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The Lisbonian Magazine English College Lisbon July 2011

English College Lisbon

July 2011

The Lisbonian

– The magazine of the Lisbonian Society

All correspondence should be addressed to:

The Editor

Kevin Hartley

8 Hanbury Hill

Stourbridge DY8 1BE

The Lisbonian is the bi-annual magazine of the Lisbonian Society, appearing in January and July, and covers a wide range of topics of current and historical interest.

The magazine is distributed to all members of the Society and to those who have expressed an interest in the College. Articles relating in any way to Lisbon past or present and especially to former students of the College are always very welcome.

Anyone wishing to submit an article for consideration should in the �rst instance contact Kevin Hartley as above or by email:

Lisbonian Society

Correspondence relating to the Lisbonian Society should be addressed to the new address

Hon Secretary Lisbonian Society

V Rev Canon Gerard Hetherington, KHS 1 st Floor Flat

8 St Peter’s Street



2 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011




Letters to the Editor


Interview – Bill Dalton


Irish College of St Patrick – Lisbon


Obituary – Gerry Collins


Re�ections – A Paint Job…


The Maltese People


Is That Theology?


In A Word – Actuosa or Active


Obituary – Tony Fleming


Obituary – Paul Chidgey


The Lisbonian Society Accounts



Passing of Friends

Gerry Collins, Tony Fleming and Paul Chidgley have all died in recent months. Remember them

in your prayers as they remember

us before the Lord.

A Bit of History

How many of us, trudging up the Rua de São Mamede, ever spared

a thought for the building on

the corner of the Escadrinhos de São Fermin? And yet for many years there was a sister college of exiles for the sake of the Faith, Irishmen whose surnames are so familiar to us: Austin, Brown, Cullen, Devaney, Doyle, Flynn, Keenan, Matthews, McKenna, Murphy, O’Connor, Morris, Nolan, Sheehan. The history of Saint Patrick’s College is a fascinating window onto the complex history of Lisbon. From time to time letters land on the Editor's desk, evocative of far-off days, illuminating present joys. Don't hesitate to write in with nuggets of news that reassure the rest of us that there is still life

news that reassure the rest of us that there is still life Kevin Hartley your editor

Kevin Hartley

your editor


feedback and


4 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

in the Inglesinhos! Or if you want to express a view, serious or light- hearted, about the contents of the magazine, don't hesitate to put pen to paper, keyboard to computer, message to carrier pigeon leg. You could even pick up a phone! Bill Dalton has been a regular contributor to The Lisbonian, and the July 2010 carried the text of his hilariously apposite toast to Alma Mater. Bill has kindly consented to be interviewed for the magazine, offering a privileged glimpse into a college life very few of us remember. Peter Chappell has made his home on the island of Gozo. If you fancy a visit to that part of the Mediterranean, �rst read the illuminating article about one person's take on life in the Islands! In recent years CaTEW have kindly contributed to the costs of the AGM and the cost of producing the magazine. The funds for the magazine have, until now, been allocated separately but it seems more sensible to incorporate them into the general Society accounts. Items of expenditure for the magazine are distinguished in the accounts from general Society expenditure.

Kevin Hartley

Letters to the Editor

From: Sister Hedwig in Cameroon [The Lisbonian, January 2011 pp 26-27]

Peace and goodness in the Lord. How are you? Hope well and busy doing something good for God. As for me I am very well and busy. We are putting up a house for the vulnerable children: we have done the roof which I am very happy about because the rains are coming soon and it would have been a problem to have rain water standing in the rooms for so long. We cannot continue for now because of funding but I know that God will provide. The whole of last month we have been busy visiting those living with HIV/AIDS in villages. We are happy that many of them are putting in to practice what we have been teaching them. At the same time it is heartbreaking to see many babies infected. At the end of last month we had a prayer session for them and 375 of them came. I have two prisons where I work, Nkambe and Kumbo, with about 300 prisoners. The problem of food, clothing, bed bugs, tics and a host of cockroaches is a big problem for the above prisons. The above also cause other infections.

Be sure of my prayers for you all.

Sr Hedwig Vinyo c/o Rev Peter Codd The Presbytery, Alexandra Road Andover SP10 3AD

From: Joe Kinnane

Thank you for The Lisbonian magazine, duly received, January

2011. So we have a new treasurer. There comes a time when each and every one of us has to take

a long hard look at one's self. No

one can go on for ever. I enclose my subscription for 2011.

I haven't been too well of late:

arthritis takes its toll! God bless.

Joe Kinnane ‘Fatima’, 8 High�eld Road, Blackrod, Bolton BL6 5BP

From: Joe Swann

Thanks very much for sending me the latest issue of The Lisbonian, which I read with interest, especially the interview with Michael Williams – an unforgettable teacher (in the very best sense!) – as well as the historical articles. A lot of work must have gone into those. I continue to enjoy my retirement

Opinions and views expressed in The Lisbonian are deemed to be those of the contributors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Editors or the Lisbonian Society.

– one of the best periods of life. I

still do quite a lot of translating, mostly for the university, and I do

a very small amount of teaching,

but no more big classes – the younger generation of lecturers can cope with them much better than I can or now want to. And that leaves me time, when the shopping is done, for thinking new thoughts and learning new things – as well as for walking the dog. We live on the edge of extensive woods, so the dog and I see the trees and streams and forest track changing day by day.

Living near Dusseldorf it’s quite easy to get over to England, and I regularly visit the younger members of my family in London.

Joe Swann Zur Kaisereiche 5, 42349 Wuppertal, Germany email:

From Tony Flynn

Congratulations on yet another splendid edition (January 2011). Having studied under the good doctor (Williams, not Salazar! – Ed) and enjoyed his friendship and company as a fellow Prof, I was very interested in your fascinating interview with Mick Williams. However, he got his �rst post-war ordinations wrong, as I am sure others may have pointed out. Gerry Collins, who died recently (See Obituary – Ed), was the �rst to be ordained, in 1954, followed by Mike Horrax, Colin Doyle and, I think, Peter McKenna and Frank

6 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

Gresham in 1955, the year I was sent to Lisbon. In the informative article about the last King of Portugal, Salazar is elevated to a position which he never held and probably never coveted since it conferred no power. He was President of the Council or Prime Minister, not Head of State. I don't know who was the President at that time (possibly Marshal Carmona). I am reminded of our Queen's State Visit to Portugal in February 1957. The College magazine (The Lisbonian vol XXVI No 2, 1957) has an article about the visit with some suitably purple prose from that ardent royalist, Frank Beresford, God rest him. The magazine reprints O Século’s photograph of the Queen with Salazar, taken at a gala performance in the São Carlo Opera House. Looking at the photo, one could very easily assume that Salazar was indeed Head of State, though that position was then held by Craveiro Lopes.

Tony Flynn 15 St Christophers Close, Upton, Chester CH2 1EJ


TheLisbonianwelcomesyourletters and e-mails. Correspondence should be addressed to the Editor at the address on page 2.


