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# PHYSICAL MATERIALS

STRUCTURE

PROPERTIES

OF

Atom is the smallest particle of an element which may or may not have independent existence. If they are not independent, then two or more atoms make a building block of the material, named as molecules. Solids on the basis of the arrangement of the atoms or molecules, are being classified mainly into two types: Crystalline Solids Amorphous Solids

CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS
Solids, in which atoms or molecules are arranged in a definite 3-D pattern, are called crystalline solids.

AMORPHOUS SOLIDS
In these solids, atoms do not have any regular arrangement.

ENGINEERING MATERIALS
1. METALS
From amorphous solids,

MANUFACTURING

## GLASS, PLASTICS, RUBBER, POLYMERS AND CERAMICS are most of concern.

IMPORTANCE
Every material has its own importance according to the manufacturing requirement as metals are very soft, usually when are in pure form but can be hardened according to the requirement by mixing the other

metals, making alloys. Ceramics are highly electrical insulators and highly resistive to heat conduction. Polymers are flexible and highly resistive to corrosion. They are also good in their strength.

## 2. STRUCTURE AND SHAPE

Structure of a material depends that which kind of solid that. If the material is crystalline, then their shape will be definite. And if solids will be of type amorphous, arrangement of atoms or molecules will not be regular in the structure and consequently shape would not be regular.

IMPORTANCE
Crystalline solids have sharp melting points and they do break along definite planes. While amorphous solids do not have sharp melting points. That is why glass can be soften over a range of temperature. So according to the requirement we select a material for our purpose.

3. DENSITY
Mass of the material divided by its volume is called Density of the material. Solids have more density than to the liquids and liquids have more density to the gases.

4. MELTING POINT
The temperature at which a substance starts deforming (structural failure) at 1 atm pressure is called the melting point of that material.

IMPORTANCE
With this information, one can estimate the environment with which the material can with stand.

5. BOILING POINT
The temperature at which a material (liquid) starts converting into gaseous state at sea level (1 atm) pressure is called Boiling point of that material (liquid).

IMPORTANCE

This factor is important in determining the fluidity of a fluid which is an important feature in manufacturing processes. OR Temperature at which the vapour pressure of a liquid becomes equal to the external pressure, is called Boiling point of the liquid.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
1. METALS

AND

ELECTRICAL

Elements which have a tendency to form +ve ions by loosing electrons are termed as metals. Here we will discuss some chemical properties of metals.

The half of the distance between the centers of two adjacent atoms, is termed as Atomic Radius.

3.ATOMIC NUMBER
Number of electrons in the valence shell or number of protons in the nucleus is termed as Atomic Number.

4.ATOMIC WEIGHT
Total number of all protons and electrons in the nucleus is called the Atomic Weight of the element.

5.METALLIC CONDUCTION
Most metals are of conductors of electricity because of the availability of free electrons through out the metallic lattice. This property is called Metallic Conduction.

6.BOND ENERGY
Energy required to break all bonds in one mole of the substance.

7. VALENCY
Tendency of a substance to attract shared pair of electrons towards itself.

8. IONIZATION ENERGY
Minimum energy required to remove most loosely bound electron from gaseous atom.

9. VAPOUR PRESSURE
Pressure exerted by the vapors of a liquid in equilibrium with the liquid at a given temperature.

THERMAL PROPERTIES
Definition
These are the properties of the material, depends upon the temperature of the environment in which the material is being placed. Some of the basic thermal properties of the materials are discussed as follows: a. Specific Heat b. Thermal Conductivity c. Thermal Expansion

1.SPECIFIC HEAT
The specific heat or heat capacity of a material is a amount of energy that must be given or extracted to produce a change of 1 degree in temperature.

IMPORTANCE
The change in temperature is an important property for the processes in which heating or cooling take place such as casting, molding etc. Also we control the brittleness of the material by increasing or decreasing the time of cooling after melting the metal for molding.

2. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
It measures the rate at which heat can be transported or conducted through a material.

IMPORTANCE
Thermal conductivity is directly proportional to the electrical conductivity. So with the help of this property we can tell that which elements (materials) are good conductors to electricity by seeing their thermal conductivity.

3. THERMAL EXPANSION
Materials mostly expand on heating and contract on cooling. But how much a material will expand or contract on heating or cooling, depends on the type of material.

IMPORTANCE
Usually there is a difference between environment where a part of machine is developed and the environment where it has to be used. So by the information about the thermal expansion of the materials, we will choose such a material which will be suitable for the place where it has to be used.

MECHNICAL MATERIALS
1. STRENGTH

PROPERTIES

OF

Strength of a material can be defined as the resistance of the material to the maximum amount of various loads which the material can be sustained.

