

0

1

4

29

1

3

11

IR62

13

0

0

0

4

7

4

2

25

IR64

6

3

2

2

28

100

31

15

22

a No visual scoring made. No RTBV+RTSV or RTBV infection observed.

The latex test on test plants and plants from surrounding fields in South Cotabato revealed 12% infection with rice grassy stunt virus (GSV). It seemed that GSV strain 2, which caused RTV- like symptoms, was prevalent in South Cotabato. GSV-infected plants might have been scored RTV-infected. These results confirm that RTV incidence varies with disease severity and the vector population prevailing in the area. Unsuspected RTSV occurs widely

in fields perceived to be disease-free.

RTSV occurs widely in fields perceived to be disease-free. Ketoacids in healthy and bacterial blight (BB)-affected

Ketoacids in healthy and bacterial blight (BB)-affected leaves of susceptible and tolerant rice varieties

Ch. Ramanamma and A. Sreeramulu, Botany Department, S. V. University, Tirupati 517502, A. P., India

Ketoacids act as precursors of amino acids. Their alteration may affect the composition of amino acids during disease development in rice leaves. Three ketoacids — pyruvic acid, – ketoglutaric acid, and an unknown ketoacid — were detected in healthy and inoculated plants of susceptible TN1 and tolerant IET4141 rice varieties. Their content during disease development in inoculated leaves of both varieties was

greater than in healthy leaves. Disease stages 1 to 5 were monitored at 2, 5, 10

15, and 20 d after inoculation of 55-d- old rice plants with a virulent isolate of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae.

of 55-d- old rice plants with a virulent isolate of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae. 12 IRRN
Ketoacid content of 2 healthy and infected varieties. Tirupati, India. Lesser amounts of ketoacids were

Ketoacid content of 2 healthy and infected varieties. Tirupati, India.

Lesser amounts of ketoacids were

found in IET4141 than in TN1. The three ketoacids were present in all stages of healthy and inoculated leaves of TN1. But the unknown ketoacid was absent at stage 1 of healthy plants and stages 1 and 2 of inoculated IET4141.

a -ketoglutaric acid was present in

higher quantities than the two other

ketoacids in both varieties (see figure). Accumulation of ketoacids in susceptible TN1 shows that the tricarboxylic acid cycle of the plant is affected during disease development. Pyruvic acid at 500 ppm was

phytotoxic to both varieties.

ketoglutaric acid was not phytotoxic, but that and the unknown ketoacid may contribute indirectly to symptom

development.

a-

may contribute indirectly to symptom development. a - For information on ordering IRRI publications, write

For information on ordering IRRI publications, write Communication and Publications Dept., Div. R, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.

Resistance to bacterial blight (BB) in rice germplasm material

R.

N. Singh, A. T. Khan, and B. N. Mahto,

N.

D. University of Agriculture and

Technology, P.O. Dabha Semar, Faizabad,

U.P., India

We evaluated part of the rice germplasm collection at the Crop Research Station, Dabha Semar, for reaction to BB pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae (Ishiyama) Dye during the 1985 and 1986 wet seasons (1 Jun-30 Nov). Each test entry was planted in two 2-m- long rows at 20- × 15-cm spacing. Plants were clip-inoculated with the suspension of a local isolate at maximum tillering and disease was rated (Standard evaluation system for rice) 15 d and 30 d after inoculation. Final scores were used to classify the germplasm. None of the genotypes was found to be free from infection, and only IET6155 had a disease score of 2 (see table).

Reaction of rice germplasm material to the local isolate of BB pathogen, Faizabad, U. P. India, 1985 and 1986.

Germplasm

material

Reaction

Varieties

(no.)

score a

with similar score

IET6155

2

1

IET4555, NP085, RP419, Pant Dhan 4, NDU7, NDU22, T63, M23, H62, IET4141

3

10

IET8675, Restonoorin 21-9, T43, W1278, RR51-1, NDR88 4 6

NDR80, NDR84, NDR97, Saket 4, Type 3, CH45, CH1059, 5 HDLL 39, NDU21, NDU37, NDU39, NDU48, SLO-17, SRA41, IET6238, Basmati 370, Pankaj, Ranikazal, Chainphool, Kalakand

Narendra 1, Narendra 2, NDR308, China 4, Champa coarse, 6 Rohini 1708, K333, CH1039, IET9782, FS18, CR1416, T6, Joginia, FR9, K39, RP79-9, Sorhi, Anandi, CBF, Ramaniya