Kevin Hartley talks with BILL DALTON

Q. Bill, tell me something about your earliest days. A. My parents were Irish émigrés in the years straddling the end of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century. My Mother, widowed at the death of her �rst husband, a victim of the great ‘�u epidemic in the wake of the �rst world war, spent some years ‘in service’, playing ‘downstairs’ to the ‘upstairs’ of the local gentry. Part of her service years included experience in several presbyteries. As a result, it was not at all surprising that a constant topic in our family home was clergy talk. In addition, the house became a regular drop-in centre for the parish clergy. Indeed, life for the most part revolved round the parish, its worship, its school, its social activities. In 1937 Gregory Doyle arrived as Parish Priest. He had been ordained at Lisbon and had spent some years thereafter on the College staff. Naturally, on his frequent visits to our household, the conversation (somewhat one-sided) was all about Lisbon. When I was accepted as a student by the archdiocese, it was always assumed by the family, me included, that to Lisbon I would go.

by the family, me included, that to Lisbon I would go. © 1938 Dalton Family album

© 1938 Dalton Family album – William Dalton ready packed for Lisbon August 1938

Q. And so it was. I suppose you sailed from Liverpool? A. That's right. On the 20th August 1938, from Liverpool Docks, on board the SS Avoceta of the Yeoward Line, one of six ships named after birds. I was a couple of weeks short of my thirteenth birthday. I would not describe my family as one of the huggin’ and kissin’ type: that, together with a sense of adventure and novel experiences and widening

of horizons and the need to adapt to them, conspired to militate against homesickness. Q.

of horizons and the need to adapt to them, conspired to militate against homesickness.

Q. Twelve; that was a tender age.

Who took care of you?

A. Technically, I suppose you could say that Father Edward Crowley was my guardian. At least, I shared his cabin, though from the moment we crossed the River Mersey Bar and encountered the �rst swell of the Irish Sea he took to his bunk until we were off Cascais, Portugal. I had a great time: fellow passengers were kind to the little chap, and at the Gala Dance I excelled myself with the Lambeth Walk in company with a jolly girl a little older than myself. I can only remember bedewing my pillow with tears on one occasion, and that might well have come from an awareness of some present hurt rather than from a yearning for things past. In any case, I suppose there was constant peer-group pressure ‘to be a big boy now‘.

Q. Those who arrived in Lisbon

after the Second World War faced quite a different regime than you experienced?

8 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

A. I am sure they did. In my case, years of ‘altarboyhood’ probably eased the transition to the daily dress of Lisbon; cassock and biretta, plus the special loose over-habit carrying the oar of Peter and the sword of Paul, necessary for forays into the world. Strange today, or even bizarre, to us it seemed a natural part of the inherited customs of the College. Had it

natural part of the inherited customs of the College. Had it © c1965 Christopher Hickey –

© c1965 Christopher Hickey – in the College habit – used with permission

been composed at the time, we would, no doubt, have given a spirited rendition of the chorus from ‘Fiddler on the Roof‘ in praise or in criticism of ‘Tradition‘, which in any case was a marked characteristic of the contemporary Church.

Q. And the structure of college life was quite different?

A. Yes. Junior House was made up

of Grammar, Syntax, Poetry and Rhetoric. Senior House consisted of Philosophers and Divines, who were so to speak at the top of the tree. Divines were always addressed as ‘Mister’, and one took off one’s biretta when passing such an exalted creature. Philosophers were known by their surname; I don’t think lower orders were referred to at all! The College routine carried an inbuilt, if implicit, encouragement to grow up quickly. The timetable made no differentiation between beardless youths and forty-year olds – meditation for all at 6.30 am! For the Lower House the day was divided between Chapel, the Study-place, classrooms, ‘the yard‘, the garden, the dormitory. One was regimented, marshalled: bells rang and you changed stations. You knew where you were supposed to be at any given time. The system moved you on. It could be irksome; it could be comforting. It was profoundly hierarchical: progress was marked by status symbols, by small privileges acquired as one moved up the structure. It was largely a closed capsule, the hortus conclusus of the seminary ideal.

Q. There are elements there that seem distinctly familiar! And what did you study?

A. Latin, Greek and English were the

major subjects, while Mathematics

I don’t think lower orders were referred to at all! The College routine carried an inbuilt, if implicit, encouragement to grow up quickly…

and Geometry, minor subjects, were taught by Divines, who were known as Minor Professors. The curriculum’s emphasis on the Classics meant that we were exposed to a wide selection of Latin and Greek authors, plus practical exercises, even to the extent of learning the rules of Latin prosody and composing our own Latin poems.

Do you think it was a good

education by the standards of the day? A. At the end of it all we had garnered no Lower or Higher School Certi�cates or Matriculation diplomas, but we had a thorough grounding which compared favourably with the outcomes obtained in the system back home. Some elements of the Lower House curriculum served as remote preparation for public speaking and preaching. As well as reading in Chapel and Refectory, common to all seminaries, there was also the concluding act of each school term. President and Professors, the massed ranks of the Philosophers and Divines, the nervous groups of Grammarians, Syntaxians, and Poets/Rhets


‘In mathematicis nihil!’ could always raise a laugh. That form of systemic torture over, it was time for Speech Day proper…

gathered in the saloon which also served as a theatre. Someone (I can’t remember who) read out (in Latin) each individual’s results in the recent exams. ‘In mathematicis

nihil!’ could always raise a laugh. That form of systemic torture over, it was time for Speech Day proper. Beginning with the lowliest Grammarian and concluding with the loftiest Poet/Rhetorician; each in turn stood out in lonely isolation (a scene not totally dissimilar to ‘When did you last see your Father?’), and there intoned his chosen poem, fable,

or piece of prose. I think prizes for

these exercises were in the kind gift

of the Lisbonian Society. A bow to the President marked the start and end to each one’s presentation. Inevitably, lapses of memory occurred: there would ensue an excruciatingly embarrassing period of hushed silence before

a Presidential nod allowed the

rubicund malefactor to seek the anonymity of his chair,

Q. Ah! The President! A. Atop the whole institution stood the �gure of Monsignor John Cullen: to me at that time less of a father-figure, more the embodiment of authority,

10 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

somewhat remote, part of a parallel universe.

Q. We used to think the same of Jim

Sullivan. He took Cullen as his model:

as you say, somewhat remote.

A. But in the classroom, when taking us for �rst year Latin, there were occasions when the human personality peeped through, a twinkle in the eye, the hint of a smile when observing the foibles of the latest cohort of the unschooled happily laying waste to the fabric of Latin grammar. It was a matter of some regret that when our class entered the year of Poetry and would have bene�ted from Mgr Cullen’s Portuguese lessons, he had been stricken by his �nal illness. Thus I became one of that generation which lacked any facility in the language of the Portugues poet Camões.

Q. I suppose discipline was a good

deal stricter than we “young ones” remember it being? A. I imagine so. At least, I hope so! Discipline was �rst and foremost the preserve of the Vice-President, Father Holmes. He was served by various deputies. First of these was the Prefect (alias the Dean, or the Senior Student). He could collar you in any situation, especially in the Refectory, most frequently for talking during the reading. A rap with knife on the table and in the subsequent silence the injunction – ‘So-and-So, see me afterwards!’ For more heinous

misdemeanours – I can’t imagine what they were – the culprit would be made to kneel out in the middle of the Refectory. Lesser of�cers were the Dormitorian, the Study- place Prefect, and the Wash-place Prefect (chiefly an anti-splash of�cer). All were empowered to impose sanctions or penances, usually ‘lines’. Popular – to use the term loosely – were the Psalm 50 – the Miserere , or – worse – the Seven Penitential Psalms, or so many lines of Latin or Greek. We soon discovered that the shortest Greek lines could be culled from the conciliar texts in Denziger- Bannwart. Pumping the organ was another lonely community service. Almost a reserved sin was smoking, along with breaking bounds. This was when one encountered the ferula, either on the hand or in a bend-over situation. Shades of the Dickensian, what! Now it is the pendulum, not the ferula, which has swung. Q. Well, yes! Different indeed! And for recreation? A. Walking! We got to know every nook and cranny of the Tagus waterfront. When the German battleship Graf Spee visited in early summer of 1939, some of us were invited on board. We had to refuse: ships were out of bounds – students had been known to go aboard Royal Navy vessels and enjoy too much hospitality. Q. The Graf Spee was very shortly after to meet her end off Montevideo.