EXPLANATION:
Materials or metals behave differently under different load conditions. Load can be compressive, tensile or torsion. Strength can be measured by different tests. Every material has different atomic structure that is why behavior towards different loads is different.

IMPORTANCE:
For a mechanical purpose, we examine the strength of a material before selecting it to make it in our use for a particular purpose. For engineering application point of view, firstly we see the part which is to be produced, where it has to be used, what the stresses which it has to bear are and what the conditions of environment (e.g. temperature) are where it has to be fitted. Then accordingly we see and select the suitable material.

2. ELASTICITY
It defines the limit of the stress till which if we applied force(stress) and then if we remove the stress, material will come to its original condition.

EXPLANATION:
The maximum amount of load which if we applied and later removed without leaving the material permanently deformed is known as Elastic Limit. In this way the elements having high value of elastic limit can be chosen for the areas where tensile loads are applied. So by looking the environmental conditions we choose a material for a specific purpose.

3. PLASTICITY
After the elastic limit, the graph of Stress Vs Strain never remains straight. Here what happens is, after removing the load, strains are not completely recoverable and some of the permanent deformation developed in the material, although the strain is being produced by applying stress by Hooks Law is not satisfied anymore. This behavior of the material is called Plasticity.

IMPORTANCE:
In some of the materials, it is useful because it helps to shape the required product with the raw materials, such as plastic products. Also plasticity helps us to predict the max allowable stress for a material because after that elastic limit will finish and a permanent deformation will occur in the material.

4. DUCTILITY

After the lower yielding point, strain increases remarkably even with a minor increase in the stress. This ability of a material to produce large strain (plasticity) or plastic deformation is called Ductility. Materials having high ductility are called ductile materials.

IMPORTANCE:
Ductile materials are chosen where flexibility is required. Machines where shocks are continuous, if machine bed will not be flexible, then it will be broken.

5. MALLEABILITY
Materials ability to be hammered out into thin sheets is called Malleability.

EXAMPLE:
Lead is a good example of malleable material.

IMPORTANCE:
Malleable materials are important where metal covering is required on a comparatively larger area. So there we use metal sheets. Also corners and joints are produced with malleable materials.

6. BRITTLENESS
Brittle materials are those which show comparatively small extensions to fracture in such a way that plastic region of graph (stress Vs strain) becomes very small.

EXPLANATION:
In brittle materials, in the tensile test curve, the partially plastic behavior of the materials is very less. So they reach to the fracture point very soon. These types of materials are used where no flexibility is required.

7. STIFFNESS
Stiffness of a material defines its resistance to deformation below the elastic limit

EXPLANATION:
Here important point which to be noted is that ,stiffness is being measured just in the elastic region where Hooks Law is applicable . Here stiffness E is the slope of the line

E=stress/strain
Steeper will be the line, the more will be slope and hence stiffness will be more.

8. TOUGHNESS
When a metal combines a high elastic limit with good ductility, the metal is said to be tough.

EXPLANATION:
From definition, we can check that toughness is accompanying good elastic limit with a high value of ductility. It means the materials having good yield strength (e.g) cold worked steel alone or having good ductility (lead) alone are not tough. Just those materials having both characteristics called tough.

EXAMPLE:

Low-Carbon Steel

IMPORTANCE:
Toughness can also be defined as the ability of a material to withstand cracks. Means the ductility of the material bears the stress and avoid the transfer of cracks due to stresses.

10. HARDNESS
Hardness of a material is the ability of the material to resist indentation, scratch and nick on the surface.

EXPLANATION:
As hardness is also an ability to resist stresses producing indentation so it is closely associated with stiffness and so with the elastic limit of a metal.

11. CREEP
It is a long term effect of elevated temperature on a material. OR Defects or changing produced in a material due to its placement for a long time in an elevated temperature environment is called CREEP.

EXPLANATION:
Let if we apply a tensile load with an object in an elevated temperature for a long time, the object will elongate continuously until rupture occurs. Although the applied tensile load is less than the yield strength of the material at the temperature of testing.

IMPORTANCE:
The rate of elongation is although very small, but this consideration is very important in designing turbines, power plants and pressure vessels which have to be operated under high temperatures for a long period; and mostly these types of failures produce in turbine blades, nuclear reactors, furnaces, rocket motors etc.

12. FATIGUE:
Fatigue is the failure of a material under fluctuating stresses or forces.

EXPLANATION:
Fatigue is the structural failure causes due to the fluctuating force each of which is considered to produce a little amount of plastic deformation. Fatigue is a very important phenomenon for the components subjected to repeating and rapidly fluctuating loads.

EXAMPLES:

Examples of the components facing fatigue are air craft components, turbine blades and vehicle suspensions.