IR28, NDRl19, Indrasan, Ratna, IR24, Improved Sona, 7 Sarjoo 52, Dehula, Lalsar, Satha Opening, Anjani I, Padhini, T113, T132, Dulhiniya, T102, Agwar, Karhani (B), Garer, Bazarbhog, JBS1241, T128, T124, Bagari, Banshawa, Bilaspur, Carreon, Champa (F), Delha, Dadhaha, Dudiha, FRG4, FRG10, Jaisuria, Jalhar (C) 11, Kanga (Turahwa), KPW6B, Motibadam, Motipandey, MT4, NDR82, Pahuna, Soron, Sonachoor, Sumokhan, Tudat

Govind, NDR118, Kachni, Karanga, Tinpakhiyal, Dalkachari, 8 Gajraj, Lakand, Bakaiya, Rohan 2662, Rambhog, Velluthacheera, Chinigurdi 11, Sapna, Sawani bhadai, Selection-8, Lalki bhadai, Lalkawa, Katki I, Katki II, Hari Nibbu, Culture 4, T136, Neebbu, Bagari (B), Karhani (R), Bhadai (R), Babu Ram, NDR501, Pusa 33-18, T42, IR30, Ashahaniya, T-86, Kashi, T116, Kulsha, Motafarm, IR8

Rasi, Pusa 33, Cauvery, Saket 1, Saket 2, Saket 3, Jhona 349, N22, Madhuri, T21, Prasad, Kodaya, Kodya Improved, Culture 4 (RE), Karhan, Aktahwa (Red), Aktahwa (Black), Nootan, Dudhi, Champa fine, Ram Bilas, Bakain, Mungera, Sahdeyia, Rodola, Rohani, Reshma, Rajbhog, IET6663, Harikesh, Bhadai (B), Bhadai (W), Bala, Bakki, Singul, Satha Band (B), Satha Band (W), Parsom, Usha, T1242, T2, T46, KSR142, Bhunali, IET7301, Kota Basmati, T129, Gajgaur (B), Kapoorchini, Sarjoo 49, Anjana, Champa (C), Kalamdan, Mutra, Sukhawan, Talman, Tinpakhiya II, Akatahwa (FD), Gheebhat, Sath fine, Karnya, Kashi P. D., Katri III, Madhukar, NDR-49, Ramkajara, Rohan, Sawani, Akatahwa (T. D.), Anand, Basmati, Bindibali, Bindi kali, FH-109, Gajgaur, Gajgaur II (W), Jaya, Karanji, L. C. Pratapgarh, Madanchand, Mangova, Motifarm, Muskan, Nutex, Pasarhi, Safedawa, Sajna, Shyamghata, Sona, Turhawa, Lalka, T(N) 1.

9

20

20

46

39

92

a Standard evaluation system for rice (1980).

Disease selection in rice in Colombia and Central America

F. Cuevas-Perez and J. S. Gaona, IRTP Latin America, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Apartado Aereo No. 6713, Cali, Colombia

Materials are tested by CIAT for disease reaction prior to dispatch to national programs in Central America. Evaluations are done in Villavicencio, Colombia, a highly favorable disease

environment where blast (Bl) caused by Pyricularia oryzae, leaf scald (LSc) by Gerlachia oryzae, and brown spot (BS) by Helminthosporium oryzae are endemic. We studied whether selecting under the high-disease environment prevalent in Villavicencio would predict disease performance in Central America, and compared the efficiency of this testing with selecting entries based only on Bl bed readings. The analysis was based on disease

data reported from CIAT Rice Program evaluation plots in Villavicencio and from IRTP collaborators in Central America who reported moderate to severe disease levels in 1982-86 for Bl and in 1985-86 for LSc and BS. Data for 1984 were not used because no disease evaluations from Colombia were available that year. Each line was classified as selected for a given disease when it received a score lower than that of the nearest susceptible check in the field (Standard evaluation system for rice). The coincidence in selection between Colombia and Central America was estimated for each disease as the mean probability for a line to be selected in both locations. The probability of coincidence in selection for Bl was 0.7 for 1982-83, when selection in Colombia was based on data from the uniform Bl bed in Palmira. It increased to 0.92 during 1985-86, when selection was based on field evaluations in Villavicencio. The predictability of selections done in Colombia for Central America for LSc and BS was calculated as 0.80 for

1985-86.