The transfers between the three properties was an enlivening and sustaining factor. Easter Week at the Quinta de Pêra was always a highlight; it was the nearest we came to living under the aegis of the Lord of Misrule.!

A. Yes, scuttled, and the Captain, Lansdorff – it might have been him I saw pacing the quarterdeck – took his own life rather than surrender. Q. College life didn’t centre only round the Bairro Alto, did it? A. Oh no! The annual cycle of transfers between the three properties was an enlivening and sustaining factor. Easter Week at the Quinta de Pêra was always a highlight; it was the nearest we came to living under the aegis of the Lord of Misrule. Most importantly, we elected our own Dispenseiro for the week and let him know our preferences for the daily menus. The Quinta de Luz

know our preferences for the daily menus. The Quinta de Luz © German Navy – Admiral

© German Navy – Admiral Graf Spee –Deutschland Class 1936-1939.

The term’s conclusion blossomed into a fortnight’s holiday under canvas at São Martinho. Such delights as trekking round Iberia were not even a distant dream.

term also provided its relaxation of the usual regime. For the majority of the Divines and Philosophers, the term’s conclusion blossomed into a fortnight’s holiday under canvas at São Martinho. Such delights as trekking round Iberia were not even a distant dream. The three September weeks at Quinta de Pêra have been too extensively and frequently enough chronicled to merit any further treatment. Suf�ce it to say that despite the antediluvian nature of the servicios, and the less than basic quality of the accommodation, we somehow contrived to enjoy it all.

Q. War broke out in September of

1939. Portugal remained neutral, but must have been a dif�cult time for you in Lisbon?

A. It had its moments. In 1941 there was a rumour that General Franco would let the Germans through Spain to take Gibraltar. There was talk of Americans in Portugal being offered safe passage out of the country on board an American cruiser, the Trenton. I think the offer might have been extended to the British as well.

Q. Of course, Franco did have quite

12 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

well-developed plans to invade and occupy Portugal. There must have been other excitements, too?

[See The Lisbonian July 2010 pp14- 17 Ed).

A. We had a visit from the Duke

of Kent, Prince George, sent out to Portugal to boost morale and wave the flag. Then there was the affair of Flight 777, the plane Father Holmes, always known to us privately as ‘Gomes’, was due to �y on (see The Lisbonian July 2009 ‘Flight 777’ pp 30-33 Ed). Father Holmes had assumed the Regency of the College when Mgr Cullen fell ill. It was due to his illness that Thomas Holland came over from Valladolid to teach Dogmatic


Q. One of the hardships of being in

Lisbon in wartime must have been the dif�culty of communication with


A. Post did come through intermittently, on one of the BOAC �ights. And on Pan Am:

they flew Clipper flying boats out of the Tagus to Foynes on the Shannon, in Ireland.

Q. By the end of the war, the College

was at low ebb?

A. Yes. We came home in 1945 to

a strange new world, only to be recalled at the end of September, and that was quite a voyage in itself (see The Lisbonian July 2007 ‘Second Spring or False Dawn?’ pp 2-8 Ed). But it soon became obvious that the makeshift arrangements

cobbled together by John Winder were not working. In 1946 some of us opted to return to England to continue our education in English seminaries, leaving a handful to battle one more year.

Q. And that was the end of your

association with Lisbon?

A. Not quite. In 1948, I was by this time a student at Upholland, Jim Sullivan asked me to consider coming back to Lisbon as Senior Student, but by then I had had enough disruption and decided to stay in England.

Q. You continued with your studies

and then, after ordination? A. I began four years doing theology at Louvain University. I was a Liverpool guinea-pig there:

the diocese had always made use of the Roman institutes – I was a trail-blazer! A couple of anecdotal memories from outside the halls of learning – in my intermittent journeys home in the years 1949-1953 my �rst task was to apply for a ration-book and clothing coupons. Such things were unheard of in Belgium, and their range of clothing seemed far superior to our own. Then on one of my trips home I shared a compartment from Brussels to the coast with a Belgian lady who owned a small hotel in Ostend. The talk got round to the war- time years when she delivered the unsolicited judgement – ‘the Germans were the best behaved;

judgement – ‘the Germans were the best behaved; © Ministry of Food – Ration Book 1948

© Ministry of Food – Ration Book 1948

the English weren’t bad, but the Americans, ma foi!’ And I bethought me – what would liberation theology say about that! We did win the war but… Q. Mon Dieu! Quelle histoire! So you came back to England. To teach? A. I joined the Staff at Upholland in September 1953. There was no vacancy for me in the Senior Seminary until 1962. I spent the intervening years teaching in the Junior Seminary – Latin, Greek, English Language, English Lit, English History, Christian Doctrine, anything apart from Maths or the sciences. Through the good offices of Alex Jones

– he of Jerusalem Bible fame

– I obtained a year’s remission in the shape of secondment to the Theology Department of

Notre Dame University, Indiana, home of the celebrated College Gridiron football team, The Fighting Irish of Notre Dame. The authorities there wanted me to stay longer: they applied to Liverpool, but Archbishop William Godfrey, who was well- practised in the word, simply said ‘No’. Q. When you came back, it was to join the Senior Seminary at last? A. Yes. The years that followed saw the complete reworking of the theological syllabus and teaching methods, following less of a lecture format in favour of tutorials and seminars. It was also the period when discussions about a possible link-up with the Theology Department of

about a possible link-up with the Theology Department of © 2010 Bill Dalton 1925 – In

© 2010 Bill Dalton 1925 – In retirement

14 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

Manchester took place. In that context, I taught for a semester at the University.

Q. But wasn’t there a moment when

you might have returned to teach at Lisbon?

A. That must have been around 1970. Jim Sullivan asked if I would take up the post of Dogma Professor. I was tempted but the diocese was not willing to release me from my duties. And as you know, if I had been able to accept, it would have been an appointment of short duration.

Q. So you stayed at Upholland?

A. I did. Due to the untimely death of Mgr Tom Worden after a mere six months as Rector, I became his non-too-willing replacement. I served only one academic year as Rector of a Senior Seminary. Consequent upon the decisions of the Northern Bishops, senior students went to Ushaw, juniors came from Ushaw and Underley to Upholland, and an in-service Institute was established there to replace the Major Seminary. I remained there in an ill-de�ned overall capacity until, early in 1982, release came in the form of an appointment as Parish Priest of St Thomas of Canterbury, at St Helens.

Q. Bill, thank you. And long may

you illuminate the proceedings at our Meetings!

Irish College of St Patrick

– In Lisbon

[This essay is indebted to Patricia O Connell's ‘The Irish College at Lisbon 1590- 1834’, Four Courts Press 2001, which will provide the reader with a mine of information.]

Irish Colleges in Europe

century, the O'Neills, Brownes and Andersons were to become established members of the Portuguese social scene.

The combined effects of the English Reformation beginning to bite in Ireland, the edicts of the Council of Trent and the 1564 Bull Dum Exquisita of Pius IV lamenting the lack of educational facilities for the training of clergy in Ireland, all provided the impetus for the establishment of Irish seminaries in various European countries from the latter half of the sixteenth century. Between 1578 and 1680 twenty-nine colleges were created, twelve for religious orders, and seventeen for the secular clergy, of which �ve were in Spain, another five in France, five in the Low Countries, one in Italy and one in Portugal. There were already long established connections between the Western seaboard of Ireland and Portugal:

there are records of Irish traders in Lisbon in the �fteenth century. Many of the Irish nation had long resented the pretensions of the English monarchy to be their overlords and the attempts to impose the reformation in the sixteenth century provided an added assault on culture and religion. Later, in the eighteenth

An Irish College in Lisbon

The Iberian Peninsula was a natural ground for dispossessed Irish fleeing the oppression occasioned by the hardships imposed by the heretical English. The Jesuits, themselves products of the Counter-Reformation, were ready to take advantage of the opportunities offered to them under the patronage of the Spanish royalty currently ruling in Portugal. The �rst home of the infant Irish College, O Colegio de Estudiantes Irlandeses sob Invocação de São Patricio em Lisboa, was at the Jesuit church of São Roque, with twenty students under the patronage of Garcia de Melho da Silva, a fidalgo velho (member of the old Portuguese aristocracy). We know a good deal about the solemn inauguration of the College from a collection of letters written to their colleagues in the Irish community in Santiago de Compostela by some of the priests present at the ceremony. The letters were dispatched aboard a ship captured

‘there is a semynarye, or Colledge, latelie erected at Luxborne for the Irishe natyon’

by English privateers (aka ‘pirates’) and forwarded to Lord Burghley, Queen Elizabeth’s head of secret intelligence. The letters are now in the British Museum. The pirate chief, Samuel Stonley, might have thought it was important to pass on the information that:

‘there is a semynarye, or Colledge, latelie erected at Luxborne for the Irishe natyon’

From our point of view it is more interesting to learn that the High Mass was celebrated by Archbishop Edmund MacGauren, Archbishop of Armagh. Ireland managed to retain the episcopal structure through thick and thin. For the native Irish the reformed church was yet another foreign imposition; their priests and bishops might have to take to the hedgerows but they were still the legitimate religious authority for the vast majority of the people. The situation in England was quite different: the Church, reformed or

The College was sustained from the start by the esmolas – the alms – raised by a brotherhood of royal ministers and nobles

16 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

not, was the religion of the people, and it took a brave, or foolhardy, individual to stand out against the crowd.

A Permanent Foundation

The infant St Patrick's College migrated to various locations until in 1611 it took up what was to become its permanent home in the Rua de São Mamede thanks to the generosity of Dom Fernandes Ximenes, who had purchased the house, originally the town mansion of a Viceroy of India, from the Discalced Carmelites. Dom António was to provide further largesse, including a quinta on the outskirts of the city, until his death in 1631. The terms of his will provided some �nancial security while regretting that the demands of his impoverished relatives prevented great generosity. The College was sustained from the start by the esmolas – the alms – raised by a brotherhood of royal ministers and nobles, and by the provision of monies for Foundation Masses for the intention of the donors, as well as donations from the Archbishop (in 1716 to be given the title of Patriarch) of Lisbon, but the impression given is of a constant lack of funds, particularly when the Jesuits lost control of the running of the College in 1759, and again in the early days of the nineteenth century when St Patrick’s re- opened after the Peninsula War.

By that time the future existence of the College was problematic. With the opening of Maynooth in the latter days of the eighteenth

century, and the relaxing of the penal laws, the raison d'être for foreign seminaries was seemingly gone and the Irish bishops were

seminaries was seemingly gone and the Irish bishops were 2010 – Site of the former Irsih

2010 – Site of the former Irsih College – Lisbon

All manner of complaint, ranging from the quality of the bread in the refectory, or the inadequacy of the wine, to the standard of the teaching on offer in the College

increasingly less interested in maintaining establishment so far from home. The Portuguese civil war of 1832-1834 proved but the deciding factor in its demise.

The Society of Jesus

From the start at São Roque the Jesuits had great influence. To begin with, students studied in the Jesuit novitiate school of São António, but Ximenes soon established chairs in philosophy and theology and lectures were

chairs in philosophy and theology and lectures were Interior São Roque Church – Lisbon 18 |

Interior São Roque Church – Lisbon

18 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

henceforth in-house. Students

were also sent to Coimbra, where

a special course had been set

up for them, and to the Colégio da Puri�cação in Evora, founded in 1579 for the education of secular priests and funded by the monarchy. So many Irish attended this latter establishment that at times (the establishment was for

�fty students, of whom – of�cially

only three could be foreigners)


seemed to be in itself an Irish

college. Through the seventeenth century, generations of Irish, who had studied at the College, and at the university in Evora, joined the Jesuits and returned to Lisbon to teach. In 1624 the imposition of a Portuguese rector caused stirring of revolt among the students. In 1686 the appointment of an English rector, George Gelarte, might also have been the cause for dissent but seems to have been accepted by the students.

Complaints and Grumblings

The atmosphere in the College was not always peaceful. There were constant appeals, either

from students or staff, to the Jesuit Provincial, to the Superior General and even to the Papal Nuncio, with all manner of complaint, ranging from the quality of the bread in the refectory, or the inadequacy

of the wine, to the standard of the

teaching on offer in the College.

There were times when students were clearly trouble-makers, and it was not unknown for entrants to arrive from Ireland making false declarations as to their age, with the result that some were ordained contrary to Canonical requirements. One such, Nicholas Stafford, claimed that he had not been aware of the falsity of documents he had presented and was not expelled from the College, though it was recorded that he only twice celebrated Mass before abstaining. There is no mention of him having been allowed to resume celebration once he had acquired the canonical age. We can only speculate as to the reason for this sort of deception. Perhaps young men who had as soon as possible escaped the constrictions at home were eager to �nd an education and a social status offered by such foreign colleges as Lisbon. As at the English College, it seems that it was the practice to ordain students as priests long before the completion of their studies. At about the same time as Stafford was being uncanonically ordained there were also complaints that ordained students were going out to hear the confessions of women in their own homes.

Hard Times for the Irish

After Gelarte's death in 1690 the College received an ever- decreasing number of Irish

Perhaps young men who had escaped the constrictions at home were eager to find an education and a social status offered by such foreign colleges as Lisbon.

students and in consequence was being increasingly run as a Portuguese Jesuit establishment, until in 1759 Pombal suppressed the Jesuits and appropriated their property for the state.

Pombal’s Suppression

In 1750 Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, First Marquis de Pombal, who had at one time been Ambassador to Great Britain, was made ‘Minister of the Kingdom’, de facto head of government under King José I. Pombal’s stay in Britain had impressed him and he began a sweeping reform with the intention of making Portugal into a modern viable country, economically self-suf�cient and commercially strong. He also set about energetically ordering the radical reconstruction of the Baixa

ordering the radical reconstruction of the Baixa Lisbon Earthquake 1755 an early engraving The Lisbonian

Lisbon Earthquake 1755 an early engraving

area of the city after the destruction wrought by the 1755 earthquake. Perhaps his British experience had also instilled in him a deep distrust of the Jesuits, amounting to a ‘pathological hatred’, according to one historian. At any rate, in 1759 he ordered the suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal and the con�scation of all their goods.

Premature Closure

The Irish College, being considered Jesuit property, was closed and the students (there were at the time only eight) dispersed, three back to Ireland and the others to the Colégio da Puri�cação. One of these latter, Michael Daly, was later invited by Pombal to take the post of Professor of Greek in the recently instituted Colégio dos Nobres. Despite his formation under the Jesuits, he was a secular priest and therefore acceptable to the reforming marquis. Daly accepted the offer but constantly reminded Pombal of his intention to bring the Irish College back to life. Although of�cially state property, the College buildings could not have been much of an asset, having suffered severe damage in the earthquake. There is no record

The Irish College, being considered Jesuit property, was closed and the students dispersed

20 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

of any staff or students being killed at that time, though Abraham Castres, the British Envoy in Lisbon mentioned, in passing, in his report to the Ambassador in Madrid that in the city the ‘Lisbon Irish’, who were extremely numerous and ‘of the poorer sort’, had suffered worse than had the English, and that many of them were missing.