This indicates high similarity of the race distribution of Bl and the disease environment between Villavicencio, Colombia, and testing sites in Central America. To estimate the consistency across time of disease evaluations done in Colombia, we calculated the probability of coincidence using 1985-86 data from observational nurseries planted in consecutive years in Colombia. Probabilities of coincidence were 0.83 for Bl and 0.93 for LSc (see table). Coincidence for BS could not be estimated because incidence was low in 1986. No significant differences were observed between coincidence values of leaf Bl and LSc within years in Colombia and between Colombia and Central America for the period and genotypes considered. We estimate that Bl and LSc evaluation in Villavicencio can predict reaction in Central America at least 80% of the time. Consistent BS evaluations

might

be very difficult

to

obtain.

at least 80% of the time. Consistent BS evaluations might be very difficult to obtain. 14

Probability of coincidence in disease selection for consecutive years in Colombia and between Colombia and Central America, 1985-86. a

Disease

Colombia b

Central America

c 2

 

Leaf blast

0.83

0.88

1.54

 
 

(0.1

<

P

<

0.9)

Leaf scald

0.93

0.85

2.75

 

(0.05

<

P

< 0.1)

Brown spot

0.79

a Probability of coincidence: probability for a line to be selected in those locations in Central America with moderate to severe disease levels, given that it was selected in Colombia. b BS pressure was too low in 1986; thus no selection was made.

BS pressure was too low in 1986; thus no selection was made. The International Azolla Newsletter

The International Azolla Newsletter is published for researchers in the development and application of azolla in rice production. Its content focuses on discussions of current issues; it does not publish research reports. For more

information, write Dr. I. Watanabe. Azolla

Newsletter editor, IRRI, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.

Newsletter editor, IRRI, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. Rice cultures with early plant resistance to

Rice cultures with early plant resistance to bacterial blight (BB)

R.N. Singh and A. T. Khan, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Dabha Semar, District Faizabad 224133, U.P., India

BB caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae (Ishiyama) Dye, a serious disease of wet season (1 Jun-30 Nov) rice in eastern Uttar Pradesh, is more damaging during the early crop season when temperature and atmospheric humidity are very high. Only the prebooting stage of long-duration varieties coincides with this period. We tested a number of cultures for prebooting stage resistance to BB during 1986-87 wet season. Each entry was sown in two 2-m-long rows at 20- × 15-cm spacing. Plants were clip- inoculated with a suspension of a local BB isolate at tillering and rated at 15 d and 30 d after inoculation. TN1 at maximum tillering was the susceptible check. Eight test cultures had disease scores

of 2, 15 had scores of 3 (see table).

had disease scores of 2, 15 had scores of 3 (see table). The lnternational IPM Newsletter
had disease scores of 2, 15 had scores of 3 (see table). The lnternational IPM Newsletter

The

lnternational IPM

Newsletter

is

published for researchers in the development and transfer of integrated pest management (IPM) technology in rice production. Its content focuses on discussions of current issues; it does not publish research reports. For more information, write Dr. B. M. Shepard, IPM Newsletter, IRRI, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.

IPM Newsletter, IRRI, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. Rice cultures showing early (prebooting stage) plant

Rice cultures showing early (prebooting stage) plant resistance to local BB pathogen isolate. Faiza- bad, U. P., India, 1986.

Variety or culture

Cross

Disease a

score

RP1860-102-23-4-3

IET5656/Salamat

2

MTU7633

VasistalMahsuri Pankaj/Jagannath L. Z. Nira/TN1

 

2

CR210-1018

2

CR98-7269

2

CR260-131-5

CR151/CR1014

2

OR142-29

Pankaj/Sigadis Pankaj/Sigadis

 

2

OR142-93

2

OR151-17

Hema/CR51-1523//Vikram

2

CR149-7171-271

MNP36/CR12//Pankaj

3

CR149-206

CR63-5218-1/Pankaj

3

CR98-8081

L. Z. Nira/TNl

3

MTU5182

MTU4569/ARC6650

3

CN836-3-6

3

CN836-3-8

3

CR376-KR-1

3

CR376-KR-2

3

CR376-KR-3

3

RAU83-8-4

BR-51-46-5l/Mahsuri

3

RP1859-206-6-4-2-1

Swarnadhan/Benong

III

3

RP1860-249-3-1-1

Swarnadhan/Salamat Vikram/Bulu Benong III

3