The Return to Lisbon

It was not until 1778, after Pombal’s political downfall, that Daly returned to Lisbon to �nd, unsurprisingly, that:

‘the plate, and ornaments, of our little church, which were so abundant, were given away by decrees from the late king; all our lands sold at public auction to different persons; a few houses which we possessed in this city, burnt in the earthquake; our other rents consisting in publick funds and royal grants in the most frightful confusion and some pensions on ecclesiastical Bene�ces to the yearly amount of about £200 English sterling, which the incumbents refuse to pay with various pretexts… The house itself is very old, much hurted in the Earthquake, is now almost a ruin and would require an immense sum to repair it properly. Add to this a heavy

debt against it for about £3,000 contracted in the time of the Jesuits.’

The College was by this time in the nominal possession of the Cardinal Patriarch and Daly predicted gloomily that it would

be dif�cult to ‘get him out’ since he had designated the place as

a seminary for his own clergy. However, Daly was undaunted:

‘I shall pursue the matter as far as I can and shall get such rents as I can, then take possession of the house.’

There must have been times when even his indefatigable spirit was overcome:


am heartily tired of the job. I have sacri�ced to it the best years of my life, my country, my connections and, in �ne, everything that is dear to man.’


is indeed ironic that the main

obstacle to righting the wrongs perpetrated by the anti-Jesuit Marquis of Pombal was the most eminent clerical authority in the land!

Open Again and Shut

It was some years before the College could operate again, mainly thanks to Father Daly's persistent efforts and the encouragement of a Dominican Bishop of Ossory, Dr John Thomas Troy. Daly died in 1801, not long before the

A combination of financial

penury and mismanagement provoked three of the staff to pen

a formal letter of complaint to the Rector, Dr Dunn

Peninsula War forced yet another closure on the College. By the early years of the nineteenth century, a combination of �nancial penury and mismanagement provoked three of the staff to pen a formal letter of complaint to the Rector, Dr Dunn. They contrast the parlous state of the College with that obtaining in the English College where, due to ‘their unremitting diligence, their assiduity, industry and love of their religion and country’ all was success and prosperity.

The Struggle to be Viable

The Irish College, like its English counterpart, had set up a school for young students (presumably this refers to the scheme to educate the children of local well-to-do parents) but the proceeds were being shared between the rector and his two associates, whereas the pro�t from the English establishment went to the augmentation of the seminary. The letter went on to say that the English church was elegant and their house was the most superb edi�ce in its vicinity. The disgruntled priests didn’t succeed in dislodging Dr Dunn

Perhaps the Irish priests were grinding their axe, gilding the lily: by the middle of the century the English College and its chapel were generally regarded as being in a terrible state

but incidentally provided an illuminating insight into how the English College was regarded at the time. Perhaps the Irish priests were grinding their axe, gilding the lily: by the middle of the century the English College and its chapel were generally regarded as being in a terrible state [see the Lisbonian July 2010 pp 11ff].

Maynooth the Rival

By the end of the eighteenth century conditions for Catholics in Ireland were beginning to ease, thanks not least to the British Government’s desire to placate the Irish in the face of the dangers posed by the French. In 1795 another St Patrick’s College opened, this time in Maynooth (by comparison, Ushaw College was opened in 1808). In 1829 the Catholic Emancipation Act removed most of the discriminatory restrictions on Catholics. In 1832 the rivalry between the supporters of an absolutist monarchy in Portugal and reformers seeking a constitutional framework for the country’s governance broke out into civil war. The resulting triumph

22 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

went to the revolutionaries and their radical reform of 1834 led to the dissolution of the monasteries and the confiscation of church property, as well as of crown lands. The Irish College might have survived, as the English College did, but the time had clearly come for closure.

The Ending of an Era

We have to remember that the climate for the Catholic Church in Ireland was completely different from that prevailing in England. Whereas in England Catholics were tolerated as a harmless minority whom it seemed unsporting to persecute further, the Irish Church was the mainstay of Irish identity, a bulwark against the injustice of what was seen by the majority of its people to be foreign occupation. For English Catholics the continuance of colleges such as that of the Inglesinhos remained worthwhile reminders of the days of active persecution; for the Irish the establishment of their own seminary in their own land at last had major patriotic as well as religious signi�cance.

Corpo Santo Dominicans

Under the terms of the original gift of the buildings by Ximenes, if the College were ever to permanently close the property was to divert to the use of the Irish Dominicans of Corpo Santo (their continued existence, as well as that of the

Convent of Bom Sucesso was, ironically, thanks in part to their status as British citizens, thus benefiting from the protection of the Embassy). While Corpo Santo remained owners of the property it was used as a house for the education of poor girls of the neighbourhood, and Masses were celebrated and confessions continued to be heard in the chapel.

In 1859 the Irish bishops discussed

selling the property. In an expression of sentiment that might have found an echo among some of the Lisbonians of the twentieth century, the Bishop of

Kilmore wrote:

‘I very much regret to see those old and important establishments in ruins or lost to the country.’

However, in not untypical fashion, the hierarchy failed to come to a conclusion. Corpo Santo remained in possession and leased the buildings to various religious orders until eventually, in 1902, they sold the property to the Sisters of St Joseph of Cluny who had been renting it for some years. The Sisters established a girls’ school which �ourished for

a few years but in 1910, with the

establishment of the Republic, the building was acquired by the Ministry of Justice and is currently used as a municipal courthouse.

A plaque has been placed to

‘I very much regret to see those old and important establishments in ruins or lost to the country.’

commemorate its origins.

The Perspective of History

The tension created by English in�uence in Ireland was re�ected, particularly in the earliest days, in the life of the College itself. At the of�cial inauguration in 1590 it was noted with some bitterness that the Bishop of Killaloe, Francis Cornelius O'Mulryan OFM, who was in Lisbon at the time, refused to attend the ceremony. O'Mulryan represented the ‘Old Irish’ whereas the Jesuits were thought to favour the cause of the ‘Anglo-Irish’ – the mainly merchant class who saw it to their advantage to be pro- English. Despite absenting himself from the inauguration ceremonies in 1592 O’Mulryan did ordain Irish priests in Lisbon, as early as 1587. Perhaps an Order of Fransiscan Minor animosity towards a Jesuit was engendered more by inter- religious than political rivalry! The use of the English language was spreading rapidly in Ireland but Gaelic was still widely spoken particularly in the country areas. Being educated abroad, the students tended to forget what for some of them at least was their native language, to the detriment

We have already seen how disgruntled staff made invidious comparisons between the poor state of St Patrick’s College and the apparent opulence of that of English College of Saints Peter and Paul.

of the mission back home. In 1731, while complaining about the extent of the Jesuit in�uence in the College, the then Archbishop of Armagh conceded that at least they encouraged the knowledge of ‘the vernacular language and other things useful to our country’.

Irish College and English College During the course of its history the College produced at least �fteen bishops, not all of whom exercised their ministry in Ireland (Nicholas Sweetman, who had also studied in Compostela, was for many years an auxiliary to the archbishop of that city). Such a degree of preferment, if that is the right way of thinking about ordination to the episcopate, might be thought to contrast unfavourably with the record of the English College, but as has been pointed out, the circumstances were very different. There seems to have been very little contact between the Irish College and the Inglesinhos. There are references, in the eighteenth century, to two students who had

24 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

spent some time at the English College. A Reverend Maden said Masses in 1824 for the ‘President of the English College’. In 1827 William Quinn, who had once been a student of the English College, was ordained for the Irish mission. In 1788 Michael Daly, struggling to re-establish the College after the depredations of Pombal, wrote concerning the living conditions, that there were:

‘two other houses of the same nature as ours (ie seminaries) but much better funded; the Irish Dominicans (Corpo Santo)… the other is an English mission of secular priests; where the superior and masters are each clad at a very moderate expense…’

We have already seen how disgruntled staff made invidious comparisons between the poor state of St Patrick’s College and the apparent opulence of that of English College of Saints Peter and Paul. All the same, one can imagine, in a street near the Sé a brief encounter between a couple of collegians dressed in black habits with red stoles around their shoulders, coming face-to- face with a pair of young men in cassocks, accompanied by their Jesuit minders. Were they asking, even in those days, ‘How are things in Glockamora?’

Obituary – Gerry Collins

by Mike Horrax

Early Life

Gerry was born in the south Wales village of Rhymney in 1925, the third son of a mining engineer. After attending the Carmelite College of St Mary in Aberystwyth he had hoped to study medicine. However, in 1943 he was called up for war service. He joined the Army and served in the medical corps, mainly in India. Demobbed in 1947 he decided to ‘try his vocation’ to the priesthood with the Archdiocese of Cardiff. However, Archbishop Michael Joseph McGrath was among those who thought that ex-servicemen (and, indeed, all late vocations) were too much of a risk. So Gerry applied, successfully, to Nottingham diocese.

Training for Priesthood

Bishop Ellis sent him to join the �rst post-war students to re-open the English College at Lisbon in September 1948. A year later Colin Doyle and I were among a batch of eight new students sent to join the survivors of that first year. Colin and I teamed up with Gerry in studies and coursework, also on days out, exploring Lisbon and the surrounding countryside. We hitch-hiked to Rome in Holy Year 1950, and later through Portugal

to Rome in Holy Year 1950, and later through Portugal Fr Gerry Collins 1925-2010 and Spain.

Fr Gerry Collins 1925-2010

and Spain. Our friendship helped us mutually to survive the rigours of seminary life! Gerry was ordained by the Apostolic Nuncio in July 1954. A great day for the College: it had produced its �rst post-war priest. Gerry was, in fact, the only one of his year to be ordained.

On the Mission

Apart from a spell as parish priest in Grimsby, the whole of Gerry’s priestly life was served in different parishes in Derbyshire. Whenever possible, he and I would meet every week somewhere in Derbyshire to explore its beautiful Dales. When we retired, about 2000, to Louth and Market Rasin respectively, we

turned our attention once a week to the Lincolnshire Wolds. Before long, however, Gerry was af�icted with the beginnings of the dreadful Alzheimer’s disease. Medication did slow down its progress to some extent but could not prevent his short term memory from going. On Boxing Day 2010 Gerry was found on the floor of his flat, and died peacefully in hospital two days later. Ironically, if his friend Joyce Walker had not been


A Paint Job

Outward Appearances

Earlier this year it was proposed by the authorities in Lisbon that in this time of austerity derelict buildings could be ‘beautified’ by their external surfaces being given over to graffiti ‘artists’. One person’s immediate reaction was to point to the graf�ti that disfigure nearly every building in the Bairro Alto: not even the prestigious Convento dos Inglesinhos has escaped. In the days of the ‘Good’ Doctor Salazar it was a legal requirement for buildings in the city to be repainted every five years, one piece of legislation that deserved to survive the fall of his regime. Times change, and ideas of art and

26 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

recovering from major surgery at the time, he would have been staying at her house. H i s R e q u i e m M a s s w a s concelebrated at Louth by Bishop Malcolm McMahon and sixteen other priests, including Gerry’s nephew, Canon Peter Collins. After cremation, his ashes were taken to Rhymney and interred in his parents’ grave there.May He Rest In Peace ✛ ✛ ✛

beauty mutate. In this country the elusive Banksy has gained a

✛ ✛ ✛ beauty mutate. In this country the elusive Banksy has gained a 2008 –

2008 – Travessa dos Inglesinhos – Lisbon

substantial reputation in some

quarters for the significance of his art work. Others decry what they regard as his dis�gurement

of public buildings.

These days, paintwork, call it art or not, covers every available surface, on the approaches to railway stations, railway and Underground carriages, canal sides and railways sidings, in public lavatories (usually of a

scatological nature), on the walls

of underpasses and the pillars of

bridges. The dexterity of some of the practitioners has to be marvelled at, at times seemingly defying gravity, and sometimes

courting death.

Kilroy Was Here!

When I was a lad walls were adorned with the ubiquitous ‘Kilroy was here’, and there was also that familiar Humpty Dumpty face, with a single curl over an

otherwise bald head, peering over

a brick wall, with the invariable ‘Wot…?’ to accompany some pithy comment.

Today’s graf�ti artists are much more colourful, thanks to the introduction of aerosal paint cans and felt-tipped pens. Some

of the inscriptions are enigmatic;

‘TOXIC’ might refer to a pop

band, or someone's experience of

a particularly devastating Class

A drug – we shall never know.

Other tags might be evidence of alien invasion for all the sense

they convey to the uninitiated. It has been suggested that they serve in the same capacity as the scent markers left by urban dogs as they are walked along our streets, a sort of latter-day canine ‘Kilroy was here’.

Eternal Graf�ti

There is nothing new about graf�ti: Egyptian monuments are abundantly inscribed, in Greek and Latin, with carved inscriptions not much more elevated than ‘Claudius loves Flavia, true’. The eruption of Vesuvius preserved many a curious inscription. While staying at a stately country house, Anne Boleyn might have scratched her name on a pane of glass with a diamond ring. Such things have acquired the patina of ancient respectability. If today’s scrawlings were to persist for a few thousand years, would they come to be regarded with similar affection? Can one imagine a terrestrial archaeologist of the Forty-�rst Century brushing away the volcanic ash from a

Contributions to Reflections are invited, on condition of strict anonymity, from any member of the Society. The subject is entirely at the choice of the contributor and should be of approximately 500 words in length. The views of the

contributor do not necessarily re�ect the editorial policy of The Lisbonian. Ed

ruined wall in the ancient ruined city tentatively identified as ‘London’ and exclaiming over the

ruined wall in the ancient ruined city tentatively identified as ‘London’ and exclaiming over the

intricate interlacing patterns, the miraculously preserved colours, hieroglyphics that will need to be interpreted by specialists back home on Mars?

Getting Noticed

Perhaps the tokens left everywhere across the world – even the pristine walls of Swiss towns being no longer exempt – are symptomatic of the desperation of a generation crying out for recognition:

anarchists, according to the law- and-order brigade, free-spirits in the estimation of the liberals. Take your pick: but I wish they would leave alone the gable end of my inner-city presbytery!

leave alone the gable end of my inner-city presbytery! ■ Lisbonian Football Team – [L-R] Pat

Lisbonian Football Team – [L-R] Pat Murphy, Alex Fleming, Gerry Burke, Tony Flynn, Fergal Shannon, Paul Devaney, John Timmins, Jude Thurlow, Paul Sartori, Terence O’Brien, Tony Fleming, Jim Finnigan, John Keenan.

28 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

The Maltese People

by Peter Chappell

The Historic People

Ask any visitor what appeals most to them about the Islands, and there is a very good chance that they will say, ‘the people’

– Malta’s greatest asset. It hardly

seems credible that in the long and chequered history of the Islands, the Maltese should have remained so steadfastly ‘themselves’ – a proud nation, distant from any other. But they most certainly have and they would not want it any other way. In spite of being conquered, enslaved and led over

the centuries by the powerful nations of the times – and bearing faces that even now re�ect some of

the past with features recalling the Romans, Arabs and Phoenicians

– this proving a most interesting

study – the Maltese have doggedly clung to their individuality. With roots planted �rmly in a group of tiny Islands, whose total area adds up to no more than 122 square miles, there is a strong

sense of identity born out of a mixture of self presentation and stubbornness, qualities the Maltese have in abundance. The same applies to Maltese emigrants settled abroad.

The People Today

An estimated 375,000 Maltese live

in Malta and Gozo, with about an equal number in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. These are the emigrants and families of emigrants who set sail for the lands of promise in the days of migration at the end of World War II, when hope was offered to poor communities. Many, home-sick after making modest fortunes, returned to build modern villas, named in memory of where they had been. The Maltese, almost without exception, are sociable, friendly

Maltese, almost without exception, are sociable, friendly © 2010 Peter Chappell – President The Lisbonian Society

© 2010 Peter Chappell – President The Lisbonian Society 2010/2011

and welcoming to foreigners – as we found out ourselves – if not always to each other. The Maltese love the opportunity to be generous. Even in the simplest rural community they enjoy being hospitable and sharing what they have – a whisky, soft drinks, cups of tea, their friendship.

A Homeproud People

The Maltese are very proud of their homes. These are spotlessly clean inside (because most women folk spend their days continually cleaning from top to bottom), with gleaming patterned marble �oors, and everything – so many precious ornaments – in its proper place. Almost everyone, whatever

their social level, keeps a formal sitting room to be used only when guests are invited to their house. It is here that wealth and social achievement can be shown off. Even in the poorest villages, these rooms will have furniture made to order, sofas and armchairs and wall units to hold pieces of treasured china �gurines and framed photos. Close by will be drinks to offer guests. It gives great pleasure to the hosts if people accept whisky. That a guest accepts hospitality, is what really matters. However, the family themselves live in the back kitchen/lounge area while the rest remains a ‘museum piece’, a house more than a home.

rest remains a ‘museum piece’, a house more than a home. © Commons Wiki – Gozo

© Commons Wiki – Gozo harbour

30 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

Buildings and Streets

But if the houses are clean, often the streets are not. Although there is an ef�cient daily refuse collection and a special service for removing other household items, old habits die hard. Refuse tipping still occurs. However, the government has achieved ways forward in creating pride in the environment and the streets, after years of neglect, are becoming much cleaner. Sadly, beauty spots and sweeping panoramas are under threat, perhaps because the Maltese see new buildings or rebuilding as objects of prestige, as putting money to prominent use. Elegant seafront villas are

�attened to make way for faceless blocks of apartments or housing estates, or factories are built on valuable arable land, and villas and holiday homes appear where the landscape was once picturesque and unspoiled. Thousands of houses and �ats lie empty while many new ones are built. No land is sacred.

Who You Know Matters

As in all Latin countries, it is who you know that matters if you want to bend the rules. It is no secret that politics play an important part in daily life. All Maltese are politically aware and, because party allegiances are known and

aware and, because party allegiances are known and © 2006 Commons Wiki – Myriam Thyes –

© 2006 Commons Wiki – Myriam Thyes – Gozo Nadur Carnival

rewarded, business people expect to do better when their side is in power. Surprisingly, despite the Maltese passion for politics, there are only two parties to choose from – Nationalist, or Labour. It is said that no amount of rhetoric will change a voter’s allegiance. As the parties change, so do the people in key positions in the civil service and in government- run organisations. Maltese are born to a Party and very rarely convert. The politicians preach to the faithful, promise much and deliver little.

Delights of Maltese Life

Sadly, since the great increase of Tourism and the arrival of the widest variety of visitors and immigrants, the drug problem has surfaced amongst the young and cases of HIV/Aids have been registered. The Maltese are determined to enjoy life to the full. They delight in a party or wedding and seize any opportunity to gossip and tell jokes. But on the minus side, in true Latin tradition, they can be hard on each other, prone to jealousy and quick to take advantage or pick a quarrel. It is said that a crossed Maltese stays crossed! The Maltese also enjoy gambling. The weekly Government Lottery succeeds because of thousands of small stakes. There are often neighbourhood raffles in the

32 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

smaller towns and villages at weekends, where a few cents will buy a ticket that could win the Saturday prize of a pair of rabbits (rabbit is a popular food on the Islands), or a brace of cockerels.

Maltese on the Road

Then there are the cars and

buses – these latter being mostly elderly Leyland, GMC, Bedford single deckers, bought in and shipped from England. Cars are

a Maltese passion whatever their

age: expensive roadsters too fast for any country, and jalopies that belch clouds of black fumes and would fail any road-worthiness test. The only thing that they have in common is the style in which they are driven – very erratically. Maltese do not drive on the right or the left – they drive in the shade!

Wealth has its place, too, especially in clothes and jewellery. Wealth in the home – and there is plenty of it

– is kept concealed behind doors,

away from prying eyes and the temptation of burglars. In many patrician houses there are reputed to be collections of paintings and silver that would fetch stupendous prices at any international auction. Their wealth sometimes leads to problems with inheritance and provokes inter-family quarrels. Many a grand house is falling into ruin because sons cannot agree about its disposal and many a daughter tells of receiving nothing in settlement.

The Church in Malta

For many years the Church played

a key role in life, both secular and

political, making its views known on all key issues, as well as running many of the better schools. In election years parish priests often exhorted congregations to vote for the Nationalist Party. But, as has happened elsewhere in Europe, the sway of the Church has become less important. The Parish Feast – held in the summer months – is still the most important event on the annual calendar but Church attendance, although still proportionally among the highest in Europe, is declining: 50% in Malta and 75% in Gozo. Surprisingly the Church

is also feeling the reduction in the

numbers of active priests, and the seminaries have few students to �ll the gaps.

Parish Priest Power

The parish priests nowadays have ceased to be moral policemen, with the ability to prescribe and enforce standards of conduct within their territory. The fact that foreign visitors now easily outnumber the local people has undoubtedly, more than most Maltese would care to admit, a greater in�uence over their attitudes towards unorthodox behaviour and established authority. But every cloud has a silver lining and now there is a good opportunity for directly confronting and dealing with modern-day issues. No longer

can all the Clergy be charged with being narrow – minded or bigoted. Contraception and abortion are now accepted subjects for discussion,and a referendum is about to be taken on the question of divorce which is a hotly disputed subject.

question of divorce which is a hotly disputed subject. ■ © 2011 Peter Chappell – Chaplain

© 2011 Peter Chappell – Chaplain to The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem in Gozo

Is That Theology?

The Musty Smell of Old Books

In those far-off days of Dogma lectures in the Library, when we wrestled with the abstruse propositions presented to us from the podium or as laid out in our Latin text books, might we not have bene�ted from the occasional more relaxed approach?

The Cat Sat on the Mat

How might the Church deal with the affirmation ‘The Cat Sat on the Mat’ if it had appeared in the Bible?

The Liberal View

Liberal theologians would point out that a cat had not sat literally on a mat and that ‘cat’ and ‘mat’ had different meanings when the af�rmation was �rst written, and the text should be interpreted in the context of the customs and manners of the period.

The Evangelical Opinion

The response from the evangelicals would be that as an article of faith a real living domestic cat of the species felix domesticus, having whiskered head and furry body, did actually place its whole body on a �oor covering, such as is designed for the purpose of being on the �oor but not of the �oor. The value of the expression ‘on the �oor but not of the �oor’would be explained in a lea�et [noxyz/2b/500].

The View From Rome

The Vatican would respond to the combined petitions of Opus Dei, the Ordinariate and the Society of Saint Pius X by permitting the Feast of the Sedentation of the Holy Felix to be celebrated as a Double of the First Class on the first

to be celebrated as a Double of the First Class on the first Felix – Brooklyn

Felix – Brooklyn Museum

34 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

Wednesday after Pontefract, sine permissu of the Local Ordinary.

The Eastern Orthodox Concerns

A schism would be caused in the Orthodox Church, which would be resolved by requiring Holy Cats Day to be observed by the lighting of six candles and/or the ringing of bells five times. The schism would be partly resolved by the Cuckooland Declaration, recognising the validity of either interpretation.

Anglican Compromise

The house of Anglican Bishops would issue a statement on feline sedentation, explaining

In A Word – Actuosa or Activa by Peter J Harrison

Actuosa or Activa – there has been some suggestion recently that the term ‘partecipazione attiva’ [active participation], might have the same meaning as that used by the Bishops of the Second Vatican Council ‘actuosa participatione’ in the Decree on the Sacred Liturgy. Now I would be the �rst to admit that I am no Latin scholar and it is with some trepidation that I step into this debate! Indeed, these phrases are still very much the subject of debate among scholars. I do not count myself among the scholars. Pope Saint Pius X’s Motu Proprio of 1903 Tra Le Sollecitudini when

that originally the text described

a domestic feline quadruped

superadjacent to an unattached floor covering. To determine the salvific and eschatological signi�cations, one should follow the heuristic analytical principles which were adopted in the cases of canine fenestration (‘How much is that doggy in the window?’) and in the af�rmative musaceous paradox (‘Yes, we have no bananas’).

An appendix of 210 pages would follow and the matter would be on the agenda of the General Synod some time in the next millennium.

speaking of worship says: ‘Filled as We are with a most ardent desire to see the true Christian spirit �ourish in every respect and be preserved by all the faithful, We deem it necessary to provide before anything else for the sanctity and dignity of the temple, in which the faithful assemble for no other object than that of acquiring this spirit from its foremost and indispensable font, which is the active participation of the most holy mysteries and in the public and solemn prayer of the Church’. [Italics mine]. Well, that is clear enough. Active participation is just what it is. The wiser among

us may know that within weeks of

The Spirit of God living in us! Pius X’s Motu Proprio being issued in Italian

The Spirit of God living in us!

Pius X’s Motu Proprio being issued in Italian to the church of Rome, it was then published in Latin in Acta Apostolicae Sedis, with the all important phrase being translated as ‘participatio actuosa.’ When the Fathers of the Second Vatican Council debated the

topic of liturgy and its restoration and renewal they chose the word ‘actuosam’. Now this is commonly translated: ‘Mother Church earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that full, conscious and active participation

In the

in liturgical celebrations

restoration and promotion of the sacred liturgy the full and active

36 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

participation by all the people is the aim to be considered before all else, for it is the primary and indispensable source from which the faithful are to derive the true Christian spirit. Therefore, in all their apostolic activity, pastors of souls should energetically set about achieving it through the requisite pedagogy.’ [Sacrosanctum concilium n14] So in a word is ‘actuosa’ the same as ‘activa’? Well not being a Latin scholar, I went to a trusted Latin dictionary to �nd the de�nitions:

activa – active, practical. But actuosa

– actively, busily, energetically, passionately, and eagerly.

I am inclined to think the Bishops

at Vatican II were very wise to use

actuosa, an altogether different, much more meaningful, and

a richer word than just a tame

and passive word like active. So

my personal ‘active participation’ in the sacred liturgy needs to be stepped up to be energetic, busy and eager, actual and effective

– even actuosa!

Something for You to Dig Out?

Pictures and memories associated with the College and life in Portugal in past and present times are always appreciated to make The Lisbonian more interesting to the readers. Send us your pictures and we can scan them, if of suitable quality, and return them to you if you wish. Ed

Obituary – Tony Fleming

by Jude Thurlow

Obituary – Tony Fleming by Jude Thurlow © 2011 Peter J Harrison – Tony Fleming recovered

© 2011 Peter J Harrison – Tony Fleming recovered from an old Lisbonian Football Team photo [c 1962?]

Life In College

Tony joined our year in Lisbon in 1959, having completed two years of philosophy at Upholland. We had already had the pleasure of the company of his brother Alex for two years as he was the year ahead of us. Tony and Alex, along with Tom and Kevin Hartley, were the only brothers, as far as I know, studying at Lisbon at the same time in the post-war years. Tony fitted in immediately – pleasant, easy to get on with, and typically ‘Liverpool’ – a ready smile and a dry sense of humour – and someone to pal on with Jim Finnegan! He was an excellent footballer and, in fact, looking

through my photo collection from Lisbon, most pictures of Tony were football related. Tony, Lord rest his soul, is the �rst of our ordained year to die.

Background and Mission

Tony was born on 21st October 1932, the son of Alexander and Elizabeth Fleming. His early education was at St Edmund's Waterloo and St Mary's College, Crosby. He was ordained priest in Lisbon on 8th June 1963. He served as assistant priest in parishes in Leigh, Thornton, Widnes, Huyton and Bootle before being appointed parish priest of St Celia, Tuebrook, Liverpool, where he remained for twenty years. In 2003 he moved to Ditton but retired from parish ministry in 2008, serving as Chaplain to Christopher Grange in Liverpool. After a long illness he died on the morning of 28th March 2011. May the Saints and Angels lead Tony on, escorting him to where Christ has gone. May He Rest In Peace ✛ ✛ ✛

Live forever, Alma Mater, be her sons for ever blest…

Obituary – Paul Chidgey

by Philip Gummett & Bill Dalton

Bill Dalton writes:

Paul was one of the ‘Vallodolid rump’ which came to Lisbon in the wake of Tommy Holland's joining the Staff. Paul had an elder brother also studying at Vallodolid: he did not come to Lisbon but Instead went to the theological faculty at Comillas in Northern Spain.

this time Paul was Parish Priest of the Holy Family Church, Fairwater, on the outskirts of Cardiff. After my marriage I became a very frequent visitor to that part of South Wales, where I now live, and together with our ever-growing family we kept in fairly frequent contact with Paul, especially when he became parish priest of the Dowlais Parish. It was while he was there that the Archbishop decided to have the Presbytery demolished and a new one built. While this was going on, Paul and his curate had to live in a caravan in the grounds of the church! Eventually, after a good many years in Dowlais, Paul was sent to look after Ross-on-Wye, in Herefordshire. Then he became very ill, and eventually had to be looked after by the good Sisters of Nazareth House, just a few doors along from where he had grown up with his brothers and sisters in Colum Road.

Life Worth Living

Paul was always a deeply spiritual person; someone you could con�de in and know that the advice he gave would be of the best. He loved the Mass, and didn't mind how many times he would be called

Philip Gummett writes:

I met Paul for the �rst time on the Main Line Station in Lisbon, in 1941. Mgr. Cullen had died the day before and his body was resting in the College Chapel but we students were by now living in Luz and I was sent into Lisbon to welcome these nine remaining students from Vallodolid. Since Paul and I were roughly of the same age, we became friends, together with Jimmy Beel from Nottingham diocese, who was somewhat older than we two. ‘Dutchy’ Holland took over the teaching of Theology, in place of Mgr Cullen.

After World War II

I met Paul again in 1946, just after his ordination to the priesthood, and my marriage to Morfydd, of happy memory, and then again in 1971 when Paul celebrated his Silver Jubilee to the Priesthood. By

38 | The Lisbonian magazine – July 2011

upon to celebrate Mass. Here is an extract from his last letter to me from Nazareth House, way back in January, ‘Life here just goes on with one day much the same as another. The chaplain had a week off after Christmas, and I managed quite well – sitting down for the sermon etc. If it wasn’t for the Mass, life

would not be worth living. So pleased you are set up with your own Oratory, and like me are able to carry on. It is a consolation in our old age.’

May the Saints and Angels lead Paul on, escorting him to where Christ has gone. May He Rest In Peace ✛ ✛ ✛

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English College Lisbon © 2011 Peter J Harrison – Living Publications – Design and Typesetting

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